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Sample records for red h-e7b reactive

  1. Degradation of Procion Red H-E7B reactive dye by coupling a photo-Fenton system with a sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Montano, Julia; Torrades, Francesc; Garcia-Hortal, Jose A.; Domenech, Xavier; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    A bench-scale study combining photo-Fenton reaction with an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to degrade a commercial homo-bireactive dye (Procion Red H-E7B, 250 mg l -1 ) was investigated. The photo-Fenton process was applied as a pre-treatment, avoiding complete mineralisation, just to obtain a bio-compatible water able to be treated by means of the SBR in a second step. In this sense, different Fenton reagent concentrations were assessed by following dye solution biodegradability enhancement (BOD 5 /COD), as well as the toxicity (EC 50 ), DOC, colour (Abs 543.5 ) and H 2 O 2 evolution with photo-Fenton irradiation time. Obtained pre-treated solutions were biologically oxidized in a SBR containing non-acclimated activated sludge. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the bioreactor were tested to attain the maximum organic load removal efficiency. Best results were obtained with 60 min of 10 mg l -1 Fe(II) and 125 mg l -1 H 2 O 2 photo-Fenton pre-treatment and 1 day HRT in SBR

  2. Degradation of Procion Red H-E7B reactive dye by coupling a photo-Fenton system with a sequencing batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Montano, Julia [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Torrades, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEI de Terrassa (UPC), C/Colom, 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Hortal, Jose A. [Departament d' Enginyeria Textil i Paperera, ETSEI de Terrassa (UPC), C/Colom, 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-06-30

    A bench-scale study combining photo-Fenton reaction with an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to degrade a commercial homo-bireactive dye (Procion Red H-E7B, 250 mg l{sup -1}) was investigated. The photo-Fenton process was applied as a pre-treatment, avoiding complete mineralisation, just to obtain a bio-compatible water able to be treated by means of the SBR in a second step. In this sense, different Fenton reagent concentrations were assessed by following dye solution biodegradability enhancement (BOD{sub 5}/COD), as well as the toxicity (EC{sub 50}), DOC, colour (Abs{sub 543.5}) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} evolution with photo-Fenton irradiation time. Obtained pre-treated solutions were biologically oxidized in a SBR containing non-acclimated activated sludge. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the bioreactor were tested to attain the maximum organic load removal efficiency. Best results were obtained with 60 min of 10 mg l{sup -1} Fe(II) and 125 mg l{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photo-Fenton pre-treatment and 1 day HRT in SBR.

  3. Regeneration of carbon nanotubes exhausted with dye reactive red 3BS using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Peng Xianjia; Luan Zhaokun; Zhao Changwei

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhausted with dye reactive red 3BS were regenerated by microwave irradiation under N 2 atmosphere. High regeneration efficiency was achieved and the regeneration efficiency reached 92.8% after four cycles regeneration. The decrease in adsorption capacity was suggested to be due to the deposition of decomposition residues in CNT pores, which blocked the carbon porosity and decreased the specific surface area.

  4. Adsorption performance and mechanism in binding of Reactive Red 4 by coke waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Sung Wook; Wu Guiping; Ma Hui; Liu Qiong; Yan Yao; Cui Longzhe; Liu Chengfu; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2006-01-01

    The protonated coke waste was used as a new type of adsorbent for the removal of Reactive Red 4. To identify the binding sites in the protonated coke waste, the waste was potentiometrically titrated. As a result, four types of functional groups were present in the waste, which was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Among functional groups, primary amine groups (-NH 2 ) were likely the binding sites for anionic Reactive Red 4. It was also found that sulfonate, carboxyl and phosphonate groups played a role in electrostatic interference with the binding of dye molecules. The maximum adsorption capacities of the coke waste were 70.3 ± 11.1 and 24.9 ± 1.8 mg/g at pH 1 and 2, respectively. Kinetic study showed a pseudo-first-order rate of adsorption with respect to the solution. The uptake of Reactive Red 4 was not significantly affected by the high concentration of salts. These results of adsorption performance indicate the coke waste as a potentially economical adsorbent for dye removal

  5. Toxicity Reduction of Reactive Red Dye-238 Using Advanced Oxidation Process by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Al-Anbari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of red azo dye (Cibacron Red FN-R from synthetic wastewater has been investigated as a function of solar advanced oxidation process. The photocatalytic activity using ZnO as a photocatalysis has been estimated. Different parameters affected the removal efficiency, including pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and H2O2 concentration were evaluated to find out the optimum value of these parameters. The results proved that the optimal pH value was 8 and the most efficient H2O2 concentration was 100mg/L. Toxicity reduction percent for effluent solution was also monitored to assess the degradation process. This treatment method was able to strongly reduce the color and toxicity of reactive red dye-238 to about (99 and 80 % respectively. It can be concluded, from these experiments, that the using of ZnO as a photocatalysis was exhibited as economical and efficient treatment method to remove reactive red dye-238 from aqueous solution.

  6. Decolorizing of azo dye Reactive red 24 aqueous solution using exfoliated graphite and H2O2 under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Li, Ji-Tai; Sun, Han-Wen

    2008-07-01

    At its natural pH (6.95), the decolorization of Reactive red 24 in ultrasound, ultrasound/H2O2, exfoliated graphite, ultrasound/exfoliated graphite, exfoliated graphite/H2O2 and ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 systems were compared. An enhancement was observed for the decolorization in ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 system. The effect of solution pH, H2O2 and exfoliated graphite dosages, and temperature on the decolorization of Reactive red 24 was investigated. The sonochemical treatment in combination with exfoliated graphite/H2O2 showed a synergistic effect for the decolorization of Reactive red 24. The results indicated that under proper conditions, there was a possibility to remove Reactive red 24 very efficient from aqueous solution. The decolorization of other azo dyes (Reactive red 2, Methyl orange, Acid red 1, Acid red 73, Acid red 249, Acid orange 7, Acid blue 113, Acid brown 75, Acid green 20, Acid yellow 42, Acid mordant brown 33, Acid mordant yellow 10 and Direct green 1) was also investigated, at their natural pH.

  7. Reactivity of polymeric proanthocyanidins toward salivary proteins and their contribution to young red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoshan; de Sá, Marta; Leandro, Conceição; Caldeira, Ilda; Duarte, Filomena L; Spranger, Isabel

    2013-01-30

    Recent studies have indicated the presence of significant amount of highly polymerized and soluble proanthocyanidins in red wine and such compounds interacted readily with proteins, suggesting that they might be particularly astringent. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the astringency of polymeric proanthocyanidins and their contribution to red wine astringency. The precipitation reactions of the purified oligomeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 12-15) and polymeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 12-15 to 32-34) with human salivary proteins were studied; salivary proteins composition changes before and after the reaction was verified by SDS-PAGE and procyanidins composition changes by spectrometric, direct HPLC and thiolysis-HPLC methods. The astringency intensity of these two procyanidin fractions was evaluated by a sensory analysis panel. For verifying the correlation between polymeric proanthocyanidins and young red wine astringency, the levels of total oligomeric and total polymeric proanthocyanidins and other phenolic composition in various young red wines were quantified and the astringency intensities of these wines were evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed that polymeric proanthocyanidins had much higher reactivity toward human salivary proteins and higher astringency intensity than the oligomeric ones. Furthermore, young red wine astringency intensities were highly correlated to levels of polymeric proanthocyanidins, particularly at low concentration range (correlation coefficient r = 0.9840) but not significant correlated to total polyphenols (r = 0.2343) or other individual phenolic compounds (generally r wine astringency and the levels of polymeric polyphenols in red wines may be used as an indicator for its astringency.

  8. Sugarcane bagasse powder as biosorbent for reactive red 120 removals from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Wong, Y. C.; Veloo, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Reactive red 120 is used as a textile dye for fabric coloring. The dye waste is produced during textile finishing process subsequently released directly to water bodies which giving harmful effects to the environment due to the carcinogenic characteristic. Adsorption process becomes an effective treatment to treat textile dye. This research emphasizes the treatment of textile dye namely reactive red 120 (RR120) by using sugarcane bagasse powder. The batch study was carried out under varying parameters such as 60 minutes contact time, pH (1-8), dye concentration (5-25 mg/L), particle size (125-500 μm) and biosorbent dosage (0.01-0.2 g/L). The maximum adsorption percentage of RR120 was 94.62%. The adsorption of dye was increased with the decreasing of pH, initial dye concentration and particle size. Sugarcane bagasse powder as low-cost biosorbent was established using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This locally agricultural waste could be upgraded into useful material which is biosorbent that promising for decolorization of colored textile wastewater.

  9. Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, Reactive Red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianhua; Liu Yuanfa; Jin Qingzhe; Wang Xingguo; Yang Jun

    2007-01-01

    The removal of water-soluble Reactive Red MF-3B from aqueous media by sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay was studied in a batch system. The surfactant used was octodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTMAC). Adsorbent characterizations were investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and surface area analysis. The effects of pH, contact time, initial solute concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of Reactive Red MF-3B onto modified clay were investigated. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the processes were calculated and second-order adsorption kinetics was observed in the case. Film diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. Reactive Red MF-3B adsorption was found to increase with increase temperature. The Reactive Red MF-3B equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, the former being found to provide the better fit of the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. From the results it can be concluded that the surfactant-modified clay could be a good adsorbent for treating Reactive Red MF-3B-contaminated waters

  10. Removal of Reactive Red 198 by Nanoparticle Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Shojaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dyes are widely used in textile industries, they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Industries discharge their wastewater containing a variety of colors into water resources and make harmful effect on the environment. The present study aims to Evaluate removal of reactive red 198 by nanoparticle zero valent iron (NZVI in the presence of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution. The effective parameters on the removal of dye such as the hydrogen peroxide concentration of NZVI, contact time, pH and dye concentration were investigated and optimized. According to the results, the combination of NZVI with hydrogen peroxide is more effective than single hydrogen peroxide. At pH = 4, contact time= 40 min, 200 M of hydrogen peroxide, dye concentration= 75 mg/L and concentration of NZVI 2g/L, color removal was achieved 91% approximately. Based on the results of experiments, using hydrogen peroxide- NZVI has high efficiency in removal of azo dye type.

  11. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Controlling geochemical processes and reactive transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Hue, N.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The groundwater chemistry was investigated in a transect of 100 piezometers. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition......(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced. Part of the produced Fe(II) is apparently reprecipitated as siderite containing less As. Results from sediment extraction...... chemistry over depth is homogeneous and a reactive transport model was constructed to quantify the geochemical processes along the vertical groundwater flow component. A redox zonation model was constructed using the partial equilibrium approach with organic carbon degradation in the sediment as the only...

  12. Reactive ground-state pathways are not ubiquitous in red/green cyanobacteriochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Gottlieb, Sean M; Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S

    2013-09-26

    Recent characterization of the red/green cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) NpR6012g4 revealed a high quantum yield for its forward photoreaction [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 130-133] that was ascribed to the activity of hidden, productive ground-state intermediates. The dynamics of the pathways involving these ground-state intermediates was resolved with femtosecond dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, the first such study reported for any CBCR. To address the ubiquity of such second-chance initiation dynamics (SCID) in CBCRs, we examined the closely related red/green CBCR NpF2164g6 from Nostoc punctiforme. Both NpF2164g6 and NpR6012g4 use phycocyanobilin as the chromophore precursor and exhibit similar excited-state dynamics. However, NpF2164g6 exhibits a lower quantum yield of 32% for the generation of the isomerized Lumi-R primary photoproduct, compared to 40% for NpR6012g4. This difference arises from significantly different ground-state dynamics between the two proteins, with the SCID mechanism deactivated in NpF2164g6. We present an integrated inhomogeneous target model that self-consistently fits the pump-probe and pump-dump-probe signals for both forward and reverse photoreactions in both proteins. This work demonstrates that reactive ground-state intermediates are not ubiquitous phenomena in CBCRs.

  13. Effect of heavy metals ondecolorization of reactive brilliant red by newly isolated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, S.; Arshad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study involves aerobic decolorisation of reactive azo dye reactive brilliant red 2KBP by newly isolated microbial strains (two bacterial and one fungal strain) in presence of heavy metals including cobalt chloride, ferric chloride, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate and nickel chloride. Many heavy metals are necessary for microbial growth and are required in very small amounts however at higher levels they become toxic. So was the objective of present work to check the effect of concentration of heavy metals on the potential of microbial strains to decolorize azo dyes. All the heavy metals under consideration were added in range of 0.5 gl-1-2.5gl/sup -1/. All heavy metals showed inhibitory effect on decolorization capacity of bacterial as well as fungal strain .At optimum conditions bacterial strains named as B1 and B2 removed 84% and 78% while fungal strain decolorized 90.4% of dye. Cobalt and nickel showed greater inhibitors on% decolorization of dyes than Zinc and iron. Fungal strain showed greater negative effect. Heavy metals might affect enzyme activities and thus reducing removal of dye. (author)

  14. Biodecolorization of the azo dye Reactive Red 2 by a halotolerant enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydilli, M Inan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2007-11-01

    The decolorization of the azo dye Reactive Red 2 (RR2) under anoxic conditions was investigated using a mesophilic (35 degrees C) halotolerant enrichment culture capable of growth at 100 g/L sodium chloride (NaCl). Batch decolorization assays were conducted with the unacclimated halotolerant culture, and dye decolorization kinetics were determined as a function of the initial dye, biomass, carbon source, and an externally added oxidation-reduction mediator (anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonic acid) concentrations. The maximum biomass-normalized RR2 decolorization rate by the halotolerant enrichment culture under batch, anoxic incubation conditions was 26.8 mg dye/mg VSSxd. Although RR2 decolorization was inhibited at RR2 concentrations equal to and higher than 300 mg/L, the halotolerant culture achieved a 156-fold higher RR2 decolorization rate compared with a previously reported, biomass-normalized RR2 decolorization rate by a mixed mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture in the absence of NaCl. Decolorization kinetics at inhibitory RR2 levels were described based on the Haldane model (Haldane, 1965). Five repetitive dyeing/decolorization cycles performed using the halotolerant culture and the same RR2 dyebath solution demonstrated the feasibility of biological renovation and reuse of commercial-strength spent reactive azo dyebaths.

  15. Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-01-01

    The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD 5 /COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD 5 /COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of red mud heat treated at 400 deg C in adsorption of reactive yellow 145 dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangueri, T.B.; Souza, K.C. de; Lima, V.F. de; Antunes, M.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Red mud is the generic name for the industrial waste generated during the Bayer process. Storing this material can cause environmental damage and requires a large area for their disposal. Red mud has properties to be used in treatment of effluents. The red mud was dried and activated at 400°C. This work presents the characterization by pH, conductivity and zero charge potential of the red mud thermally activated. The assessment of adsorption capacity of this material to dye reactive Yellow 145 in pH 4 was done. The percentage of adsorption to concentrations of 500 mg/L of dye reaches 97%. This work presents results of adsorption isotherms, using the Langmuir model, and reaction kinetics. It is concluded that, in an acid medium, the red mud presents excellent potential of adsorption and could be an alternative material to absorb the Yellow 145 dye. (author)

  17. Chemical reactivation of resin-embedded pHuji adds red for simultaneous two-color imaging with EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyan; Liu, Xiuli; Liu, Yurong; Gang, Yadong; He, Xiaobin; Jia, Yao; Yin, Fangfang; Li, Pei; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Hongfu; Wang, Xiaojun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Fuqiang; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-01-01

    The pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins enabling chemical reactivation in resin are useful tools for fluorescence microimaging. EGFP or EYFP is good for such applications. For simultaneous two-color imaging, a suitable red fluorescent protein is an urgent need. Here a pH-sensitive red fluorescent protein, pHuji, is selected and verified to remain pH-sensitive in HM20 resin. We observe 183% fluorescence intensity of pHuji in resin-embeded mouse brain and 29.08-fold fluorescence intensity of reactivated pHuji compared to the quenched state. pHuji and EGFP can be quenched and chemically reactivated simultaneously in resin, thus enabling simultaneous two-color micro-optical sectioning tomography of resin-embedded mouse brain. This method may greatly facilitate the visualization of neuronal morphology and neural circuits to promote understanding of the structure and function of the brain. PMID:28717566

  18. Adsorption of C.I. Reactive Red 228 and Congo Red dye from aqueous solution by amino-functionalized Fe3O4 particles: kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ting-guo; Wang, Li-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic adsorbent was synthesized by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modification of Fe(3)O(4) particles using a two-step process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibration sample magnetometry were used to characterize the obtained magnetic adsorbent. EDS and XPS showed that APTES polymer was successfully introduced onto the as-prepared Fe(3)O(4)/APTES particle surfaces. The saturation magnetization of the magnetic adsorbent was around 65 emu g(-1), which indicated that the dye can be removed fast and efficiently from aqueous solution with an external magnetic field. The maximum adsorption capacities of Fe(3)O(4)/APTES for C.I. Reactive Red 228 (RR 228) and Congo Red (CR) were 51.4 and 118.8 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of C.I. Reactive Red 228 (RR 228) and Congo Red (CR) on Fe(3)O(4)/APTES particles corresponded well to the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model, respectively. The adsorption processes for RR 228 and CR followed the pseudo-second-order model. The Boyd's film-diffusion model showed that film diffusion also played a major role in the studied adsorption processes for both dyes. Thermodynamic study indicated that both of the adsorption processes of the two dyes are spontaneous exothermic.

  19. Carbon Nitrogen Co-Doped P25: Parameter Study on Photodegradation of Reactive Red 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation rate of reactive red 4 (RR4 using carbon coated nitrogen doped TiO2 (C N co-doped TiO2 in photocatalysis process is main goal on this research. The main operating the parameters such as effect of initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, aeration flow rate and initial pH on degradation of RR4 under 45 W fluorescent lamp was investigated. photocatalytic activity of RR4 dye decreased with increasing RR4 dye concentration. The optimum loading is around 0.04 g and optimum aeration rate is about 25 mL min-1 of C N co-doped TiO2. Effect of pH was conducted based on the optimum loading and conclude that the photocatalytic degradation of RR4 became faster at pH 2 - 7. For the future work, the modification of doping with others element like non-metal or metal with C N co-doped TiO2 can be enhanced toward the higher efficieny of photodegradation under visible light. Moreover, the immobilized technique can be used in future to overcome the difficulty of filtration on suspension.

  20. Studies on UV/NaOCl/TiO2/Sep photocatalysed degradation of Reactive Red 195.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, M Hamdi; Uğurlu, Mehmet

    2010-02-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 195 (RR195) has been investigated in aqueous suspensions by using ultraviolet (UV), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and TiO(2)/Sep nanoparticles together. To get the TiO(2)/Sep nanoparticle, the nanocrystalline TiO(2) anatase phase on sepiolite was obtained using a sufficient thermal treatment by gradually increasing the temperature from 300, 400 and 500 degrees C for 3h. Then, TiO(2)/Sep materials were characterized using different spectral and technical structural analyses with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of pH, catalyst amount, oxidant and initial dye concentration was investigated in all the experiments. Maximum colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were 99.9% and 78% respectively, at a dye concentration of 250 mg L(-1), NaOCl dosage of 50.37 mM, 0.1 g L(-1) weight of TiO(2)/Sep and pH of 5.45 in 3h. In addition, the pseudo-first order model was applied and r(2) values were noted from 0.92 to 0.99.

  1. Insights into the Synergistic Effect of Fungi and Bacteria for Reactive Red Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is a prevalent problem in fungal dye wastewater decolorization that prevents the development of this technology in practical engineering. New insight into the relationship between fungi and bacteria is given in terms of settleability, bioadsorption, and biodegradation, which all confirm their synergistic effect. Sterilization is implied to be not the only mechanism for fungi decolorization. When the fungi and bacteria isolated from the activated sludge were cocultured, fungi removed more than 70% of the reactive red through sole bioadsorption in 5 min and enhanced the settleability of the bacteria group from 7.7 to 18.4 in the aggregation index. Subsequently, the bacteria played a more significant role in dye biodegradation according to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. They further enhanced the decolorization efficiency to over 80% when cocultured with fungi. Therefore, the advanced bioadsorption and settleability of fungi, combined with the good dye biodegradation ability of bacteria, results in the synergistic effect of the coculture microorganisms.

  2. The application of textile sludge adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 2 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonai, Gabriela G; de Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; de Oliveira, Débora; de Souza, Antônio Augusto U

    2016-03-01

    Sludge from the textile industry was used as a low-cost adsorbent to remove the dye Reactive Red 2 from an aqueous solution. Adsorbents were prepared through the thermal and chemical treatment of sludge originating from physical-chemical (PC) and biological (BIO) effluent treatment processes. The adsorbent characterization was carried out through physical-chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, pHPZC determination, Boehm titration method, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch kinetic experiments and adsorption isotherm modeling were conducted under different pH and temperature conditions. The results for the kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption processes associated with these systems can be described by a pseudo-second-order model and for the equilibrium data the Langmuir model provided the best fit. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH but not on the temperature within the ranges studied. The maxima adsorption capacities were 159.3 mg g(-1) for the BIO adsorbent and 213.9 mg g(-1) for PC adsorbent at pH of 2 and 25 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Reactive Red 198 Dye Removal from the Aqueous Solution

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    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:The main objectives of this research were to evaluating the application of electrocoagulation process for 198 dye from the aqueous phase and determining the optimum operating conditions to the dye removal using aluminum and iron electrodes. Materials and Methods:The present study was conducted in bench-scale. The spectrophotometer DR 5000 was used to determine the dye concentration. The effects of pH, retention time, voltage, dye concentration on the efficiency of electrocoagulation process were investigated. Data were analyzed in SPSS for Windows 16.0 using Pearson’scorrelation coefficient to analyze the relationship between these parameters. Results:The results showed that the optimal conditions for reactive red 198 (RR-198 dye removal from the aqueous solution are pH of 11, the voltage of 32 V, the initial dye concentration of 10 ppm, and the reaction time of 40 min. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between voltage and the reaction time with the removal efficiencies (P< 0.01. Conclusion:It was revealed that the removal efficiency of dye was directly proportional to the voltage and reaction time, but inversely proportional to the initial dye concentration. In conclusion, electrocoagulation process using two-fold iron and aluminum electrodes is an appropriate method for reducing the RR-198 dye in the aqueous phase.

  4. Comparison of Electrocoagulation and Chemical Coagulation Processes in Removing Reactive red 196 from Aqueous Solution

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    Ali Assadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional chemical coagulation is considered as an old method to dye and COD removal in textile effluent. Electrocoagulation (EC process is a robust method to achieve maximum removal. Methods: This study was designed to compare the result of operational parameters including optimum pH and coagulant concentration for chemical coagulation with ferric chloride and alum also, voltage, electrolysis time, initial pH, and conductivity for EC with iron electrodes to remove reactive red 196 (RR 196. Results: The outcomes show that ferric chloride and alum at optimum concentration were capable of removing dye and COD by 79.63 % and 84.83% and 53% and 55%, respectively. In contrast, EC process removed the dye and COD by 99.98% and 90.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The highest treatment efficiency was obtained by increasing the voltage, electrolysis time, pH and conductivity. Increase initial dye concentration reduces removal efficiency. Ultimately, it could be concluded that EC technology is an efficient procedure for handling of colored industrial wastewaters.

  5. ZnO/spiral-shaped glass for solar photocatalytic oxidation of Reactive Red 120

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    Montaser Y. Ghaly

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/glass spiral (GS was prepared by immobilization of ZnO on GS with facile method, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and the crystallite size of ZnO on GS surface was calculated. SEM showed rod-like shape of ZnO particles on GS surface. Photocatalytic activity of prepared immobilized photocatalyst was investigated for decolourization and degradation of C.I. Reactive Red 120 (RR-120 dye under sunlight. The kinetics of decolourization and degradation removal has been investigated. The effect of pH on decolourization and degradation of dye was studied. The decolourization and degradation of dye were followed by pseudo-first order reaction. The decolourization and degradation of RR-120 dye were enhanced by H2O2 addition to definite dosage beyond that the effect is diminished. Also, the reusability of immobilized ZnO on GS was tested for photocatalytic degradation of dye and it was worth noting that it has high efficiency with slight decrease (5% after five successive runs.

  6. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra, S.R.; Lage, S.H.; Brandizzi, L.; Yoshida, V.; da Luz, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects we...

  7. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyani, D.C.; Telke, A.A.; Dhanve, R.S.; Jadhav, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l -1 ), at temperature 30 deg. C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24 h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

  8. Adsorption of Reactive Red Dye from Wastewater Using Modified Citrulluscolosynthis Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rezaei Kahkha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-bearing wastes pose serious risks to and leave harmful effects on the environment. Increasing wastewater color intensity leads to reduced light reaching the aquatic environment, which adversely affects the life and growth of aquatic plants and invertebrates. Among the many methods available for dye removal from wastewater, membrane separation, oxidation, coagulation, and anaerobic treatment are more common but they are all costly and involve complex processes. Biosorption, in contrast, enjoys both ease of application and simple design so that it is widely used for removing dyes, heavy metals, and phenolic compounds from both water and wastewater. In this paper, the ability of citrulluscolosynthis ash as a bioadsorbent for the removal of reactive red dye is investigated for the first time. Sodium hydroxide is also used to modify the plant ash surface which expectedly enhances its dye removal efficiency. Measurements and removal levels are determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Finally, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and reaction time on dye removal efficiency are also explored. Results show that the optimum conditions to achieve maximum dye removal are as follows: A pH level of 2, an adsorbant dosage of 1.75 g l-1, an initial concentration equal to 90 mg L-1, and A reaction time of 70 min. Adsorption isotherm is found to obey the Ferundlich isotherm. Also, an adsorption capacity of 36 mg g‒1 is achieved under the best conditions. It may thus be concluded that modified citrulluscolosynthis ash can be used as an effective adsorbent to treat colored wastewaters.

  9. New insight of hybrid membrane to degrade Congo red and Reactive yellow under sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, A; Jackcina Stobel Christy, E; Pius, Anitha

    2018-02-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the degradation of organic contaminants (Congo red and Reactive yellow - 105) using cellulose acetate - polystyrene (CA-PS) membrane with and without ZnO impregnation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), atomic force microscope (AFM) and thermogravimeric analysis (TG-DTA) analysis were carried out to characterize bare and ZnO impregnated CA-PS membranes. Membrane efficiency was also tested for pure water flux and antifouling performance. The modified membrane showed almost 85% water flux recovery. Blending of ZnO nanoparticles to CA-PS matrix could decrease membrane fouling and increase permeation quality of the membrane with above 90% of photocatalytic degradation efficiency for dyes. The rate of degradation of dyes was observed using UV-Vis spectrometer. Reusability of CA-PS-ZnO membrane was studied and no significant change was noted in the degradation efficiency until fourth cycle. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model well describes the photo degradation capacity and the degradation of dyes CR and RY - 105 exhibited pseudo-first order kinetics. The regression coefficient (R) of CR and RY - 105 found to be 0.99. The novelty of the prepared CA-PS-ZnO membrane is that it has better efficiency and high thermal stability than our previously reported material. Therefore, ZnO impregnated CA-PS membrane had proved to be an innovative alternative for the degradation of CR and RY - 105 dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide on Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Diederich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main function of red blood cells (RBCs is the transport of respiratory gases along the vascular tree. To fulfill their task, RBCs are able to elastically deform in response to mechanical forces and, pass through the narrow vessels of the microcirculation. Decreased RBC deformability was observed in pathological conditions linked to increased oxidative stress or decreased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, like hypertension. Treatments with oxidants and with NO were shown to affect RBC deformability ex vivo, but the mechanisms underpinning these effects are unknown. In this study we investigate whether changes in intracellular redox status/oxidative stress or nitrosation reactions induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS or NO may affect RBC deformability. In a case-control study comparing RBCs from healthy and hypertensive participants, we found that RBC deformability was decreased, and levels of ROS were increased in RBCs from hypertensive patients as compared to RBCs from aged-matched healthy controls, while NO levels in RBCs were not significantly different. To study the effects of oxidants on RBC redox state and deformability, RBCs from healthy volunteers were treated with increasing concentrations of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH. We found that high concentrations of t-BuOOH (≥ 1 mM significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio in RBCs, decreased RBC deformability and increased blood bulk viscosity. Moreover, RBCs from Nrf2 knockout (KO mice, a strain genetically deficient in a number of antioxidant/reducing enzymes, were more susceptible to t-BuOOH-induced impairment in RBC deformability as compared to wild type (WT mice. To study the role of NO in RBC deformability we treated RBC suspensions from human volunteers with NO donors and nitrosothiols and analyzed deformability of RBCs from mice lacking the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. We found that NO donors induced S-nitrosation of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin, but did not affect

  11. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  12. 3D-QSPR method of computational technique applied on red reactive dyes by using CoMFA strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-Ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are "reactive dyes" because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the characteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  13. Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; Fernandes, Thais H M; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; Calvete, Tatiana; Fagan, Solange B

    2011-09-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and powdered activated carbon were used as adsorbents for the successful removal of Reactive Red M-2BE textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of pH, shaking time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region (pH 2.0), the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium at 298K was fixed at 1h for both adsorbents. The activation energy of the adsorption process was evaluated from 298 to 323K for both adsorbents. The Avrami fractional-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data compared with pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption models. For Reactive Red M-2BE dye, the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. Simulated dyehouse effluents were used to check the applicability of the proposed adsorbents for effluent treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Decolorization of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-hong; Ma, Lu-ming; Wang, Hong-wu; Wu, De-li

    2008-06-01

    The decoloration mechanism and kinetics of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system were investigated by measuring the dye removal, the TOC removal and the aniline concentration, and by adding EDTA as control experiments. The results showed the colority removal rate of X-3B reached 83% in the near neutral pH medium for 30 min and 96.4% for 120 min, in which, about 34% was due to the X-3B reduced to aniline, and about 20% and 30% was due to the flocculating of aluminum ions and surface adsorption of aluminum-fillings respectively. The decolorization of dyeing wastewater is a gradual reaction process, which first adsorbs a large number of dyeing ingredients and then carries out inner electrolysis reduction, improved effectively by the flocculating action of aluminum ions. The decolorization reaction appears to be a pseudo first-order reaction and increases with rising temperature.

  15. Mechanism of pyrogallol red oxidation induced by free radicals and reactive oxidant species. A kinetic and spectroelectrochemistry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, E; Velásquez, G; Vergara, C; Mardones, C; Reyes, J; Tapia, R A; Quina, F; Mendes, M A; Speisky, H; Lissi, E; Ureta-Zañartu, M S; Aspée, A; López-Alarcón, C

    2013-05-02

    Pyrogallol red (PGR) presents high reactivity toward reactive (radical and nonradical) species (RS). This property of PGR, together with its characteristic spectroscopic absorption in the visible region, has allowed developing methodologies aimed at evaluating the antioxidant capacity of foods, beverages, and human fluids. These methods are based on the evaluation of the consumption of PGR induced by RS and its inhibition by antioxidants. However, at present, there are no reports regarding the degradation mechanism of PGR, limiting the extrapolation to how antioxidants behave in different systems comprising different RS. In the present study, we evaluate the kinetics of PGR consumption promoted by different RS (peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitrogen dioxide, and hypochlorite) using spectroscopic techniques and detection of product by HPLC mass spectrometry. The same pattern of oxidation and spectroscopic properties of the products is observed, independently of the RS employed. Mass analysis indicates the formation of only one product identified as a quinone derivative, excluding the formation of peroxides or hydroperoxides and/or chlorinated compounds, in agreement with FOX's assays and oxygen consumption experiments. Cyclic voltammetry, carried out at different pH's, shows an irreversible oxidation of PGR, indicating the initial formation of a phenoxy radical and a second charge transfer reaction generating an ortho-quinone derivative. Spectroelectrochemical oxidation of PGR shows oxidation products with identical UV-visible absorption properties to those observed in RS-induced oxidation.

  16. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, S R; Lage, S H; Brandizzi, L; Yoshida, V; da Luz, P L

    2005-09-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 +/- 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ), 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 +/- 28.7 mg/dl) but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 +/- 7.1 vs 12.1 +/- 4.5%; P effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  17. Polar red-emitting rhodamine dyes with reactive groups: synthesis, photophysical properties, and two-color STED nanoscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, Kirill; Wurm, Christian A; Meineke, Dirk N H; Göttfert, Fabian; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2014-01-03

    The synthesis, reactivity, and photophysical properties of new rhodamines with intense red fluorescence, two polar residues (hydroxyls, primary phosphates, or sulfonic acid groups), and improved hydrolytic stability of the amino-reactive sites (NHS esters or mixed N-succinimidyl carbonates) are reported. All fluorophores contain an N-alkyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline fragment, and most of them bear a fully substituted tetrafluoro phenyl ring with a secondary carboxamide group. The absorption and emission maxima in water are in the range of 635-639 and 655-659 nm, respectively. A vastly simplified approach to red-emitting rhodamines with two phosphate groups that are compatible with diverse functional linkers was developed. As an example, a phosphorylated dye with an azide residue was prepared and was used in a click reaction with a strained alkyne bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimid (NHS) ester group. This method bypasses the undesired activation of phosphate groups, and gives an amphiphilic amino-reactive dye, the solubility and distribution of which between aqueous and organic phases can be controlled by varying the pH. The presence of two hydroxyl groups and a phenyl ring with two carboxyl residues in the dyes with another substitution pattern is sufficient for providing the hydrophilic properties. Selective formation of a mono-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester from 5-carboxy isomer of this rhodamine is reported. The fluorescence quantum yields varied from 58 to 92% for free fluorophores, and amounted to 18-64% for antibody conjugates in aqueous buffers. The brightness and photostability of these fluorophores facilitated two-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy of biological samples with high contrast and minimal background. Selecting a pair of fluorophores with absorption/emission bands at 579/609 and 635/655 nm enabled two-color channels with low cross-talk and negligible background at approximately 40 nm resolution. Copyright

  18. Removal of Reactive Red 141 Dye from Synthetic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process: Investigation of Operational Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmanpour Salmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of textile industries waste especially their dying effluent impose a serious pollution on the environment. Reactive dyes are one of the most used dyes which are recalcitrant to conventional treatment processes. In the performed project, the effectiveness of electrocoagulation process was studied on decolorization. RR141 was selected as model dye and treatment process was performed in a simple batch of electrocoagulation (EC cell using iron electrodes. Central Composite Design (CCD was used to plan study runs. Experiments were done under 5 levels of various operational parameters at bench scale. Initial concentration of dye was varied among 50 and 500ppm, pH ranging from 4-12; retention time was ranged between 3-30 minutes, 1-3cm was selected as the distance between electrodes, and current intensity studied under the range of 5-30 mA/cm2. EC treatment process of dyestuff wastewater was satisfactory at high levels of current density, pH, and retention time. While increasing the initial dye concentration and electrodes gap had a negative effect on decolorization performance. Determined optimal conditions to treat 200ml of sample were including pH: 9.68, electrode gap: 1.58cm, dye concentration: 180ppm, retention time: 10.82 minutes, and current intensity: 22.76mA/cm2. Successful removal of the model dye about 99.88% was recorded in the mentioned values of variables. Simple design and operation of the experiments can be an interesting option for implementation and applying of inexpensive electrocoagulation treatment process which was successful to reach nearly a complete decolorization.

  19. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 deg. C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 deg. C for 200 mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  20. Immobilized/P25/DSAT and Immobilized/Kronos/DSAT on Photocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Under Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 (RR4 using immobilized P25 and kronos were performed under fluorescent light sources. The photocatalysis activity for both catalysts was investigated under fluorescent lamp source which consist UV and Visible light. The effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, initial pH and strenght of immobilized plate were studied. The result showed that 90% of RR4 dye was degrade in 1 hr using immobilized/kronos/DSAT at 100 mg L-1 of RR4 dye while 81% degradation was achieved by immobilized/P25/DSAT at the same condition. The lowest pH showed the higher photocatalytic activity. Hence, the effect of dye concentration and pH on the photocatalysis study can be related with the behavior of environmental pollution. The low strength showed by immobilized/P25/DSAT where it remain 37 % as compared with strength of immobilized/kronos/DSAT (52 wt.%. For the future work, the polymer binder like Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, Polyethylene glycol (PEG, and others polymers can be apply in immobilized study to overcome the strength problem.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of C. I. Reactive Red 24 solution with K₆SiW₁₁O₃₉Sn(II.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guixiang; Zhu, Xiuhua; Shi, Fuyou; Wang, Anning; Wang, Wei; Mu, Jun; Wan, Quanli; Zhang, Rong

    2013-12-01

    Environmental friendly materials, K6SiW11O39Sn (SiWSn), was synthesized. SiWSn photocatalytic decomposition of C. I. Reactive Red 24 (RR24) with the UV-lamp (253.7 nm, 20 W), Xenon lamp filtered less than 390 nm light (500 W) and sun light was investigated. The results showed that RR24 solution could be effectively decolorized with the SiWSn photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of RR24 with SiWSn was affected by the initial concentration of RR2 solution, the amount of SiWSn and the photolysis time. It is demonstrated that the process of photodegradation of RR24 with SiWSn is a pesudo first-order reaction, which can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. Hydroxyl radicals and holes are both the main oxidants in the photocatalytic reaction of RR24 with SiWSn. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  3. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbra S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although red wine (RW reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM, and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ, 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 ± 28.7 mg/dl but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 ± 7.1 vs 12.1 ± 4.5%; P < 0.05 and increased with both GJ (10.1 ± 7.1 before vs 16.9 ± 6.7% after: P < 0.05 and RW (10.1 ± 6.4 before vs 15.6 ± 4.6% after; P < 0.05. RW, but not GJ, also significantly increased endothelium-independent vasodilation (17.0 ± 8.6 before vs 23.0 ± 12.0% after; P < 0.01. GJ reduced ICAM-1 but not VCAM and RW had no effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  4. Removal of anionic dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Congo Red) from aqueous solutions using Banana Peel Powder as an adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagapati, Venkata Subbaiah; Yarramuthi, Vijaya; Kim, Yeji; Lee, Kwon Min; Kim, Dong-Su

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Cong Red (CR) onto Banana Peel Powder (BPP) from aqueous solution were investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The BPP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. FTIR results revealed that hydroxyl (-OH), amine (-NH) and carboxyl (-C˭O) functional groups present on the surface of BPP. The SEM results show that BPP has an irregular and porous surface morphology which is adequate for dye adsorption. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Experimental results were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adjustments of models were confirmed by the Chi-square (χ 2 ) test and the correlation coefficients (R 2 ). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of RB5 and CR on BPP calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were 49.2 and 164.6mg/g at pH 3.0 and 298K. Experimental data were also tested in terms of adsorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption processes of both RB5 and CR followed well pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the adsorption of RB5 and CR onto BPP was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range 298-318K. The RB5 and CR were desorbed from BPP using 0.1M NaOH. The recovery for both anionic dyes was found to be higher than 90%. Based on these it can be concluded that BPP can be used as an effective, low cost, and eco-friendly adsorbent for CR removal than RB5 from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  6. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma; Elkak, Assem; Denizli, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m 2 /g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma

  7. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  8. High photocatalytic performance of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} toward toluene and Reactive Brilliant Red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Huiquan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui Yumin, E-mail: cuiyumin0908@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Hong Wenshan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst was exposed to UV or visible light, the electrons in the valence band of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} would be excited into the conduction band and then injected into the more positive conduction band of BiOI. Therefore, the photoelectrons were generated from Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and transferred across the interface between BiOI and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to the surface of BiOI, leaving the photogenerated holes in the valence band of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In this way, the photoinduced electron-hole pairs were effectively separated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiOI sensitized Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts were successfully prepared by a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 13.2% BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst exhibits higher photoactivities than P25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible transfer process of photogenerated carriers was proposed. - Abstract: BiOI sensitized nano-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts with different BiOI contents were successfully synthesized by a facile deposition method at room temperature, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was evaluated by the photo-degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red (X-3B) in suspended solution and toluene in gas phase. It has been shown that the BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts exhibit a coexistence of both tetragonal BiOI and orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} phases. With increasing BiOI content, the absorption intensity of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts increases in the 380-600 nm region and the absorption edge shifts significantly to longer wavelengths as compared to pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The 13.2% BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst exhibits

  9. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; ul-Haq, Zaheer; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are ?reactive dyes? because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called ...

  10. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  11. [Effect of low-energy 633 nm red light stimulation on proliferation and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Li, D L; Duan, X D; Peng, D Z

    2016-09-20

    To investigate the changes of proliferative activity and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT after being irradiated with low-energy 633 nm red light. Irradiation distance was determined through preliminary experiment. HaCaT cells were conventionally sub-cultured with RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. Cells of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into blank control group and 0.082, 0.164, 0.245, 0.491, 1.472, 2.453, 4.910, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were not irradiated, while cells in the latter 8 irradiation groups were irradiated with 633 nm red light for 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300, 600, and 1 200 s in turn. Cells were reirradiated once every 8 hours. After being irradiated for 48 hours (6 times) in irradiation groups, the proliferative activity of cells in 9 groups was determined with cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (2) Another batch of cells were grouped and irradiated as in experiment (1). After being irradiated for once in irradiation groups, cells in 9 groups were conventionally cultured for 60 min with detection reagent of reactive oxygen species. At post culture minute (PCM) 0 (immediately), 30, 60, and 120, reactive oxygen species level of cells was determined with microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) Another batch of cells were divided into blank control group, 0.082, 0.491, 2.453, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups, and positive control group. Cells in blank control group and positive control group were not irradiated (positive control reagent of reactive oxygen species was added to cells in positive control group), and cells in irradiation groups were irradiated as in experiment (1) for once. The expression of reactive oxygen species in cells of each

  12. Gelidium elegans, an edible red seaweed, and hesperidin inhibit lipid accumulation and production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Gelidium elegans is an edible red alga native to the intertidal area of northeastern Asia. We investigated the effect of G. elegans extract and its main flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, on lipid accumulation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells. Our data show that G. elegans extract decreased lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also inhibited the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, while enhancing the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared with controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in G. elegans extract-treated RAW264.7 cells. In analysis of the effects of G. elegans flavonoids on lipid accumulation and ROS/RNS production, only hesperidin showed an inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and ROS production; rutin did not affect adipogenesis and ROS status. The antiadipogenic effect of hesperidin was evidenced by the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and fatty acid binding protein 4 gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that G. elegans is a potential food source containing antiobesity and antioxidant constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Red blood cells augment transport of reactive metabolites of monocrotaline from liver to lung in isolated and tandem liver and lung preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.C.; Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J. (Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, University of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that causes pulmonary hypertension in rats by mechanisms which remain largely unknown. MCT is thought to be activated in the liver to a reactive intermediate that is transported to the lung where it causes endothelial injury. The authors previous pharmacokinetic work demonstrated significant sequestration of radioactivity in red blood cells (RBCs) of rats treated with (14C)MCT. To determine whether this RBC sequestration might be important in the transport of reactive MCT metabolites, they compared the effect of inclusion of RBCs in the perfusion buffer on the extent of covalent binding of (14C)MCT to rat lungs in tandem liver-lung preparations. The potential effect of RBCs in stabilizing reactive intermediates was evaluated by preperfusion of isolated liver preparations with (14C)MCT with and without RBCs, separation and washing of the RBC fraction, and subsequent (90 min later) perfusion of washed RBCs or buffer alone in isolated perfused lungs. Covalent binding to lung tissues was determined by exhaustive methanol/chloroform extractions of unbound label from homogenized lung tissue followed by scintillation counting of residual 14C. Covalent binding was expressed as picomole MCT molecular weight equivalents/mg protein. Comparison of the relative capability of these isolated organ preparations for conversion of MCT to polar metabolites was done by extraction and HPLC analysis of perfusate at the end of the experiment. Isolated livers converted 65-85% of MCT to polar metabolites compared with less than 5% conversion in the isolated lungs. Inclusion of RBCs in the buffer of tandem lung liver preparations perfused with 400 microM (14C)MCT increased the covalent binding to the lung from 97 {plus minus} 25 (buffer alone) to 182 {plus minus} 36 (buffer + RBC) pmol/mg protein.

  14. Red blood cells augment transport of reactive metabolites of monocrotaline from liver to lung in isolated and tandem liver and lung preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that causes pulmonary hypertension in rats by mechanisms which remain largely unknown. MCT is thought to be activated in the liver to a reactive intermediate that is transported to the lung where it causes endothelial injury. The authors previous pharmacokinetic work demonstrated significant sequestration of radioactivity in red blood cells (RBCs) of rats treated with [14C]MCT. To determine whether this RBC sequestration might be important in the transport of reactive MCT metabolites, they compared the effect of inclusion of RBCs in the perfusion buffer on the extent of covalent binding of [14C]MCT to rat lungs in tandem liver-lung preparations. The potential effect of RBCs in stabilizing reactive intermediates was evaluated by preperfusion of isolated liver preparations with [14C]MCT with and without RBCs, separation and washing of the RBC fraction, and subsequent (90 min later) perfusion of washed RBCs or buffer alone in isolated perfused lungs. Covalent binding to lung tissues was determined by exhaustive methanol/chloroform extractions of unbound label from homogenized lung tissue followed by scintillation counting of residual 14C. Covalent binding was expressed as picomole MCT molecular weight equivalents/mg protein. Comparison of the relative capability of these isolated organ preparations for conversion of MCT to polar metabolites was done by extraction and HPLC analysis of perfusate at the end of the experiment. Isolated livers converted 65-85% of MCT to polar metabolites compared with less than 5% conversion in the isolated lungs. Inclusion of RBCs in the buffer of tandem lung liver preparations perfused with 400 microM [14C]MCT increased the covalent binding to the lung from 97 ± 25 (buffer alone) to 182 ± 36 (buffer + RBC) pmol/mg protein

  15. Reatividade de uma escória de siderurgia em um latossolo vermelho distrófico Reactivity of a slag in a distrofic red latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Prado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a reatividade de uma escória de siderurgia de aciaria, em diferentes frações granulométricas, aplicada em uma amostra de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, ácido, em condições de laboratório. Utilizou-se um fatorial 4 x 3 + 2 com quatro repetições, sendo quatro granulometrias (material retido entre as peneiras ABNT 5-10; 10-20; 20-50 e The present study investigated the reactivity of a slag from steelworks in different particle size fractions, applied on an acid dystrophic Red Latosol, under laboratory conditions, in a 4 x 3 + 2 factorial scheme in four replications. Four particle sizes (material retained in the ABNT 5-10; 10-20; 20-50, and < 50 sieves, three doses of slag (0.00, 5.04, and 10.08 t ha-1, corresponding to 0.00, 1.01, and 2.02 g in 0.40 dm³ of soil per cup and two control treatments (slag and dolomitic limestone in the corresponding dose to base saturation (V = 70 %, or either, 1.01 and 0.61 g per cup, respectively. The base saturation method was used for the definition of the doses, considering the CaCO3 equivalent value of slag and limestone, for the corresponding particle size fractions. The soil humidity was maintained at field capacity and incubated for three, six, and nine months. Grain size fractions of the slag affected differently the acidity of the soil. The fraction retained between the ABNT 5-10 sieves proved to be inefficient, while the fraction that passed through ABNT < 50 was the one with the greatest effect on acidity neutralization. The reactivity of retained slag particles in the intermediate sieves (ABNT 10-20 and 20-50 sieves was proportional to the effective values of the Brazilian legislation for lime. Therefore, the reactivity rate obtained for steelwork slag was: ABNT nº 5-10 = 0 %; 10-20 = 22 %; 20-50 = 58 % e < 50= 100 %.

  16. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency.

  17. Identification, expression, and immuno-reactivity of Sol i 2 & Sol i 4 venom proteins of queen red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Stephanie A; Haghipour-Peasley, Jilla; Hoffman, Donald R; Deslippe, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    We report on two low-molecular weight proteins that are stored in the venom of queen red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). Translated amino acid sequences identified one protein to have 74.8% identity with the Sol i 2w worker allergen, and the other protein was found to have 96/97% identity with Sol i 4.01w/4.02w worker allergens. Both Sol i 2 and Sol i 4 queen and worker proteins were expressed using pEXP1-DEST vector in SHuffle™ T7 Express lysY Escherichia coli. Proteins were expressed at significant concentrations, as opposed to the μg/ml amounts by our previous expression methods, enabling further study of these proteins. Sol i 2q protein bound weakly to human IgE, sera pooled from allergic patients, whereas Sol i 2w, Sol i 4.01w, and Sol i 4q proteins bound strongly. Despite Sol i 2w and Sol i 2q proteins having 74.8% identity, the queen protein is less immuno-reactive than the worker allergen. This finding is consistent with allergic individuals being less sensitive to queen than worker venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visible-light photocatalytic decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B on Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites prepared via one step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@yahoo.cn [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Li; Zhu, Huayue [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua; Gao, Lin [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites (Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs) were in situ prepared via a simple one-step liquid phase precipitation–reduction process and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, BET, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The characterization results showed that Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs were almost similar spherical or ellipsoidal and the surface was rough and porous because Cu{sub 2}O particle was wrapped in chitosan. The chitosan layer was especially favorable for improving the adsorption ability of dye and molecular oxygen and restraining the recombination of electrons–holes pair. The visible-light photocatalytic decolorization behavior on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs was evaluated using reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) as a model pollutant. The influences of various experimental factors on X-3B decolorization were investigated. It was found that the photocatalytic decolorization process on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs followed apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The dye X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in alkaline media. Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared with other photocatalysts reported before under similar experimental conditions.

  19. Adsorption of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B in Aqueous Solutions on Clay–Biochar Composites from Bagasse and Natural Attapulgite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the adsorption mechanism of reactive brilliant red X-3B (RBR on a novel low-cost clay–biochar composite with different proportions of bagasse and natural attapulgite (ATP. Pure bagasse, pure ATP, and two mixtures with weight ratios of 1:5 and 1:3 were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 4 h in a muffle furnace. Biochar samples were characterized with an element analyzer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, and zeta potential measurement. Results of the batch and leaching experiments showed that the adsorption capacities followed the order of 1:3 clay–biochar > 1:5 clay–biochar > bagasse biochar > pure ATP. Furthermore, ATP and bagasse exerted a synergistic effect on the adsorption of RBR. The adsorption data showed good correlation with the Langmuir isotherm, and the kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption of RBR on clay-biochar involved electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond, π–π interactions, and surface participation. The modification of biochar by ATP improved the adsorption capacity by increasing functional groups and creating adsorption sites. Therefore, ATP-modified clay–biochar composites could be effective adsorbents for the removal of RBR from wastewater.

  20. Desorption of Reactive Red 198 from activated carbon prepared from walnut shells: effects of temperature, sodium carbonate concentration and organic solvent dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Alimohamadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of temperature, different concentrations of sodium carbonate,and the dose of organic solvent on the desorption of Reactive Red 198 dye from dye-saturated activated carbon using batch and continuous systems. The results of the batch desorption test showed 60% acetone in water as the optimum amount. However, when the concentration of sodium carbonate was raised, the dye desorption percentage increased from 26% to 42% due to economic considerations; 15 mg/L of sodium carbonate was selected to continue the processof desorption. Increasing the desorption temperature can improve the dye desorption efficiency.According to the column test results, dye desorption concentration decreased gradually with the passing of time. The column test results showed that desorption efficiency and the percentage of dye adsorbed decreased; however, it seemed to stabilize after three repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The repeated adsorption–desorption column tests (3 cycles showed that the activated carbon which was prepared from walnut shell was a suitable and economical adsorbent for dye removal.

  1. Effect of light on the kinetics and equilibrium of the textile dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by Helianthus annuus hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantan, Chitra; Suraishkumar, G K; Srivastava, Smita

    2018-06-01

    The study demonstrates for the first time that light influences the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of a dye by root culture system. The azo dye (Reactive Red 120) adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium parameters were best estimated using Langmuir isotherm. The maximum dye adsorption capacity of the roots increased 6-fold, from 0.26 mg g -1 under complete dark conditions to 1.51 mg g -1 under 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. Similarly, adsorption rate of the dye and removal (%) also increased in the presence of light, irrespective of the initial concentration of the dye (20-110 mg L -1 ). The degradation of the azo dye upon adsorption by the hairy roots of H. annuus was also confirmed. In addition, a strategy for simultaneous dye removal and increased alpha-tocopherol (industrially relevant) production by H. annuus hairy root cultures has been proposed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens culture and enhancement of its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of a sulfonated textile dye Reactive Red 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Razia; Fulekar, M H

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at exploiting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and also investigates role of bacterial enzymes in the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Bacterial synthesized as well as metal doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Amylase activity (43.37IU) in culture supernatant evinced a potential involvement of extracellular enzyme in TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis. Crystallite size of bio-synthesized nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15.23-87.6nm. FTIR spectroscopy and native-PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) clearly indicated involvement of alpha amylase in biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and in their stabilization. TEM micrographs of the synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with a size range of 22.11-97.28nm. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 31 (RR31) dye was carried out using bio-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles under UV radiation. Photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was enhanced by Ag, La, Zn and Pt doping. Platinum doped TiO2 showed highest potential (90.98%) in RR31 degradation as compared to undoped (75.83%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of reactive red-120 and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol from aqueous samples by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using ionic liquid as modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalan, Ghodratollah; Asadi, Mozaffar; Kamran, Sedigheh; Sheikhian, Leila; Goltz, Douglas M

    2011-08-30

    The nanoparticles of Fe(3)O(4) as well as the binary nanoparticles of ionic liquid and Fe(3)O(4) (IL-Fe(3)O(4)) were synthesized for removal of reactive red 120 (RR-120) and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) as model azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The mean size and the surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR and TGA techniques. Adsorption of RR-120 and PAR was studied in a batch reactor at different experimental conditions such as nanoparticle dosage, dye concentration, pH of the solution, ionic strength, and contact time. Experimental results indicated that the IL-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles had removed more than 98% of both dyes under the optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 60mg, a pH of 2.5, and a contact time of 2min when initial dyes concentrations of 10-200mg L(-1) were used. The maximum adsorption capacity of IL-Fe(3)O(4) was 166.67 and 49.26mg g(-1) for RR-120 and PAR, respectively. The isotherm experiments revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The Langmuir adsorption constants were 5.99 and 3.62L mg(-1) for adsorptions of RR-120 and PAR, respectively. Both adsorption processes were endothermic and dyes could be desorbed from IL-Fe(3)O(4) by using a mixed NaCl-acetone solution and adsorbent was reusable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of reactive red-120 and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol from aqueous samples by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using ionic liquid as modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalan, Ghodratollah; Asadi, Mozaffar; Kamran, Sedigheh; Sheikhian, Leila; Goltz, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ionic liquids modify the dye-adsorption characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles. → Modified nanoparticles improved the sensitivity of dye measurements. → Water-solubility is an important factor for choosing an ionic liquid as a modifier for nanoparticles. - Abstract: The nanoparticles of Fe 3 O 4 as well as the binary nanoparticles of ionic liquid and Fe 3 O 4 (IL-Fe 3 O 4 ) were synthesized for removal of reactive red 120 (RR-120) and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) as model azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The mean size and the surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR and TGA techniques. Adsorption of RR-120 and PAR was studied in a batch reactor at different experimental conditions such as nanoparticle dosage, dye concentration, pH of the solution, ionic strength, and contact time. Experimental results indicated that the IL-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles had removed more than 98% of both dyes under the optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 60 mg, a pH of 2.5, and a contact time of 2 min when initial dyes concentrations of 10-200 mg L -1 were used. The maximum adsorption capacity of IL-Fe 3 O 4 was 166.67 and 49.26 mg g -1 for RR-120 and PAR, respectively. The isotherm experiments revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The Langmuir adsorption constants were 5.99 and 3.62 L mg -1 for adsorptions of RR-120 and PAR, respectively. Both adsorption processes were endothermic and dyes could be desorbed from IL-Fe 3 O 4 by using a mixed NaCl-acetone solution and adsorbent was reusable.

  5. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Natali F.; Lima, Eder C.; Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V.; Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A.; Calvete, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g −1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  6. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  7. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protei...

  8. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  9. Adsorption of reactive Remazol Red RB dye of aqueous solution using zeolite of the coal ash and evaluation of acute toxicity with Daphnia similis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the capacity of zeolite synthesized from coal ash in the removal of Remazol Red dye aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode operation. The equilibrium was attained after 360 min of contact time. The adsorption rate followed the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data obtained fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm showing the adsorption capacity of up to 1.20mg g-1. The efficiency of adsorption was between 75 to 91% in the equilibrium time. In order to obtain the best conditions for removal of this dye, the influence of the following parameters was: initial concentration of the dye, pH of the aqueous solution, dose of adsorbent and temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated showing that the adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite is of a spontaneous nature. Experiments by adding NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 were carried out to simulate the real conditions of the effluents from the dyeing bath and to evaluate the influence of these chemical compounds in the phenomenon of adsorption. The equilibrium data of adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite was achieved in a shorter time in the presence of increasing concentrations of salts in solution and an increase in adsorption capacity. The efficiency of the study was evaluated as a treatment for acute toxicity using Daphnia similis microcrustacean. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ. Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1 total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2 free radical (DPPH scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO trapping, (3 anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models, (4 anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models, and, (5 murine microglia (BV-2 neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

  11. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  12. Cobalt ferrite nano-composite coated on glass by Doctor Blade method for photo-catalytic degradation of an azo textile dye Reactive Red 4: XRD, FESEM and DRS investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Parhizkar, Janan

    2015-11-05

    Cobalt ferrite nano-composite was prepared by hydrothermal route using cobalt nitrate, iron nitrate and ethylene glycol as chelating agent. The nano-composite was coated on glass by Doctor Blade method and annealed at 300 °C. The structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Powder XRD analysis confirmed formation of CoFe2O4 spinel phase. The estimated particle size from FESEM data was 50 nm. The calculated energy band gaps, obtained by Tauc relation from UV-Vis absorption spectra was 1.3 eV. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 as an azo textile was investigated in aqueous solution under irradiation showed 68.0% degradation of the dye within 100 min. The experimental enhanced activity compare to pure Fe2O3 can be ascribed to the formation of composite, which was mainly attributable to the transfer of electron and hole to the surface of composite and hinder the electron hole recombination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  14. Removal of reactive red-120 and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol from aqueous samples by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles using ionic liquid as modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalan, Ghodratollah, E-mail: gubsulun@yahoo.com [Professor Masoumi Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Hafeziyeh, Fars, 71454 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, Mozaffar; Kamran, Sedigheh; Sheikhian, Leila [Professor Masoumi Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shiraz University, Hafeziyeh, Fars, 71454 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goltz, Douglas M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ionic liquids modify the dye-adsorption characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles. {yields} Modified nanoparticles improved the sensitivity of dye measurements. {yields} Water-solubility is an important factor for choosing an ionic liquid as a modifier for nanoparticles. - Abstract: The nanoparticles of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as well as the binary nanoparticles of ionic liquid and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (IL-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were synthesized for removal of reactive red 120 (RR-120) and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) as model azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The mean size and the surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR and TGA techniques. Adsorption of RR-120 and PAR was studied in a batch reactor at different experimental conditions such as nanoparticle dosage, dye concentration, pH of the solution, ionic strength, and contact time. Experimental results indicated that the IL-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles had removed more than 98% of both dyes under the optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 60 mg, a pH of 2.5, and a contact time of 2 min when initial dyes concentrations of 10-200 mg L{sup -1} were used. The maximum adsorption capacity of IL-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was 166.67 and 49.26 mg g{sup -1} for RR-120 and PAR, respectively. The isotherm experiments revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The Langmuir adsorption constants were 5.99 and 3.62 L mg{sup -1} for adsorptions of RR-120 and PAR, respectively. Both adsorption processes were endothermic and dyes could be desorbed from IL-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by using a mixed NaCl-acetone solution and adsorbent was reusable.

  15. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  16. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  17. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  18. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  19. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  20. Reaction titration: a convenient method for titering reactive hydride agents (Red-Al, LiAlH4, DIBALH, L-Selectride, NaH, and KH) by No-D NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Thomas R; Aspaas, Andrew W; Eklov, Brian M; Ryba, Troy D

    2005-05-26

    The concentration of reactive metal hydride (Met-H) reducing agents can be determined (in < or = 20 min) using No-D NMR spectroscopy. The method involves (i) reacting Met-H with an excess of p-methoxybenzaldehyde, (ii) quenching with excess acetic acid, (iii) recording the No-D NMR spectrum of this homogeneous mixture, and (iv) deducing the concentration of Met-H from the % conversion (as measured by integration). By a conceptually related method, the titer of the basic alkali metal hydrides KH and NaH can also be determined.

  1. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  2. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  3. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  4. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  5. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  6. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  7. Reactivity on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James; Bry, François; Eckert, Michael; Patrânjan, Paula Lavinia

    2005-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect simple and composite events and respond in a timely manner, is an essential requirement in many present-day information systems. With the emergence of new, dynamic Web applications, reactivity on the Web is receiving increasing attention. Reactive Web-based systems need to detect and react not only to simple events but also to complex, real-life situations. This paper introduces XChange, a language for programming reactive behaviour on the Web,...

  8. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a

  9. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  10. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  11. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  13. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  14. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  15. BN600 reactivity definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltyshev, V.; Ivanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, the fast BN600 reactor with sodium coolant has been operated at Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant. The periodic monitoring of the reactivity modifications should be implemented in compliance with the standards and regulations applied in nuclear power engineering. The reactivity measurements are carried out in order to confirm the basic neutronic features of a BN600 reactor. The reactivity measurements are aimed to justify that nuclear safety is provided in course of the in-reactor installation of the experimental core components. Two reactivity meters are to be used on BN600 operation: 1. Digital on-line reactivity calculated under stationary reactor operation on power (approximation of the point-wise kinetics is applied). 2. Second reactivity meter used to define the reactor control rod operating components efficiency under reactor startup and take account of the changing efficiency of the sensor, however, this is more time-consumptive than the on-line reactivity meter. The application of two reactivity meters allows for the monitoring of the reactor reactivity under every operating mode. (authors)

  16. Aerobic decolourization of two reactive azo dyes under varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus cereus isolated from dye industrial waste, that is, effluent and soil samples was screened for its ability to decolourize two reactive azo dye – cibacron black PSG and cibacron red P4B under aerobic conditions at pH 7 and incubated at 35°C over a five day period. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were used for ...

  17. Electrospinning of reactive mesogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, J.; Picot, O.T.; Hughes-Brittain, N.F.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Peijs, T.

    2016-01-01

    The reinforcement potential of reactive liquid crystals or reactive mesogens (RMs) in electrospun fibers was investigated through the blending of two types of RMs (RM257 and RM82) with two types of thermoplastics; polyamide 6 (PA6) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Polymer/RM blends were

  18. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  19. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  20. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  1. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  2. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  3. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  4. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  5. Structure, Reactivity and Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding structure, reactivity and dynamics is the core issue in chemical ... functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, light- ... between water and protein oxygen atoms, the superionic conductors which ...

  6. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  7. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  8. pH effect on decolorization of raw textile wastewater polluted with reactive dyes by advanced oxidation with uv/h2o2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Rimeika, M.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2) in decolorizing real textile wastewater polluted with commercial reactive dyes - Reactive Yellow 84 and Reactive Red 141 was investigated. All the experiments were performed in a lab-scale reactor with the original high pH of the

  9. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  10. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  11. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  12. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  13. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  14. Reactivity of nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    Reactivity of coordination nitriles in transition metal (Ru, Mo, W, Zr, Hf) complexes, namely: transformation of nitriles of the first coordination sphere into N-acyl-substituted amides, amidines, nitrile interaction; with water, alkalines, alcoholes, hydrogen, azide and cyanide ions is considered. Introduction of acetonitrile molecule to uranium (4)-carbon double bond is discussed

  15. Clojure reactive programming

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.

  16. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  17. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  18. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  19. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  20. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  1. Upscaling of reactive flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the upscaling of reactive flows in complex geometry. The reactions which may include deposition or dissolution take place at a part of the boundary and depending on the size of the reaction domain, the changes in the pore structure that are due to the deposition process may or

  2. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Dzumabaeva; L. S. Birjukova; L. B. Kaplanskaya; D. P. Maksimov

    2011-01-01

    The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19) is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis...

  3. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  4. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  5. Structural Insights into 2,2′-Azino-Bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic Acid) (ABTS)-Mediated Degradation of Reactive Blue 21 by Engineered Cyathus bulleri Laccase and Characterization of Degradation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzom, T.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are currently used for the treatment of different reactive dyes which involve use of toxic catalysts. Peroxidases are reported to be effective on such dyes and require hydrogen peroxide and/or metal ions. Cyathus bulleri laccase, expressed in Pichia pastoris, catalyzes efficient degradation (78 to 85%) of reactive azo dyes (reactive black 5, reactive orange 16, and reactive red 198) in the presence of synthetic mediator ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-...

  6. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  7. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  8. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  9. Adsorption of reactive Remazol Red RB dye of aqueous solution using zeolite of the coal ash and evaluation of acute toxicity with Daphnia similis; Adsorcao de corante reativo Remazol Vermelho RB de solucao aquosa usando zeolita de cinzas de carvao e avaliacao da toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the capacity of zeolite synthesized from coal ash in the removal of Remazol Red dye aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode operation. The equilibrium was attained after 360 min of contact time. The adsorption rate followed the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data obtained fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm showing the adsorption capacity of up to 1.20mg g-1. The efficiency of adsorption was between 75 to 91% in the equilibrium time. In order to obtain the best conditions for removal of this dye, the influence of the following parameters was: initial concentration of the dye, pH of the aqueous solution, dose of adsorbent and temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated showing that the adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite is of a spontaneous nature. Experiments by adding NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were carried out to simulate the real conditions of the effluents from the dyeing bath and to evaluate the influence of these chemical compounds in the phenomenon of adsorption. The equilibrium data of adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite was achieved in a shorter time in the presence of increasing concentrations of salts in solution and an increase in adsorption capacity. The efficiency of the study was evaluated as a treatment for acute toxicity using Daphnia similis microcrustacean. (author)

  10. What makes ecological systems reactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E

    2010-06-01

    Although perturbations from a stable equilibrium must ultimately vanish, they can grow initially, and the maximum initial growth rate is called reactivity. Reactivity thus identifies systems that may undergo transient population surges or drops in response to perturbations; however, we lack biological and mathematical intuition about what makes a system reactive. This paper presents upper and lower bounds on reactivity for an arbitrary linearized model, explores their strictness, and discusses their biological implications. I find that less stable systems (i.e. systems with long transients) have a smaller possible range of reactivities for which no perturbations grow. Systems with more species have a higher capacity to be reactive, assuming species interactions do not weaken too rapidly as the number of species increases. Finally, I find that in discrete time, reactivity is determined largely by mean interaction strength and neither discrete nor continuous time reactivity are sensitive to food web topology. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bearing for the reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol undertook an aggressive plan to reactivate the activities of seismic that allows fulfilling the goals proposed for this year (2003). Although the production registered a descent of 9%, the financial results throw utilities for $1.1 trillion pesos to the closing of September and contributions in bonuses for $1.2 trillions. The author also refers to the general balance, to the finances, raw production, taxes and transfers

  12. Modeling and processing of laser Doppler reactive hyperaemia signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huiller, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a non-invasive method used in the medical domain to monitor the microvascular blood cell perfusion through tissue. Most commercial laser Doppler flowmeters use an algorithm calculating the first moment of the power spectral density to give the perfusion value. Many clinical applications measure the perfusion after a vascular provocation such as a vascular occlusion. The response obtained is then called reactive hyperaemia. Target pathologies include diabetes, hypertension and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In order to have a deeper knowledge on reactive hyperaemia acquired by the laser Doppler technique, the present work first proposes two models (one analytical and one numerical) of the observed phenomenon. Then, a study on the multiple scattering between photons and red blood cells occurring during reactive hyperaemia is carried out. Finally, a signal processing that improves the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases is presented.

  13. Comparison of four supports for adsorption of reactive dyes by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-e; HU Yong-you

    2007-01-01

    Four materials, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and chitosan (CTS), were prepared as supports for entrapping fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The adsorption of synthetic dyes, reactive brilliant blue KN-R, and reactive brilliant red K-2BP, by these immobilized gel beads and plain gel beads was evaluated. The adsorption efficiencies of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by CTS immobilized beads were 89.1% and 93.5% in 12 h, respectively. The adsorption efficiency by Na-CMC immobilized beads was slightly lower than that of mycelial pellets. But the dye culture mediums were almost completely decolorized in 48 h using the above-mentioned two immobilized beads (exceeding 95%). The adsorption efficiency by SA immobilized beads exceeded 92% in 48 h. PVA-SA immobilized beads showed the lowest adsorption efficiency, which was 79.8% for reactive brilliant red K-2BP and 92.5% for reactive brilliant blue KN-R in 48 h. Comparing the adsorption efficiency by plain gel beads, Na-CMC plain gel beads ranked next to CTS ones. SA and PVA-SA plain gel beads hardly had the ability of adsorbing dyes. Subsequently, the growth of mycelia in Na-CMC and SA immobilized beads were evaluated. The biomass increased continuously in 72 h. The adsorption capacity of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by Na-CMC immobilized beads was 78.0 and 86.7 mg/g, respectively. The SEM micrographs show that the surface structure of Na-CMC immobilized bead is loose and finely porous, which facilitates diffusion of the dyes.

  14. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  15. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  16. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  17. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  18. Reactivity costs in MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowska, Zuzanna E.; Pytel, Krzysztof M.; Frydrysiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost of excess reactivity is proposed. • Correlation between time integral of the core excess reactivity and released energy. • Reactivity price gives number of fuel elements required for given excess reactivity. - Abstract: For the reactor operation at high power level and carrying out experiments and irradiations the major cost of reactor operation is the expense of nuclear fuel. In this paper the methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost-relatedness of excess reactivity is proposed. Reactivity costs have been determined on the basis of operating data. A number of examples of calculating the reactivity costs for processes such as: strong absorbing material irradiation, molybdenium-99 production, beryllium matrix poisoning and increased moderator temperature illustrates proposed method.

  19. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  20. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  1. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  2. Species comparison of inflammatory cell reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncavage-Hennessey, E.M.; Twerdok, L.E. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Finch, R.A.; Gardner, H.S. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In comparison to the use of rodent models, the use of fish as a potential model to predict immune dysfunction in response to environmental contaminants is a relatively new concept. The development of a fish model for immunotoxicity is possible due to the phylogenetic conservation of many immune functions. The authors have compared mononuclear cell reactivity following in vitro stimulation among five species; Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), DBA/2 mice, Sprague-Dawley rats and human ML-1 cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the rodent bone marrow and from the teleost anterior kidney (the cell population which most closely resembles mammalian hematopoietic tissue). ML-1 cells are a myeloblastic cell line that were differentiated in vitro to monocytes/macrophages. Cell populations were characterized by myeloperoxidase and nonspecific esterase staining characteristic. Reactive oxidant production following in vitro stimulation by phorbol ester was measured using the following methods: reduction of cytochrome c (detection of extracellular superoxide), reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (detection of intracellular superoxide) and oxidation of phenol red in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (hydrogen peroxide production). In general, teleost cells demonstrated higher superoxide anion production and mammalian cells produced higher quantities of hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Reactive documentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, Thomas R.; Kramb, Victoria

    2018-04-01

    Proper formal documentation of computer acquired NDE experimental data generated during research is critical to the longevity and usefulness of the data. Without documentation describing how and why the data was acquired, NDE research teams lose capability such as their ability to generate new information from previously collected data or provide adequate information so that their work can be replicated by others seeking to validate their research. Despite the critical nature of this issue, NDE data is still being generated in research labs without appropriate documentation. By generating documentation in series with data, equal priority is given to both activities during the research process. One way to achieve this is to use a reactive documentation system (RDS). RDS prompts an operator to document the data as it is generated rather than relying on the operator to decide when and what to document. This paper discusses how such a system can be implemented in a dynamic environment made up of in-house and third party NDE data acquisition systems without creating additional burden on the operator. The reactive documentation approach presented here is agnostic enough that the principles can be applied to any operator controlled, computer based, data acquisition system.

  4. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  5. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  6. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  7. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-12-15

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  8. Reactive Power from Distributed Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Rizy, Tom; Li, Fangxing; Fall, Ndeye

    2006-01-01

    Distributed energy is an attractive option for solving reactive power and distribution system voltage problems because of its proximity to load. But the cost of retrofitting DE devices to absorb or produce reactive power needs to be reduced. There also needs to be a market mechanism in place for ISOs, RTOs, and transmission operators to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where DE usually resides. (author)

  9. Reactive programming in eventsourcing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    Eventsourcing describes current state as series of events that occurred in a system. Events hold all information that is needed to recreate current state. This method allows to achieve high volume of transactions, and enables efficient replication. Whereas reactive programming lets implement reactive systems in declarative style, decomposing logic into smaller, easier to understand components. Thesis aims to create reactive programming program interface, incorporating both principles. Applyin...

  10. Reactive Programming in Standard ML

    OpenAIRE

    Pucella, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Reactive systems are systems that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment, activated by receiving input events from the environment and producing output events in response. Modern programming languages designed to program such systems use a paradigm based on the notions of instants and activations. We describe a library for Standard ML that provides basic primitives for programming reactive systems. The library is a low-level system upon which more sophisticated reactive behavi...

  11. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  12. Massive florid reactive periostitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, K.V.; Renner, J.B.; Brashear, H.R.; Siegal, G.P.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC

    1990-01-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign process usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. Typically the lesion occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of pain and erythema over the affected bone. Although the histologic features may suggest malignancy, there is usually little radiographic evidence to support such a diagnosis. In the following report an unusual example of this entity is described whose large size and relentless local progression led to initial diagnostic uncertainty and eventual aggressive management. This case suggests that a wide spectrum of radiologic and morphologic changes may be seen in this entity and that a seemingly unrelated genetic disease may alter the typical clinical course. (orig.)

  13. Pembrolizumab reactivates pulmonary granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Al-dliw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoid like reaction is a well-known entity that occurs as a consequence to several malignancies or their therapies. Immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest in the past few years and has recently gained approval as first line therapy in multiple advanced stage malignancies. Pneumonitis has been described as complication of such therapy. Granulomatous inflammation has been only rarely reported subsequent to immunotherapy. We describe a case of granulomatous inflammation reactivation affecting the lungs in a patient previously exposed to Pembrolizumab and have evidence of a distant granulomatous infection. We discuss potential mechanisms of the inflammation and assert the importance of immunosuppression in controlling the dis-inhibited immune system.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  15. Weigle Reactivation in Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, Dvora

    1982-01-01

    phage and host survivals of about 5 times 10-6 and 1 times 10-1, respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst......Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irra-diated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/ survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving...

  16. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  17. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  18. Improvement of COD and TOC reactive dyes in textile wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... This study was designed to investigate the removal of reactive dyes, Samofix Red V-RBL and Samofix. Green V-G from wastewater using a two step Al (III) coagulation/activated carbon adsorption method. ... (90%) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) ..... a liquid to a solid surface.

  19. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photoactivated simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppatelli, Matteo; Bini, Roberto; Fanetti, Samuele; Caporali, Maria; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In particular the photoactivation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photoactivators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photoinduced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using DAC and SAC. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occured in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2-1.5 GPa).

  20. The French Paradox: Determining the Superoxide-Scavenging Capacity of Red Wine and Other Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Barry A.; Hammond, Matthew P.; Stormo, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant-derived phenolic compounds such as those found in red wine, tea, and certain fruit juices may protect against cardiovascular disease by detoxifying (scavenging) superoxide and other unstable reactive oxygen species. We present a laboratory exercise that can be used to assess the superoxide-scavenging capacity of beverages. Among the…

  1. Inborn defects in the antioxidant systems of human red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Rob; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Roos, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron and operate in highly oxygenated tissues. As a result, these cells encounter a continuous oxidative stress. Protective mechanisms against oxidation include prevention of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenging of various forms of

  2. Regarding KUR Reactivity Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Akira; Hasegawa, Kei; Tsuchiyama, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okumura, Ryo; Sano, Tadafumi

    2012-01-01

    This article reported: (1) the outline of the reactivity measurement system of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), (2) the calibration data of control rod, (3) the problems and the countermeasures for range switching of linear output meter. For the laptop PC for the reactivity measurement system, there are four input signals: (1) linear output meter, (2) logarithmic output meter, (3) core temperature gauge, and (4) control rod position. The hardware of reactivity measurement system is controlled with Labview installed on the laptop. Output, reactivity, reactor period, and the change in reactivity due to temperature effect or Xenon effect are internally calculated and displayed in real-time with Labview based on the four signals above. Calculation results are recorded in the form of a spreadsheet. At KUR, the reactor core arrangement was changed, so the control rod was re-calibrated. At this time, calculated and experimental values of reactivity based on the reactivity measurement system were compared, and it was confirmed that the reactivity calculation by Labview was accurate. The range switching of linear output meter in the nuclear instrumentation should automatically change within the laptop, however sometimes this did not function properly in the early stage. It was speculated that undefined percent values during the transition of percent value were included in the calculation and caused calculation errors. The range switching started working properly after fixing this issue. (S.K.)

  3. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  4. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  5. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  6. Reactivation with productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos Hernando

    2002-01-01

    A market to five years that it will move near $63.000 millions, starting from the production of 254.000 reserves that Ecopetrol requires for its maintenance and operation, it was projected with base in the offer study and it demands that they carried out the universities Javeriana and Industrial of Santander for the Colombian Company of Petroleum around the metal mechanic sector. In accordance with the figures of the report, Ecopetrol, like one of the state entities selected by the national government to design pilot programs, guided to reactivate the Colombian industry; it is projecting a good perspective for the Colombian economy and the invigoration of the national productive sector. In practical terms, the report points out that Ecopetrol, in its different operative centers, will require in next five years the quantity of had restored before mentioned in the lines of mechanical stamps, centrifugal bombs, inter chambers of heat, compressors and valves of security; pieces that are elaborated by international makers in 99%. To produce them nationally would represent to the company an economy of 52% of the total value of the purchases in next five years and a reduction of time of delivery of 17 weeks to one week

  7. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  9. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  10. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  11. Present art of reactivity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Masafumi; Matsuura, Shojiro

    1977-01-01

    Experimental techniques for reactivity determination of a reactor have been one of the long standing subjects in reactor physics. Recently, such a requirement was proposed by the reactor designers and operators that the values of reactivity should be measured more accurately. This is because importance is emphasized for the role of reactivity to the performance of reactor safety, economics and operability. Motivated by the requirement, some remarkable progresses are being made for the improvement of the experimental techniques. Then, the present review summarizes the research activities on this subject, identifies several reactor physics problems to be overcome, and makes mention of the future targets. (auth.)

  12. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  13. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A.H.; Gourich, B.; Dassaa, A.; Chenik, H.; Azzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm -2 and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E dye ) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg dye was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg dye for disperse and 50 kWh/kg dye for the mixture.

  14. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, Wafaa [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@est-uh2c.ac.ma [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Dassaa, A. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Chenik, H. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Azzi, M. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm{sup -2} and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E{sub dye}) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg{sub dye} was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg{sub dye} for disperse and 50 kWh/kg{sub dye} for the mixture.

  15. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  16. Studies on photofading and stable free radical formation in reactive dyed cellulosic systems under their exposure to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remi, E.; Horvath, O.; Vig, A.; Aranyosi, P.; Rusznak, I.

    1996-01-01

    In light exposed systems of cotton and C.I. Reactive Red 3, C.I. Reactive Black 5 and C.I. Direct Blue 78 azo dyes respectively, generated stable free radicals could be detected. The observed hyperfine splitting of ESR spectra suggest the free radical are formed in the chromophore. Based upon the calculated g-values the location of the generated unpaired electron could be assumed on one of the C atoms of the dye molecule. (author)

  17. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  18. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  19. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  20. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  1. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  2. [Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maazoun, F; Deschamps, O; Barros-Kogel, E; Ngwem, E; Fauchet, N; Buffet, P; Froissart, A

    2015-11-01

    Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is a rare and severe form of chronic malaria. This condition is a common cause of splenomegaly in endemic areas. The pathophysiology of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly involves an intense immune reaction (predominantly B cell-driven) to repeated/chronic infections with Plasmodium sp. The diagnosis may be difficult, due to a poorly specific clinical presentation (splenomegaly, fatigue, cytopenias), a long delay between residence in a malaria-endemic area and onset of symptoms, and a frequent absence of parasites on conventional thin and thick blood smears. A strongly contributive laboratory parameter is the presence of high levels of total immunoglobulin M. When the diagnostic of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly is considered, search for anti-Plasmodium antibodies and Plasmodium nucleic acids (genus and species) by PCR is useful. Diagnosis of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly relies on the simultaneous presence of epidemiological, clinical, biological and follow-up findings. Regression of both splenomegaly and hypersplenism following antimalarial therapy allows the differential diagnosis with splenic lymphoma, a common complication of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Although rare in Western countries, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly deserves increased medical awareness to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis, to prevent progression to splenic lymphoma and to avoid splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactive sites influence in PMMA oligomers reactivity: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.

  4. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  5. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  6. Substation Reactive Power Regulation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing requirements on the power supply quality and reliability of distribution network, voltage and reactive power regulation of substations has become one of the indispensable ways to ensure voltage quality and reactive power balance and to improve the economy and reliability of distribution network. Therefore, it is a general concern of the current power workers and operators that what kind of flexible and effective control method should be used to adjust the on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer and shunt compensation capacitor in a substation to achieve reactive power balance in situ, improve voltage pass rate, increase power factor and reduce active power loss. In this paper, based on the traditional nine-zone diagram and combining with the characteristics of substation, a fuzzy variable-center nine-zone diagram control method is proposed and used to make a comprehensive regulation of substation voltage and reactive power. Through the calculation and simulation of the example, this method is proved to have satisfactorily reconciled the contradiction between reactive power and voltage in real-time control and achieved the basic goal of real-time control of the substation, providing a reference value to the practical application of the substation real-time control method.

  7. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  8. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  9. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  10. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  11. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  12. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  13. Effective NH2-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Ailian; Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. → Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. → Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. → Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH 2 -attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH 2 groups.

  14. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  15. Memory reactivation improves visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar-Halpert, Rotem; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Nemni, Shlomi; Rosenblatt, Jonathan D; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-10-01

    Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.

  16. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  17. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  18. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  19. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  20. Radiation-induced decomposition and decoloration of reactive dyes in the presence of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Yang Ruiyuan; Wang Wenfeng; Shen Zhongqun; Bian Shaowei; Zhu Zhiyuan

    2006-01-01

    The dyeing wastewaters represent a large input of hazardous compounds to the environment and these compounds are usually non-biodegradable. In this study, electron beam irradiation-induced decoloration and decomposition of reactive dyes in aqueous solution were investigated. Two different reactive dyes (reactive red KE-3B and reactive blue XBR) solutions were irradiated with electron beam at different doses in the absence and presence of H 2 O 2 . The changes of absorption spectra and pH value were described and analyzed as well as the degree of decoloration and COD removal. The influences of absorbed doses, H 2 O 2 additions and initial dye concentrations are discussed. The experimental results show that reactive dyes in aqueous solutions can be effectively degraded by electron beam irradiation, especially in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

  1. Contributions of primary and secondary biogenic VOC tototal OH reactivity during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC concentrations including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT for enclosure air. Therefore, the measurement dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. However, this conclusion should be followed up by more comprehensive side-by-side intercomparison between measured and calculated OH reactivity and laboratory experiments with controlled temperature and light environments to verify effects of those essential parameters towards unknown/unmeasured reactive BVOC emissions. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution towards ambient OH reactivity (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity

  2. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  3. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  4. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  5. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  6. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  7. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  8. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  9. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The size-dependence of different local reactivity descriptors of dimer A2 and AB type of sys- tems is discussed. We derive analytic results of these descriptors calculated using finite difference approximation. In particular, we studied Fukui functions, relative electrophilicity and relative nucleo- philicity, local softness ...

  10. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  11. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  12. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  13. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  14. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  15. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  16. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  17. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colored textile effluents represent severe environmental problems as they contain mixture of chemicals, auxiliariesand dyestuffs of different classes and chemical constitutions. Elimination of dyes in the textile wastewater by conventionalwastewater treatment methods is very difficult. At present, there is a growing interest in using inexpensive and potentialmaterials for the adsorption of reactive dyes. Shale has been reported to be a potential media to remove color from wastewaterbecause of its chemical characteristics. In this study, shale was used as an adsorbent. The chosen shale had particlesizes of : A (1.00 < A < 2.00 mm, B (0.50 < B < 1.00 mm, C (0.25 < C < 0.50 mm, D (0.18 < D < 0.25 mm and E (0.15 < E < 0.18mm. Remazol Deep Red RGB (Red, Remazol Brilliant Blue RN gran (Blue and Remazol Yellow 3RS 133% gran (Yellow wereused as adsorbates. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effect of contact time, pH, temperatureand initial dye concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model,with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 0.0110-0.0322 mg/g for Red, 0.4479-1.1409 mg/g for Blue and 0.0133-0.0255 mg/g for Yellow, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of reactive dye by shale occurred at an initial pH of 2,initial concentration of 700 Pt-Co and temperature 45°C. Reactive dye adsorption capacities increased with an increase of theinitial dye concentration and temperature whereas with a decrease of pH. The fixed bed column experiments were appliedwith actual textile wastewater for estimation of life span. The results showed that COD and color removal efficiencies of shalefix bed column were 97% and 90%, respectively. Also the shale fixed bed columns were suitable for using with textile effluentfrom activated sludge system because of their COD and color removal efficiencies and life expectancy comparison using withdyebath wastewater and raw

  18. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmikanti, Mike; Dewayatna, Winter

    2013-09-01

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  19. Human monoclonal antibodies reactive with human myelomonocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, M R; Santos, D J; Elboim, H S; Tumber, M B; Frackelton, A R

    1989-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), in remission, were depleted of CD8-positive T-cells and cultured with Epstein-Barr virus. Four of 20 cultures (20%) secreted human IgG antibodies selectively reactive with the cell surfaces of certain human leukemia cell lines. Three polyclonal, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed, B-cell lines were expanded and fused with the human-mouse myeloma analogue HMMA2.11TG/O. Antibody from secreting clones HL 1.2 (IgG1), HL 2.1 (IgG3), and HL 3.1 (IgG1) have been characterized. All three react with HL-60 (promyelocytic), RWLeu4 (CML promyelocytic), and U937 (monocytic), but not with KG-1 (myeloblastic) or K562 (CML erythroid). There is no reactivity with T-cell lines, Burkitt's cell lines, pre-B-leukemia cell lines, or an undifferentiated CML cell line, BV173. Leukemic cells from two of seven patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and one of five with acute lymphocytic leukemia react with all three antibodies. Normal lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, red blood cells, bone marrow cells, and platelets do not react. Samples from patients with other diverse hematopoietic malignancies showed no reactivity. Immunoprecipitations suggest that the reactive antigen(s) is a lactoperoxidase iodinatable series of cell surface proteins with molecular weights of 42,000-54,000 and a noniodinatable protein with a molecular weight of 82,000. Based on these data these human monoclonal antibodies appear to react with myelomonocytic leukemic cells and may detect a leukemia-specific antigen or a highly restricted differentiation antigen.

  20. Low cost removal of reactive dyes using wheat bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Fatma; Ozer, Dursun; Ozer, Ahmet; Ozer, Ayla

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145) onto wheat bran, generated as a by-product material from flour factory, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The adsorption of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 onto wheat bran increased with increasing temperature and initial dye concentration while the adsorbed RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 amounts decreased with increasing initial pH and adsorbent concentration. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data depending on temperature and the isotherm constants were determined by using linear regression analysis. The monolayer covarage capacities of wheat bran for RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 dyes were obtained as 117.6, 119.1 and 196.1 mg/g at 60 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the reactive dye adsorption capacity of wheat bran decreased in the order of RY 145 > RB 19 > RR 195. The pseudo-second order kinetic and Weber-Morris models were applied to the experimental data and it was found that both the surface adsorption as well as intraparticle diffusion contributed to the actual adsorption processes of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145. Regression coefficients (R 2 ) for the pseudo-second order kinetic model were higher than 0.99. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of RB 19, RR 195 and RY 145 dyes onto wheat bran was endothermic in nature

  1. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  2. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  3. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  4. Reactive behavior, learning, and anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Steven D.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive systems always act, thinking only long enough to 'look up' the action to execute. Traditional planning systems think a lot, and act only after generating fairly precise plans. Each represents an endpoint on a spectrum. It is argued that primitive forms of reasoning, like anticipation, play an important role in reducing the cost of learning and that the decision to act or think should be based on the uncertainty associated with the utility of executing an action in a particular situation. An architecture for an adaptable reactive system is presented and it is shown how it can be augmented with a simple anticipation mechanism that can substantially reduce the cost and time of learning.

  5. Melioidosis: reactivation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegasothy, B.V.; Goslen, J.B.; Salvatore, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei, a gram-negative, motile bacillus which is a naturally occurring soil saprophyte. The organism is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Australia, and parts of Central and South America. Most human disease occurs from infection acquired in these countries. Infection with P pseudomallei may produce no apparent clinical disease. Acute pneumonitis or septicemia may result from inhalation of the organism, and inoculation into sites of trauma may cause localized skin abscesses, or the disease may remain latent and be reactivated months or years later by trauma, burns, or pneumococcal pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, influenza, or bronchogenic carcinoma. The last is probably the commonest form of melioidosis seen in the United States. We present the first case of reactivation of melioidosis after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the lung, again emphasizing the need to consider melioidosis in a septic patient with a history of travel, especially to Southeast Asia

  6. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  7. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  8. Kinetics of the decoloration of reactive dyes over visible light-irradiated TiO2 semiconductor photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Patnam, Vidya Rupini; Sikdar, Anindita; Joshi, Priyanka; Misra, Rohit; Rao, Nageswara N.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic decoloration kinetics of triazine (Reactive Red 11, Reactive Red 2, and Reactive Orange 84) and vinylsulfone type (Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Black 5) of reactive dyes have been studied spectrophotometrically by following the decrease in dye concentration with time. At ambient conditions, over 90-95% decoloration of above dyes have been observed upon prolonged illumination (15 h) of the reacting system with a 150 W xenon lamp. It was found that the decoloration reaction followed first-order kinetics. The values of observed rate constants were found to be dependent of the structure of dyes at low dye concentration, but independent at higher concentration. It also reports for the first time the decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst. Rate of decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst is governed by the adsorptivity of the particular dye onto the surface of the TiO 2 photocatalyst

  9. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  10. Reactive power supply by distributed generators

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed reactive power supply is necessary in distribution networks for an optimized network operation. This paper presents first the reactive power supply capabilities of generators connected to the distribution network (distributed generators). In a second step an approach is proposed of determining the energy losses resulting from reactive power supply by distributed generators. The costs for compensating these losses represent the operational costs of reactive power supply. These cost...

  11. Controlling material reactivity using architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    The reactivity of thermites can be tailored through selection of several parameters, and can range from very slow burns to rapid deflagrations. 3D printing is a rapidly emerging field, and offers the potential to build architected parts. Here we sought to explore whether controlling such features could be a suitable path forward for gaining additional control of the reactivity. This talk discusses several new methods for preparing thermite samples with controlled architectures using 3D printing. Additionally, we demonstrate that the architecture can play a role in the reactivity of an object. Our results suggest that architecture can be used to tailor the convective and/or advective energy transport during a deflagration, thus enhancing or retarding the reaction. The results are promising in that they give researchers an additional way of controlling the energy release rate without defaulting to the conventional approach of changing the formulation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-708525. In collaboration with: Cheng Zhu, Eric Duoss, Matt Durban, Alex Gash, Alexandra Golobic, Michael Grapes, David Kolesky, Joshua Kuntz, Jennifer Lewis, Christopher Spadaccini; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB.

  12. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  13. Evaluation of bituminized waste reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Moulinier, D.

    2000-01-01

    The bituminization process has been used for conditioning low and medium level (LML) radioactive waste, particularly to immobilize coprecipitation slurries and evaporation concentrates generated by effluent treatment. The process consists in mixing bitumen matrix with inactive soluble and slightly soluble salts added to insolubilize the radionuclides or resulting from the neutralization of acid effluents. This operation is performed at a sufficient temperature - depending on waste composition and bitumen grade to ensure the flow of the resulting mixture into metal containers. Exothermicity due to salts/salts or salts/bitumen reactions depending on the type of waste can be induced during or after the mixing step. This could produce an additional heat emission that the drum must be able to release to avoid a potentially incidental pattern with ignition risk, explaining why the CEA has been involved in evaluating the thermal reactivity of bituminized waste and its repercussions on the bituminization process. Given the difficulty of discriminating each exothermal reaction, the characterization of a global reactivity appears as a further precautionary measure, in addition to the definition of a working safety margin. The CEA has accordingly developed studies on this aspect. The article discusses the experimental methodology developed for the determination of the global reactivity. (authors)

  14. Synthesis of Novel Reactive Disperse Silicon-Containing Dyes and Their Coloring Properties on Silicone Rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel red and purple reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were designed and synthesized using p-nitroaniline and 6-bromo-2,4-dinitro-aniline as diazonium components, the first condensation product of cyanuric chloride and 3-(N,N-diethylamino-aniline as coupling component, and 3-aminopropylmethoxydimethylsilane, 3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane, and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane as silicone reactive agents. These dyes were characterized by UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, and MS. The obtained reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were used to color silicone rubbers and the color fastness of the dyes were evaluated. The dry/wet rubbing and washing fastnesses of these dyes all reached 4–5 grade and the sublimation fastness was also above 4 grade, indicating outstanding performance in terms of color fastness. Such colored silicone rubbers showed bright and rich colors without affecting its static mechanical properties.

  15. Event-Based Modularization of Reactive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    There is a large number of complex software systems that have reactive behavior. As for any other software system, reactive systems are subject to evolution demands. This paper defines a set requirements that must be fulfilled so that reuse of reactive software systems can be increased. Detailed

  16. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  17. Irradiation treatment of textile dyes: Apollofix-red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Palfi, T.; Takacs, E.

    2004-01-01

    The UV-VIS absorption spectra of azo dyes in aqueous solutions strongly overlap with the spectra of intermediates produced in reaction with the intermediates of water radiolysis. This overlap complicates the investigation of reaction mechanisms. The paper describes a method for the separation of the two spectra on the example of Apollofix-Red, a triazine and H-acid containing dye. The reactivity of water radiolysis intermediates (e aq - , OH, H, O 2 /HO 2 ) with the dye is also discussed. The most intensive decolouration was found in the reaction of e aq - and H which is due to the fast reaction of these intermediates with the -N=N-azo group of the unreacted molecule and their slow reaction with the transformed molecules. (author)

  18. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  19. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  20. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...... bigraphs. Technically, we give our construction for ordinary reactive systems, then lift it to bigraphical reactive systems. As such, we give also a construction of sortings for ordinary reactive systems. This construction is an improvement over previous attempts in that it produces smaller and much more...

  1. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  2. Reactivity to sorbitan sesquioleate affects reactivity to fragrance mix I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Fragrance mix I (FM I) and its single constituents contain 5% and 1% sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO), respectively. SSO is a rare sensitizer and a potential irritant. To determine whether the outcome of the FM I breakdown test is affected by positive patch test reactivity to SSO. A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 1998-2013, was performed. The full FM I breakdown test including SSO was tested in 2952 patients. Of these, 154 (5.2%) had a positive patch test reaction to SSO 20% pet. and 2709 (91.8%) had a negative patch test reaction. Positive reactions to one or more of the single fragrances contained in the mix were significantly more common (82.5% versus 57.3%) in SSO-positive patients, who also had more multiple reactions than FM I-positive patients with negative SSO reactions (61.5% versus 21.3% patients with reactions to two or more fragrances). Our results indicate that reactivity to SSO markedly affects the outcome of patch testing with FM I and its single constituents. SSO must be an obligatory part of the full FM I breakdown test, and should ideally be included in the baseline series. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  4. Framework for reactive mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis...... description is coupled to the system. The mass transport is solved by using the finite element method where the chemical equilibrium is solved explicitly by an operator splitting method. The IPHREEQC library is used as chemical equilibrium solver. The equation system, solved by IPHREEQC, is explained...

  5. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  6. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  7. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  8. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  9. Reactive Astrocytes in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wasilewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis, the secondary growth of malignant cells within the central nervous system (CNS, exceeds the incidence of primary brain tumors (i.e., gliomas by tenfold and are seemingly on the rise owing to the emergence of novel targeted therapies that are more effective in controlling extracranial disease relatively to intracranial lesions. Despite the fact that metastasis to the brain poses a unmet clinical problem, with afflicted patients carrying significant morbidity and a fatal prognosis, our knowledge as to how metastatic cells manage to adapt to the tissue environment of the CNS remains limited. Answering this question could pave the way for novel and more specific therapeutic modalities in brain metastasis by targeting the specific makeup of the brain metastatic niche. In regard to this, astrocytes have emerged as the major host cell type that cancer cells encounter and interact with during brain metastasis formation. Similarly to other CNS disorders, astrocytes become reactive and respond to the presence of cancer cells by changing their phenotype and significantly influencing the outcome of disseminated cancer cells within the CNS. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the contribution of reactive astrocytes in brain metastasis by focusing on the signaling pathways and types of interactions that play a crucial part in the communication with cancer cells and how these could be translated into innovative therapies.

  10. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  11. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  12. Biodecolorization of Reactive Yellow-2 by Serratia sp. RN34 Isolated from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najme, Rabia; Hussain, Sabir; Maqbool, Zahid; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Manzoor, Hamid; Yasmeen, Tahira; Shehzad, Tanvir

    2015-12-01

    Remediation of colored textile wastewaters is a matter of interest. In this study, 49 bacteria were isolated from the textile wastewater and tested for their ability to decolorize reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye. The most efficient isolate, RN34, was identified through amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rDNA and was designated as Serratia sp. RN34. This bacterium was also found capable of decolorizing other related reactive azo-dyes, including reactive black-5, reactive red-120, and reactive orange-16 but at varying rates. The optimum pH for decolorization of RY2 by the strain RN34 was 7.5 using yeast extract as cosubstrate under static incubation at 30 °C. The strain RN34 also showed potential to decolorize RY2 in the presence of considerable amounts of hexavalent chromium and sodium chloride. A phytotoxicity study demonstrated relatively reduced toxicity of RY2 decolorized products on Vigna radiata plant as compared to the uninoculated RY2 solution.

  13. Fenton oxidation treatment of spent wash-off liquor for reuse in reactive dying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, A.; Shaikh, I.A.; Ahmed, F.; Baqar, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of clean and high quality water in textile dyeing process is very expensive. In this study, the potential of reusing Fenton treated wash-off wastewater generated at the end of reactive dyeing was investigated. The treated wastewater was used in several dyeings employing three widely used reactive dyes, C. I. Reactive Yellow 145, C. I. Reactive Red 194, and C. I. Reactive Blue 221. Experimental results showed that at acidic pH (3.5) using optimized quantities of FeSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Fenton process yielded a significant reduction (80-99%) of colour and COD in 30 minutes of treatment time. New dyeings were then carried out in Fenton decolourized wash-off wastewater, and dyed fabric samples were subjected to quality evaluations in terms of wash fastness, crock fastness, and colour difference properties (delta L*, delta c*, delta h*, and delta E*). This study concluded that Fenton oxidation was an efficient method for the treatment of textile wash-off wastewater, and treated liquor can be effectively recycled in next dyeing, without compromising quality parameters. This method proved to be an eco-friendly process owing to the fact that it did not use any fresh water. (author)

  14. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  15. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  16. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  17. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  18. Analysis on void reactivity of DCA lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Noh, K. H.; Choi, H. B.; Yang, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    In case of loss of coolant accident, the void reactivity of CANDU fuel provides the positive reactivity and increases the reactor power rapidly. Therefore, it is required to secure credibility of the void reactivity for the design and analysis of reactor, which motivated a study to assess the measurement data of void reactivity. The assessment of lattice code was performed with the experimental data of void reactivity at 30, 70, 87 and 100% of void fractions. The infinite multiplication factors increased in four types of fuels as the void fractions of them grow. The infinite multiplication factors of uranium fuels are almost within 1%, but those of Pu fuels are over 10% by the results of WIMS-AECL and MCNP-4B codes. Moreover, coolant void reactivity of the core loaded with plutonium fuel is more negative compared with that with uranium fuel because of spectrum hardening resulting from large void fraction

  19. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  20. Reactive Periostitis from Inhalant Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lauren E; Honkanen, Iiro; Fiordellisi, Wendy; Bettendorf, Brittany

    2018-04-16

    The patient, a 36-year-old woman, presented with a 6-week history of swollen hands and fingers and associated arthralgia. She had a history of polysubstance abuse. The arthralgia and swelling started one month after she began inhaling two cans of "Dust-Off" (1,1-difluoroethane) daily. Physical examination revealed tender proximal and middle phalanges of all fingers bilaterally with bulbous appearance (A). There was no clubbing. Radiography of the hands revealed diffuse reactive periostitis with discrete layering of periosteal bone formation without bony destruction (B). TSH was normal. Serum alkaline phosphatase was 854 U/L. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of malignancy or pulmonary disease This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in reactivity of oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftelund, Anja

    The results in this thesis are based on Density Functional Theory calculations. The catalytic activity of oxides and other compound materials are investigated. It is found that the adsorption energy of the molecules NH2, NH, OH and SH on transition metal nitride, oxide and sulfide surfaces scales......, and I) and OH on a wide range of rutile oxide surfaces. Furthermore, Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found for the adsorption of a large number of molecules (including Cl, Br and I) on transition metal oxides. In these relations the activation energies scale linearly with the dissociative...... chemisorption energies. It turns out that the BEP relation for rutile oxides is almost coinciding with the dissociation line, i.e. no barrier exists for the reactive surfaces. The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, and HI) is investigated. A micro-kinetic model is solved...

  2. Self-reactive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2014-01-01

    -proteins expressed in regulatory immune cells have been reported, especially in patients with cancer. The seemingly lack of tolerance toward such proteins is interesting, as it suggests a regulatory function of self-reactive T (srT) cells, which may be important for the fine tuning of the immune system......The immune system is a tightly regulated and complex system. An important part of this immune regulation is the assurance of tolerance toward self-antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. However, in recent years, antigen-specific cellular immune responses toward several normal self....... In particular, surprising has been the description of cytotoxic srT cells that are able to eliminate normal regulatory immune cells. Such srT cells may be important as effector cells that suppress regulatory suppressor cells. The current knowledge of the nature and function of srT cells is still limited. Still...

  3. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  5. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  6. Moving Forward with Computational Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Teaming is used across both public and private sectors and is not the sole domain of the military. Red Team Consulting (2011) notes that “the use...open for review. Consider also the context of application. Oh (2009) explains how globalisation , the rise of emerging powers, environmental

  7. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  9. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected

  10. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  11. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  12. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  13. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  15. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  16. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photo-activated simple molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceppatelli, M; Bini, R; Caporali, M; Peruzzini, M; Fanetti, S

    2014-01-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In addition the photo-activation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photo-activators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photo-induced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using membrane Diamond (DAC) and Sapphire (SAC) anvil cells. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occurred in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2–1.5 GPa).

  17. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photo-activated simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppatelli, M.; Fanetti, S.; Bini, R.; Caporali, M.; Peruzzini, M.

    2014-05-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In addition the photo-activation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photo-activators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photo-induced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using membrane Diamond (DAC) and Sapphire (SAC) anvil cells. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occurred in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2-1.5 GPa).

  18. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizge, N.; Aydiner, C.; Demirbas, E.; Kobya, M.; Kara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 μm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100 mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6 g/100 ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 μm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature

  19. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  20. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  2. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  3. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  4. The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Vincent Wilhelmus Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to increase the understanding of the reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane. Overall, several issues were identified: • Using a relative simple extrusion model, the reactive extrusion process can be described. This model can be used to further investigate

  5. Imidazolide monolayers for versatile reactive microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, S.H.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Velders, Aldrik

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolide monolayers prepared from the reaction of amino SAMs with N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) are used as a versatile platform for surface patterning with amino-, carboxyl- and alcohol-containing compounds through reactive microcontact printing (µCP). To demonstrate the surface reactivity of

  6. Second Reactivation of Neurocysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sup; Hwang, Hee Young; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik [Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the first case involving a second reactivation of neurocysticercosis. There was peripheral enhancement and surrounding edema at multiple calcified lesions in both cerebral hemispheres on the brain MRI. One must be aware of the possibility of reactivation of neurocysticercosis to make the correct diagnosis

  7. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reactive arthritis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisment, D; Machelart, I; Wirth, G; Lazaro, E; Greib, C; Pellegrin, J-L; Bébéar, C; Peuchant, O

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. © 2013.

  9. Reactivity monitoring during reactor-reloading operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, N.P.; Ahlfeld, C.F.; Ridgely, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reloading operations during shutdown present special considerations in reactivity monitoring and control. Large reactivity changes may occur during reloading operations because of the heterogeneous nature of some core designs. This paper describes an improved monitoring system

  10. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  11. Immune reactivity of candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Aalbers, Marja; Fötisch, Kay; de Heer, Pleuni; Notten, Silla; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Immune reactivity is a key issue in the evaluation of the quality of recombinant allergens as potential reference materials. Within the frame of the CREATE project, the immune reactivity of the natural and recombinant versions of the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), grass pollen (Phl p 1

  12. Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, José Júlio; Eckert, Michael; May, Wolfgang

    Evolution and reactivity in the Semantic Web address the vision and concrete need for an active Web, where data sources evolve autonomously and perceive and react to events. In 2004, when the Rewerse project started, regarding work on Evolution and Reactivity in the Semantic Web there wasn’t much more than a vision of such an active Web.

  13. Reactivity transient calculatios in research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.S. dos

    1986-01-01

    A digital program for reactivity transient analysis in research reactor and cylindrical geometry was showed quite efficient when compared with methods and programs of the literature, as much in the solution of the neutron kinetics equation as in the thermohydraulic. An improvement in the representation of the feedback reactivity adopted on the program reduced markedly the computation time, with some accuracy. (Author) [pt

  14. Assessment of nickel bioavailability through chemical extractants and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in an amended soil: Related changes in various parameters of red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Ali Khan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Hussain, Sabir; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts. Additionally, the effects of Ni bioavailability and immobilizing agents on the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of red clover were also observed. Application of ZE significantly reduced Ni concentrations in all chemical extracts compared to rest of the treatments. Similarly, the combined application of BC and ZE (BC+ ZE) significantly reduced Ni concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereas, significant enhancement in the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes along with an improvement in antioxidant defence machinery of red clover plant, compared to rest of the treatments, were observed. Furthermore, BC+ ZE treatment significantly reduced bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Ni in red clover, compared to rest of the treatments. The Ni concentrations in red clover leaves individually reflected a good correlation with Ni concentrations in the extracts (SWE at R 2 =0.79, DTPA extract at R 2 =0.84 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts at R 2 =0.86). Our results indicate that combined application of ZE and BC can significantly reduce the Ni bioavailability in the soil while in parallel improve the antioxidant defence mechanism in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reaching for the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  16. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  17. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  18. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  19. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  20. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  1. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  2. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Natálya I.; Santos, Patrícia S.C. [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Souza, Talita E. de; Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Castro, Cínthia S., E-mail: cinthia.soares.castro@gmail.com [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Composite based on carbon/iron oxide from PET and red mud wastes for organic contaminants oxidation. • Composites are mainly composed of hematite and a carbon matrix from PET decomposition. • RM/PET-15 presents the highest methylene blue (MB) removal from water, by combined adsorption and oxidation processes. • The dye oxidation was confirmed by ESI-MS studies. • The RM/PET catalysts can be reused for at least four batch runs. - Abstract: In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20 wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400 °C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe{sup 2+} species present in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24 h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction.

  3. Entanglement reactivation in separable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)

  4. [Reiter disease or reactive arthritis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, S; Schmitt, J; Meurer, M

    2006-04-01

    There is an ongoing international discussion on whether the condition reactive arthritis should be named after a former Nazi functionary. The German dermatological community should participate in this debate. In 1916, Hans Reiter described a disease with the symptoms urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, which was later named after him. After becoming titular professor in May 1918, Reiter was appointed director of the regional public health department Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1926. At the same time he taught social hygiene at the University of Rostock, where he was appointed full professor in 1928. In 1931, Hans Reiter became a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). In July 1932 he was elected representative of the NSDAP to the seventh assembly of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. After becoming its acting director in July 1933, Reiter was appointed president of the Reich public health department in Berlin on October 1, 1933. Both his excellent professional qualifications, as well as his National Socialist attitudes, were considered key criteria for taking over this important position. As the president of the Reich public health department, Reiter was said to have known about the conduct of experiments with typhus-fever at the concentration camp Buchenwald in which 250 humans died. From the end of the Second World War until 1947, Reiter was imprisoned in the Nuremberg Prison for War Criminals, but never convicted of a crime.

  5. RETRANS, Reactivity Transients in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RETRANS is appropriate to calculate power excursions in light water reactors initiated by reactivity insertions due to withdrawal of control elements. As in the code TWIGL, the neutron physics model is based on the time-dependent two-group neutron diffusion equations. The equation of state of the coolant is approximated by a table built into the code. RETRANS solves the heat conduction equation and calculates the heat transfer coefficient for representative fuel rods at each time-step. 2 - Method of solution: The time-dependent neutron diffusion equations are modified by an exponential transformation and solved by means of a finite difference method. There is an option accelerating the inner iterations of the difference scheme by a coarse-mesh re-balancing method. The heat balance equations of the thermo- hydraulic model are discretized and converted into a tri-diagonal system of linear equations which is solved recursively. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: r-z-geometry, one- phase-flow

  6. Immunospecific red cell binding of iodine 125-labeled immunoglobulin G erythrocyte autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masouredis, S.P.; Branks, M.J.; Garratty, G.; Victoria, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary interaction of autoantibodies with red cells has been studied by using labeled autoantibodies. Immunoglobulin G red cell autoantibodies obtained from IgG antiglobulin-positive normal blood donors were labeled with radioactive iodine and compared with alloanti-D with respect to their properties and binding behavior. Iodine 125 -labeled IgG autoantibody migrated as a single homogeneous peak with the same relative mobility as human IgG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric focusing pattern of labeled autoantibodies varied from donor to donor but was similar to that of alloanti-D, consisting of multiple IgG populations with isoelectric points in the neutral to alkaline range. 125 I-autoantibody bound to all human red cells of common Rh phenotypes. Evidence for immunospecific antibody binding of the labeled autoantibody was based on variation in equilibrium binding to nonhuman and human red cells of common and rare phenotypes, enhanced binding after red cell protease modification, antiglobulin reactivity of cell-bound IgG comparable to that of cell-bound anti-D, and saturation binding in autoantibody excess. Scatchard analysis of two 125 I-autoantibody preparations yielded site numbers of 41,500 and 53,300 with equilibrium constants of 3.7 and 2.1 X 10(8) L X mol-1. Dog, rabbit, rhesus monkey, and baboon red cells were antigen(s) negative by quantitative adsorption studies adsorbing less than 3% of the labeled autoantibody. Reduced ability of rare human D--red blood cells to adsorb the autoantibody and identification of donor autoantibodies that bind to Rh null red blood cells indicated that eluates contained multiple antibody populations of complex specificities in contrast to anti-D, which consists of a monospecific antibody population. Another difference is that less than 70% of the autoantibody IgG was adsorbed by maximum binding red blood cells as compared with greater than 85% for alloanti-D

  7. RED ONE kuvaajan työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Käki, Ossi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni projektiosa, 30-minuuttinen lyhytelokuva Huomisen Muisto – Memory of Tomorrow kuvattiin RED ONE -kameralla vuosina 2008-2009. Opinnäytetyöni kirjallinen osuus tutkii miten RED ONE soveltuu kuvaajan työvälineeksi lyhytelokuvassa. Huomisen Muisto oli ensimmäinen Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa RED ONE:lla kuvattu elokuva ja koko tekninen workflow piti kehittää lähes nollasta. Paljon kuvan digitaalista jälkikäsittelyä sisältävänä science fiction -elokuvana Huomisen Muisto asetti i...

  8. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  9. Histopathology and immune histochemistry of red tattoo reactions. Interface dermatitis is the lead pathology, with increase in T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells suggesting an allergic pathomechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, T; Thomsen, B M; Serup, J

    2015-11-01

    The majority of tattoo reactions are affiliated to red pigmented areas and often suspected to be allergic in nature. A sizeable series of biopsies of such reactions has not previously been performed. The aim of this study was to type and grade epidermal and dermal changes in tattoo reactions to red/red nuances by microscopy and immunochemistry relevant for the assessment of a possible allergic pathomechanism. Skin biopsies were taken from red tattoo reactions, graded by conventional microscopy and stained for T and B-lymphocytes, Langerhans cells, macrophages and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The study included 19 biopsies from 19 patients. The culprit colours were red/pink (n = 15) and purple/bordeaux (n = 4). Interface dermatitis was clearly the lead pathology found in 78% of samples, overlapped with granulomatous (in 32%) and pseudolymphomatous reaction patterns (in 32%). Epidermal hyperkeratosis (in 89%) was common as was leakage of red pigment across the dermo-epidermal junction, with transepidermal elimination (in 28%). The dermal cellular infiltration was dominated by T-lymphocytes (in 100%), Langerhans cells (in 95%) and macrophages (in 100%). TNF-α was common. The predominant histological pattern of chronic tattoo reactions in red/red nuances is interface dermatitis. T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells are increased suggesting an allergic pathomechanism. TNF-α may contribute to reactions. In many cases, overlapping reactive patterns were identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pallidol, a resveratrol dimer from red wine, is a selective singlet oxygen quencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shan; Jiang Liyan; Wu Bin; Pan Yuanjiang; Sun Cuirong

    2009-01-01

    Pallidol is a naturally occurring resveratrol dimer from red wine with antioxidant and antifungal activities. In this report, with the use of the EPR spin-trapping technique, the scavenging and quenching effects of pallidol on reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The results demonstrated that pallidol showed strong quenching effects on singlet oxygen at very low concentrations, but it was ineffective to scavenge hydroxyl radicals or superoxide anions. Further kinetic study revealed that the reaction of pallidol with singlet oxygen had an extremely high rate constant (k a = 1.71 x 10 10 ). Therefore, pallidol is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher in aqueous systems. It may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent, which may contribute to the health beneficial effects of red wine.

  11. Protective effects of red wine flavonols on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a moderate consumption of red wine has health benefits, such as the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases. Although this is generally attributed to resveratrol, the protective mechanisms and the active substance(s) remain unclear. We examined whether and how red wine extract (RWE) and red wine flavonols quercetin and myricetin inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. RWE attenuated HNE-induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. HNE induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is involved in DNA repair in the nucleus, and this was inhibited by RWE treatment. Treatment with RWE also inhibited HNE-induced nuclear condensation in PC12 cells. Data of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate showed that RWE protected against apoptosis of PC12 cells by attenuating intracellular reactive oxygen species. The cytoprotective effects on HNE-induced cell death were stronger for quercetin and myricetin than for resveratrol. HNE-induced nuclear condensation was attenuated by quercetin and myricetin. These results suggest that the neuroprotective potential of red wine is attributable to flavonols rather than to resveratrol.

  12. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Parra, Diego; Chirife, Jorge; Zamora, Clara; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2018-04-07

    Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3- O -glucoside, malvidin 3- O -(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3- O -glucoside, quercetin-3- O -glucuronide, syringenin-3- O -glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).

  13. Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Agatzini-Leonardou, S; Oustadakis, P

    2004-12-10

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample ((PC)Ref), and another with 3.5% red mud ((PC)R/M). The effect on the reactivity of the raw mix was evaluated on the basis of the unreacted lime content in samples sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 degrees C. Subsequently, the clinkers were produced by sintering the two raw meals at 1450 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the red mud did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of the red mud did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  14. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  15. Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha-Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF. More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of red mud heat treated at 400 deg C in adsorption of textile dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, M.L.P.; Rangueri, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    The production of aluminum metal generates a huge amount of red mud as industrial waste. The storage of such material causes serious environmental damage and needs large area for your disposal. Develop technologies that allow its reuse is an alternative. Studies show that the mud has adsorbent properties and may be used in the treatment of wastewater, gas and textiles. This work presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction and surface area of the red mud Brazilian thermally activated at 400 deg C to evaluate the adsorption capacity of this material to the dye reactive blue 19 in pH 4. Through the construction of the Langmuir isotherm was determined adsorption capacity, which, in alkaline media, got an average of 136.9 mg / g. The results suggest that under certain conditions, the red mud has potential as an alternative adsorbent and low cost. (author)

  17. Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Correa Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day. Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin ( p = 0.02, plasma uric acid ( p = 0.04, the functional capillary density ( p = 0.003, and the red blood cell velocity (p < 0.001 increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p,0.001, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity ( p = 0.04, and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia ( p = 0.04 decreased after organic grape juice intake. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes.

  18. The roles of ozone and zeolite on reactive dye degradation in electrical discharge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, L; Kusic, H; Koprivanac, N; Locke, B R

    2006-05-01

    In this study high voltage pulsed corona electrical discharge advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to bleach and degrade C.I. Reactive Green 8 and C.I. Reactive Red 45 organic dyes in water solutions. Two types of hybrid gas/liquid high voltage electrical discharge (corona) reactors, known as hybrid series and hybrid parallel were studied. The difference between these reactors relates to electrode configuration, which affects the amounts of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals produced. Experiments were conducted using dye concentrations of 20 mgl(-1) and 75 mgl(-1), with and without NH4ZSM5 zeolite addition in order to determine possible effects of added solid particles to total process efficiency. The role of ozone in combination with zeolites was assessed through comparative direct ozonation experiments with ozone supplied by an ozone generator. UV/VIS spectrophotometric measurements and measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) were used for the determination of decolorization and mineralization rates.

  19. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Red wine extract, resveratrol, on maintenance of organ function following trauma-hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Resveratrol, is a polyphenol that can be extracted from grapes and red wine, possess potential anti-inflammatory effects, which would result in the reduction of cytokine production, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecule molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. Resveratrol might also act as an antioxidant, anti-aging, and control of cell cycle and apoptosis. Resveratrol has been shown to have protective effects for patients inshock-like states. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways including the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/ hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway, activates estrogen receptor (ER, and the mediation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and reactive. Moreover, through anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant properties, the resveratrol is believed to maintain organ function following trauma-hemorrhage.

  1. Definition of reactivity and its measurability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dapu

    1986-01-01

    Reactivity is the fundamental and important physical quantity in the reactor physics. The different kinds of method for defining reactivity are represented, the difference between different definitions of reactivity is indicalted and the conditions under which they have nearly the same measurable value are discussed. It is demonstrated that when the static adjointed neutron density or the neutron importance is selected to be a weight function for generating kinetic parameters used in the neutron kinetic equations, the kinetic reactivity is approximately equal to the static reactivity. Due to the constraint of the normalization condition, the shape function must be so selected that the corresponding amplitude function is proportional to the fundamental mode of neutron density variating with time. Measured reactivity by the kinetic method may vary with the position of detector, owing to the different space distribution of the prompt neutrons density and the delayed neutrons density and the effect of the higher harmonics of the neutron density. Some corresponding correction must be made in order to obtain the real static reactivity

  2. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  3. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  4. sample data Red River_2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — OK Fish Kill data from Red River 2011-2013. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Jones-Lepp, T., V. Taguchi, W. Sovocool, D. Betowski, P....

  5. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  6. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  7. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing them to lose work or to have low self-esteem,” says Dr. Richard Gallo, a skin expert at the University of California, San Diego. “Many psychological problems are the consequence of having this red, puffy ...

  8. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  9. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium produces...

  10. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  11. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  12. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  13. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  14. Prolonged exposure of resveratrol induces reactive superoxide species-independent apoptosis in murine prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Stokes, James; Singh, Udai P; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn; Singh, Rajesh; Manne, Upender; Mishra, Manoj K

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule, inhibits mitochondrial respiration by binding with cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in elevated production of reactive superoxide species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen) in the mitochondria and increased susceptibility to cell death. Generation of mitochondrial superoxide species can be suppressed by natural compounds such as resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol found in the skin of red fruits. In various cancer cells, resveratrol shows anti-oxidant and cancer preventive properties. Since, the effect of resveratrol on reactive superoxide species-independent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is not well illustrated; therefore, we investigated this phenomenon in TRAMP murine prostate cancer cells. To accomplish this, TRAMP cells were incubated with resveratrol, resveratrol + DETA-NONOate, DETA-NONOate (nitric oxide donor), resveratrol + L-NMMA, or L-NMMA (nitric oxide inhibitor) for 48 h, and reactive superoxide species in the mitochondria and culture supernatant were measured. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential, cell viability, expression of apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), γ-H2A.x, p53, and caspase-3 was determined. We found that resveratrol suppressed reactive superoxide species such as reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria and nitric oxide in culture supernatant when compared to the DETA-NONOate treatment and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Resveratrol also reduced cell viability, altered the expression of apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), and increased expression of γ-H2A.x (indicative marker of DNA fragmentation) and p53 (a critical DNA damage response protein). However, there was no appreciable modulation of the caspase-3. Therefore, our data suggest that resveratrol induces superoxide species-independent apoptosis and may act as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.

  15. Occupational allergy to aquarium fish food: red midge larva, freshwater shrimp, and earthworm. A clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer Arce, J; Villajos, I M Sánchez-Guerrero; Iraola, V; Carnés, J; Fernández Caldas, E

    2013-01-01

    Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased > or = 20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of crossreactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and

  16. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  17. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  18. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  19. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  20. Clinical implications of The Red Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Penny

    2012-09-01

    This presentation stresses the uniqueness of both the therapist's and patient's personal experience in clinical work and relates this to the significance of The Red Book as Jung's personal odyssey and for me personally as an analyst. I consider The Red Book's enduring relevance alongside recent psychological theories, neuroscience and early mystical writings, and conclude with a clinical vignette of a patient's response to a piece of choral music and subsequent use of active imagination. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUGGAN, RUTH A.; WOOD, BRADLEY

    1999-01-01

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper

  2. Portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, G [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service G.m.b.H., Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-07-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR.

  3. Modeling and simulation of reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bortoli, De AL; Pereira, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling and Simulation of Reactive Flows presents information on modeling and how to numerically solve reactive flows. The book offers a distinctive approach that combines diffusion flames and geochemical flow problems, providing users with a comprehensive resource that bridges the gap for scientists, engineers, and the industry. Specifically, the book looks at the basic concepts related to reaction rates, chemical kinetics, and the development of reduced kinetic mechanisms. It considers the most common methods used in practical situations, along with equations for reactive flows, and va

  4. Mechanism of Na,K-ATPase decline during sheep red cell maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafova, E.; Blostein, R.

    1987-01-01

    Na,K-ATPase of immature and mature sheep red cells of both the high-K + and low-K + genotypes as well as cells of both types matured in vitro was detected using polyclonal antiserum to sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Following SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, the major reactive component was the ∼ 100 kDa catalytic α subunit. A less prominent band migrating as a sharper, lower molecular weight (50 kDa) component than the kidney Na,K-ATPase β subunit is apparent in reticulocytes but not mature cells. Membranes from both genotypes showed identical immunologically reactive peptides, except for the lower intensity of the α subunit in the mature cells of the low- compared to high-K + sheep. Following culture of both types, moderate reduction in reactivity was apparent. Immunologically reactive α subunit as well as the 50 kDa species were detected in membranous material shed into the culture medium. This material was functionally inactive (lack of both [ 3 H] ouabain binding and Na + -dependent phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase). The existence in reticulocytes of an intracellular pool of ouabain binding sites is evidenced in appearance of extra sites following rapid ATP depletion and also after addition of chloroquine. Taken together, these findings are consistent with a maturation-associated decrease of sodium pumps by a process of membrane recycling, processing and, to some extent, exocytosis

  5. Mechanism of Na,K-ATPase decline during sheep red cell maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafova, E.; Blostein, R.

    1987-05-01

    Na,K-ATPase of immature and mature sheep red cells of both the high-K/sup +/ and low-K/sup +/ genotypes as well as cells of both types matured in vitro was detected using polyclonal antiserum to sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Following SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, the major reactive component was the approx. 100 kDa catalytic ..cap alpha.. subunit. A less prominent band migrating as a sharper, lower molecular weight (50 kDa) component than the kidney Na,K-ATPase ..beta.. subunit is apparent in reticulocytes but not mature cells. Membranes from both genotypes showed identical immunologically reactive peptides, except for the lower intensity of the ..cap alpha.. subunit in the mature cells of the low- compared to high-K/sup +/ sheep. Following culture of both types, moderate reduction in reactivity was apparent. Immunologically reactive ..cap alpha.. subunit as well as the 50 kDa species were detected in membranous material shed into the culture medium. This material was functionally inactive (lack of both (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding and Na/sup +/-dependent phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase). The existence in reticulocytes of an intracellular pool of ouabain binding sites is evidenced in appearance of extra sites following rapid ATP depletion and also after addition of chloroquine. Taken together, these findings are consistent with a maturation-associated decrease of sodium pumps by a process of membrane recycling, processing and, to some extent, exocytosis.

  6. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  7. Geoelectrical signatures of reactive mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, U.; Bandopadhyay, A.; Jougnot, D.; Le Borgne, T.; Meheust, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the effects of fluid mixing on geochemical reactions in the subsurface is of paramount importance owing to their pivotal role in processes such as contaminant migration or aquifer remediation, to name a few [1]. Large velocity gradients in the porous media are expected to lead to enhanced diffusive mixing accompanied by augmented reaction rates [2]. Despite its importance, accurate monitoring of such processes still remains an open challenge, mainly due to the opacity of the medium and to the lack of access to it. However, in recent years, geophysical methods based on electrical conductivity and polarization have come up as a promising tool for mapping and monitoring such reactions in the subsurface. In this regard, one of the main challenges is to properly characterize the multiple sources of electrical signals and in particular isolate the influence of reactive mixing on the electrical conductivity from those of other sources [3]. In this work, we explore the coupling between fluid mixing, reaction and charge migration in porous media to evaluate the potential of obtaining a spatially-resolved measurement of local reaction rates in the subsurface from electrical measurements. To this end, we employ a lamellar description of the mixing interface [4] with novel semi-analytical upscaling techniques to quantify changes in electrical conductivity induced by chemical reactions across mixing fronts. The changes in electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the concentration of ionic species as well as on the polarization of the pore (water) solution around the grains, which in turn are controlled by local reaction rates and, consequently, by the local velocity gradients. Hence, our results essentially suggest that local variations in the electrical conductivity may be quantitatively related to the mixing and reaction dynamics, and thus be used as a measurement tool to characterize these dynamics. References 1. M. Dentz, T. Le Borgne, A. Englert

  8. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  9. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  10. Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) facts book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document provides detailed information on alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR). It primarily discusses alkali-silica reaction (ASR), covering the chemistry, symptoms, test methods, prevention, specifications, diagnosis and prognosis, and mitigation...

  11. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  12. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  13. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2000-01-01

    .... Specifically, the present study is designed to conduct an investigation of the cross-sectional associations between indices of stress reactivity and psychological coping styles in women with breast...

  14. Nondestructive Reactivation of Chemical Protective Garments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Kuo

    1995-01-01

    .... Complete reactivation was achieved when the aqueous/ i-propanol/ iodine displacement method of Manes, which removed all but pure hydrocarbon oil soils from the current overgarment Type III foam...

  15. Needs for reactivity anomaly monitoring in CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Two general classifications of reactivity anomalies are defined and explicit design criteria and operational philosophy for an anomaly monitoring system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented. (JWR)

  16. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  17. PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.

  18. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) to quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2) To examine...

  19. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2001-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  20. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2005-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  1. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  2. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing re...

  3. Awake reactivation predicts memory in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Staresina, Bernhard P.; Alink, Arjen; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Henson, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    How is new information converted into a memory trace? Here, we used functional neuroimaging to assess what happens to representations of new events after we first experience them. We found that a particular part of the medial temporal lobe, a brain region known to be critical for intact memory, spontaneously reactivates these events even when we are engaged in unrelated activities. Indeed, the extent to which such automatic reactivation occurs seems directly related to later memory performanc...

  4. The Large Customer Reactive Power Control Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Małkowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors wish to draw attention to the rationale for, and the possibility of, the use of local reactive power sources by the Transmission Node Master Controller (TNMC. Large Customers (LC are one of the possible reactive power sources. The paper presents the issues related to the need for coordination between the control systems installed in the LC network, and coordination between control systems of the LC as well as master control systems in the network.

  5. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  6. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  7. Glutamine supplementation suppresses herpes simplex virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Hoshino, Yo; Dowdell, Kennichi; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Myers, Timothy G; Sarmiento, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Krause, Philip R; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-06-30

    Chronic viral infections are difficult to treat, and new approaches are needed, particularly those aimed at reducing reactivation by enhancing immune responses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency and reactivates frequently, and breakthrough reactivation can occur despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Virus-specific T cells are important to control HSV, and proliferation of activated T cells requires increased metabolism of glutamine. Here, we found that supplementation with oral glutamine reduced virus reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected mice and HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia from latently HSV-1-infected, glutamine-treated WT mice showed upregulation of several IFN-γ-inducible genes. In contrast to WT mice, supplemental glutamine was ineffective in reducing the rate of HSV-1 reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected IFN-γ-KO mice. Mice treated with glutamine also had higher numbers of HSV-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in latently infected ganglia. Thus, glutamine may enhance the IFN-γ-associated immune response and reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus infection.

  8. A roadmap for OH reactivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan; Brune, William

    2015-04-01

    A fundamental property of the atmosphere is the frequency of gas-phase reactions with the OH radical, the atmosphere's primary oxidizing agent. This reaction frequency is called the OH reactivity and is the inverse the lifetime of the OH radical itself, which varies from a few seconds in the clean upper troposphere to below 10 ms in forests and polluted city environments. Ever since the discovery of the OH radical's importance to tropospheric chemistry, the characterization of its overall loss rate (OH reactivity) has remained a key question. At first, this property was assessed by summing the reactivity contributions of individually measured compounds; however, as improving analytical technology revealed ever more reactive species in ambient air, it became clear that this approach could provide only a lower limit. Approximately 15 years ago, the direct measurement of total OH reactivity was conceived independently by two groups. The first publications demonstrated direct OH reactivity measurements in the laboratory (Calpini et al., 1999) based on LIDAR and in the ambient air (Kovacs and Brune, 2001) based on in situ laser induced fluorescence detection of OH.

  9. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  10. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  11. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  12. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  13. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  14. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  15. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 104 s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  16. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  17. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  18. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  19. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  20. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingolf P Rick

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.

  1. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoff R

    2011-02-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise from barrel maturation, but without the need for putting all wine to barrel. This review describes the operational parameters essential for the effective performance of the micro-oxidation process as well as the chemical and microbiological outcomes. The methodologies for introducing oxygen into the wine, the rates of oxygen addition, and their relationship to oxygen solubility in the wine matrix are examined. The review focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the MOX process, including sensory assessment, physicochemical properties, and the critical balance of the rate of oxygen addition in relation to maintaining the sulfur dioxide concentration. The chemistry of oxygen reactivity with wine components, the changes in wine composition that occur as a consequence of MOX, and the potential for wine spoilage if proper monitoring is not adopted are examined. Gaps in existing knowledge are addressed focusing on the limitations associated with the transfer of concepts from research trials in small volume tanks to commercial practice, and the dearth of kinetic data for the various chemical and physical processes that are claimed to occur during MOX.

  3. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  5. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  6. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  7. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Red textures and the work of juxtaposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Kratz

    Full Text Available Simon Gush's evocative work Red is an installation, an exhibit, a film, a website, and a provocation to think about what these different forms convey and do, and how they do so. What kinds of engagement, work and knowledge production are involved in curating, designing and creating work in different formats, each of which combines varied media and forms of expression? This article considers the design and interpretive possibilities of Red's different forms, paying particular attention to juxtaposition as a fundamental technique in designing and constructing exhibits, films and websites. The analysis examines the layerings, interactions, timings and textures involved and draws in other exhibitions to highlight the ways that Red and history museums approach their work and relations to time, history and historiography.

  9. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  10. Comparative effects of red and white grapes on oxidative markers and lipidemic parameters in adult hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Ali Reza; Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of consuming red versus white whole grapes on oxidative and lipidemic indices in people with hypercholesterolemia. Sixty nine patients were randomized into three groups. The two treatment groups consumed 500 g of either Condori red grapes or Shahroodi white grapes daily for 8 weeks, and the third group served as a control. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by colorimetric methods at baseline and at the end of the study. In addition, the polyphenol and fiber content of the two grape varieties was measured. TBARS was reduced in both study groups compared to the control group, and the reduction was greater in the group that consumed red grapes compared to the white grapes. TAC was increased significantly in both red and white grape consuming groups compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were decreased in the red grape group compared to the control group. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, TG or HDL-C were observed among the groups. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the whole fruit of red grapes has more potent anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic effects compared to the white grapes in hyperlipidemic adult humans. Hence, the whole fruit of red grapes may be an excellent fruit choice not only to prevent oxidative stress related metabolic disorders but also cholesterol related cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperlipidemic adult humans.

  11. Lógicas para la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia HUERTAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tim Berners-Lee y sus colegas del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C llamaron «Semantic Web» al que sería el siguiente estadio de desarrollo de la red (inevitablemente traducido al castellano como Web Semántica. La idea detrás de esta evolución de la red es extender con metadatos y reglas lógicas la red basada en el lenguaje html, con el objetivo de que la infraestructura resultante permita a las máquinas entender los datos de la red de la misma forma que los entendemos los humanos. Así, añadir lógica a la red permitiría a los ordenadores tomar decisiones, hacer inferencias y responder preguntas. En este texto se pretende revisar las lógicas que han sido propuestas para permitir esta nueva web inteligente y repasar las cuestiones teóricas y pragmáticas más importantes de la corta pero intensa historia de las lógicas para la red.ABSTRACT: Tim Berners-Lee and their colleagues of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C called «Semantic Web» the next development of the Web. The idea behind this evolution of the Web is to extend the present network based on the HTML language with metadata and logical rules, with the aim of the resulting infrastructure allowing machines to understand Web data in the same way that human beings understand them. Thus, adding logic to the Web would allow the computers to take decisions, to do inferences and to answer questions. In this paper it is intended to revise the logics that have been suggested to allow this new intelligent Web and to revise the most important theoretical and pragmatic questions of the short but intense history of logics for the Web.

  12. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-06-16

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications.

  13. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  14. Radio universitaria: trabajo en red como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo en red es un concepto clave en la radio universitaria, tanto desde el punto de vista individual como del colectivo. A través de dos estudios de caso, enfocados en la radio universitaria de Italia y de Colombia, este artículo muestra cómo el trabajo en red ha sido decisivo para el fortalecimiento de su función, la ampliación de su impacto, la conformación de su identidad y el crecimiento de su visibilidad en las sociedades en las cuales desarrollan su labor.

  15. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  16. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  17. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  19. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  20. Orifice microreactor for the production of an organic peroxide – non-reactive and reactive characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illg, T.; Hessel, V.; Löb, P.; Schouten, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the transfer of a two-step, biphasic, and exothermic peroxide synthesis into a microreactor assisted process is discussed as well as the non-reactive and reactive characterization of the developed orifice microreactor. Residence time distribution measurements showed nearly ideal

  1. Cross-reactivity of human nickel-reactive T-lymphocyte clones with copper and palladium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistoor, F. H.; Kapsenberg, M. L.; Bos, J. D.; Meinardi, M. M.; von Blomberg, M. E.; Scheper, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Ni-reactive T-lymphocyte clones were obtained from eight different donors and analyzed for their ability to cross-react with other metals. All Ni-reactive T-lymphocyte clones were CD4+CD8- and recognized Ni in association with either HLA-DR or -DQ molecules. Based on the periodic table of the

  2. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  3. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation.

  4. Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, K.B.; Lytle, C.D.; Bockstahler, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

  5. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  6. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  7. Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1991-11-01

    Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank

  8. Red/Green Currant and Sea Buckthorn Berry Press Residues as Potential Sources of Antioxidants for Food Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puganen, Anna; Kallio, Heikki P; Schaich, Karen M; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Yang, Baoru

    2018-04-04

    The potential for using extracts of press residues from black, green, red, and white currants and from sea buckthorn berries as sources of antioxidants for foods use was investigated. Press residues were extracted with ethanol in four consecutive extractions, and total Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reactive material and authentic phenolic compounds were determined. Radical quenching capability and mechanisms were determined from total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant capacity (TRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays and from diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) kinetics, respectively; specific activities were normalized to F-C reactive concentrations. Levels of total F-C reactive materials in press residue extracts were higher than in many fruits and showed significant radical quenching activity. Black currant had the highest authentic phenol content and ORAC, TRAP, and DPPH reactivity. Sea buckthorn grown in northern Finland showed extremely high total specific DPPH reactivity. These results suggest that berry press residues offer attractive value-added products that can provide antioxidants for use in stabilizing and fortifying foods.

  9. Enhancing Reactivity in Structural Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Nick

    2017-06-01

    In many structural energetic materials, only a small fraction of the metal oxidizes, and yet this provides a significant boost in the overall energy release of the system. Different methodologies to enhance this reactivity include alloying and geometric modifications of microstructure of the reactive material (RM). In this presentation, we present the results of several years of systematic study of both chemical (alloy) and mechanical (geometry) effects on reactivity for systems with typical charge to case mass ratios. Alloys of aluminum with magnesium and lithium are considered, as these are common alloys in aerospace applications. In terms of geometric modifications, we consider surface texturing, inclusion of dense additives, and inclusion of voids. In all modifications, a measurable influence on output is observed, and this influence is related to the fragment size distribution measured from the observed residue. Support from DTRA is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Reactive dispersive contaminant transport in coastal aquifers: Numerical simulation of a reactive Henry problem

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H.M.

    2013-02-01

    The reactive mixing between seawater and terrestrial water in coastal aquifers influences the water quality of submarine groundwater discharge. While these waters come into contact at the seawater groundwater interface by density driven flow, their chemical components dilute and react through dispersion. A larger interface and wider mixing zone may provide favorable conditions for the natural attenuation of contaminant plumes. It has been claimed that the extent of this mixing is controlled by both, porous media properties and flow conditions. In this study, the interplay between dispersion and reactive processes in coastal aquifers is investigated by means of numerical experiments. Particularly, the impact of dispersion coefficients, the velocity field induced by density driven flow and chemical component reactivities on reactive transport in such aquifers is studied. To do this, a hybrid finite-element finite-volume method and a reactive simulator are coupled, and model accuracy and applicability are assessed. A simple redox reaction is considered to describe the degradation of a contaminant which requires mixing of the contaminated groundwater and the seawater containing the terminal electron acceptor. The resulting degradation is observed for different scenarios considering different magnitudes of dispersion and chemical reactivity. Three reactive transport regimes are found: reaction controlled, reaction-dispersion controlled and dispersion controlled. Computational results suggest that the chemical components\\' reactivity as well as dispersion coefficients play a significant role on controlling reactive mixing zones and extent of contaminant removal in coastal aquifers. Further, our results confirm that the dilution index is a better alternative to the second central spatial moment of a plume to describe the mixing of reactive solutes in coastal aquifers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from an individual-donation nucleic acid (ID-NAT) non-reactive donor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flaherty, N

    2018-02-14

    Lookback was initiated upon notification of an acute HBV infection in a repeat Irish donor, 108 days post-donation. The donation screened non-reactive by individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) using the Procleix Ultrio Elite multiplex assay and again when the archived sample was retested, but the discriminatory assay for HBV was reactive. The immunocompromised recipient of the implicated red cell component was tested 110 days post-transfusion, revealing a HBV DNA viral load of 470 IU\\/ml. Genotype C2 sequences identical across two regions of the HBV genome were found in samples from the donor and recipient.

  12. Renal damage mediated by oxidative stress: a hypothesis of protective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2002-08-01

    Over the last decade, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of seemingly unrelated renal diseases. Epidemiological studies have documented an association of moderate wine consumption with a decreased risk of cardiovascular and neurological diseases; however, similar studies in the kidney are still lacking. The kidney is an organ highly vulnerable to damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), likely due to the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the composition of renal lipids. ROS are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of conditions such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The health benefits of moderate consumption of red wine can be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. Indeed, the kidney antioxidant defense system is enhanced after chronic exposure to moderate amounts of wine, a response arising from the combined effects of ethanol and the nonalcoholic components, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols behave as potent ROS scavengers and metal chelators; ethanol, in turn, modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, a hypothesis that red wine causes a decreased vulnerability of the kidney to the oxidative challenges could be proposed. This view is partly supported by direct evidences indicating that wine and antioxidants isolated from red wine, as well as other antioxidants, significantly attenuate or prevent the oxidative damage to the kidney. The present hypothesis paper provides a collective body of evidence suggesting a protective role of moderate wine consumption against the production and progression of renal diseases, based on the existing concepts on the pathophysiology of kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress.

  13. The color removal of dye wastewater by magnesium chloride/red mud (MRM) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Luan, Zhaokun; Wei, Ning; Li, Jin; Liu, Chengxi

    2009-10-30

    In this study, the MgCl2/red mud system (MRM) was used to investigate the color removal efficiency of dye solutions. Parameters such as the effect of the dosage of red mud (RM) and MgCl2 have been studied. The effect of pH on the conversion rate of Mg2+ has also been studied. The color removal efficiency of MRM was compared with that of PAC/RM and PAC/NaOH. Meanwhile, the color removal efficiency of RM was compared with that of NaOH. The results show that the MRM system can remove more than 98% of the coloring material at a dosage of 25 g RM/L dye solution and a volume of 1.5 mL MgCl2/L dye solution in the decolorization process of reactive dye, acid dye and direct dye. The color removal efficiency was better than PAC/RM and PAC/NaOH system. The adsorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results indicated that both models provide the best correlation of the experimental data. The decolorization mechanism of MRM was discussed, too. The MRM system was a viable alternative to some of the more conventional forms of chemical treatment of dye solutions and also provided another way to make use of industrial waste red mud.

  14. Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption of a reactive dye on chemically modified activated carbons--influence of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfão, J J M; Silva, A I M; Pereira, J C V; Barata, S A; Fonseca, I M; Faria, P C C; Pereira, M F R

    2006-04-15

    The surface chemistry of a commercial activated carbon with a slightly basic nature was modified by appropriate treatments in order to obtain two additional samples, respectively with acidic and basic properties, without changing its textural parameters significantly. Different techniques (N2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature programmed desorption, and determination of acidity, basicity, and pH at the point of zero charge) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Kinetic and equilibrium adsorption data of a selected textile reactive dye (Rifafix Red 3BN, C.I. reactive red 241) on the mentioned materials were obtained at the pH values of 2, 7, and 12. The kinetic curves are fitted using the second-order model. The respective rate constants seem to diminish progressively with the initial concentration for the more diluted solutions tested, reaching a constant value at higher concentrations, which depends on the experimental system under consideration (adsorbent and pH). In general, the Langmuir model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data. The different uptakes obtained are discussed in relation to the surface chemical properties of the adsorbents. It is shown that the adsorption of the reactive (anionic) dye on the basic sample (prepared by thermal treatment under H2 flow at 700 degrees C) is favored. This conclusion is explained on the basis of the dispersive and electrostatic interactions involved. Moreover, it is also shown that the optimal adsorption condition for all the activated carbons tested corresponds to solution pH values not higher than the pH(pzc) of the adsorbents, which may be interpreted by taking into account the electrostatic forces present.

  16. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  17. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  18. Continuous reactivity calculation for subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiano; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of a new generation of nuclear reactors as for existence the ADS (Accelerator-Driven System), it is important to have a fast and accurate prediction of the variation in reactivity during a possible variation in the intensity of external sources. This paper presents a formulation for the calculation of reactivity in subcritical systems using the inverse method related only to nuclear power derivatives. One of the applications of the proposed method is the possibility of developing reactimeters that allow the continuous monitoring of subcritical systems. (author)

  19. Continuous reactivity calculation for subcritical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da, E-mail: cristiano@herzeleid.net, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    With the rise of a new generation of nuclear reactors as for existence the ADS (Accelerator-Driven System), it is important to have a fast and accurate prediction of the variation in reactivity during a possible variation in the intensity of external sources. This paper presents a formulation for the calculation of reactivity in subcritical systems using the inverse method related only to nuclear power derivatives. One of the applications of the proposed method is the possibility of developing reactimeters that allow the continuous monitoring of subcritical systems. (author)

  20. Calculation of reactivity without Lagrange interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suescun D, D.; Figueroa J, J. H.; Rodriguez R, K. C.; Villada P, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    A new method to solve numerically the inverse equation of punctual kinetics without using Lagrange interpolating polynomial is formulated; this method uses a polynomial approximation with N points based on a process of recurrence for simulating different forms of nuclear power. The results show a reliable accuracy. Furthermore, the method proposed here is suitable for real-time measurements of reactivity, with step sizes of calculations greater that Δt = 0.3 s; due to its precision can be used to implement a digital meter of reactivity in real time. (Author)

  1. Reactive collisions between CH+ and O-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Padellec, A.; Staicu-Casagrande, E.M.; Nzeyimana, T.; Naji, E.A.; Urbain, X.

    2006-01-01

    Integral cross sections were measured for two reactions occurring in CH + +O - collisions: the formation of the carbon monoxide cation CO + via a reactive ionization process and the formation of the (iso)formyl cation HCO + (HOC + ) via the associative ionization process. Both carbon monoxide and formyl cations are present in the interstellar medium, the latter one being quite abundant in dense clouds. Provided the oxygen anion would also be present in the interstellar environment, the large efficiency of the two reactive processes reported here would justify their inclusion in astrochemical models. The whole set of data was obtained by means of a merged-beam setup operating with keV beams

  2. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h 5 , where h is the time step. (orig.)

  3. Silsesquioxane nanoparticles with reactive internal functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Eric M . [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States); Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (United States); Zharov, Ilya, E-mail: i.zharov@utah.edu [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A series of silsesquioxane nanoparticles containing reactive internal organic functionalities throughout the entire particle body have been synthesized using a surfactant-free method with organosilanes as the sole precursors and a base catalyst. The organic functional groups incorporated are vinyl, allyl, mercapto, cyanoethyl, and cyanopropyl groups. The sizes and morphologies of the particles were characterized using SEM and nitrogen adsorption, while the compositions were confirmed using TGA, FT-IR, solid state NMR, and elemental analysis. The accessibility and reactivity of the functional groups inside the particles were demonstrated by performing bromination and reduction reactions in the interior of the particles.

  4. Structure, reactivity, and biological properties of hidantoines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Silvania Maria de; Silva, Joao Bosco Paraiso da; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves de; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Hydantoin (imidazolidine-2,4-dione) is a 2,4-diketotetrahydroimidazole discovered by Baeyer in 1861. Thiohydantoins and derivatives were prepared, having chemical properties similar to the corresponding carbonyl compounds. Some biological activities (antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, schistosomicidal) are attributed to the chemical reactivity and consequent affinity of hydantoinic rings towards biomacromolecules. Therefore, knowledge about the chemistry of hydantoins has increased enormously. In this review, we present important aspects such as reactivity of hydantoins, acidity of hydantoins, spectroscopy and crystallographic properties, and biological activities of hydantoin and its derivatives. (author)

  5. Estimation of quasi-critical reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, A.

    1992-02-01

    The bank of Kalman filter method for reactivity and neutron density estimation originally suggested by D'Attellis and Cortina is critically overviewed. It is pointed out that the procedure cannot be applied reliably in such a form as the authors proposed, due to the filter divegence. An improved method, which is free from devergence problems are presented, as well. A new estimation technique is proposed and tested using computer simulation results. The procedure is applied for the estimation of small reactivity changes. (R.P.) 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

  7. Reactivity estimation for subcritical and critical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhaim A; Bellino P; Gomez A

    2012-01-01

    We developed a digital reactimeter that works in both current and pulse mode. This reactimeter will allow to estimate the reactivity of the reactor at any state. We st obtained for the measurements taken in the experimental reactor RA-1 the reactivity around the critical state without a neutron source. Measurements were made using simultaneously a compensated ionization chamber and a 3He proportional counter. The results were compared with the ones obtained from the digital reactimeter of reference with matching results within the experimental errors (author)

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  10. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  11. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  12. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  13. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  14. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  16. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  17. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  18. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  19. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  20. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaric, Ivan; Roberts, D.L.; Gessner, J.; Solow, A.R.; Courchamp, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, NOV (2017), č. článku e4025. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : data deficient * critically endangered * IUCN Red List * endangered species * extinction risk Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  1. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  2. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds ...

  3. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  4. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  5. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each other, as follows: (1) The Red Cross will use Form 3575, Change of Address Order, as a standard... disaster relief efforts, the Postal Service will establish a separate file of change of address forms... and complete the forms, it will distribute the forms to disaster victims who need them, and it will...

  6. Virtualización en red

    OpenAIRE

    Pallàs Blanco, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    En el TFC titulado "Virtualización en Red (agregación de enlaces multichasis)" se realizará tanto el análisis como la comparativa de distintas tecnologías actuales centradas en la agregación de enlaces entre equipos de comunicación.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  8. The Red Shoes : Motion picture (1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.

  9. Book Review: Greening in the Red Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. Falxa-Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a crisis, local, often spontaneous stewardship of nature provides a source of social-ecological resilience to individuals, communities, and ecosystems. This is the concept behind Greening in the Red Zone, and one that may be intuitive to many working in urban forestry, community greening, or any of the local nonprofits or...

  10. Biology and ecology of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Red alder is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest with a range stretching from coastal southeast Alaska to southern California and east to isolated populations in Idaho. Soil moisture during the growing season influences where it grows and its growth rates; it can tolerate poor drainage but not droughty, hot sites. Due to its tolerance of wet soil...

  11. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  12. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  13. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  14. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  15. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red

  16. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  17. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  18. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  19. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  20. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bognar

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive functions of relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Heart rate reactivity, blood pressure reactivity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity while recounting a relational stressor (e.g., being left out) were assessed. Participants provided self-reports of relational aggression and a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16. Results indicated that cardiovascular reactivity was only associated with relational aggression among women with a history of sexual abuse. In addition, whereas blunted reactivity was associated with proactive relational aggression, exaggerated reactivity was associated with reactive relational aggression. These findings highlight the importance of considering contextual moderators of the association between cardiovascular reactivity and aggression; moreover, results highlight distinct cardiovascular correlates of different functions of aggression. Finally, the findings underscore the need for additional research examining the physiological correlates of aggressive behavior among women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition and optical properties tunability of hydrogenated silicon carbonitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, A.; Bousquet, A.; Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Thomas, L.; Belmahi, M.; Goullet, A.; Sauvage, T.; Tomasella, E.

    2018-06-01

    Radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCxNy:H) at 400 °C by sputtering a silicon target under CH4 and N2 reactive gas mixture. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry revealed that the change of reactive gases flow rate (the ratio R = FN2/(FN2+FCH4)) induced a smooth chemical composition tunability from a silicon carbide-like film for R = 0 to a silicon nitride-like one at R = 1 with a large area of silicon carbonitrides between the two regions. The deconvolution of Fourier Transform InfraRed and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum highlighted a shift of the chemical environment of the deposited films corresponding to the changes seen by RBS. The consequence of these observations is that a control of refractive index in the range of [1.9-2.5] at λ = 633 nm and optical bandgap in the range [2 eV-3.8 eV] have been obtained which induces that these coatings can be used as antireflective coatings in silicon photovoltaic cells.

  3. [Effects of allelochemical dibutyl phthalate on Gymnodinium breve reactive oxygen species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Cong-Cong; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inhibitory action of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on red tide algae Gymnodinium breve. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, contents of *OH and H2O2, and O2*(-) production rate were investigated, and also for the effects of electron transfer inhibitors on the ROS induction of DBP. The results showed that DBP triggered the synthesis of reactive oxygen species ROS, and with the increase of concentration of DBP, *OH and H2O2 contents in cells accumulated, as for the 3 mg x L(-1) DBP treated algae cultures, OH showed a peak of 33 U x mL(-1) at 48 h, which was about 2. 4 times higher than that in the controlled, and H2O2 contents was about 250 nmol x (10(7) cells)(-1) at 72 h, which was about 5 times higher and also was the highest during the whole culture. Rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondria electron transport chain) decreased the DBP induced ROS production, and dicumarol (an inhibitor of the redox enzyme system in the plasma membrane) stimulated the DBP induced ROS production. Taken all together, the results demonstrated DBP induced over production of reactive oxygen species in G. breve, which is the main inhibitory mechanism, and mitochondria and plasma membrane seem to be the main target site of DBP. These conclusions were of scientific meaning on uncovering the inhibitory mechanism of allelochemical on algae.

  4. Understanding reactivity of two newly synthetized imidazole derivatives by spectroscopic characterization and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mossaraf; Thomas, Renjith; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Vijayakumar, G.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Two newly synthetized imidazole derivatives (1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl acetate (MPDIA) and 1-(4-bromophenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl acetate (BPDIA)) have been prepared by solvent-free synthesis pathway and their specific spectroscopic and reactive properties have been discussed based on combined experimental and computational approaches. Aside of synthesis, experimental part of this work included measurements of IR, FT-Raman and NMR spectra. All of the aforementioned spectra were also obtained computationally, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) approach. Additionally, DFT calculations have been used in order to investigate local reactivity properties based on molecular orbital theory, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), average local ionization energy (ALIE), Fukui functions and bond dissociation energy (BDE). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used in order to obtain radial distribution functions (RDF), which were used for identification of the atoms with pronounced interactions with water molecules. MEP showed negative regions are mainly localized over N28, O29, O35 atoms, it is represent with red colour in rainbow color scheme for MPDIA and BPDIA (which are most reactive sites for electrophilic attack). The first order hyperpolarizabilities of MPDIA and BPDIA are 20.15 and 6.10 times that of the standard NLO material urea. Potential interaction with antihypertensive protein hydrolase.

  5. Removal of Reactive Anionic Dyes from Binary Solutions by Adsorption onto Quaternized Kenaf Core Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Jabir Idan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most challenging mission in wastewater treatment plants is the removal of anionic dyes, because they are water-soluble and produce very shining colours in the water. In this regard, kenaf core fiber (KCF was chemically modified by the quaternized agent (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride to increase surface area and change the surface properties in order to improve the removing reactive anionic dyes from binary aqueous solution. The influencing operating factors like dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were examined in a batch mode. The results indicate that the percentage of removal of Reactive Red-RB (RR-RB and Reactive Black-5 (RB-5 dyes from binary solution was increased with increasing dyes concentrations and the maximum percentage of removal reached up to 98.4% and 99.9% for RR-RB and RB-5, respectively. Studies on effect of pH showed that the adsorption was not significantly influenced by pH. The equilibrium analyses explain that, in spite of the extended Langmuir model failure to describe the data in the binary system, it is better than the Jain and Snoeyink model in describing the adsorption behavior of binary dyes onto QKCF. Also, the pseudo-second-order model was better to represent the adsorption kinetics for RR-RB and RB-5 dyes on QKCF.

  6. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  7. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  8. Glacial conditions in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Eelco J.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, results from previous studies on planktonic foraminifera, δ18O, and global sea level are combined to discuss climatic conditions in the Red Sea during the last glacial maximum (18,000 B.P.). First, the influence of 120-m sea level lowering on the exchange transport through the strait of Bab-el-Mandab is considered. This strait is the only natural connection of the Red Sea to the open ocean. Next, glacial Red Sea outflow salinity is estimated (about 48 parts per thousand) from the foraminiferal record. Combined, these results yield an estimate of the glacial net water deficit, which appears to have been quite similar to the present (about 2 m yr-1). Finally, budget calculation of δ18O fluxes suggests that the glacial δ18O value of evaporation was about 50% of the present value. This is considered to have resulted from substantially increased mean wind speeds over the glacial Red Sea, which would have caused a rapid drop in the kinematic fractionation factor for 18O. The sensitivity of the calculated values for water deficit and isotopic fractionation to the various assumptions and estimates is evaluated in the discussion. Improvents are to be expected especially through research on the glacial salinity contrast between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. It is argued, however, that such future improvement will likely result in a worsening of the isotopic discrepancy, thus increasing the need for an additional mechanism that influenced fractionation (such as mean wind speed). This study demonstrates the need for caution when calculating paleosalinities from δ18O records under the assumption that the modern S∶δ18O relation has remained constant through time. Previously overlooked factors, such as mean wind speed, may have significantly altered that relation in the past.

  9. Energy transfer in reactive and non-reactive H2 + OH collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, O.; Brown, N.J.

    1985-04-01

    We have used the methods of quasi-classical dynamics to compute energy transfer properties of non-reactive and reactive H 2 + OH collisions. Energy transfer has been investigated as function of translational temperature, reagent rotational energy, and reagent vibrational energy. The energy transfer mechanism is complex with ten types of energy transfer possible, and evidence was found for all types. There is much more exchange between the translational degree of freedom and the H 2 vibrational degree of freedom than there is between translation and OH vibration. Translational energy is transferred to the rotational degrees of freedom of each molecule. There is a greater propensity for the transfer of translation to OH rotation than H 2 rotation. In reactive collisions, increases in reagent translational temperature predominantly appear as vibrational energy in the water molecule. Energy transfer in non-reactive and reactive collisions does not depend strongly on the initial angular momentum in either molecule. In non-reactive collisions, vibrational energy is transferred to translation, to the rotational degree of freedom of the same molecule, and to the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the other molecule. In reactive collisions, the major effect of increasing the vibrational energy in reagent molecules is that, on the average, the vibrational energy of the reagents appears as product vibrational energy. 18 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Reactivity of halide and pseudohalide ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    Reactivity of halide and pseudohalide (cyanide, azide, thiocyanate, cyanate) ligands tending to form bridge bonds in transition metal (Re, Mo, W) complexes is considered. Complexes where transition metal salts are ligands of other, complex-forming ion, are described. Transformation of innerspheric pseudohalide ligands is an important way of directed synthesis of these metal coordination compounds

  11. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

  12. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  13. Reactive diluents and air-drying coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, E.A.; Weijnen, J.; Haveren, van J.; Gillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of a fatty acid modified carbohydrate obtainable by reaction of: (i) at least one carbohydrate or an acyl ester thereof; and (ii) a fatty acid, an alkyl ester thereof or a derivative thereof as reactive diluent in a coating. The invention further relates to a coating

  14. Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumlee, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation

  15. Sensitivity analysis of reactive ecological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdy, Ariane; Caswell, Hal

    2008-08-01

    Ecological systems with asymptotically stable equilibria may exhibit significant transient dynamics following perturbations. In some cases, these transient dynamics include the possibility of excursions away from the equilibrium before the eventual return; systems that exhibit such amplification of perturbations are called reactive. Reactivity is a common property of ecological systems, and the amplification can be large and long-lasting. The transient response of a reactive ecosystem depends on the parameters of the underlying model. To investigate this dependence, we develop sensitivity analyses for indices of transient dynamics (reactivity, the amplification envelope, and the optimal perturbation) in both continuous- and discrete-time models written in matrix form. The sensitivity calculations require expressions, some of them new, for the derivatives of equilibria, eigenvalues, singular values, and singular vectors, obtained using matrix calculus. Sensitivity analysis provides a quantitative framework for investigating the mechanisms leading to transient growth. We apply the methodology to a predator-prey model and a size-structured food web model. The results suggest predator-driven and prey-driven mechanisms for transient amplification resulting from multispecies interactions.

  16. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups with electrodonating or electroaccepting properties, and two indices of global reactivity were calcu- lated in the gas ... have a greater number of empirical descriptors, as well as theoretical ... as by the resistance (described by η) to the exchange of electronic ... (as calculated in gas phase) of the electroaccepting, ω+.

  17. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  18. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  19. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  20. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  1. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  2. Polarized process algebra with reactive composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2005-01-01

    Polarized processes are introduced to model the asymmetric interaction of systems. The asymmetry stems from the distinction between service and request. The scheduled concurrent composition of two polarized processes is called client–server composition or reactive composition, placing one process in

  3. Reactive nitrogen impacts on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is a new, multi-year research initiative under development by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As one of its components, ESRP has chosen to focus on reactive Nitrogen (Nr) for stressor-specific ecosystem research through a...

  4. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  5. Frustrated Lewis pairs: Design and reactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for FLP systems and their unique reactivity are discussed here. Keywords. Lewis .... we will concentrate on the design principles of such. FLPs and the ... Designs of frustrated Lewis pairs ..... 64 and neutral titanium (III) complex [Cp2TiOC6.

  6. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  7. Generalized Riemann problem for reactive flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Artzi, M.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized Riemann problem is introduced for the equations of reactive non-viscous compressible flow in one space dimension. Initial data are assumed to be linearly distributed on both sides of a jump discontinuity. The resolution of the singularity is studied and the first-order variation (in time) of flow variables is given in exact form. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  9. Processing of thermoplastic polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Venderbosch, R.W.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents offers an interesting and flexible route to extent the processing characteristics of thermoplastic polymers beyond their existing limits. This holds for both intractable and tractable polymers. The first mainly applies for amorphous high-Tg polymers where processing may

  10. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  11. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2003-06-17

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  12. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology

  13. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  14. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  15. Studies on cytotoxicity and antitumor screening of red and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 2Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem – 636 007, Tamilnadu, India. ... namely red and black coloured seeds (red form) and the ... development induced by Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites.

  16. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  17. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  18. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  19. Significance of isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Michael G; Robertson, Peter W; Post, Jeffrey J

    2013-05-01

    Isolated reactive serum treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) specimens cause clinical uncertainty. Sera were screened by CIA, and reactive samples underwent reflex testing with rapid plasma reagin (RPR), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA Abs) assays. Samples reactive only on the CIA were deemed "isolated" reactive CIA samples. We undertook detailed review of a subset of subjects with isolated reactive CIA specimens. Of 28 261 specimens, 1171 (4.1%) were reactive on CIA, of which 133 (11.3%) had isolated CIA reactivity. Most subjects (66 of 82 [80.5%]) with isolated reactive CIA specimens were from high-prevalence populations. We found evidence of CIA, TPPA, and FTA Abs seroreversion. The median chemiluminescent signal-to-cutoff ratio was similar for isolated reactive CIA sera and sera that were reactive on either FTA Abs or TPPA assays (2.19 vs 2.32; P = .15) but lower than for sera reactive on both FTA Abs and TPPA assays (12.37; P < .001) or for sera reactive on RPR assays (25.53; P < .001). A total of 11 of 20 patients (55%) with an isolated reactive CIA specimen who underwent medical record review had previous or subsequent evidence of syphilis infection. Isolated reactive CIA specimens may represent true T. pallidum infection and may be found after seroreversion of traditional treponemal assays.

  20. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.