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Sample records for red fox correlates

  1. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  2. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  3. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Rising, Anna; Cederlund, Ella; Palmberg, Carina; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Gaunitz, Stefan; Nordling, Kerstin; Ågren, Erik; Ihse, Elisabet; Westermark, Gunilla T; Tjernberg, Lars; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  4. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  5. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  6. Behavioral interactions of penned red and arctic foxes

    Rudzinski, D.R.; Graves, H.B.; Sargeant, A.B.; Storm, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Expansion of the geographical distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) into the far north tundra region may lead to competition between arctic (Alopex lagopus) and red foxes for space and resources. Behavioral interactions between red and arctic foxes were evaluated during 9 trials conducted in a 4.05-ha enclosure near Woodworth, North Dakota. Each trial consisted of introducing a male-female pair of arctic foxes into the enclosure and allowing them to acclimate for approximately a week before releasing a female red fox into the enclosure, followed by her mate a few days later. In 8 of 9 trials, red foxes were dominant over arctic foxes during encounters. Activity of the arctic foxes decreased upon addition of red foxes. Arctic foxes tried unsuccessfully to defend preferred den, resting, and feeding areas. Even though the outcome of competition between red and arctic foxes in the Arctic is uncertain, the more aggressive red fox can dominate arctic foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.

  7. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  8. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  9. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  10. North American montane red foxes: expansion, fragmentation, and the origin of the Sacramento Valley red fox

    Benjamin N. Sacks; Mark J. Statham; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely; Keith B. Aubry

    2010-01-01

    Most native red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the western contiguous United States appear to be climatically restricted to colder regions in the major mountain ranges and, in some areas, have suffered precipitous declines in abundance that may be linked to warming trends. However, another population of unknown origin has occurred in arid habitats in the...

  11. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    Ivan Pokrovsky

    Full Text Available Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  12. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  13. Red fox takeover of arctic fox breeding den : an observation from Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Rodnikova, Anna; Ims, Rolf Anker; Sokolov, Alexander; Skogstad, Gunhild; Sokolov, Vasily; Shtro, Victor; Fuglei, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report from the first direct observation of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) intrusion on an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) breeding den from the southern Arctic tundra of Yamal Peninsula, Russia in 2007. At the same time, as a current range retraction of the original inhabitant of the circumpolar tundra zone the arctic fox is going on, the red fox is expanding their range from the south into arctic habitats. Thus, within large parts of the northern tundra areas the two species are sympatric w...

  14. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox.

    Rando, Halie M; Stutchman, Jeremy T; Bastounes, Estelle R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Trut, Lyudmila N; Sacks, Benjamin N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2017-09-01

    The de novo assembly of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) genome has facilitated the development of genomic tools for the species. Efforts to identify the population history of red foxes in North America have previously been limited by a lack of information about the red fox Y-chromosome sequence. However, a megabase of red fox Y-chromosome sequence was recently identified over 2 scaffolds in the reference genome. Here, these scaffolds were scanned for repeated motifs, revealing 194 likely microsatellites. Twenty-three of these loci were selected for primer development and, after testing, produced a panel of 11 novel markers that were analyzed alongside 2 markers previously developed for the red fox from dog Y-chromosome sequence. The markers were genotyped in 76 male red foxes from 4 populations: 7 foxes from Newfoundland (eastern Canada), 12 from Maryland (eastern United States), and 9 from the island of Great Britain, as well as 48 foxes of known North American origin maintained on an experimental farm in Novosibirsk, Russia. The full marker panel revealed 22 haplotypes among these red foxes, whereas the 2 previously known markers alone would have identified only 10 haplotypes. The haplotypes from the 4 populations clustered primarily by continent, but unidirectional gene flow from Great Britain and farm populations may influence haplotype diversity in the Maryland population. The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Activity rhythms and distribution of natal dens for red foxes

    Wenyang, Zhou; Wanhong, Wei; Biggins, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, was investigated with snow tracking, radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem, Academia Sinica, from March to September 1994. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens, activity rhythms, and home range sizes for the foxes.

  16. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  17. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  18. Invading parasites cause a structural shift in red fox dynamics.

    Forchhammer, M C; Asferg, T

    2000-01-01

    The influence of parasites on host life histories and populations is pronounced. Among several diseases affecting animal populations throughout the world, sarcoptic mange has influenced many carnivore populations dramatically and during the latest epizootic in Fennoscandia reduced the abundance of red fox by over 70%. While the numerical responses of red fox populations, their prey and their competitors as well as clinical implications are well known, knowledge of how sarcoptic mange affects ...

  19. Eucoleus boehmi infection in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Italy.

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; di Cesare, Angela; Lepri, Elvio; Cassini, Rudi; Zanet, Stefania; Deni, Dario; Chiari, Mario; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-12-15

    In the last decade an increase of the number of red foxes in anthropized habitats across European countries, including Italy, has been observed. This pones implications in terms of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals; in fact, there are evidences of the role of foxes as reservoirs and amplifiers of a broad spectrum of parasites infecting pets. The present study evaluated the prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi, an emerging extra-intestinal nematodes of the Capillariinae subfamily, in red foxes. The nasal passages and sinuses of 179 red foxes culled from several areas of northern and central Italy were inspected and the mucosal surfaces were scrapped and examined for adult nematodes and eggs, microscopically and genetically identified. Overall 55 foxes (30.7%) were found to be infected with E. boehmi, i.e. 27 on inspection of the nasal passages and sinuses and 28 on mucosal flush and scraping. The occurrence of E. boehmi was significantly (p fox body condition (mean: 7.8 specimens). These results show that E. boehmi is highly prevalent in the red fox populations of certain areas of Italy. Epidemiological implications are discussed, with a special focus on the role that this wild canid may have in the increasing transmission of nasal eucoleosis to domestic dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E.; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated...

  2. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  3. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox.

  4. Predation on seabirds by red foxes at Shaiak Island, Alaska

    Petersen, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two Red Foxes (Vulpes fulva) that invaded Shaiak Island before the 1976 nesting season had a marked impact on the nesting success of five of seven species of seabirds breeding on the island that year. Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Common Murres (Uria aalge), that nest in areas accessible to foxes, did not raise any young to fledging. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were only slightly more successful; 13 (4.3%) of 300 pairs raised one or more young to fledging. Evidence suggested that 21 (35.6%) of 62 pairs of Tufted Puffins (Lunda cirrhata) lost eggs or chicks to foxes, and foxes killed at least 13 (8.3%) of 156 adult puffins on ten sample plots. Conversely, Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), which nested primarily on cliffs inaccessible to foxes, lost very few nests. There was no apparent change in general nest site selections by seabirds the following year, when foxes were no longer present. Any avoidance by birds of areas vulnerable to fox predation would probably be discernible only after several years of continuous predation.

  5. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Tracing the fox family tree: the North American red fox has a diverse ancestry forged during successive ice ages

    Gail Wells; Keith Aubry

    2011-01-01

    The red fox is one of the most widespread and adaptable mammals on Earth. In the American West, however, there are populations of native red foxes that occur only in alpine and subalpine habitats, which may be at risk from human-caused and natural pressures. One potential threat is global climate change, which is likely to reduce both the amount and connectivity of...

  7. A behavioral audiogram of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Malkemper, E Pascal; Topinka, Václav; Burda, Hynek

    2015-02-01

    We determined the absolute hearing sensitivity of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) using an adapted standard psychoacoustic procedure. The animals were tested in a reward-based go/no-go procedure in a semi-anechoic chamber. At 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) (re 20 μPa) red foxes perceive pure tones between 51 Hz and 48 kHz, spanning 9.84 octaves with a single peak sensitivity of -15 dB at 4 kHz. The red foxes' high-frequency cutoff is comparable to that of the domestic dog while the low-frequency cutoff is comparable to that of the domestic cat and the absolute sensitivity is between both species. The maximal absolute sensitivity of the red fox is among the best found to date in any mammal. The procedure used here allows for assessment of animal auditory thresholds using positive reinforcement outside the laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal Cysticercosis in a Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.

  9. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus.

  10. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  11. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.

    2006-01-01

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17...... and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark....

  12. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlates of vulnerability in Chiricahua fox squirrels

    Bret S. Pasch; John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Chiricahua fox squirrels (Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae) are endemic to the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. A paucity of natural history information and uncertain conservation status served as impetus for us to initiate a descriptive ecological study of the species. We examined reproductive and population ecology of Chiricahua fox...

  14. Spatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe.

    Vervaeke, Muriel; Giessen, Joke van der; Brochier, Bernard; Losson, Bernard; Jordaens, Kurt; Verhagen, Ron; Lezenne Coulander, Cor de; Teunis, Peter F M

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium

  15. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes.

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2015-08-07

    The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated and analyzed for signatures of positive selection. In addition, the data allowed for a phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimate between the two fox species. The de novo assembly of reads resulted in more than 160,000 contigs/transcripts per individual. Approximately 17,000 homologous genes were identified using human and the non-redundant databases. Positive selection analyses revealed several genes involved in various metabolic and molecular processes such as energy metabolism, cardiac gene regulation, apoptosis and blood coagulation to be under positive selection in foxes. Branch site tests identified four genes to be under positive selection in the Arctic fox transcriptome, two of which are fat metabolism genes. In the red fox transcriptome eight genes are under positive selection, including molecular process genes, notably genes involved in ATP metabolism. Analysis of the three transcriptomes and five Sanger re-sequenced genes in additional individuals identified a lower genetic variability within Arctic foxes compared to red foxes, which is consistent with distribution range differences and demographic responses to past climatic fluctuations. A phylogenomic analysis estimated that the Arctic and red fox lineages diverged about three million years ago. Transcriptome data are an economic way to generate genomic resources for evolutionary studies. Despite not representing an entire genome, this transcriptome analysis identified numerous genes that are relevant to arctic

  17. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  18. Trypanosomiasis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Mackie, J T; Stenner, R; Gillett, A K; Barbosa, A; Ryan, U; Irwin, P J

    2017-07-01

    An adult female Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) presented with icterus and anaemia. Examination of a blood smear revealed numerous trypanosomes 20.4-30.8 µm long with tapered ends. Necropsy and histological findings were consistent with trypanosome infection of lymphoid tissue and intravascular haemolysis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma minasense and Trypanosoma rangeli (with a genetic distance of 1% at the 18S rRNA locus for both). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a trypanosome infection associated with clinical disease in bats. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Genetic variability within the Polish population of red fox (Vulpes vulpes – preliminary results

    Magdalena Zatoń-Dobrowolska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Red fox (Vulpes vulpes represents family Canidae and is a very common predator in Poland. Foxes are present throughout all the country in a different geographical regions and habitats. The analyzed dataset consisted of 130 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. There were 24 microsatellite sequences studied. The observed (HO and expected (HS heterozygosities were comparable within respective loci. The low genetic diversity of the population was found.

  20. Foraging ecology and spatial behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a wet grassland ecosystem

    Meisner, Katrine; Sunde, Peter; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated diet composition, habitat selection and spatial behaviour of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to the availability of wader nests in a coastal polder area in southwest Denmark. The predatory role of the red fox in wet grassland ecosystems has profound implications...... for conservation status of declining populations of grassland breeding waders. However, few studies have focussed on the foraging ecology and behaviour of the red fox in these landscapes. Faecal analyses revealed that fox diet consisted of birds (43 % of prey remains / 32 % of biomass), rodents (39 % / 21...... %), sheep (mainly as carrion, 14 % / 41 %) and lagomorphs (4 % / 7 %). Charadriiformes (including waders) comprised 3–12 % of prey remains throughout the year. Telemetry data and spotlight counts indicated that foxes did not select areas with high densities of breeding waders, suggesting that foxes did...

  1. A Multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between dog and red fox.

    Weissenberger, M; Reichert, W; Mattern, R

    2011-11-01

    Foxes are frequently the cause of car accidents in Baden-Württemberg (BW, Germany). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is in close relation to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the silver fox which is a coat colour variant of the red fox. As insurance claims that involve accidents with animals require authentication, we analyzed frequency distribution and allele sizes in two canine microsatellite loci in 26 dogs (different breeds) and 19 red foxes of the region of BW, Germany. Moreover, sequencing analysis was performed. Red foxes exhibited only 1 allele at each microsatellite locus, whereas in dog 7 alleles at the CPH4 locus and 6 alleles at the CPH12 locus were detected. Sequences of PCR products from the two species revealed several differences between dogs and foxes. We established a sequenced allelic ladder and give population data from dogs and red foxes from the region of BW, Germany. Using microsatellite polymorphisms is efficient in differentiating between dogs and foxes in forensic casework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Red Fox (Vuples vuples) and Phylogenetic Analysis with Other Canid Species.

    Zhong, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Sha, Wei-Lai; Zhang, Cheng-De; Chen, Yu-Cai

    2010-04-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome sequence of red fox (Vuples vuples) was determined. It had a total length of 16 723 bp. As in most mammal mitochondrial genome, it contained 13 protein coding genes, two ribosome RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The base composition was 31.3% A, 26.1% C, 14.8% G and 27.8% T, respectively. The codon usage of red fox, arctic fox, gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote followed the same pattern except for an unusual ATT start codon, which initiates the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene in the red fox. A long tandem repeat rich in AC was found between conserved sequence block 1 and 2 in the control region. In order to confirm the phylogenetic relationships of red fox to other canids, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods using 12 concatenated heavy-strand protein-coding genes. The result indicated that arctic fox was the sister group of red fox and they both belong to the red fox-like clade in family Canidae, while gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote belong to wolf-like clade. The result was in accordance with existing phylogenetic results.

  3. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  4. Home range defense in the red fox, Vulpes vulpes L

    Preston, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the home range defense behavior observed when nonresident male red foxes were introduced into established home ranges of resident male-female pairs. In 12 observation periods, four intruders were introduced to each of three mated pairs which had been given three weeks to acclimate to a 4.05-hectare, fenced enclosure. The residents centered their activities around a natural den and the frequency of intruder-resident encounters decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the den. The primary home range defense was continual harassment of the intruders by the resident males through agonistic displays and chases. Physical contact was rare. Even though the resident males were dominant in less than a majority of the interactions observed, they were usually successful in displacing the intruders within a few hours. The resident females seldom interacted with the intruders.

  5. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  6. Increased reproductive output of Danish red fox females following an outbreak of canine distemper

    Pagh, Sussie; Chriél, Mariann; Madsen, Aksel Bo

    2018-01-01

    A decline in the Danish population of red foxes Vulpes vulpes due to an outbreak of canine distemper (CDV) in 2012 gave us the opportunity to test the hypothesis that the reproductive performance of foxes increases when the population density declines. The reproductive performance of 280 female...

  7. Red fox, Vulpes vulpes, kills a European beaver, Castor fiber, kit

    Kile, Nils B.; Nakken, Petter J.; Rosell, Frank; Espeland, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    We observed an adult Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) attack, kill and partially consume a 2-month-old female kit European Beaver (Castor fiber) near its lodge in Norway. The inner organs were consumed first. One adult beaver apparently attempted to frighten the fox away by tail-slapping.

  8. A case report of visceral leishmaniasis in red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ...

    A survey of 52 red foxes, a single two year old male weighing about 6 kg showed clinical signs including hair loss, impotence, local or general lymphadenopathy, keratitis, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hair shedding, dermal lesions, onychogriposis and cachexia. The studied fox IFA titer was larger or equal to ...

  9. The influence of habitat structure on genetic differentiation in red fox populations in north-eastern Poland.

    Mullins, Jacinta; McDevitt, Allan D; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Górny, Marcin; Wójcik, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is difficult to do so at a broad scale with trapping and telemetry. In this study, we have described the genetic diversity and structure of red fox populations in six areas of north-eastern Poland, based on samples collected from 2002-2003. We tested 22 microsatellite loci isolated from the dog and the red fox genome to select a panel of nine polymorphic loci suitable for this study. Genetic differentiation between the six studied populations was low to moderate and analysis in Structure revealed a panmictic population in the region. Spatial autocorrelation among all individuals showed a pattern of decreasing relatedness with increasing distance and this was not significantly negative until 93 km, indicating a pattern of isolation-by-distance over a large area. However, there was no correlation between genetic distance and either Euclidean distance or least-cost path distance at the population level. There was a significant relationship between genetic distance and the proportion of large forests and water along the Euclidean distances. These types of habitats may influence dispersal paths taken by red foxes, which is useful information in terms of wildlife disease management.

  10. Neglected intravascular pathogens, Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population.

    Koneval, Martina; Miterpáková, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Blaňarová, Lucia; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-08-30

    Wild animals, especially canids, are important reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, that are transmitted by the ticks and other bloodsucking arthropods. In total, 300 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), shot by the hunters in eastern and northern Slovakia, were screened for the presence of vector-borne pathogens by PCR-based methods Blood samples were obtained from nine red foxes and tissue samples originated from 291 animals (the liver tissue samples from 49 foxes and spleen samples from 242 red foxes). Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma species were identified by amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene fragments, respectively. Overall, the presence of these pathogens was recorded in 12.3% of screened DNA samples. Altogether 9.7% (29/300) of investigated foxes carried DNA of Babesia spp. In total, 12 out of 29 Babesia spp. PCR - positive amplicons were further sequenced and identified as B. vulpes (41.4%; 12/29), remaining 17 samples are referred as Babesia sp. (58.6%; 17/29). Overall prevalence of B. vulpes reached 4.0% (n=300). Thirteen (4.3%) samples tested positive for distinct Mycoplasma species. To the best of our knowledge, this study brings the first information on B. vulpes infection in red foxes in Slovakia, and the first data on the prevalence and diversity of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox population. Moreover, co-infections with B. vulpes and Mycoplasma spp. were confirmed in 1.7% of tested DNA samples. The relatively high rates of blood pathogen' prevalence and species diversity in wild foxes indicate the role of the fox population in the maintenance of the parasites in sylvatic cycles and strengthen the assumption that foxes play an important role in spreading of infectious microorganisms within and outside the natural foci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  12. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-04-03

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades.

  13. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  14. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a free-roaming red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Sting, Reinhard; Ketterer-Pintur, Sandra; Contzen, Matthias; Mauder, Norman; Süss-Dombrowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) ulcerans could be isolated from the spleen of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that had been found dead in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Pathohistological examination suggested that the fox had died of distemper, as was confirmed by PCR. The isolate was identified biochemically, by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR and by partial 16S rRNA, rpoB and tox gene sequencing. Using the Elek test the C. ulcerans isolate demonstrated diphtheria toxin production. FT-IR and sequencing data obtained from the C. ulcerans isolate from the red fox showed higher similarity to isolates from humans than to those from wild game.

  15. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  16. What does the fox say? Monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the environment using wild red foxes as an indicator.

    Solveig Sølverød Mo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the occurrence of AMR in wild red foxes in relation to human population densities. Samples from wild red foxes (n = 528 included in the Norwegian monitoring programme on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food, feed and animals were included. All samples were divided into three different groups based on population density in the municipality where the foxes were hunted. Of the 528 samples included, 108 (20.5%, 328 (62.1% and 92 (17.4% originated from areas with low, medium and high population density, respectively. A single faecal swab was collected from each fox. All samples were plated out on a selective medium for Enterobacteriaceae for culturing followed by inclusion and susceptibility testing of one randomly selected Escherichia coli to assess the overall occurrence of AMR in the Gram-negative bacterial population. Furthermore, the samples were subjected to selective screening for detection of E. coli displaying resistance towards extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. In addition, a subset of samples (n = 387 were subjected to selective culturing to detect E. coli resistant to carbapenems and colistin, and enterococci resistant to vancomycin. Of these, 98 (25.3%, 200 (51.7% and 89 (23.0% originated from areas with low, medium and high population density, respectively. Overall, the occurrence of AMR in indicator E. coli from wild red foxes originating from areas with different human population densities in Norway was low to moderate (8.8%. The total occurrence of AMR was significantly higher; χ2 (1,N = 336 = 6.53, p = 0.01 in areas with high population density compared to areas with medium population density. Similarly, the occurrence of fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolated using selective detection methods was low in areas with low population density and more common in areas with medium or high population density. In conclusion, we found indications that

  17. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder C E; Eyal, Osnat; Reis, Antónia; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs.

  18. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  19. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox.

    Busi, Chiara; Martella, Vito; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Lelli, Davide; Alborali, G Loris; Gibelli, Lucia; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Boniotti, M Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

  20. Satellite DNA Sequences in Canidae and Their Chromosome Distribution in Dog and Red Fox.

    Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Fröhlich, Jan; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the red fox and dog showed signals of the red fox satellite probe in canine and vulpine autosomal centromeres, on VVUY, B chromosomes, and in the distal parts of VVU9q and VVU10p which were shown to contain nucleolus organiser regions. The CFA satellite probe stained autosomal centromeres only in the dog. The CFA satellite-like DNA did not show any significant sequence similarity with the satellite DNA of any species analysed and was localised to the centromeres of 9 canine chromosome pairs. No significant heterochromatin block was detected on the B chromosomes of the red fox. Our results show extensive heterogeneity of satellite sequences among Canidae and prove close evolutionary relationships between the red and arctic fox. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  2. Homage to Hersteinsson and Macdonald: climate warming and resource subsidies cause red fox range expansion and Arctic fox decline

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Berteaux, Dominique; Burgess, Robert. M.; Ehrich, Dorothee; Gallant, Daniel; Henttonen, Heikki; Ims, Rolf Anker; Killengreen, Siw Turid; Niemimaa, Jukka; Norén, Karin; Ollila, Tuomo; Rodnikova, Anna Y.; Sokolov, Aleksandr A.; Sokolova, Natasha A.; Stickney, Alice A.

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://doi.org/10.1080/17518369.2017.1319109 Climate change can have a marked effect on the distribution and abundance of some species, as well as their interspecific interactions. In 1992, before ecological effects of anthropogenic climate change had developed into a topical research field, Hersteinsson and Macdonald published a seminal paper hypothesizing that the northern distribution limit of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is determined by food availability and ultim...

  3. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania.

  4. Angiostrongylus vasorum in Romania: an extensive survey in red foxes, Vulpes vulpes.

    Deak, Georgiana; Gherman, Călin M; Ionică, Angela M; Vezendan, Alexandru D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Matei, Ioana A; Daskalaki, Aikaterini A; Marian, Ionuț; Damian, Aurel; Cozma, Vasile; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2017-07-12

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is the causative agent of canine angiostrongylosis, a severe snail-borne disease of dogs. Red foxes are important natural reservoirs of infection, and surveys of foxes provide a more objective picture of the parasite distribution. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of the presence of A. vasorum in red foxes from the western part of Romania and to analyse the risk factors related to the sex, age and geographic origin of the foxes. Between July 2016 and April 2017, 567 hunted red foxes from 10 counties of western Romania were examined by necropsy for the presence of lungworms. Overall, the infection with A. vasorum has been found in 24 red foxes (4.2%) originating in four counties (Mureș, Hunedoara, Sălaj and Cluj). There was no significant difference between the prevalence in males and females, between juveniles and adults and between counties. This is the first report of autochthonous infections of A. vasorum in Romania, showing a relatively low prevalence and extending eastwards the known distributional range of this parasite in Europe. The presence of autochthonous cases in domestic dogs in Romania remains to be confirmed by further studies.

  5. A spatial analysis of a population of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Dutch coastal dune area

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Stein, A.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is usually classi?ed as being territorial, dispersing or transient. Past studies have focused almost exclusively on territorial or dispersing foxes, leaving transient foxes out of the analysis. In this paper, we present spatial-statistical methods for the classi?cation of

  6. Coexistence of coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an urban landscape

    Drake, David; Allen, Maximilian L.

    2018-01-01

    Urban environments are increasing worldwide and are inherently different than their rural counterparts, with a variety of effects on wildlife due to human presence, increased habitat fragmentation, movement barriers, and access to anthropogenic food sources. Effective management of urban wildlife requires an understanding of how urbanization affects their behavior and ecology. The spatial activity and interactions of urban wildlife, however, have not been as rigorously researched as in rural areas. From January 2015 to December 2016, we captured, radio-collared, and tracked 11 coyotes and 12 red foxes in Madison, WI. Within our study area, coyotes strongly selected home ranges with high proportions of natural areas; conversely, red foxes selected home ranges with open space and moderately developed areas. Use of highly developed areas best explained variation among individual home range sizes and inversely affected home range size for coyotes and red foxes. Coyote and red fox home ranges showed some degree of spatial and temporal overlap, but generally appeared partitioned by habitat type within our study area. Coyotes and red foxes were both active at similar times of the day, but their movement patterns differed based on species-specific habitat use. This spatial partitioning may promote positive co-existence between these sympatric canids in urban areas, and our findings of spatial activity and interactions will better inform wildlife managers working in urban areas. PMID:29364916

  7. Coexistence of coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an urban landscape.

    Mueller, Marcus A; Drake, David; Allen, Maximilian L

    2018-01-01

    Urban environments are increasing worldwide and are inherently different than their rural counterparts, with a variety of effects on wildlife due to human presence, increased habitat fragmentation, movement barriers, and access to anthropogenic food sources. Effective management of urban wildlife requires an understanding of how urbanization affects their behavior and ecology. The spatial activity and interactions of urban wildlife, however, have not been as rigorously researched as in rural areas. From January 2015 to December 2016, we captured, radio-collared, and tracked 11 coyotes and 12 red foxes in Madison, WI. Within our study area, coyotes strongly selected home ranges with high proportions of natural areas; conversely, red foxes selected home ranges with open space and moderately developed areas. Use of highly developed areas best explained variation among individual home range sizes and inversely affected home range size for coyotes and red foxes. Coyote and red fox home ranges showed some degree of spatial and temporal overlap, but generally appeared partitioned by habitat type within our study area. Coyotes and red foxes were both active at similar times of the day, but their movement patterns differed based on species-specific habitat use. This spatial partitioning may promote positive co-existence between these sympatric canids in urban areas, and our findings of spatial activity and interactions will better inform wildlife managers working in urban areas.

  8. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe.

  9. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary.

    Farkas, Róbert; Solymosi, Norbert; Takács, Nóra; Hornyák, Ákos; Hornok, Sándor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad

    2014-07-02

    Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country.

  10. Variation in the diet composition of a generalist predator, the red fox, in relation to season and density of main prey

    Dell'Arte, Graziella Lucia; Laaksonen, Toni; Norrdahl, Kai; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2007-05-01

    Diet composition of a generalist predator, the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) in relation to season (winter or summer) and abundance of multi-annually cyclic voles was studied in western Finland from 1983 to 1995. The proportion of scats (PS; a total of 58 scats) including each food category was calculated for each prey group. Microtus voles (the field vole M. agrestis and the sibling vole M. rossiaemeridionalis) were the main prey group of foxes (PS = 0.55) and they frequently occurred in the scats both in the winter and summer (PSs 0.50 and 0.62, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the PSs of Microtus voles in the winter diet of foxes and the density indices of these voles in the previous autumn. Other microtine rodents (the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, the water vole Arvicola terrestris and the muskrat Ondatra zibethicus) were consumed more in winter than in summer. The unusually high small mustelid predation by red foxes (PS = approx. 0.10) in our study area gives qualitative support for the hypothesis on the limiting impact of mammalian predators on least weasel and stoat populations. None of the important prey groups was preyed upon more at low than at high densities of main prey ( Microtus voles). This is consistent with the notion that red foxes are generalist predators that tend to opportunistically subsist on many prey groups. Among these prey groups, particularly hares and birds (including grouse), were frequently used as food by foxes.

  11. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  12. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  13. The origin of recently established red fox populations in the United States: translocations or natural range expansions?

    Mark J. Statham; Benjamin N. Sacks; Keith B. Aubry; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are native to boreal and western montane portions of North America but their origins are unknown in many lowland areas of the United States. Red foxes were historically absent from much of the East Coast at the time of European settlement and did not become common until the mid-1800s. Some early naturalists described an...

  14. Insights into Korean red fox (Vulpes vulpes) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variation in East Asia.

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Bang-Hwan; Kryukov, Alexey P; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

    2012-11-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world, occurring throughout most of North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In South Korea, however, this species has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and poaching. Consequently, it is classified as an endangered species in Korea. As a first step of a planned red fox restoration project, preserved red fox museum specimens were used to determine the genetic status of red foxes that had previously inhabited South Korea against red foxes from neighboring countries. Total eighty three mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, including 22 newly obtained East Asian red fox sequences and worldwide red fox sequences from NCBI, were clustered into three clades (i.e., I, II, and III) based on haplotype network and neighbor-joining trees. The mean genetic distance between clades was 2.0%. Clade III contained South Korean and other East Asian samples in addition to Eurasian and North Pacific individuals. In clade III, South Korean individuals were separated into two lineages of Eurasian and North Pacific groups, showing unclear phylogeographic structuring and admixture. This suggests that South Korean red fox populations may have been composed of individuals from these two different genetic lineages.

  15. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and anatomic assessment of femoral trochlea morphology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs. Sample-24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers. Procedures...... probe location, which could limit quantitative use of ultrasonography in assessing proximal trochlear depth in a clinical setting....

  16. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Kutschera, Verena E; Lecomte, Nicolas; Janke, Axel; Selva, Nuria; Sokolov, Alexander A; Haun, Timm; Steyer, Katharina; Nowak, Carsten; Hailer, Frank

    2013-06-05

    Many boreo-temperate mammals have a Pleistocene fossil record throughout Eurasia and North America, but only few have a contemporary distribution that spans this large area. Examples of Holarctic-distributed carnivores are the brown bear, grey wolf, and red fox, all three ecological generalists with large dispersal capacity and a high adaptive flexibility. While the two former have been examined extensively across their ranges, no phylogeographic study of the red fox has been conducted across its entire Holarctic range. Moreover, no study included samples from central Asia, leaving a large sampling gap in the middle of the Eurasian landmass. Here we provide the first mitochondrial DNA sequence data of red foxes from central Asia (Siberia), and new sequences from several European populations. In a range-wide synthesis of 729 red fox mitochondrial control region sequences, including 677 previously published and 52 newly obtained sequences, this manuscript describes the pattern and timing of major phylogeographic events in red foxes, using a Bayesian coalescence approach with multiple fossil tip and root calibration points. In a 335 bp alignment we found in total 175 unique haplotypes. All newly sequenced individuals belonged to the previously described Holarctic lineage. Our analyses confirmed the presence of three Nearctic- and two Japan-restricted lineages that were formed since the Mid/Late Pleistocene. The phylogeographic history of red foxes is highly similar to that previously described for grey wolves and brown bears, indicating that climatic fluctuations and habitat changes since the Pleistocene had similar effects on these highly mobile generalist species. All three species originally diversified in Eurasia and later colonized North America and Japan. North American lineages persisted through the last glacial maximum south of the ice sheets, meeting more recent colonizers from Beringia during postglacial expansion into the northern Nearctic. Both brown

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana).

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.

  18. First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Apulia (Italy).

    Passantino, Giuseppe; Marino, Fabio; Gaglio, Gabriella; Patruno, Rosa; Lanteri, Giovanni; Zizzo, Nicola

    2017-04-05

    Severe lung strongylosis was detected in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (1/12) from Apulia (Italy). We performed routine diagnostics on 12 foxes found dead in Apulia. Eleven of them showed lesions consistent with a vehicle collision. However, the remaining fox appeared to have died from other causes. At necropsy we observed, catarrhal enteritis, fatty liver, lung congestion with some areas rm in consistence and brain haemorrhages and malacia. Histopathology revealed lung brosis with mononucleate cells in ltration, thrombosis a several larval nematodes spread in the parenchyma, interstitial nephritis, interstitial myocarditis, encephalitis, encephalomalacia, and a brain granuloma. The larvae recovered from the lung parenchyma were identi ed as the rst stage larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum. This is the rst documented report of angiostrongylosis in a fox in Southern Italy.

  19. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes at an Outdoor Piggery

    Patricia A. Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets. We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”, it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows, and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most vulnerable, especially when they are born out in the paddock, but older piglets were also lost. A significant ( p = 0.001 effect of individual sow identification on the weaning rate, but no effect of sow age (parity, suggests that individual sow behavior towards predators influences predation risk for litters. We tracked the movement of piglet carcasses by foxes, and confirmed that foxes make use of patches of native vegetation for cover, although there was no effect of paddock, distance to vegetation, or position on the farm on weaning rate. Trials with non-toxic baits reveal high levels

  20. Diversity of Flea (Siphonaptera) Parasites on Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania.

    Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D

    2017-09-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Unilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with an ovarian cyst.

    Lee, Seung Y; Jung, Dong H; Park, Se J; Seek, Seong H; Yang, Jeong J; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Bae K; Lee, Hee C; Yeon, Seong C

    2014-09-01

    Unilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy was attempted in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with an ovarian cyst through single portal access. The ovarian cyst was resistant to conservative therapy using gonadotropin-releasing hormone. A 10-mm laparoscope with an operating channel was introduced into the abdomen via a 12-mm umbilical portal. The left ovary and cyst (34.1 x 30.8 mm) were fixed to the left abdominal wall by a transabdominal suspension suture. The ovarian pedicles and ligaments were progressively cauterized and transected with a multifunction bipolar electrocoagulation forceps. The resected cystic ovary was exteriorized through the umbilical portal site. The surgical time was 42 min, and no intra- and postoperative complications were encountered. Two months after the surgery mating was observed, and the fox gave birth to three healthy cubs 56 days after the mating. This is the first report of using laparoscopy in the red fox with an ovarian cyst.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    B.C. Damien; S. Losch; J. Mossong; C.P. Muller (Claude); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    B.C. Damien; B.E.E. Martina (Byron); S. Losch; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.P. Muller (Claude)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  4. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  5. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  6. Lessons from long-term predator control: a case study with the red fox

    Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; Dann, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Predator-control aims to reduce an impact on prey species, but efficacy of long-term control is rarely assessed and the reductions achieved are rarely quantified. Aims: We evaluated the changing efficacy of a 58-year-long campaign against red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on Phillip Island, a

  7. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link.

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals.

  8. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified

  9. Analyses of the Food Habits of the Red Fox and the Stone Marten in ...

    Plants, arthropods and mammals dominated the diet of the two carnivores in all seasons. The carnivores took birds and reptiles – amphibians at low levels, accounting for less than 11% of the food items for any season. Manmade items were more common in the red fox diet than for the other carnivore Using tree analysis, ...

  10. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  11. Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of north-western Poland.

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lisowski, Piotr; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta Izabela

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in samples of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of 27 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) from north-western Poland, and examined the morphometric characteristics of the collected specimens. The analysis also included the relationship between Hg concentration and the fox size, and the suitability of individual organs as bioindicators in indirect evaluation of environmental mercury contamination. Determination of Hg concentration was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the analysed samples, the Hg concentration was low and the maximum value did not exceed 0.85 mgHg/kg dry weight (dw). There were no significant differences in Hg concentrations in the analysed material between males and females or between immature and adult groups. The median concentrations of Hg in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 mgHg/kg dw, respectively. The correlation coefficients were significant between the concentrations of mercury in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle (positive) and between the kidney Hg concentration and kidney mass (negative). Taking into account our results and findings of other authors, it may be argued that the red fox exhibits a measurable response to mercury environmental pollution and meets the requirements of a bioindicator.

  12. EUCOLEUS BOEHMI INFECTION IN THE NASAL CONCHAE AND PARANASAL SINUSES OF RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) ON PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA.

    Lopez, Alfonso; Aburto, Enrique; Jones, Kathleen; Robbins, William; Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-28

    Eucoleus boehmi (Nematoda: Capillariidae) occurs in the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses of wild and domestic canids. We surveyed the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, for E. boehmi infection and characterized the associated histopathology. Nasal capillarid infections were detected based on histologic examination of three coronal sections of the nasal cavity and by centrifugal flotation examination (CFE) of rectal feces. Capillarids were detected in histologic sections in 28 of 36 (78%) foxes; detection occurred most frequently in the caudal section (28 foxes) and least in the rostral section (10 foxes). Adult worm morphology was typical for capillarids (stichosome esophagus, bacillary bands, bipolar plugged eggs); E. boehmi eggs were specifically identified based on the characteristic pitted shell wall surface. Adult worms were detected in histologic sections in all 28 and E. boehmi eggs in 21 of the positive foxes. No eggs of Eucoleus aerophilus were observed in any of the sections. Affected foxes had an eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis with goblet cell hyperplasia. Eggs of E. aerophilus were detected on CFE in 20 of 36 (56%) foxes; 19 of the histologically positive foxes were coinfected with E. aerophilus. Eggs of E. boehmi were detected on CFE in 26 of 36 (72%) foxes and were consistent in size and morphology with those described from wild canids, but they differed from those reported from cases of infection in dogs. Prevalence based on identification of eggs on histologic section or CFE indicated 27 of 36 (75%) red foxes examined were infected with E. boehmi.

  13. A case history of a dynamic resource--the red fox

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sanderson, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population trends in midwestern North America since 1800 were examined. During 1801-1900, the red fox expanded its range south to include most of the region, but populations remained low in most areas. During 1901-30, it became scarce or absent in many northern areas but was common in southern areas. During 1931-45, populations in most of the region increased to high levels. From 1946 to 1980 populations remained high and westward range expansions occurred on the northern plains. Three factors appear primarily responsible for major population changes. Habitat conditions improved after settlement, but in many areas population buildup was delayed. Interspecific canid competition, especially from expanding coyote (Canis latrans) populations, held red fox populations at low levels, especially in the west. Excessive harvest for fur contributed to holding populations down in many areas, especially during the early 1900's when pelt values were exceptionally high. Major population increases during the 1930's and early 1940's coincided with declining pelt prices and resulted in widespread implementation of fox bounties. In the 1960's, bounties were gradually discontinued, pelt prices increased, and restrictions on season length and harvest methods were implemented in most states.

  14. Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Moleón, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrate scavenging assemblages include two major functional groups: obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures), which depend totally on carrion and are undergoing severe declines around the globe, and facultative scavengers, which exploit carrion opportunistically and are generally ubiquitous. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that vultures can indirectly regulate the abundance of mesopredators (i.e., facultative scavengers) through modulating their access to carrion resources. We studied scavenging efficiency and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) abundance in two neighbouring areas of South-eastern Spain where vultures (mainly griffon vultures Gyps fulvus) are present (Cazorla) and absent (Espuña). To do so, we monitored ungulate carcasses consumption during winter and summer, and counted red fox scats along walking transects as a proxy of fox density. Our results confirmed that scavenging efficiency was higher in Cazorla and in carcasses visited by vultures. This resulted in increasing scavenging opportunities for facultative scavengers where vultures were absent. Accordingly, mean red fox abundance was higher in Espuña. These results suggest the existence of a vulture-mediated mesopredator release (i.e., an increase of mesopredator numbers following vulture loss), which could trigger important indirect ecological effects. Also, our study demonstrates that facultative scavengers are hardly able to functionally replace vultures, mainly because the former exploit carrion on a slower time scale.

  15. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis.

    Jiang, Weibin; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Gaotian; Renqing, Pengcuo; Xie, Fei; Li, Tiaoying; Wang, Zhenghuan; Wang, Xiaoming

    2012-10-01

    There are three Echinococcus species, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) have been determined to be the main wild definitive host of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, but little information is available on the prevalence of these two parasites in Tibetan foxes. Consequently, the copro-prevalence of these parasites in foxes from the eastern Tibetan plateau was evaluated in this study. For each copro-DNA sample extracted from fox feces, a 133-bp segment of EgG1 Hae III was used to screen for infection with E. granulosus. Multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to target an 874-bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene to distinguish E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Among 184 fecal samples, 120 were from Tibetan foxes and six from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Of the fecal samples from Tibetan foxes, 74 (giving a copro-prevalence of 62%) showed the presence of Echinococcus spp.: 23 (19%) were found to contain E. multilocularis, 32 (27%) E. shiquicus, and 19 (16%) showed mixed infection with both E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Two fecal samples from red foxes were found to be infected with E. multilocularis. No fox feces were found to be infected with E. granulosus. Tests on zinc finger protein genes and a 105-bp fragment of the Sry gene found no significant difference in the prevalence of the two parasites between sexes. The efficiency of our multiplex nested PCR methods were compared with previous polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods and some problems associated with the copro-PCR were discussed.

  16. Trichinella spp. biomass has increased in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Estonia

    Kärssin, Age; Häkkinen, Liidia; Niin, Enel

    2017-01-01

    for evaluating the effectiveness of oral vaccination program for rabies eradication in wildlife, samples from 113 raccoon dogs and 87 red foxes were included in this study. From each animal, 20 g of masseter muscle tissue was tested for the presence of Trichinella larvae using an artificial digestion method.......0% in red foxes, which were higher than previous estimates. In addition, the larval burden had also increased in both hosts. We estimated that in 2011-2012, the Trichinella spp. biomass was more than 15 times higher in raccoon dogs and almost two times higher in red foxes than in 1992-2000 (based on mean...

  17. Anesthetic management of a 4-month-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) for orthopedic surgery.

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos; Flouraki, Eugenia; Kostakis, Charalampos; Komnenou, Anastasia; Prassinos, Nikitas; Raptopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    A 4-mo-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found recumbent after a vehicular accident. Radiology revealed several limb fractures and the fox underwent surgery after 24 hr of initial stabilization. Premedication consisted of dexmedetomidine and morphine. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam and maintained with isoflurane. Lidocaine, bupivacaine, and morphine were administered epidurally and further analgesia was provided with meloxicam. The heart rate and respiratory rate of the fox remained stable during surgery and, except for a mild hypothermia, the recovery from anesthesia was uneventful. The postoperative pain scores were low and the animal was transported to a rehabilitation facility and eventually released to the wild. The low pain scores postoperatively should be attributed to the successful application of epidural anesthesia and analgesia.

  18. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  20. Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Smith, G C; Gangadharan, B; Taylor, Z; Laurenson, M K; Bradshaw, H; Hide, G; Hughes, J M; Dinkel, A; Romig, T; Craig, P S

    2003-12-01

    A national necropsy survey of red foxes was carried out across Great Britain to record Echinococcus, Trichinella and Toxoplasma. The survey did not record directly, or indirectly using coproantigen/PCR tests, evidence for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in 588 animals, although E. granulosus was suspected in six animals. Parasitological evidence for Trichinella spp. could not be found in 587 fox muscle digests, and a specific PCR test also failed to detect Toxoplasma in a sub-set of 61 random fox tongue biopsies. The upper 95% confidence interval for the above parasites was 0.60% (E. multilocularis), 0.60% (Trichinella spp.) and 5.6% (Toxoplasma). The commonest gut parasites were the hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala (41.3%) and the ascarid Toxocara canis (61.6%). This study also reports the second occurrence of Trichuris vulpis in Great Britain.

  1. The effects of sex, age, season and habitat on diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in northeastern Poland.

    Kidawa, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2011-07-01

    The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination of Microtus rodents, regardless of sex, age, month and habitat. Voles Microtus spp. were found in 73% of stomachs and constituted 47% of food volume consumed. Other food items were ungulate carrion (27% of volume), other mammals (11%), birds (9%), and plant material (4%). Sex- and age-specific differences in dietary diversity were found. Adult males and juvenile foxes had larger food niche breadths than adult females and their diets highly overlapped. Proportion of Microtus voles increased from autumn to late winter. Significant habitat differences between studied regions were found. There was a tendency among foxes to decrease consumption of voles with increasing percentage of forest cover. Based on our findings, red foxes in northeastern Poland can be recognized as a generalist predators, consuming easily accessible and abundant prey. However, high percentage of voles consumed regardless of age, sex, month, or habitats may indicate red fox specialization in preying on Microtus rodents.

  2. The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    , as reflected in high establishment rates. Although severe clinical disease was never observed in the foxes, A. vasorum infections in red foxes appear to be chronic and moreover, to resemble infections in dogs. The results underline the red fox as a suitable model as well as natural reservoir for the parasite....

  3. Fear or food - abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and wolf.

    Wikenros, Camilla; Aronsson, Malin; Liberg, Olof; Jarnemo, Anders; Hansson, Jessica; Wallgren, Märtha; Sand, Håkan; Bergström, Roger

    2017-08-22

    Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.) density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the effect of wolf pack size and time since wolf territory establishment on fox abundance. Bottom-up processes were more influential than top-down effects as the proportion of arable land was the key indicator of fox abundance at the landscape level. At this spatial scale, there was no effect of wolf abundance on fox abundance, whereas lynx abundance had a positive effect. In contrast, at the wolf territory level there was a negative effect of wolves on fox abundance when including detailed information of pack size and time since territory establishment, whereas there was no effect of lynx abundance. This study shows that different apex predator species may affect mesopredator abundance in different ways and that the results may be dependent on the spatiotemporal scale and resolution of the data.

  4. Is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) a competent definitive host for Taenia multiceps?

    Varcasia, Antonio; Tamponi, Claudia; Tosciri, Gabriele; Pipia, Anna Paola; Dore, Francesco; Schuster, Rolf Karl; Kandil, Omnia Mohamed; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Scala, Antonio

    2015-09-25

    Shepherd and stray dogs are thought to represent the primary definitive hosts of Coenurosis by Taenia multiceps, due to their feeding habits which translate into high chances of coming into contact with infected intermediate hosts. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of coenurosis. In fact a knowledge gap exists on the role played by red foxes in the epidemiology of Taenia multiceps and the capability of this parasite to produce fertile and viable eggs in this wild canid, i.e. on the occurrence of a sylvatic cycle. This study investigates the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of T. multiceps and related metacestodoses. The small intestine of 63 red foxes was macroscopically examined for the presence of cestodes. Adult parasites were identified morphologically as being T. multiceps. Tapeworm eggs were counted and stored at 4 °C in physiological saline solution prior to experimental infection of four sheep and one goat. Sheep were inoculated orally on Day 0 with 3000 (sheep 1), 5000 (sheep 2 and 3) or 7000 eggs (sheep 4), while the goat was infected with 5000 eggs of T. multiceps. The animals were followed-up regularly by MRI and underwent surgical treatment between days 180 to day 240 post infection. Collected coenuri were identified using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 6.3 % of red foxes were found infected with T. multiceps and the eggs obtained from the worms were determined to have a viability of 45.4 %. Two of the challenged sheep and the goat developed disease compatible with T. multiceps. Morphometrical features of the cysts were consistent with those of T. multiceps; nucleotide amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial genes (i.e., cox1 and Nd1) from the metacestode material confirmed the identification. The present study is the first to provide evidence of the role of the red fox as a competent definitive host for T. multiceps, thus changing

  5. The concentration of manganese, iron and strontium in bone of red fox Vulpes vulpes (L. 1758).

    Budis, Halina; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the study were to determine manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and strontium (Sr) concentrations in fox bone samples from north-western Poland and to examine the relationships between the bone Mn, Fe and Sr concentrations and the sex and age of the foxes. In the studied samples of fox cartilage, cartilage with adjacent compact bone, compact bone and spongy bone, the concentrations of the analysed metals had the following descending order: Fe > Sr > Mn. The only exception was in compact bone, in which the concentrations were arranged in the order Sr > Fe > Mn. Manganese concentrations were significantly higher in cartilage, compact bone and cartilage with compact bone than in spongy bone. Iron concentrations were higher in cartilage and spongy bone compared with compact bone. Strontium concentrations were greater in compact bone than in cartilage and spongy bone. The manganese, iron and strontium concentrations in the same type of bone material in many cases correlated with each other, with the strongest correlation (r > 0.70) between Mn and Fe in almost all types of samples. In addition, concentrations of the same metals in different bone materials were closely correlated for Mn and Fe in cartilage and cartilage with adjacent compact bone, and for Sr in compact bone and cartilage with compact bone. In the fox from NW Poland, there were no statistically significant differences in Mn, Fe and Sr in any of the types of bone material between the sexes and immature and adult foxes.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in the small intestine of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with and without Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    Brožová, Adela; Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Scháňková, Štěpánka; Truněčková, Jana; Langrová, Iva; Kudrnáčová, Marie; Vadlejch, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels in red fox small intestine samples with or without Echinococcus multilocularis infection were studied. The red foxes were taken from the open countryside of northwest Bohemia (CR). Red foxes with E. multilocularis infection had lower levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb); cadmium levels in infected foxes (0.0052 mg/kg) were twice as low as in uninfected foxes (0.0106 mg/kg). This was the same case for lead: 0.0288 mg/kg infected red foxes (inf.) and 0.0413 mg/kg uninfected (uninf.). Conversely, red foxes with E. multilocularis infection yielded higher concentrations in comparison to their uninfected counterparts: Cr (0.0087 mg/kg uninf. and 0.0116 mg/kg inf.), Cu (0.2677 mg/kg uninf. and 0.3205 mg/kg inf.), Fe (6.46 mg/kg uninf. and 10.89 mg/kg inf.), Mn (0.1966 mg/kg uninf. and 0.2029 mg/kg inf.), Ni (0.0415 mg/kg uninf. and 0.064 mg/kg inf.) and Zn (16.71 mg/kg uninf. and 20.25 mg/kg inf). This could support the hypothesis that tapeworms are able to absorb toxic heavy metals from the host body into their tissues, as well as to modify other element concentrations in the host body.

  7. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...

  8. A comparative study of helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes sharing the same territory

    Rolf Karl Schuster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the helminth fauna of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes originating from the Uckermark distict, a rural area in the northeastern part of Germany. Methods: Internal organs of 101 legally hunted raccoon dogs and 144 red foxes were examined for helminths by helminthological dissection. Results: In total, 18 helminth species were detected of which 14 were present in raccoon dogs and 17 were detected in red foxes. In both host species, Mesocestoides litteratus, Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis occurred in comparably high prevalences. Significant differences in prevalence were seen in Isthmiophora melis and Alaria alata that were more often diagnosed in raccoon dogs and Taenia polyacantha that was more frequent in red foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis was present in both hosts in low prevalence. Conclusions: Both canid hosts sharing the same territories have a similar helminth spectrum. Differences in prevalence and abundance can be explained with distinct.

  9. Theobromine intoxication in a red fox and a European badger in Sweden.

    Jansson, D S; Galgan, V; Schubert, B; Segerstad, C H

    2001-04-01

    A red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and a European badger (Meles meles) were found dead on a golf-course in October 1997 near Stockholm (Sweden). At necropsy, both animals were obese and the main finding was acute circulatory collapse. Theobromine intoxication was suspected as chocolate waste was available at a nearby farm and no other cause of death could be detected. Gastric contents and samples of liver from both animals were analyzed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography for the presence of methylxanthines. Theobromine and caffeine were detected in gastric contents and theobromine was identified in the liver samples from both animals. This appears to be the first report of theobromine intoxication in the red fox and the European badger.

  10. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spirocerca vulpis sp. nov. (Spiruridae: Spirocercidae): description of a new nematode species of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Carnivora: Canidae).

    Rojas, Alicia; Sanchis-Monsonís, Gloria; Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Otranto, Domenico; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Baneth, Gad

    2018-05-21

    Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S. lupi (P red foxes spirurid represent monophyletic sister groups with pairwise nucleotide distances of 9.2 and 0.2% in the cytochrome oxidase 1 and 18S genes, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the nematodes from red foxes were considered to belong to a separate species, for which the name Spirocerca vulpis sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Tserendorj Munkhzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  13. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania.

    Peter Caley

    Full Text Available A recent study has inferred that the red fox (Vulpes vulpes is now widespread in Tasmania as of 2010, based on the extraction of fox DNA from predator scats. Heuristically, this inference appears at first glance to be at odds with the lack of recent confirmed discoveries of either road-killed foxes--the last of which occurred in 2006, or hunter killed foxes--the most recent in 2001. This paper demonstrates a method to codify this heuristic analysis and produce inferences consistent with assumptions and data. It does this by formalising the analysis in a transparent and repeatable manner to make inference on the past, present and future distribution of an invasive species. It utilizes Approximate Bayesian Computation to make inferences. Importantly, the method is able to inform management of invasive species within realistic time frames, and can be applied widely. We illustrate the technique using the Tasmanian fox data. Based on the pattern of carcass discoveries of foxes in Tasmania, we infer that the population of foxes in Tasmania is most likely extinct, or restricted in distribution and demographically weak as of 2013. It is possible, though unlikely, that that population is widespread and/or demographically robust. This inference is largely at odds with the inference from the predator scat survey data. Our results suggest the chances of successfully eradicating the introduced red fox population in Tasmania may be significantly higher than previously thought.

  15. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania.

    Caley, Peter; Ramsey, David S L; Barry, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has inferred that the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is now widespread in Tasmania as of 2010, based on the extraction of fox DNA from predator scats. Heuristically, this inference appears at first glance to be at odds with the lack of recent confirmed discoveries of either road-killed foxes--the last of which occurred in 2006, or hunter killed foxes--the most recent in 2001. This paper demonstrates a method to codify this heuristic analysis and produce inferences consistent with assumptions and data. It does this by formalising the analysis in a transparent and repeatable manner to make inference on the past, present and future distribution of an invasive species. It utilizes Approximate Bayesian Computation to make inferences. Importantly, the method is able to inform management of invasive species within realistic time frames, and can be applied widely. We illustrate the technique using the Tasmanian fox data. Based on the pattern of carcass discoveries of foxes in Tasmania, we infer that the population of foxes in Tasmania is most likely extinct, or restricted in distribution and demographically weak as of 2013. It is possible, though unlikely, that that population is widespread and/or demographically robust. This inference is largely at odds with the inference from the predator scat survey data. Our results suggest the chances of successfully eradicating the introduced red fox population in Tasmania may be significantly higher than previously thought.

  16. Platinum coat color in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is caused by a mutation in an autosomal copy of KIT.

    Johnson, J L; Kozysa, A; Kharlamova, A V; Gulevich, R G; Perelman, P L; Fong, H W F; Vladimirova, A V; Oskina, I N; Trut, L N; Kukekova, A V

    2015-04-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) demonstrates a variety of coat colors including platinum, a common phenotype maintained in farm-bred fox populations. Foxes heterozygous for the platinum allele have a light silver coat and extensive white spotting, whereas homozygosity is embryonic lethal. Two KIT transcripts were identified in skin cDNA from platinum foxes. The long transcript was identical to the KIT transcript of silver foxes, whereas the short transcript, which lacks exon 17, was specific to platinum. The KIT gene has several copies in the fox genome: an autosomal copy on chromosome 2 and additional copies on the B chromosomes. To identify the platinum-specific KIT sequence, the genomes of one platinum and one silver fox were sequenced. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified at the first nucleotide of KIT intron 17 in the platinum fox. In platinum foxes, the A allele of the SNP disrupts the donor splice site and causes exon 17, which is part of a segment that encodes a conserved tyrosine kinase domain, to be skipped. Complete cosegregation of the A allele with the platinum phenotype was confirmed by linkage mapping (LOD 25.59). All genotyped farm-bred platinum foxes from Russia and the US were heterozygous for the SNP (A/G), whereas foxes with different coat colors were homozygous for the G allele. Identification of the platinum mutation suggests that other fox white-spotting phenotypes, which are allelic to platinum, would also be caused by mutations in the KIT gene. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Alan E; Newsome, Thomas M; Dickman, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas where

  18. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Robyn Molsher

    Full Text Available Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo, has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time

  19. Sarcoptic mange and other ectoparasitic infections in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes population from central Italy

    S. Perrucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the district of Pisa (central Italy were examined for ectoparasites. Sarcoptic mange was diagnosed on the presence of clearly visible skin lesions with confirmatory demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei at parasitological and histopathological analysis. Ticks and fleas were collected directly from the carcases during post mortem examination, fixed and identified by morphological examination. For the detection of ear Malassezia and mite infections, cytological and parasitological examinations of ear wax samples were performed. All data were statistically analysed using a χ2 test with the Yates correction. An overall prevalence of 84% for ectoparasitic infections was found in examined subjects. In regard to isolated ectoparasites, 38%, 8%, 82%, 6% and 8% of foxes resulted positive for S. scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Malassezia spp., fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei, Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis and ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. Malassezia ear infection was significantly more prevalent in animals older than 1 year (P < 0.01. Prevalence (38%, severity of lesions and poor body conditions observed in most Sarcoptes-infected animals indicate that sarcoptic mange should be considered the most important ectoparasitic infection of red foxes in the examined area.

  20. When things go wrong: Cysticercus longicollis in an adult wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Konjević, Dean; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Sindičić, Magda; Martinković, Franjo; Jan, Dagny Stojčević

    2016-03-01

    First case of Cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of Taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was killed by dogs at Nature Park Medvednica and presented to the University of Zagreb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. Necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the leg muscles, and numerous of spherical cysts in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Cysticerci were identified as C. longicollis based on their size, number and size of the rostellar hooks, mode of proliferation and DNA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. crassiceps cysticercosis in a wild carnivore.

  1. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) with ...

    ... lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  2. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia☆

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  3. Characterization and application of newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki).

    Tada, T; Seki, Y; Kameyama, Y; Kikkawa, Y; Wada, K

    2016-12-19

    The Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki), a subspecies endemic to Hokkaido island, Japan, is a known host species for the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. To develop tools for molecular ecological studies, we isolated 28 microsatellite regions from the genome of Ezo red fox, and developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers. These markers were characterized using 7 individuals and 22 fecal samples of the Ezo red fox. The number of alleles for these markers ranged from 1 to 7, and the observed heterozygosity, estimated on the basis of the genotypes of 7 individuals, ranged from 0.29 to 1.00. All markers, except DvNok5, were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05), and no linkage disequilibrium was detected among these loci, except between DvNok14 and DvNok28 (P = 0.01). Moreover, six microsatellite loci were successfully genotyped using feces-derived DNA from the Ezo red fox. The markers developed in our study might serve as a useful tool for molecular ecological studies of the Ezo red fox.

  4. Distinct features of intraspecific and intrapopulation variability of the skull size in the red fox.

    Gos'kov, A M; Bol'shakov, V N; Korytin, N S

    2017-05-01

    The range of chronographic variability of the average size of the skull in the red fox (data collected by the authors) from a compact area in the Middle Urals has been assessed for a 30-year period, and the results obtained have been compared with the published data on the geographical variability within the vast species range. The range of changes of the average dimensions of the skull over time spanned almost the entire range of geographical variability. Therefore, the problem of search for factors that determine the morphological diversity arises.

  5. Fear or food ? abundance of red fox in relation to occurrence of lynx and wolf

    Wikenros, Camilla; Aronsson, Malin; Liberg, Olof; Jarnemo, Anders; Hansson, Jessica; Wallgren, M?rtha; Sand, H?kan; Bergstr?m, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.)?density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the eff...

  6. Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories.

    Statham, Mark J; Murdoch, James; Janecka, Jan; Aubry, Keith B; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Soulsbury, Carl D; Berry, Oliver; Wang, Zhenghuan; Harrison, David; Pearch, Malcolm; Tomsett, Louise; Chupasko, Judith; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-10-01

    Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin of the primary North American (Nearctic) clade. Demographic analyses indicated a major expansion in Eurasia during the last glaciation (~50 kya), coinciding with a previously described secondary transfer of a single matriline (Holarctic) to North America. In contrast, North American matrilines (including the transferred portion of Holarctic clade) exhibited no signatures of expansion until the end of the Pleistocene (~12 kya). Analyses of 11 autosomal loci from a subset of foxes supported the colonization time frame suggested by mtDNA (and the fossil record) but, in contrast, reflected no detectable secondary transfer, resulting in the most fundamental genomic division of red foxes at the Bering Strait. Endemic continental Y-chromosome clades further supported this pattern. Thus, intercontinental genomic exchange was overall very limited, consistent with long-term reproductive isolation since the initial colonization of North America. Based on continental divergence times in other carnivoran species pairs, our findings support a model of peripatric speciation and are consistent with the previous classification of the North American red fox as a distinct species, V. fulva. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. First report of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Hepatozoon from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, USA.

    Kistler, Whitney M; Brown, Justin D; Allison, Andrew B; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-02-24

    Angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from West Virginia, United States (US), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. The fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. We did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. We observed bronchopneumonia associated with A. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. In addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node, and were identified as Hepatozoon canis. Lymphoid depletion was also observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. In addition to A. vasorum and H. canis infections, Eucoleus aerophilus eggs and adult worms were observed in the lungs of the fox. Severe lesions associated with A. vasorum infection were observed in the lungs and these were determined to be the likely cause of morbidity; however, synergistic effects among the multiple infections detected in this fox cannot be ruled out. This is the first report of an autochthonous A. vasorum infection in the US and from outside of Newfoundland Canada, the only place in North America where the parasite is known to be endemic. Additionally, this is the first report of a H. canis infection in a red fox from the US. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  10. Long-term study of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in Norwegian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) indicating host/parasite adaptation.

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Bornstein, Set; Handeland, Kjell

    2008-10-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population, in Norway, was naïve to Sarcoptes scabiei prior to the late 1970s when this parasite was first recorded and a still ongoing epidemic started. During the course of this protracted epidemic some degree of host/parasite adaptation, with the occurrence of healthy antibody positive foxes, might be expected. In the present study the prevalence of sarcoptic mange and serologically identified S. scabiei exposure was investigated in 363 Norwegian red foxes, shot by hunters during two different study periods (1994-1995 and 2002-2005). The sarcoptic mange diagnosis was based upon the presence of clearly visible lesions in the skin of the cadaver with confirmatory demonstration of S. scabiei. The serodiagnosis was based on an indirect-ELISA. There was a significant decrease in prevalence of both mange cases and seropositive animals from the first to the second study period. Whilst the mange prevalence fell more than threefold, from 30.0% to 6.6%, the seroprevalence dropped less dramatically from 53.3% to 19.1%. The smaller decrease in seroprevalence compared to mange cases reflected a significantly higher ratio of seropositive-mange negative versus seropositive-mange positive foxes, during the second study period, 40:18, compared to the first, 14:18. These findings indicate that the red fox population is adapting to live with the parasite and that low-grade or sub-clinical infections, and even recoveries, occur amongst exposed foxes. Mange positive foxes had significantly poorer body condition than those without sarcoptic mange. No significant difference in body condition was seen between seropositive-mange negative versus seronegative-mange negative foxes. The ELISA sensitivity was found to be 95% and proved a useful tool for investigating the exposure to S. scabiei in wild foxes. This study is believed to be the first pointing to a long-term Sarcoptes/fox adaptation, combining long-term prevalence studies of clinical sarcoptic mange

  11. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  12. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Bocharova, Natalia; Treu, Gabriele; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Krone, Oliver; Stefanski, Volker; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Unnsteinsdóttir, Ester Rut; Hersteinsson, Páll; Schares, Gereon; Doronina, Lilia; Goltsman, Mikhail; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  13. Evaluation of a serological test (indirect ELISA) for the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Bornstein, Set; Frössling, Jenny; Näslund, Katarina; Zakrisson, Göran; Mörner, Torsten

    2006-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in many parts of the world and is common in populations of domestic and wild canids, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). In recent years, an indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional diagnostic methods, has been successfully applied in the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs. The same ELISA has also demonstrated specific antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in experimentally infected red foxes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indirect ELISA when used to detect antibodies to S. scabiei in field sera from Swedish red foxes. One cohort of both infected and non-infected red foxes (cohort 1; n = 88), and one cohort of apparently non-infected foxes (cohort 2; n = 67) were examined for skin lesions and presence of S. scabiei by thorough visual examination at autopsy and skin scrapings. Samples of blood-tinted body liquid from the abdomen or thorax cavity were collected and analysed by the indirect ELISA. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA at different cut-offs (OD values) were estimated by comparing the test results to the infection status as determined by examination and skin scrapings. The highest combination of relative sensitivity and specificity, calculated based on cohort 1, was 95.4 and 100.0%, respectively. These estimates were constant for cut-offs 0.150-0.225, which included the cut-off based on the mean plus three standard deviations of test results from cohort 2 (0.165). It is concluded that this test can be useful in diagnosis and epidemiological studies of S. scabiei infection in red foxes.

  14. Analysis of genomic instability in primary spermatocytes of interspecific hybrids of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus).

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Pawlina, Klaudia; Jakubczak, Andrzej; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse meiotic cells of male interspecific hybrids of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). To this end we determined stages of meiotic cells as well as carried out FISH analyses with probes specific to heterosomes and a TUNEL assay on synaptonemal complex preparations. The meiotic cell analysis revealed only the presence of stages of the first meiotic division from leptotene to pachytene. Moreover, we observed an increased level of early dissociation of the X-Y bivalent as well as a high percentage of apoptotic cells. These results indicate the disruption of meiotic division in male hybrids manifested through meiotic arrest of the cells. Faulty pairing of the heterosomes can be considered as one of the causes leading to the initiation of the apoptotic process.

  15. Lipids of the Tail Gland, Body and Muzzle Fur of the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes.

    McLean, Stuart; Davies, Noel W; Nichols, David S

    2017-07-01

    The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in social communication. We have analysed lipids extracted from fur of the tail gland, body (flanks) and muzzle of foxes. GC-MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglate monoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0-22:0). There was also a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second, longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcohol group. LC-MS showed the full range of diol diesters, mostly C36:0-50:0, with smaller amounts of the corresponding mono-unsaturated tiglate esters. An additional group of diesters with higher MW (C49:0-62:0) containing two long-chain FA was present in the lipids of body and muzzle fur. After saponification and GC-MS, 98 fatty acids were characterized as their methyl esters. Apart from the C5 FA, most were saturated n-, iso-, anteiso- or other methyl-branched FA (C12:0-28:0) whose structures were determined by a combination of their mass spectra and Kovats retention indices. Several FA have not previously been found in nature or in vertebrates. Thirty-four alkane-1,2-diols were found as their TMS derivatives, mostly n-, iso- or anteiso-isomers of C16:0-25:0. The tail gland had the greatest amount of wax esters, from a greater variety of FA and diols, but lacked the esters with two long-chain FA. These findings show that fox skin lipids comprise mono- and di-esters of alkane-1,2-diols, and exhibit enormous complexity due to the diversity of their constituent FA, diols and the many possible isomers of their esters.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of Neospora caninum-associated dermatitis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii infection

    A 3-month- old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of 1 leg. Histological examination of biopsy of skin lesion revealed granolomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites...

  17. Variation in the diet of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in mountain habitats: Effects of altitude and season

    Hartová-Nentvichová, M.; Šálek, M.; Červený, Jaroslav; Koubek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2010), s. 334-340 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0687 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : red fox * food * mountain habitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2010

  18. Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories

    Mark J. Statham; James Murdoch; Jan Janecka; Keith B. Aubry; Ceiridwen J. Edwards; Carl D. Soulsbury; Oliver Berry; Zhenghuan Wang; David Harrison; Malcolm Pearch; Louise Tomsett; Judith Chupasko; Benjamin N. Sacks

    2014-01-01

    Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world’s most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of...

  19. Occurrence of ticks in the subcutaneous tissue of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes in Czech Republic and Romania

    D'Amico, G.; Juránková, J.; Tăbăran, F. A.; Frgelecová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Hodžić, A.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 309-312 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Red fox * subcutaneous * ticks * Czech Republic * Romania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  20. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) bioindicator of lead and copper pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    Naccari, C; Giangrosso, G; Macaluso, A; Billone, E; Cicero, A; D'Ascenzi, C; Ferrantelli, V

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Pb and Cu accumulation in muscle and skin samples of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Sicily, for monitoring of environmental metals pollution. Metals determination, carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), showed the presence of Pb and Cu in all samples analyzed. Pb concentrations were similar in muscle (0.04±0.009 mg/kg) and skin (0.03±0.004 mg/kg) samples, while Cu levels resulted higher in muscle (1.842±0.178 mg/kg) than in skin (1.22±0.151 mg/kg). In addition, a comparative analysis of Pb and Cu concentrations was carried out among samples from different areas of Sicily and between female and male, young and old, immature and mature foxes. Metals content found in all muscle and skin samples demonstrates that V. vulpes could be a valid "sentinel" species of rural and suburban areas to study the environmental metals pollution and the habitat quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Mafalda P Basto

    Full Text Available The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS, a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA. Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive

  2. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox

    Basto, Mafalda P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W.; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  3. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Basto, Mafalda P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  4. Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements.

    Ikeda, Takako; Yoshimura, Masashi; Onoyama, Keiichi; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-06

    Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations. The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection. Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model. Our

  5. Relative habitat use by the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Köprülü Canyon National Park, Southern Anatolia

    Soyumert, Anil; Gürkan, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivore mammals are one of the indicators for healthy ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to gather scientific data about carnivores for comprehensive conservation plans. Red fox is one of the carnivore species with widest distribution in Anatolia. In the present study habitat use of red fox was investigated to contribute to reduce the insufficiency of knowledge about carnivores in Turkey. Scent-station method was used to reveal relative habitat use of red fox in Köprülü Canyon Nat...

  6. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement.

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  7. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

    Mario Ricciardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  8. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes respectively harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, of which several were of zoonotic significance. Significantly more nematode...

  9. The diet of Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to a changing agricultural ecosystem. A historical perspective

    Pagh, Sussie; Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    2015-01-01

    Rodents and especially voles (Microtus agrestis or arvalis) make up the basic diet of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. As the abundance of voles and mice may have decreased as a result of modern agricultural procedures, this study investigates potential changes in the diet of Danish red foxes over...... the past 4 decades in relation to a changing agricultural landscape. Our study compares the stomach contents of foxes collected in Jutland during the years 2012–2014 with a similar study from 1965 to 1970. The results show that small rodents occur in the stomachs of foxes with the same frequencies today...... (73 %) as 40–50 years ago (67 %), while the frequency of European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) has decreased from 7 to 3 % and the frequency of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has increased from 3 to 18 %. The changes in the occurrence of brown hare and roe deer in the diet of foxes during the past 40...

  10. Transmission trials, ITS2-PCR and RAPD-PCR show identity of Toxocara canis isolates from red fox and dog.

    Epe, C; Meuwissen, M; Stoye, M; Schnieder, T

    1999-07-01

    Toxocara canis isolates from dog and from red fox were compared in transmission trials and with molecular analysis using RAPD-PCR technique and comparison of the ITS2 sequence. After oral infection of bitches with 20,000 embryonated T. canis eggs of vulpine and canine origin, the vertical transmission to pup's was examined. All animals of both groups developed typical clinical symptoms of toxocarosis. The haematological, serological, parasitological and post mortem results showed no differences between both isolates except for the infectivity of T. canis stages in mice where the fox isolate showed a significant higher infectivity than the dog isolate. The RAPD-PCR showed a similarity coefficient of 0.95, similar to the range of intraspecific variation in Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina specimens as outgroups. The ITS2 comparison showed a 100% identity between both isolates with no intraspecific variations. Therefore, the study shows that the fox and the dog isolate of T. canis were identical in infectivity, transmission and molecular structure; a host adaptation could not be found and the fox has to be seen as a reservoir for T. canis infections in dogs. Considering the increasing number of foxes in urban areas the importance of helminth control in dogs is stressed.

  11. Screening for infection of Trichinella in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 6141 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for infection with Trichinella. The foxes were killed in Denmark during the hunting season 1995-1996 and 1997-1998; 3133 and 3008, respectively, Foxes included in the investigation came from throughout the country with the exception of the island...... of Bornholm. The right foreleg from each fox was submitted for investigation. The legs were stored at -20 degrees C for 3-10 months prior to examination. Following thawing, muscle tissue (10 g) from each leg was examined by trichinoscopy and by a pepsin-HCl digestion technique. In 1995-1996, three foxes were...... found positive corresponding to a prevalence of 0.001. Each of the infected foxes harboured an extremely low infection, i.e, about one larva per 10 g muscle tissue. It was not possible to obtain sufficient larval material for species identification, All three foxes were shot in the vicinity of a small...

  12. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Helen M Whiteside

    Full Text Available Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females.We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females.This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our understanding of a key biological process.

  13. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Whiteside, Helen M; Dawson, Deborah A; Soulsbury, Carl D; Harris, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females. We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes) population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females. This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our understanding of a key biological process.

  14. Population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Oishi, Takuya; Uraguchi, Kohji; Takahashi, Kenichi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island in Japan, we conducted analysis on 250 foxes from all over the island for 12 microsatellite loci. Assignment tests using the genotype data set showed that they were divided into 6 subpopulations. Of the 6, one was geographically isolated in the southern region and considered definitive subpopulation, whereas the other 5 were not. The slight differences among the latter 5 subpopulations were explained by the high adaptability and long dispersal of the red fox on the Hokkaido Island. Although there are few ecological data to explain the genetic differentiation of the southern population, we have proposed some hypotheses from the present ecological and geohistorical viewpoints. One convincing reason from the ecological viewpoint is the restriction of gene flow to southern Hokkaido from other areas due to geographical isolation resulting from the land shape. The other explanation is the geohistorical division of southern Hokkaido from other regions on the island during the last interglacial age, resulting in the isolation of the fox population.

  15. Hepatozoon canis in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks: molecular characterization and the phylogenetic relationship to other Hepatozoon spp.

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Germany, as well as molecular characterizations and phylogenetic relationship to other Hepatozoon spp. were investigated. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1,953 ticks were examined for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The ticks included four tick species: Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus. A total of 118/261 foxes (45.2%) and 148/1,953 ticks (7.5%) were Hepatozoon PCR-positive. Amplicons from 36 positive foxes and 41 positive ticks were sequenced. All sequences obtained from foxes and 39/41 from ticks had a 99% similarity to Hepatozoon canis, whereas two ticks' sequences had a 99% identity to Hepatozoon sp. The obtained Hepatozoon sequences in this study were phylogenetically related to other Hepatozoon sequences detected in other countries, which may represent strain variants. The high prevalence of H. canis DNA in red foxes in this study supports the suggested role of those animals in distribution of this parasite. Furthermore, detection of DNA of H. canis in foxes and all examined tick species collected from those foxes allows speculating about previously undescribed potential vectors for H. canis and suggests a potential role of the red fox in its natural endemic cycles.

  16. Parasites with possible zoonotic potential in the small intestines of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from Northwest Bohemia (CzR

    Jankovská I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence of primarily zoonotic parasites in the small intestines of 40 (20 males and 20 females red foxes living near human dwellings. The total prevalence of parasite infection was 77.5 % (31/40; the prevalence was 37.5 % (15/40 for Toxocara canis and 35 % (14/40 for Toxascaris leonina. The mean intensity infection was 3 and 11 helminths for T. canis and T. leonina, respectively. The prevalence of other intestinal helminths and mean infection intensity in this study are given: Echinococcus multilocularis 40 % (16/40 with 1000 individuals, Mesocestoides spp. 40 % (16/40 with 8 individuals, Uncinaria stenocephala 10 % (4/40 with 8 individuals, and Taenia pisiformis 10 % (4/40 with 1 individual. With regards to prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as prevalence of individual parasites, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05 between male and female red foxes.

  17. On the daily activity of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes in two village areas of Bulgaria: a case study

    GEORGI DUDIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out by digital camera traps in two village areas of South Bulgaria. Total of 99 photos of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes were made in the villages of Byaga and Isperihovo. They were compared with 1133 photos made in “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park (published by Georgiev et al., 2015. It was evident that there was no any activity during daylight in the villages studied, compared with the natural habitats.

  18. First report of Eucoleus boehmi in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark, based on coprological examiantion

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    the first observations of E. boehmi in Denmark, which is likely an overlooked infection of the upper respiratory tract of red foxes, which can be also found in other canids. Several morphological features of the eggs of E. boehmi can be used to distinguish it from other the closely related trichuroid eggs......Red foxes can be infected with diverse range of parasite species that can be transmitted to humans and pet animals, and the differential diagnosis is essential for veterinary and zoonotic risk assessment. In the present study, faecal flotation and microscopy of parasite eggs was done on 31 foxes...

  19. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  20. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark.

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Gitte; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2014-09-15

    Spirocerca lupi causes formation of nodules that may transform into sarcoma in the walls of aorta, esophagus and stomach of infected canids. In February 2013, post mortem examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in Denmark revealed the presence of several nodules containing adult worms of Spirocerca sp. in the stomach and the omentum. The nodules largely consisted of fibrous tissue with infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages with hemosiderin deposition. Parasitological examination by three copromicroscopic methods, sedimentation, flotation with saturated sugar-salt solution, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon. This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recent introduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping partial sequences of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation (7-9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms from other isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences of the current worms compared to other isolates of S. lupi may suggest the presence of a cryptic species within Spirocerca. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  2. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  3. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) plays a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle of Trichinella in Romania.

    Imre, Kálmán; Pozio, Edoardo; Tonanzi, Daniele; Sala, Claudia; Ilie, Marius S; Imre, Mirela; Morar, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a worldwide distribution. The majority of the biomass of these nematodes circulates among wildlife, but when humans fail in the proper management of domestic animals and wildlife, Trichinella infections are transmitted from the sylvatic to the domestic environment. Such failures occur in Romania, where a high prevalence of Trichinella spiralis has been detected in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that are hunted in Romanian counties, in which the prevalences of Trichinella spp. infection in backyard and free-ranging pigs range from 0.17 to 2.5%, to determine the role played by this carnivore species in the transmission of the parasite to domestic cycle. A total of 121 animals from 45 hunting grounds of three counties were screened to detect Trichinella spp. larvae by the digestion method. Infections were detected in 26 (21.5%) foxes from 18 (40%) hunting grounds of the three counties (13/67 in Arad, 1/3 in Hunedoara, and 12/51 in Timiş). The mean larval density was 10.5 larvae per gram. Of the 25 successfully tested samples, the Trichinella larvae from 24 isolates were identified as T. britovi (96%), and the larvae from one isolate were identified as T. spiralis (4%). No mixed infections were recorded. The present results revealed that the red fox should be considered an important T. britovi reservoir in the sylvatic cycle; in contrast, the detection of only a single T. spiralis-positive isolate suggests that red foxes play a minor role in the epidemiology of the domestic cycle in the investigated area of western Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  5. GIS-based environmental analysis of fox and canine lungworm distribution: an epidemiological study of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes from Slovakia.

    Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Druga, Michal; Hurníková, Zuzana; Valentová, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study. Models for A. vasorum revealed some weak influence of environmental variables, as it tends to occur in drier areas with lower proportion of forest. Moreover, A. vasorum shows a typical spatial clustering and occurs in endemic foci identified mainly in the eastern part of Slovakia. A cluster of A. vasorum infection foci was also found in the north-eastern region, where the average winter air temperature regularly falls below - 10 °C.

  6. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    N. mikurensis for the second time. In spleen samples of red foxes with 47.5% a high prevalence of piroplasms was found. Sequencing of 11 samples identified 10 as Theileria annae. Despite the high prevalence of this pathogen in its reservoir host, it was absent in dog samples. In one dog (0.1%), Babesia canis was detected but there was no further information about the dog's origin. Evaluation of the questionnaire identified a high proportion of dogs (74.2%, n=233) which was not protected by ectoparasiticides. Moreover, 21.2% (n=236) of the dogs originated from inland or abroad shelters, and therefore might potentially come from areas endemic for dirofilariosis or babesiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High...... and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from...... a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became...

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of Neospora caninum--associated dermatitis in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Duhey, Jitender P; Whitesell, Leah E; Culp, William E; Daye, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    A 3-mo-old red fox (Vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of one leg. Histologic examination of skin lesion biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites. The protozoa stained positively with antibodies to Neospora caninum but not to Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.) for 1 mo completely resolved lesions, and protozoa were not demonstrable in biopsy of skin after treatment. The fox had agglutinating antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1:3200) and N. caninum (Neospora agglutination test, titer 1:25), and viable T. gondii (genotype III) was isolated from the skin biopsy after treatment. This is the first report of clinical neosporosis in a wild canid.

  9. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  10. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-11-28

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%.

  11. The diet of feral raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and native badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    Elmeros, Morten; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Malene Götz; Nørgaard, Louise Solveig

    2018-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an East Asian Canid that has been introduced in Europe. Introduction of alien species is an increasing conservation issue. We examined the diet of a recently established raccoon dog population in Denmark by analysing stomach content in 249 carcasses...... collected in 2008–2016. Raccoon dog diet was compared to the diet of native badger (Meles meles) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. The most common food for raccoon dogs were invertebrates (frequency of occurrence, FO 69%), small mammals (FO 68%), birds (FO 41%), fruits (FO 38%), amphibians (FO 36...

  12. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  13. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010.

    Pierre Nouvellet

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV. Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  14. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010).

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Donnelly, Christl A; De Nardi, Marco; Rhodes, Chris J; De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  15. Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006–2010)

    De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006–2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures. PMID:23630599

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay-A rapid detection tool for identifying red fox (Vulpes vulpes) DNA in the carcasses of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Heers, Teresa; van Neer, Abbo; Becker, André; Grilo, Miguel Luca; Siebert, Ursula; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Carcasses of wild animals are often visited by different scavengers. However, determining which scavenger caused certain types of bite marks is particularly difficult and knowledge thereof is lacking. Therefore, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (target sequence cytochrome b) was developed to detect red fox DNA in carcasses of harbour porpoises. The MSwab™ method for direct testing without prior DNA isolation was validated. As a detection device, the portable real-time fluorometer Genie® II was used, which yields rapid results and can be used in field studies without huge laboratory equipment. In addition to in vitro evaluation and validation, a stranded and scavenged harbour porpoise carcass was successfully examined for red fox DNA residues. The developed LAMP method is a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming presumable red fox bite wounds in harbour porpoises without further DNA isolation steps.

  17. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  18. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  19. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  20. Genome organization and DNA methylation patterns of B chromosomes in the red fox and Chinese raccoon dogs.

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Solek, Przemysław; Wronski, Mariusz; Potocki, Leszek; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    The molecular structure of B chromosomes (Bs) is relatively well studied. Previous research demonstrates that Bs of various species usually contain two types of repetitive DNA sequences, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA, but Bs also contain genes encoding histone proteins and many others. However, many questions remain regarding the origin and function of these chromosomes. Here, we focused on the comparative cytogenetic characteristics of the red fox and Chinese raccoon dog B chromosomes with particular attention to the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their methylation status. We confirmed that the small Bs of the red fox show a typical fluorescent telomeric distal signal, whereas medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were characterized by clusters of telomeric sequences along their length. We also found different DNA methylation patterns for the B chromosomes of both species. Therefore, we concluded that DNA methylation may maintain the transcriptional inactivation of DNA sequences localized to B chromosomes and may prevent genetic unbalancing and several negative phenotypic effects. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Three-dimensional positioning of B chromosomes in fibroblast nuclei of the red fox and the chinese raccoon dog.

    Kociucka, B; Sosnowski, J; Kubiak, A; Nowak, A; Pawlak, P; Szczerbal, I

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has been achieved over the last years in studies on chromosome arrangement in mammalian cell nuclei. Growing evidence indicates that the genome's spatial organization is of functional relevance. So far, no attention has been paid to the nuclear organization of B chromosomes (Bs). In this study we have examined nuclear positioning of Bs in 2 species from the Canidae family--the red fox and the Chinese raccoon dog. Using 2D and 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization and 2 gene-specific probes (C-KIT and PDGFRA), we analyzed the location of Bs in fibroblast nuclei. We found that small Bs of the red fox occupied mostly the interior of the nucleus, while medium-sized Bs of the Chinese raccoon dog were observed in the peripheral area of the nucleus as well as in intermediate and interior locations. The more uniform distribution of B chromosomes in the Chinese raccoon dog may be the result of differences in their size, since 3 morphological types of Bs are distinguished in this species. Our results indicate that 3D positioning of B chromosomes in fibroblast nuclei of the 2 canid species is in agreement with the chromosome size-dependent theory. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  3. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  4. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Ian David Woolsey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1 by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3 previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1

  5. An investigation of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) scavenging, scattering, and removal of deer remains: forensic implications and applications.

    Young, Alexandria; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

    2015-01-01

    Within northwest Europe, especially the United Kingdom, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) are the largest wild scavengers capable of modifying a set of remains through scavenging. Knowledge of region-specific and species-typical scavenging behaviors of scavengers within the crime scene area and surroundings can aid in more efficient and accurate interpretations. The scavenging behaviors of captive and wild foxes and badgers were recorded and compared through actualistic methods and direct observation. The scavenging by wild foxes and badgers of surface-deposited baits and whole deer (Cervus nippon; Capreolus capreolus) in a woodland was observed and analyzed. Wild foxes were found to scavenge deer more frequently than badgers. The scavenging of deer remains by foxes was also compared with forensic cases. The scavenging pattern and recovery distances of deer and human remains scavenged by foxes were similar but were potentially affected by the condition and deposition of a body, and the presence of clothing. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P; Thamsborg, S; Schnyder, Manuela; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, C M O

    2017-12-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1) by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1 excretion.

  7. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  8. First European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox teeth following oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Demerson, Jean-Michel; Andrieu, Sabrina; Cliquet, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The first European interlaboratory comparison of tetracycline and age determination with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) tooth samples was organized by the European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies. Performance and procedures implemented by member states were compared. These techniques are widely used to monitor bait uptake in European oral rabies vaccination campaigns. A panel of five red fox half-mandibles comprising one weak positive juvenile sample, two positive adult samples, one negative juvenile sample, and one negative adult sample were sent, along with a technical questionnaire, to 12 laboratories participating on a voluntary basis. The results of only three laboratories (25%) were 100% correct. False-negative results were more frequently seen in weak positive juvenile samples (58%) but were infrequent in positive adult samples (4%), probably due to differences in the ease of reading the two groups of teeth. Four laboratories (44%) had correct results for age determination on all samples. Ages were incorrectly identified in both adult and juvenile samples, with 11 and 17% of discordant results, respectively. Analysis of the technical questionnaires in parallel with test results suggested that all laboratories cutting mandible sections between the canine and first premolar obtained false results. All the laboratories using longitudinal rather than transverse sections and those not using a mounting medium also produced false results. Section thickness appeared to affect the results; no mistakes were found in laboratories using sections <150 μm thick. Factors having a potential impact on the success of laboratories were discussed, and recommendations proposed. Such interlaboratory trials underline the importance of using standardized procedures for biomarker detection in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. Several changes can be made to improve analysis quality and increase the comparability of bait uptake frequencies among member states.

  9. Accumulation of Metals in Liver Tissues of Sympatric Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Southern Part of Romania.

    Farkas, Attila; Bidló, András; Bolodár-Varga, Bernadett; Jánoska, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    Several previous study results have already demonstrated that golden jackal and red fox may serve as biological indicators of trace elements and heavy metal concentrations in the various regions they inhabit. The aim of this study was to evaluate accumulation patterns of targeted elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Pb) in liver samples of red foxes and golden jackals collected during the same period in the southern part of Romania. The accumulation patterns of trace elements in the livers of sympatric golden jackal and red fox were practically the same. To date, separate studies of the species individually in different habitats have shown that either of the species can be used for ecotoxicological and biomonitoring studies. Moreover, in general gender related studies, no significant differences in the concentrations of the investigated elements were found in either jackals or foxes. Also, average metal concentrations in liver samples do not show significant differences between groups under and above 12 months of age.

  10. Effects of habitat composition on the use of resources by the red fox in a semi arid environment of North Africa

    Dell'Arte, Graziella L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is considered an opportunistic predator able to avoid prey shortages by exploiting a wide range of available food resources. However, as predicted by the Resources Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH), the distribution of other key resources such as suitable areas for dens can affect fox populations. Furthermore, in insularity conditions, resources are spatially limited and their availability is greatly influenced by territory sizes and the feeding habits of predators. In this paper we report the spatial use and foraging habits of foxes in three habitats (grassland, cultivation and suburban) of a sub-arid island off north Africa in relation to habitat composition and food availability. We found that diet composition in a gross sense did not differ significantly among habitats, with insects comprising > 48% and fruits 25% of the total prey items. Grasslands offered temporary clumped food resources (e.g. birds) that induced foxes to increase their territory sizes and to enlarge their diet range during prey shortages. Inversely, in cultivated and suburban areas, the main prey (insects) were more evenly distributed, especially in olive groves which constitute the most extensive form of cultivation on the island. In large areas covered by olive trees, the high availability of Coleoptera spp. significantly reduced core areas used by foxes and also distances among dens. Palm groves were patchy on the island but contained high densities of Orthoptera spp. and date fruits which represent alternative food sources. Thus, these patches are attractive foraging places, but a modification of the perimeter of fox territories was necessary for their exploitation. Our study confirmed that in this arid environment, habitat composition per se affected a generalist predator less than the dispersion of its main prey. In addition, the patchy distribution of resources can assume a role in the spacing and feeding behaviours of foxes only in relation to clumped alternative

  11. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  12. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe.

    Jenny Knapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps but more recently also neighbouring regions previously not known to be endemic. The genetic diversity of the parasite population and respective distribution in Europe have now been investigated in view of generating a fine-tuned map of parasite variants occurring in Europe. This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level.The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis was assessed based upon the tandemly repeated microsatellite marker EmsB in association with matching fox host geographical positions. Our study demonstrated a higher genetic diversity in the endemic areas north of the Alps when compared to other areas.The study of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Europe, based on 32 genetic clusters, suggests that Europe can be considered as a unique global focus of E. multilocularis, which can be schematically drawn as a central core located in Switzerland and Jura Swabe flanked by neighbouring regions where the parasite exhibits a lower genetic diversity. The transmission of the parasite into peripheral regions is governed by a "mainland-island" system. Moreover, the presence of similar genetic profiles in both zones indicated a founder event.

  13. Detection of a high-endemic focus of echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in southern Denmark, January 2013

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Knapp, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Danish surveillance programme for Echinococcus multilocularis was initiated in September 2011, and so far 679 wild carnivores have been examined. In April 2012, one infected fox was detected in Højer near the Danish-German border, and in January 2013 three additional foxes from the same area...... were found infected. Local prevalence in the area was 31% (four of 13 foxes) which is a new epidemiological situation calling for re-evaluation of the national risk management....

  14. Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a free-roaming red fox: case report and historical review on diphtheria in animals.

    Sing, Andreas; Konrad, Regina; Meinel, Dominik M; Mauder, Norman; Schwabe, Ingo; Sting, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the classical causative agent of diphtheria, is considered to be nearly restricted to humans. Here we report the first finding of a non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar belfanti strain in a free-roaming wild animal. The strain obtained from the subcutis and mammary gland of a dead red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was characterized by biochemical and molecular methods including MALDI-TOF and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Since C. diphtheriae infections of animals, usually with close contact to humans, are reported only very rarely, an intense review comprising also scientific literature from the beginning of the 20th century was performed. Besides the present case, only 11 previously reported C. diphtheriae animal infections could be verified using current scientific criteria. Our report is the first on the isolation of C. diphtheriae from a wildlife animal without any previous human contact. In contrast, the very few unambiguous publications on C. diphtheriae in animals referred to livestock or pet animals with close human contact. C. diphtheriae carriage in animals has to be considered as an exceptionally rare event.

  15. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan

    El-Shehabi F.S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8 % with a worm load ranging between 3 - > 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5 %. The sensitivity increased to 87.5 % and 100 % in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91 %. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal.

  16. Geographical variations of the skull in the red fox Vulpes vulpes on the Japanese Islands: an exception to Bergmann's rule.

    Oishi, Takuya; Uraguchi, Kohji; Abramov, Alexei V; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2010-12-01

    In order to clarify the morphological differences between two subspecies of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Japanese Islands and test the validity of Bergmann's rule, we examined geographical variations in 25 cranial and 24 dental characters in V. v. schrencki from Hokkaido and V. v. japonica from the other main islands of Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu). Many skull measurements, including the male greatest length, condylobasal length, and the length of upper and lower tooth rows, were significantly larger for V. v. japonica than for V. v. schrencki, whereas most tooth measurements, especially the length of molars and premolars, in V. v. schrencki were larger than those in V. v. japonica. Although the two subspecies were morphologically well-differentiated from each other, the results did not support that they have evolved following Bergmann's rule of adaptation to cold climates. Based on consideration of the relatively large differences of their tooth sizes, which are not easily influenced by food abundance, and previous genetic research on the different migration histories of the two subspecies, the morphological differences detected in the present study may have resulted not only from the present ecological differences between the two subspecies, but also from the difference of migration history and evolutionary constraints.

  17. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  18. Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L.) favour seed dispersal, germination and seedling survival of Mediterranean Hackberry ( Celtis australis L.)

    Juan, Traba; Sagrario, Arrieta; Jesús, Herranz; Cristina, Clamagirand M.

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of the Mediterranean Hackberry Celtis australis are often encountered in fox faeces. In order to evaluate the effect of gut transit on the size of seeds selected, the rates and speed of germination and on the survival of the seedlings, Mediterranean Hackberry seeds from fox faeces were germinated in a greenhouse. The results were compared with those of seeds taken from ripe, uneaten fruits. Fox-dispersed seeds were smaller and lighter than the control ones and had higher (74% vs. 57%) and more rapid germination (74.5 days vs. 99.2 days). Seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds showed significantly greater survival by the end of the study period (74.1% vs. 43.6%) than the control ones. Survival in seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds was related to germination date, late seedlings showing poorer survival. This relationship was not observed away in the control seedlings. Seed mass did not affect seedling survival. Seedling arising from fox-dispersed seeds grew faster than control ones. These results suggest that fox can play a relevant role as seed disperser of Mediterranean Hackberry.

  19. Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes): isolation of vaccine virus in brain tissue and salivary glands.

    Hostnik, Peter; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Rihtarič, Danijela; Toplak, Ivan; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-04-01

    Oral vaccination campaigns to eliminate fox rabies were initiated in Slovenia in 1995. In May 2012, a young fox (Vulpes vulpes) with typical rabies signs was captured. Its brain and salivary gland tissues were found to contain vaccine strain SAD B19. The Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool alignment of 589 nucleotides determined from the N gene of the virus isolated from the brain and salivary glands of the affected fox was 100% identical to the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain. Sequence analysis of the N and M genes (4,351 nucleotides) showed two nucleotide modifications at position 1335 (N gene) and 3114 (M gene) in the KC522613 isolate identified in the fox compared to SAD B19.

  20. The dispersion and detection patterns of mtDNA-assigned red fox Vulpes vulpes scats in Tasmania are anomalous.

    Marks, Clive A; Obendorf, David; Pereira, Filipe; Edwards, Ivo; Hall, Graham P

    2014-08-01

    Models used for resource allocation in eradication programmes must be based on replicated data of known quality and have proven predictive accuracy, or they may provide a false indication of species presence and/or distribution. In the absence of data corroborating the presence of extant foxes Vulpes vulpes in Tasmania, a habitat-specific model based upon mtDNA data (Sarre et al . 2012. Journal Applied Ecology , 50, 459-468) implied that foxes were widespread. Overall, 61 of 9940 (0·6%) surveyed scats were assigned as mtDNA fox positive by the fox eradication programme (FEP). We investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of the 61 mtDNA-assigned fox scats and modelled the probability of replicating scat detection in independent surveys using detection dogs based upon empirically derived probabilities of scat detection success obtained by the FEP using imported fox scats. In a prior mainland study, fox genotypes were recurrently detected in a consecutive four-day pool of scats. In Tasmania, only three contemporaneously collected scat pairs of unknown genotype were detected by the FEP within an area corresponding to a conservatively large mainland fox home range (639 ha) in a decade. Nearest neighbour pairs were widely spaced (mean = 7·0 km; circular area = 153 km 2 ) and generated after a mean of 281 days. The majority of assigned mtDNA positive scats were found in urban and peri-urban environments corresponding to small mainland fox home ranges (30-45 ha) that imply higher scat density and more certain replication. Using the lowest empirically determined scat detection success for dogs, the failure to replicate fox scat detection on 34 of 36 occasions in a large (639 ha) home range is highly improbable ( P  = 0·00001) and suggestive of Type I error. Synthesis and applications . Type I error, which may have various sources, should be considered when scat mtDNA data are few, accumulated over many years, uncorroborated by observations of extant

  1. Variability in body mass and sexual dimorphism in Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to population density

    Pagh, Sussie; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Birger

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, temporal variability in body size and sexual dimorphism is revealed in foxes Vulpes vulpes from the same geographical area at over time. The weights and lengths of 552 Danish foxes were documented during three different periods: 1965–1977, 2012–2014 and the winter of 2015...... of 2012–2014, no difference in body fat measured by rump fat thickness (RFT) was found between age groups and genders in contrast to 2015/2016, when RFT was significantly (p ...–1977 and compared to 2015/2016, compared to 2012–2014, when population density was high (the mean weight: 6.8 kg). However, no significant differences were found in the weight of females. Hence, sexual dimorphism ranged from 7.6 to 3.6 in adult foxes in low and high-density periods, respectively. During the winters...

  2. Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure.

    Donaldson, Michael E; Rico, Yessica; Hueffer, Karsten; Rando, Halie M; Kukekova, Anna V; Kyle, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations. Hybridization-based GBS techniques can be leveraged in systems not well characterized for specific variants associated with disease outcome to "capture" specific genes and regulatory regions known to influence expression and disease outcome. We developed a multiplexed, sequence capture assay for red foxes to simultaneously assess ~300-kbp of genomic sequence from 116 adaptive, intrinsic, and innate immunity genes of predicted adaptive significance and their putative upstream regulatory regions along with 23 neutral microsatellite regions to control for demographic effects. The assay was applied to 45 fox DNA samples from Alaska, where three arctic rabies strains are geographically restricted and endemic to coastal tundra regions, yet absent from the boreal interior. The assay provided 61.5% on-target enrichment with relatively even sequence coverage across all targeted loci and samples (mean = 50×), which allowed us to elucidate genetic variation across introns, exons, and potential regulatory regions (4,819 SNPs). Challenges remained in accurately describing microsatellite variation using this technique; however, longer-read HTS technologies should overcome these issues. We used these data to conduct preliminary analyses and detected genetic structure in a subset of red fox immune-related genes between regions with and without endemic arctic rabies. This assay provides a template to assess immunogenetic variation

  3. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence variation and melanism in the gray (Sciurus carolinensis), fox (Sciurus niger), and red (Sciurus vulgaris) squirrel.

    McRobie, Helen R; King, Linda M; Fanutti, Cristina; Coussons, Peter J; Moncrief, Nancy D; Thomas, Alison P M

    2014-01-01

    Sequence variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are associated with melanism in many different species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), found in the British Isles, was introduced from North America in the late 19th century. Melanism in the British gray squirrel is associated with a 24-bp deletion in the MC1R. To investigate the origin of this mutation, we sequenced the MC1R of 95 individuals including 44 melanic gray squirrels from both the British Isles and North America. Melanic gray squirrels of both populations had the same 24-bp deletion associated with melanism. Given the significant deletion associated with melanism in the gray squirrel, we sequenced the MC1R of both wild-type and melanic fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) (9 individuals) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) (39 individuals). Unlike the gray squirrel, no association between sequence variation in the MC1R and melanism was found in these 2 species. We conclude that the melanic gray squirrel found in the British Isles originated from one or more introductions of melanic gray squirrels from North America. We also conclude that variations in the MC1R are not associated with melanism in the fox and red squirrels.

  4. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  5. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Charlotte Lempp

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes, next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence, canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation. The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16 and pneumonia (n = 20. None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry

  6. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species.

  7. Support for targeted sampling of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces in Sweden: a method to improve the probability of finding Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Miller, Andrea L; Olsson, Gert E; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-11-29

    Localized concentrations of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs from feces of infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can create areas of higher transmission risk for rodent hosts and possibly also for humans; therefore, identification of these areas is important. However, in a low prevalence environment, such as Sweden, these areas could be easily overlooked. As part of a project investigating the role of different rodents in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis in Sweden, fox feces were collected seasonally from rodent trapping sites in two regions with known parasite status and in two regions with unknown parasite status, 2013-2015. The aim was to evaluate background contamination in rodent trapping sites from parasite eggs in these regions. To maximize the likelihood of finding fox feces positive for the parasite, fecal collection was focused in habitats with the assumed presence of suitable rodent intermediate hosts (i.e. targeted sampling). Parasite eggs were isolated from feces through sieving-flotation, and parasite species were then confirmed using PCR and sequencing. Most samples were collected in the late winter/early spring and in open fields where both Arvicola amphibius and Microtus agrestis were captured. Fox feces positive for E. multilocularis (41/714) were found within 1-3 field collection sites within each of the four regions. The overall proportion of positive samples was low (≤5.4%) in three regions, but was significantly higher in one region (22.5%, P < 0.001). There was not a significant difference between seasons or years. Compared to previous national screenings, our sampling strategy identified multiple E. multilocularis positive feces in all four regions, including the two regions with previously unknown parasite status. These results further suggest that the distribution of E. multilocularis is highly aggregated in the environment and provide support for further development of a targeted sampling strategy. Our results show that it was

  8. A semi-automated magnetic capture probe based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method applied in the Swedish surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) faecal samples.

    Isaksson, Mats; Hagström, Åsa; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Wahlström, Helene; Ågren, Erik Olof; Miller, Andrea; Holmberg, Anders; Lukacs, Morten; Casulli, Adriano; Deplazes, Peter; Juremalm, Mikael

    2014-12-19

    Following the first finding of Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden in 2011, 2985 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were analysed by the segmental sedimentation and counting technique. This is a labour intensive method and requires handling of the whole carcass of the fox, resulting in a costly analysis. In an effort to reduce the cost of labour and sample handling, an alternative method has been developed. The method is sensitive and partially automated for detection of E. multilocularis in faecal samples. The method has been used in the Swedish E. multilocularis monitoring program for 2012-2013 on more than 2000 faecal samples. We describe a new semi-automated magnetic capture probe DNA extraction method and real time hydrolysis probe polymerase chain reaction assay (MC-PCR) for the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in faecal samples from red fox. The diagnostic sensitivity was determined by validating the new method against the sedimentation and counting technique in fox samples collected in Switzerland where E. multilocularis is highly endemic. Of 177 foxes analysed by the sedimentation and counting technique, E. multilocularis was detected in 93 animals. Eighty-two (88%, 95% C.I 79.8-93.9) of these were positive in the MC-PCR. In foxes with more than 100 worms, the MC-PCR was positive in 44 out of 46 (95.7%) cases. The two MC-PCR negative samples originated from foxes with only immature E. multilocularis worms. In foxes with 100 worms or less, (n = 47), 38 (80.9%) were positive in the MC-PCR. The diagnostic specificity of the MC-PCR was evaluated using fox scats collected within the Swedish screening. Of 2158 samples analysed, two were positive. This implies that the specificity is at least 99.9% (C.I. = 99.7-100). The MC-PCR proved to have a high sensitivity and a very high specificity. The test is partially automated but also possible to perform manually if desired. The test is well suited for nationwide E. multilocularis surveillance programs where sampling

  9. Trypanosoma teixeirae: A new species belonging to the T. cruzi clade causing trypanosomosis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Mackie, John T; Stenner, Robyn; Gillett, Amber; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Australian bats. Recently a novel trypanosome species was identified in an adult female little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) with clinical and pathological evidence of trypanosomosis. The present study used morphology and molecular methods to demonstrate that this trypanosome is a distinct species and we propose the name Trypanosoma teixeirae sp. n. Morphological comparison showed that its circulating trypomastigotes were significantly different from those of Trypanosoma pteropi and Trypanosoma hipposideri, two species previously described from Australian bats. Genetic information was not available for T. pteropi and T. hipposideri but phylogenetic analyses at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) loci indicated that T. teixeirae sp. n. was genetically distinct and clustered with other bat-derived trypanosome species within the Trypanosoma cruzi clade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels of metals in kidney, liver and muscle tissue and their relation to the occurrence of parasites in the red fox in the Lower Silesian Forest in Europe.

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Merta, Dorota; Przystupińska, Anna; Sołtysiak, Zenon; Pacoń, Jarosław; Stawarz, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Together with the occurrence of parasites, increased concentrations of xenobiotics, to which scavengers are greatly exposed, may significantly influence the physiology of red foxes. It is also suspected that these two factors interact. The accumulation of various metals (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in kidney, liver and muscle tissue was investigated, as well as the occurrence of parasites, and the potential link to the presence of metals. Generally speaking, neither sex nor age influenced these concentrations. K, Mg and Fe were found in the highest concentrations and Hg was found in the lowest. Various relationships between the concentrations of metals were observed in the tissues. 34% of the specimens studied were hosts to parasites. No clear, significant connection between the concentrations and the occurrence of parasites was noted, but the discernible trend confirmed by the logistic regression, needs further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change

    Thomas Jessica A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite phylogeographical patterns being well characterised in a large number of species, and generalised patterns emerging, the carnivores do not all appear to show consistent trends. While some species tend to fit with standard theoretical phylogeographic expectations (e.g. bears, others show little obvious modern phylogeographic structure (e.g. wolves. In this study we briefly review these studies, and present a new phylogeographical study of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes throughout Europe, using a combination of ancient DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens, and modern sequences collated from GenBank. We used cytochrome b (250 bp and the mitochondrial control region (268 bp to elucidate both current and historical phylogeographical patterning. Results We found evidence for slight isolation by distance in modern populations, as well as differentiation associated with time, both of which can likely be attributed to random genetic drift. Despite high sequence diversity (11.2% cytochrome b, 16.4% control region, no evidence for spatial structure (from Bayesian trees is found either in modern samples or ancient samples for either gene, and Bayesian skyline plots suggested little change in the effective population size over the past 40,000 years. Conclusions It is probable that the high dispersal ability and adaptability of the red fox has contributed to the lack of observable differentiation, which appears to have remained consistent over tens of thousands of years. Generalised patterns of how animals are thought to have responded to historical climatic change are not necessarily valid for all species, and so understanding the differences between species will be critical for predicting how species will be affected by future climatic change.

  12. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  14. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  15. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  16. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus introduction (NW Italy

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (Meles meles, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago Sylvilagus floridanus (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  17. Host-specific serological response to Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Gillis-Germitsch, N.; Kapel, Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a cardiovascular nematode increasingly found in dogs and foxes in endemic foci throughout Europe. The present study evaluates ELISAs for detection of circulating antigens and specific antibodies against A. vasorum in foxes. Blood and worm burdens (WBs) from carcasses...... was observed 7 weeks later. We hypothesize that infected foxes develop a variable and non-protective immunity. Such parasite tolerance allows long-term survival of A. vasorum in the animals, and may explain why the parasite appears to spread rapidly within a fox population, an epidemiological dynamic...

  18. Environmental variables and the use of habitat of the Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in the Maremma Natural Park, Grosseto province, Central Italy / Parametri ambientali e uso dell'habitat della volpe Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in alcune aree del Parco Naturale della Maremma (GR

    Sandro Lovari

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Berries of Juniperus oxycedrus, beetles and grasshoppers were the staple of the fox diet in the coastal ecotone of the Maremma Natural Park, while fruit and Insects were the main food resources in a rural zone around the park. Chiefly berries of J. oxycedrus, but also Insects and carrion, built up the greater part of the fox diet in the pinewood. On average, the presence in diet was correlated with the availability of the main food resources, which in turn was correlated with climatic factors. These influenced also the activity pattern of the Red fox. Home ranges were the largest (330 ha in the pinewood, intermediate (213 ha in the coastal ecotone, and smallest (131 ha in the rural zone. Such differences in size may be explained with the local pattern of food distribution and abundance, which also influenced the habitat use of the fox. In spite of the presence of several farm houses in the rural range, poultry and domestic rabbits were almost absent in the fox diet. The scrubwood (macchia was consistently the most preferred vegetation type. Riassunto Frutti di ginepro (Juniperus oxycedrus, Coleotteri e Ortotteri hanno costituito la maggior parte della dieta della Volpe nell'ecotone costiero del Parco Naturale della Maremma, mentre frutti e Insetti sono stati le principali risorse trofiche in una zona rurale nella parte esterna del parco. Nella pineta la dieta è risultata costituita prevalentemente da frutti di ginepro, ma anche da insetti e carogne. In media la presenza nella dieta delle principali risorse alimentari è risultata correlata con la loro disponibilità, la quale si è dimostrata a sua volta correlata con fattori climatici. Questi ultimi hanno influenzato anche il ritmo di attività della Volpe. Le dimensioni degli home range sono risultate massime (330 ha nella pineta, intermedie (213 ha nell'ecotone costiero e minime (131 ha nella zona rurale. Queste differenze

  19. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  20. Seasonal changes of trophic niche overlap in the stone marten (Martes foina and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy

    Anna Brangi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1989 and 1991, 284 scats of stone marten (Martes foina and 642 scats of red fox (Vulpes vulpes were collected in a 280 km² mountainous area in the northern Apennines. The scats were analyzed to identify differences between the two species' diets. The prey were grouped in 6 food categories: Fruits, Other Vegetables, Small Mammals, Other Vertebrates, Invertebrates and Garbage. Annual trophic niche was wider in the Red fox (0.62 than in the stone marten (0.53. We also found a large overlap between the two species with some small differences: Other Vertebrates, Small Mammals and Other Vegetables were more used by the Red fox, while Fruits were more used by the stone marten. Riassunto Variazioni stagionali della sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica della faina (Martes foina e della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montana degli Appennini settentrionali - Tra il 1989 e il 1991 sono state raccolte 284 feci di faina (Martes foina e 642 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montuosa di 280 km² situata nell'Appennino settentrionale. Le feci sono state analizzate per evidenziare le eventuali differenze nella dieta delle due specie. Le singole prede sono state raggruppate in 6 categorie alimentari: Frutta, Altri Vegetali, Micromammiferi, Altri Vertebrati, Invertebrati, Rifiuti. L'ampiezza annuale della dieta è risultata maggiore nella Volpe (0,62 che non nella Faina (0,53. È stata trovata inoltre una larga sovrapposizione tra le due specie con alcune differenze nell'uso degli Altri Vertebrati, dei Micromammiferi e degli Altri Vegetali che è maggiore nella Volpe e della Frutta, maggiore nella Faina.

  1. Methods of censusing Red fox (Vulpes vulpes populations / Metodi di censimento della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes

    Juan Francisco Beltrán

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimating absolute or relative numbers in red fox populations is not an easy task. Although a range of methods has been described, neither an optimal nor a universally accepted technique has been found. Moreover, none has been tested on populations of known size. We reviewed the efficiency of fourteen indices of fox abundance classified into two groups: (a methods where individuals are captured and marked, which include ear tagging or similar conspicuous markings, toe clipping, radioactive tagging of faeces, radio-tracking, and statistics from hunting and trapping; (b methods not requiring capture, which include both direct methods (nocturnal counts, unsystematic observations, and drive censuses, and indirect methods (den counts, transects for track, scat counts, and scent stations. As a rule, statistics are rarely applicable to populations estimates. Methods involving capture are expensive but provide more accurate estimates than the second group of indices, which are not suitable for paired comparisons from one year to another. Management and wildlife specialists should have in mind such restrictions when considering their goals and the required level of accuracy. Finally, we recommend the simultaneous utilization and comparison of several methods (one from each group, as proposed in a double sampling strategy for optimum evaluations. Riassunto La valutazione della consistenza di una popolazione di Volpe, mediante censimenti assoluti o relativi, è di difficile soluzione. Tra i diversi metodi di conteggio impiegati, nessuno si è rivelato ottimale e universale. Tuttavia nessuno è stato utilizzato per popolazioni di consistenza nota. Qui esaminiamo la validità di 14 metodi impiegati per il calcolo di indici di abbondanza, ripartendoli in due gruppi: (a metodi che implicano la cattura e il marcamento degli animali mediante marche auricolari o contrassegni similari, amputazione delle falangi

  2. Diversity and Ecological Correlates of Red Fluorescence in Marine Fishes

    Nils Anthes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments at depths below -10 to -25 m are almost devoid of ambient red sunlight because water quickly attenuates long wavelengths. This stenospectral light environment presents unique opportunities for organisms that can transform ambient blue-green light into red light by fluorescence. Numerous marine fish species display intricate patterns of fluorescence. Because color vision is a key component of fish sensory ecology, several putative visual functions of red fluorescence have been proposed but are difficult to test experimentally. Here, we follow a comparative approach to assess the consistency between the phylogenetic distribution of red fluorescence with its presumed functions. We collected and analyzed the largest data set of red fluorescence in fishes to date, consisting of confirmed cases in 272 primarily diurnal fish species from 49 out of 90 surveyed fish families and 12 out of 21 surveyed fish orders, contrasted to 393 fish species with confirmed absence of red fluorescence. Based on a priori hypotheses on adaptive function, we compare the prevalence of red fluorescence among pre-defined sets of species based on ecological or biological characteristics while controlling for shared ancestry. When comparing between species, we find no evidence that red fluorescence is more prevalent in deep-water species, contrasting with our recent finding that fluorescence brightness increases with depth within species. There is also no evidence for a role in group-driven communication. Phylogenetic patterns are consistent, however, with three other predictions. First, fluorescence with a rather patchy distribution across the body occurred significantly more often among sit-and-wait predators or otherwise sedentary fish than in more mobile species, consistent with background matching for camouflage. Second, small, predatory fishes tended to show red fluorescent irides disproportionally often consistent with a proposed function in prey

  3. Regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(bright)FoxP3(+)) expansion in systemic sclerosis correlates with disease activity and severity.

    Slobodin, Gleb; Ahmad, Mohammad Sheikh; Rosner, Itzhak; Peri, Regina; Rozenbaum, Michael; Kessel, Aharon; Toubi, Elias; Odeh, Majed

    2010-01-01

    The role and function of T regulatory (Treg) cells have not been fully investigated in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Ten patients with SSc donated 20ml of peripheral blood. Activity (Valentini) and severity (Medsger) scores for SSc were calculated for all patients. Healthy volunteers (controls) were matched to each patient by gender and age. CD4(+) cells were separated using the MACS system. The numbers of Treg cells were estimated by flow cytometry after staining for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 and calculated as patient-to-control ratio separately for each experiment. Correlations with activity and severity indices of the disease were performed. Twenty-four-hour production of TGF-beta and IL-10 by activated CD4(+) cells was measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. The numbers of Treg cells, expressed as patient-to-control ratio, correlated significantly with both activity and severity indices (r=0.71, p=0.034 and r=0.67, p=0.044, respectively). ELISA-measured production of TGF-beta and IL-10 by CD4(+) cells was similar in patients and controls. Increased numbers of Treg cells are present in patients with SSc, correlating with activity and severity of the disease. This expansion of Treg cells was not accompanied, however, by heightened TGF-beta or IL-10 production. Further studies to elaborate the causes and functional significance of Treg cell expansion in SSc are needed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First methodological-experimental contribution to the study of the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes

    Roberto Pilli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were: to devise an easy method for the evaluation of the differences in the diet between two or more samples of fox scats collected along transects; to elucidate seasonal and local variations in the consumption of mammals. The study area (2000 ha is located in the Prealps of the province of Belluno (municipality of Ponte nelle Alpi. Before our analysis of the scats, we evaluated the laboratory procedures used by previous Authors (Reynolds and Aebischer, 1991. We suggest a "semi-quantitative" method that allows us to obtain more information than with "qualitative" methods alone.

  5. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  6. Pearsonema (syn Capillaria plica associated cystitis in a Fennoscandian arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus: a case report

    Osterman-Lind Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bladderworm Pearsonema (syn Capillaria plica affects domestic dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. A high prevalence in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes has been reported in many European countries. P. plica inhabits the lower urinary tract and is considered to be of low pathogenic significance in dogs mostly causing asymptomatic infections. However, a higher level of pathogenicity has been reported in foxes. A severe cystitis associated with numerous bladderworms was found in a captive arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus originating from the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox population. To our knowledge this is the first description of P. plica infection in an arctic fox.

  7. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  8. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  9. Examination of D. immitis presence in foxes in Serbia

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease that usually affects dogs, but it can occur in other carnivore species. Since the disease appears endemically in dogs in some parts of Serbia, the aim of our investigation was to determine whether dirofilariosis exists in wild animals. The study included a total of 150 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 30 hunted foxes per region of South Banat, Raska, Rasina, Morava and Zlatibor were examined. After the corpses of foxes were autopsied, the heart and blood vessels were examined macroscopically for the evidence of adult forms of D. immitis. The presence of the agent was found in four foxes from the territory of three municipalities of South Banat: Kovin, Alibunar and Opovo, representing 13.33% of the total number of examined foxes in this region. None of the 120 autopsied foxes from four districts of central Serbia was found to have dirofilaria. The results obtained in investigation lead to conclusion that dirofilariosis exists as a parasitic disease in red foxes in South Banat.

  10. A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome

    Kukekova, Anna V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Oskina, Irina N.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Temnykh, Svetlana V.; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V.; Shepeleva, Darya V.; Gulievich, Rimma G.; Shikhevich, Svetlana G.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    A meiotic linkage map is essential for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step toward understanding a cryptic genome. Specific strains of silver fox (a variant of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), which segregate behavioral and morphological phenotypes, create a need for such a map. One such strain, selected for docility, exhibits friendly dog-like responses to humans, in contrast to another strain selected for aggression. Development of a fox map is facilitated by the known cytogen...

  11. A white–cyan-red LED system for low correlated colour temperature lighting

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    A white LED complemented by cyan and red LEDs is a good candidate for achieving high colour rendering at low correlated colour temperatures. This is usually very difficult with commercially available white LEDs. In addition, the system is able to replace incandescent lighting in many applications...... to 2400 K. Within this range the white light is characterized by a high general colour rendering index (Ra>90), special colour rendering indices for saturated red objects (R9>85), and low chromaticity distance (Duv) from the Planckian locus (Duv

  12. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  13. Hierarchical detection of red lesions in retinal images by multiscale correlation filtering

    Zhang, Bob; Wu, Xiangqian; You, Jane; Li, Qin; Karray, Fakhri

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to the computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) -- a common and severe complication of long-term diabetes which damages the retina and cause blindness. Since red lesions are regarded as the first signs of DR, there has been extensive research on effective detection and localization of these abnormalities in retinal images. In contrast to existing algorithms, a new approach based on Multiscale Correlation Filtering (MSCF) and dynamic thresholding is developed. This consists of two levels, Red Lesion Candidate Detection (coarse level) and True Red Lesion Detection (fine level). The approach was evaluated using data from Retinopathy On-line Challenge (ROC) competition website and we conclude our method to be effective and efficient.

  14. Ecology and ranging behaviour of Red foxes in the city of Oxford / Ecologia e comportamento della volpe (Vulpes vulpes nella città di Oxford

    C. Patrick Doncaster

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes living in the city of Oxford, like those in its neighbouring suburbs, are organized into social groups which each defend a territory. While territories in the suburbs are spatially stable, those in the city continually drift in location. They move in synchrony with their neighbours and the prevailing pattern is a honeycomb of group ranges of relatively small but constant size. The city environment is characterized by a high level of disturbance, which may favour range mobility, and by a patchy and highly divided mosaic of habitats. A quantification of patch density leads us to propose an explanation for the small size of territories and the existence of more adults than a single pair, in terms of the dispersion of habitat patches and competition for food resources contained therein. Riassunto Le popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes insediate nella città di Oxford e nelle aree suburbane limitrofe sono organizzate in gruppi sociali che difendono un proprio territorio. Mentre i territori nelle aree suburbane sono spazialmente stabili, quelli presenti in città cambiano continuamente posizione. Questi ultimi si muovono sincronicamente con quelli limitrofi e la disposizione prevalente è simile al favo delle api con territori relativamente piccoli, ma di dimensioni costanti. L'ambiente cittadino è caratterizzato da elevato disturbo, che può favorire la mobilita dei territori, e da un mosaico molto vario di ambienti. La presenza di territori di ridotte dimensioni occupati da più adulti e non da una singola coppia di volpi sembra dipendere dall'alternanza e variabilità degli ambienti e dalla competizione per le risorse alimentari.

  15. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  16. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  17. Correlation of serum unconjugated oestriol to red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in diabetic pregnancy.

    Madsen, H; Ditzel, J

    1983-03-01

    In order to evaluate the possible underlying factors for the increase in red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content observed in late diabetic pregnancy, its relationship with serum unconjugated oestriol, human placental lactogen, haemoglobin and hydrogen ion concentrations was investigated in 42 pregnant diabetic women. A significant correlation was found between red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and serum unconjugated oestriol (r = 0.54, p less than 0.001), whereas no correlation was present between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and the following variables: arterial pH, haemoglobin concentration and human placental lactogen. The content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate correlated significantly with haemoglobin-oxygen affinity expressed as P50 at pH 7.4 (r = 0.34, p less than 0.05). The results of this study indicate that serum unconjugated oestriol may participate in the regulation of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content and thereby of the maternal blood oxygen release to the fetus.

  18. A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome.

    Kukekova, Anna V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Oskina, Irina N; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Shepeleva, Darya V; Gulievich, Rimma G; Shikhevich, Svetlana G; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2007-03-01

    A meiotic linkage map is essential for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step toward understanding a cryptic genome. Specific strains of silver fox (a variant of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), which segregate behavioral and morphological phenotypes, create a need for such a map. One such strain, selected for docility, exhibits friendly dog-like responses to humans, in contrast to another strain selected for aggression. Development of a fox map is facilitated by the known cytogenetic homologies between the dog and fox, and by the availability of high resolution canine genome maps and sequence data. Furthermore, the high genomic sequence identity between dog and fox allows adaptation of canine microsatellites for genotyping and meiotic mapping in foxes. Using 320 such markers, we have constructed the first meiotic linkage map of the fox genome. The resulting sex-averaged map covers 16 fox autosomes and the X chromosome with an average inter-marker distance of 7.5 cM. The total map length corresponds to 1480.2 cM. From comparison of sex-averaged meiotic linkage maps of the fox and dog genomes, suppression of recombination in pericentromeric regions of the metacentric fox chromosomes was apparent, relative to the corresponding segments of acrocentric dog chromosomes. Alignment of the fox meiotic map against the 7.6x canine genome sequence revealed high conservation of marker order between homologous regions of the two species. The fox meiotic map provides a critical tool for genetic studies in foxes and identification of genetic loci and genes implicated in fox domestication.

  19. The impact of sarcoptic mange Sarcoptes scabiei on the British fox Vulpes vulpes population

    Soulsbury, Carl; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Philip; Cole, Nik; Funk, Stephan; Harris, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    1. Disease epizootics can significantly influence host population dynamics and the structure and functioning of ecological communities. Sarcoptic mange Sarcoptes scabiei has dramatically reduced red fox populations Vulpes vulpes in several countries, including Britain, although impacts on demographic processes are poorly understood. We review the literature on the impact of mange on red fox populations, assess its current distribution in Britain through a questionnaire survey a...

  20. MR assessment of red marrow distribution and composition in the proximal femur: correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Moysan, P.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.; Jamart, J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To correlate the MR appearance of the proximal femur marrow with clinical and blood parameters. Design and patients. The proportion of the femoral neck surface area occupied by red marrow was determined on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the hip in a series of 120 subjects, aged from 15 to 75 years, with ten females and ten males per decade, and correlated with clinical data. This parameter and the bulk T1 values of femoral red marrow were determined in 30 other subjects 25-46 years of age and correlated with their blood parameters. Results. In the series of 120 subjects, the proportion of red marrow surface area decreased with age (P -4 ) and was higher in female than male subjects (P -4 ). Within each decade, the proportion of red marrow surface area was higher in females than in males between 25 and 65 years but neither before 25 nor after 65 years. In the series of 30 subjects, the proportion of red marrow surface area and bulk T1 values of femoral red marrow were significantly negatively correlated with hemoglobin blood levels but not with blood cell counts. Conclusion. The MR appearance of proximal femur red marrow is influenced by age and sex. A relationship with hemoglobin blood level is demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Correlation between Ranson score and red cell distribution width in acute pancreatitis.

    Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Çelik, Canbert; Yüksel, Cemil; Yıldız, Barış Doğu; Tez, Mesut

    2017-03-01

    Ranson's criteria are widely used to evaluate severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been demonstrated to be useful marker to predict mortality in these patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between Ranson score and RDW in patients with AP. Total of 202 patients with AP were included in the study. Patients were classified as mild or severe AP, based on presence of organ failure for more than 48 hours and/or local complications. Forty patients (19.8%) were diagnosed as severe AP. High sensitivity and specificity values were obtained from receiver operating characteristic curve for initial RDW and Ranson score in predicting severe AP. Ranson ≥4 was selected cut-off value for Ranson score and 14% was limit for RDW. RDW at time of admission was correlated with 48-hour Ranson score (r=0.22; pdisadvantages of multifactorial scoring systems.

  2. Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research

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  3. FoxO6 Integrates Insulin Signaling With Gluconeogenesis in the Liver

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Perdomo, German; Zhang, Ting; Slusher, Sandra; Lee, Sojin; Phillips, Brett E.; Fan, Yong; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Ringquist, Steven; Dong, H. Henry

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. This effect stems from inept insulin suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the ability of forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) to mediate insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis and its contribution to glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We characterized FoxO6 in glucose metabolism in cultured hepatocytes and in rodent models of dietary obesity, insulin resistance, or insulin-deficient diabetes. We determined the effect of FoxO6 on hepatic gluconeogenesis in genetically modified mice with FoxO6 gain- versus loss-of-function and in diabetic db/db mice with selective FoxO6 ablation in the liver. RESULTS FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling to hepatic gluconeogenesis. In mice, elevated FoxO6 activity in the liver augments gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels, and hepatic FoxO6 depletion suppresses gluconeogenesis, resulting in fasting hypoglycemia. FoxO6 stimulates gluconeogenesis, which is counteracted by insulin. Insulin inhibits FoxO6 activity via a distinct mechanism by inducing its phosphorylation and disabling its transcriptional activity, without altering its subcellular distribution in hepatocytes. FoxO6 becomes deregulated in the insulin-resistant liver, accounting for its unbridled activity in promoting gluconeogenesis and correlating with the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. These metabolic abnormalities, along with fasting hyperglycemia, are reversible by selective inhibition of hepatic FoxO6 activity in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Our data uncover a FoxO6-dependent pathway by which the liver orchestrates insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis, providing the proof-of-concept that selective FoxO6 inhibition is beneficial for curbing excessive hepatic glucose production and improving glycemic control in diabetes. PMID:21940782

  4. Discrimination of different red wine by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy were applied to analyze main components of liquid red wine with different sugar contents and volatilization residues of dry red wine from different manufactures. The infrared spectra, second derivative spectra of dry red wine show the typical peaks of alcohol, while the spectra of sweet wine are composed of the peaks of both alcohol and sugar, and the contribution of sugar enhanced as the increase of sugar content. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, dry and sweet wine can be readily classified. Analysis of the infrared spectra of the volatilization residues of dry red wine samples from five different manufactures indicates that dry red wine may be composed of glycerol, carboxylic acids or esters and carboxyl ate, at the same time, different dry red wine show different characteristic peaks in the second derivative spectra and 2D IR correlation spectra, which can be used to discriminate the different manufactures and evaluate the quality of wine samples. The results suggested that infrared spectroscopy is a direct and effective method for the analysis of principle components of different red wines and discrimination of different red wines.

  5. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic.

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; Steinbauer, Vladimír; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David

    2016-11-01

    Blood samples from 21 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 hunting dogs from the same locality in the Czech Republic were examined for presence of Hepatozoon canis/Hepatozoon sp. The dogs were selected based on their close contact with foxes during fox bolting and because they had not traveled into known endemic areas. Using diagnostic PCR amplifying partial 18S rDNA fragment, Hepatozoon DNA was detected in 20 red foxes (95 %) and 4 dogs (50 %). From 8 positive foxes and 2 positive dogs, we obtained nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed very low variability. Buffy coat smears from positive dogs were prepared and examined. No Hepatozoon gamonts were found. This study provides the first report of autochthonous infection of H. canis/Hepatozoon in dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic. Our study indirectly demonstrates cross infection between red foxes and dogs and confirms autochthonous infection of Hepatozoon canis in dogs living in a geographic area well outside the range of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, which is so far the only known vector of H. canis in Europe.

  6. Expression analysis of the speech-related genes FoxP1 and FoxP2 and their relation to singing behavior in two songbird species

    Chen, Qianqian; Heston, Jonathan B.; Burkett, Zachary D.; White, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and songbirds are among the rare animal groups that exhibit socially learned vocalizations: speech and song, respectively. These vocal-learning capacities share a reliance on audition and cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, as well as neurogenetic mechanisms. Notably, the transcription factors Forkhead box proteins 1 and 2 (FoxP1, FoxP2) exhibit similar expression patterns in the cortex and basal ganglia of humans and the zebra finch species of songbird, among other brain regions. Mutations in either gene are associated with language disorders in humans. Experimental knock-down of FoxP2 in the basal ganglia song control region Area X during song development leads to imprecise copying of tutor songs. Moreover, FoxP2 levels decrease naturally within Area X when zebra finches sing. Here, we examined neural expression patterns of FoxP1 and FoxP2 mRNA in adult Bengalese finches, a songbird species whose songs exhibit greater sequence complexity and increased reliance on audition for maintaining their quality. We found that FoxP1 and FoxP2 expression in Bengalese finches is similar to that in zebra finches, including strong mRNA signals for both factors in multiple song control nuclei and enhancement of FoxP1 in these regions relative to surrounding brain tissue. As with zebra finches, when Bengalese finches sing, FoxP2 is behaviorally downregulated within basal ganglia Area X over a similar time course, and expression negatively correlates with the amount of singing. This study confirms that in multiple songbird species, FoxP1 expression highlights song control regions, and regulation of FoxP2 is associated with motor control of song. PMID:24006346

  7. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes

    Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana L.; Luff, Jennifer; Wang, Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    We used viral metagenomics to identify a novel parvovirus in tissues of a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Nearly full genome characterization and phylogenetic analyses showed this parvovirus (provisionally named gray fox amdovirus) to be distantly related to Aleutian mink disease virus, representing the second viral species in the Amdovirus genus. PMID:22000359

  8. Fox-7 for Insensitive Boosters

    2010-08-01

    cavitation , and therefore nucleation, to occur at each frequency. As well as producing ultrasound at different frequencies, the method of delivery of...processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology to improve booster formulations, and results from these...7 booster formulations. Also included are particle processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology

  9. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  10. On the activity of two medium-sized canids: the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus and the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes in the Natural Bark “Sinite Kamani” (Bulgaria revealed by camera traps

    ALEXANDAR MECHEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daylight activity in both species was often registered during the cold seasons. Foxes were registered to be active between 7-9h and 12-14h, while the jackals – during the whole day. Activity of both predators was rising during the night. The number of photographs increased from around 17h and activity was high until morning around 9-10h.

  11. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  12. Correlations between atmospheric aerosol trace element concentrations and red tide at Port Aransas, Texas, on the Gulf of Mexico

    Biegalski, S.R.; Villareal, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed as an analytical technique to measure atmospheric aerosol concentrations of trace metals in Port Aransas, TX on the Gulf of Mexico. The sources of atmospheric aerosols and the seasonal variation of the sources are explored. High atmospheric iron concentrations are then shown to have a possible correlation to the occurrences of red tide in this region. The data shows that this correlation is plausible, but due to the many factors that affect red tide growth a definitive conclusion may not be reached. The period of study for these measurements was September 12, 2000 to January 4, 2002. (author)

  13. A baiting system for the oral rabies vaccination of wild foxes and skunks.

    Johnston, D H; Voigt, D R

    1982-01-01

    A bait delivery system has been developed for red foxes and skunks in Ontario, Canada. A biomarker (Tetracycline HCl) is incorporated into a meatball in a plastic bag. Deposits of tetracycline in teeth are detected microscopically with ultra-violet illumination of undecalcified sections. Baits were dropped from aircraft at the rate of 35 per km2 and accepted by 70% of foxes and 60% of skunks in the test area. Trials of various strains of inactivated vaccines are in progress.

  14. Ethylidene-bridged Flavan-3-ols in red wine and correlation with wine age.

    Drinkine, Jessica; Lopes, Paulo; Kennedy, James A; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Saucier, Cedric

    2007-07-25

    Condensed tannins are responsible for astringency and bitterness and participate in the color stability of red wines. During wine making and aging, they undergo chemical changes including, for example, acetaldehyde-induced polymerization. Following this study, the ethylidene-bridged flavan-3-ols were monitored in different vintage wines made from grapes collected in the same vineyard in three wineries in Bordeaux, Pauillac, and Saint Julien. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were quantified by wine 2,2'-ethylidenediphloroglucinol (EDP) phloroglucinolysis. This method was based upon the analysis of EDP, a product formed after acid-catalyzed cleavage of wine flavan-3-ols in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. The flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were then compared to flavan-3-ol contents (phloroglucinolysis), phenolic contents, and color measurements. Low amounts of flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges (0.8-2.5 mg L(-1)) were quantified in wines. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges represent less than 4% of flavan-3-ol bonds, but the proportion of these linkages relative to native interflavan bonds increased with wine age. This proportion correlated with pigmented polymers.

  15. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Correlated Characteristics of Rainfall-Runoff Similarity in the Upstream Red River Basin

    Xiuli Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of predicting the rainfall-runoff similarity in the upstream Red River Basin in a satisfactory way. Both noised and denoised time series by thresholding the wavelet coefficients were applied to verify the accuracy of model. And the corresponding optimum similar sets obtained as the equation solution conditions showed an interesting and stable trend. On the whole, the annual mean similarity presented a gradually rising trend, for quantitatively estimating comprehensive influence of climate change and of human activities on rainfall-runoff similarity.

  16. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  17. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting swift fox: Smoked-plate scent stations versus spotlighting

    Daniel W. Uresk; Kieth E. Severson; Jody Javersak

    2003-01-01

    We compared two methods of detecting presence of swift fox: smoked-plate scent stations and spotlight counts. Tracks were counted on ten 1-mile (1.6-km) transects with bait/tracking plate stations every 0.1 mile (0.16 km). Vehicle spotlight counts were conducted on the same transects. Methods were compared with Spearman's rank order correlation. Repeated measures...

  19. First data on the feeding habits of the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes L. in Sicily / Primi dati sulla posizione trofica della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes L. in Sicilia

    Igor Fais

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From December 1986 to May 1988 the diet of the fox was studied by analysis of 539 droppings of which 349 gathered in a woodland (Province of Palermo throughout a year (1987 and 190 in different localities of the Sicily. Invertebrates (77%, mostly Arthropods, were the staple food, followed by fruits (38%, Mammals (31% and Birds (12%. Mammals were especially represented by small species (21% and occasionally by Lagomorphs (4%; they mainly occurred in winter and spring. Fruits and Invertebrates were eaten in a good number throughout the year with peaks of frequency in autumn and in summer. The feeding habits of the fox in Sicily are typical of a generalist species. Riassunto Da dicembre 1986 a maggio 1988, la dieta della Volpe è stata studiata mediante l'analisi di 539 feci, di cui 349 raccolte nel bosco di Ficuzza (provincia di Palermo, dove sono state evidenziate le variazioni stagionali delle categorie alimentari rilevate, e 190 in diverse località della Sicilia. I dati raccolti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale delle presenze. Le principali componenti della dieta sono gli Invertebrati (77% rappresentati soprattutto da Artropodi, i frutti (38%, i Mammiferi (31% e gli Uccelli (12%. I Mammiferi sono costituiti prevalentemente da specie di piccole dimensioni (21% e occasionalmente da Lagomorfi (4%, e sono predati soprattutto in inverno e primavera. I frutti e gli Invertebrati sono abbondantemente consumati per l'intero arco dell'anno e mostrano picchi di presenza in autunno e in estate. In Sicilia, le abitudini alimentari della Volpe sono tipiche di un predatore generalista.

  20. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  1. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  2. Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Michael J. Fox and his wife, actress Tracy Pollan, founded the ...

  3. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice.

    Shao, Yafang; Hu, Zhanqiang; Yu, Yonghong; Mou, Renxiang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Beta, Trust

    2018-01-15

    Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice. Soluble-conjugated phenolics, TFC, and anthocyanins were negatively correlated with L ∗ , b ∗ , C and H° values. TPAC was positively correlated with a ∗ (Pblack rice groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet of the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes in the Sibillini area (Central Apennines / Dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nell'area dei Monti Sibillini (Appennino centrale

    Paolo Boldreghini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Authors analyse the contents of 401 stomachs of foxes Vulpes vulpes (135 of which were empty collected during the period 1971-74 in a mixed agriculture-pasture-woodland area. The frequency of occurrence of the following food categories was found: 1. Small Vertebrates (mainly rodents 72.6%; 2. Medium-sized Vertebrates (prevalently hares, domestic rabbits and domestic fowl 13.5%; 3. Invertebrates (mainly Orthoptera 7.9%; 4. Fruits: 24.8%; 5. Garbage and carrions 62.0%; 6. Grass and leaves 38.7%; 7. Unidentified material 5.6%. Small Vertebrates, Garbage and carrions, and Fruits showed highly significant seasonal variation. Garbage was found to be eaten more frequently than in any other European country. Riassunto Viene analizzato il contenuto di 401 stomaci di Volpe Vulpes vulpes (di cui 135 vuoti raccolti nel periodo 1971-74 nelle province di Ascoli Piceno e Macerata. Le categorie alimentari più frequenti sono i piccoli Vertebrati (Roditori in prevalenza, i rifiuti e carogne, e i frutti; solo queste categorie mostrano variazioni stagionali significative. I1 consumo di carogne e rifiuti è più elevato rispetto a quello registrato in altri paesi europei.

  5. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  6. Productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with the pelagic larval duration of damselfishes in the Red Sea.

    Robitzch, Vanessa S N; Lozano-Cortés, Diego; Kandler, Nora M; Salas, Eva; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    We examined the variation of pelagic larval durations (PLDs) among three damselfishes, Dascyllus aruanus, D. marginatus, and D. trimaculatus, which live under the influence of an environmental gradient in the Red Sea. PLDs were significantly correlated with latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), and primary production (CHLA; chlorophyll a concentrations). We find a consistent decrease in PLDs with increasing SST and primary production (CHLA) towards the southern Red Sea among all species. This trend is likely related to higher food availability and increased metabolic rates in that region. We suggest that food availability is a potentially stronger driver of variation in PLD than temperature, especially in highly oligotrophic regions. Additionally, variations in PLDs were particularly high among specimens of D. marginatus, suggesting a stronger response to local environmental differences for endemic species. We also report the first average PLD for this species over a broad geographic range (19.82 ± 2.92 days). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with the pelagic larval duration of damselfishes in the Red Sea

    Robitzch, Vanessa S.N.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the variation of pelagic larval durations (PLDs) among three damselfishes, Dascyllus aruanus, D. marginatus, and D. trimaculatus, which live under the influence of an environmental gradient in the Red Sea. PLDs were significantly correlated with latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), and primary production (CHLA; chlorophyll a concentrations). We find a consistent decrease in PLDs with increasing SST and primary production (CHLA) towards the southern Red Sea among all species. This trend is likely related to higher food availability and increased metabolic rates in that region. We suggest that food availability is a potentially stronger driver of variation in PLD than temperature, especially in highly oligotrophic regions. Additionally, variations in PLDs were particularly high among specimens of D. marginatus, suggesting a stronger response to local environmental differences for endemic species. We also report the first average PLD for this species over a broad geographic range (19.82 ± 2.92 days).

  8. Productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with the pelagic larval duration of damselfishes in the Red Sea

    Robitzch, Vanessa S.N.; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Kandler, Nora; Salas, Eva; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the variation of pelagic larval durations (PLDs) among three damselfishes, Dascyllus aruanus, D. marginatus, and D. trimaculatus, which live under the influence of an environmental gradient in the Red Sea. PLDs were significantly correlated with latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), and primary production (CHLA; chlorophyll a concentrations). We find a consistent decrease in PLDs with increasing SST and primary production (CHLA) towards the southern Red Sea among all species. This trend is likely related to higher food availability and increased metabolic rates in that region. We suggest that food availability is a potentially stronger driver of variation in PLD than temperature, especially in highly oligotrophic regions. Additionally, variations in PLDs were particularly high among specimens of D. marginatus, suggesting a stronger response to local environmental differences for endemic species. We also report the first average PLD for this species over a broad geographic range (19.82 ± 2.92 days).

  9. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  10. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Steinbauer, V.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 11 (2016), s. 4167-4171 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hepatozoon canis * dogs * red fox es * Czech Republic * autochthonous infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  11. Intrinsic alignment of redMaPPer clusters: cluster shape-matter density correlation

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    We measure the alignment of the shapes of galaxy clusters, as traced by their satellite distributions, with the matter density field using the public redMaPPer catalogue based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey-Data Release 8 (SDSS-DR8), which contains 26 111 clusters up to z ˜ 0.6. The clusters are split into nine redshift and richness samples; in each of them, we detect a positive alignment, showing that clusters point towards density peaks. We interpret the measurements within the tidal alignment paradigm, allowing for a richness and redshift dependence. The intrinsic alignment (IA) amplitude at the pivot redshift z = 0.3 and pivot richness λ = 30 is A_IA^gen=12.6_{-1.2}^{+1.5}. We obtain tentative evidence that the signal increases towards higher richness and lower redshift. Our measurements agree well with results of maxBCG clusters and with dark-matter-only simulations. Comparing our results to the IA measurements of luminous red galaxies, we find that the IA amplitude of galaxy clusters forms a smooth extension towards higher mass. This suggests that these systems share a common alignment mechanism, which can be exploited to improve our physical understanding of IA.

  12. A method for the estimation of the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled red-noise time series

    Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J. L.; Hovatta, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modelled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods; we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leakage and to recover steep simple power-law power spectral densities. We also introduce the use of a Neyman construction for the estimation of the errors in the power-law index of the power spectral density. This method provides a consistent way to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data.

  13. Defected red blood cell membranes and direct correlation with the uraemic milieu: the connection with the decreased red blood cell lifespan observed in haemodialysis patients

    Stamopoulos, D; Manios, E; Gogola, V; Grapsa, E; Bakirtzi, N

    2012-01-01

    Together with impaired production of erythropoietin and iron deficiency, the decreased lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) is a main factor contributing to the chronic anaemia observed in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Atomic force microscopy is employed in this work to thoroughly survey the membrane of intact RBCs (iRBCs) of HD patients in comparison to those of healthy donors, aiming to obtain direct information on the structural status of RBCs that can be related to their decreased lifespan. We observed that the iRBC membrane of the HD patients is overpopulated with extended circular defects, termed ‘orifices’, that have typical dimension ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 μm. The ‘orifice’ index—that is, the mean population of ‘orifices’ per top membrane surface—exhibits a pronounced relative increase of order 54 ± 12% for the HD patients as compared to healthy donors. Interestingly, for the HD patients, the ‘orifice’ index, which relates to the structural status of the RBC membrane, correlates strongly with urea concentration, which is a basic index of the uraemic milieu. Thus, these results indicate that the uraemic milieu downgrades the structural status of the RBC membrane, possibly triggering biochemical processes that result in their premature elimination from the circulation. This process could decrease the lifespan of RBCs, as observed in HD patients. (paper)

  14. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice*

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. PMID:25944898

  15. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice.

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M; Piganelli, Jon D; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H Henry

    2015-06-19

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Red Cell Distribution Width and Serum BNP Level Correlation in Diabetic Patients with Cardiac Failure: A Cross - Sectional Study.

    A R, Subhashree

    2014-06-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a red cell measurement given by fully automated hematology analyzers. It is a measure of heterogeneity in the size of circulating erythrocytes. Studies have shown that it is a prognostic marker in non - anemic diabetic patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease but its correlation with cardiac failure in diabetics has not been studied so far. Moreover, studies have also shown that a higher RDW may reflect an underlying inflammatory state. Since Diabetes is a pro inflammatory state there is a possibility that it might have an influence on the RDW values even when there is no cardiac failure, but research data on this aspect is lacking. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a proven marker for cardiac failure whose values are comparable with echo cardio graphic findings in assessing the left ventricular dysfunction. This study aimed to find out the correlation between RDW% and serum BNP levels in Diabetics with heart failure (cases) when compared to those without failure (controls). Further, we compared the RDW % values of the cases with controls. Settings and Design : The study was approved by institutional ethical and research committee. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients attending the Diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India, during the period of October to December 2013. Hundred known cases of type II Diabetes mellitus attending Diabetes centre of the Hospital, with clinical and Echo cardio graphic features of cardiac failure were included as cases. Hundred age and gender matched diabetics with negative history of cardiovascular disease and with normal Echo cardio graphic features were included as controls. Informed consent was obtained from all the cases and controls. Demographic data and clinical history were gathered from all the cases and controls by using a standardized self - administered questionnaire. Biochemical and hematological parameters which included Fasting and

  17. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Gabriele Berberich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012, two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group, located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany, have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological, which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis.

  18. 33 CFR 117.1087 - Fox River.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fox River. 117.1087 Section 117.1087 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1087 Fox River. (a) The draws of the Canadian...

  19. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  20. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  1. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Calibration of redMaGiC Redshift Distributions in DES and SDSS from Cross-Correlations

    Cawthon, R.; et al.

    2017-12-19

    We present calibrations of the redshift distributions of redMaGiC galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 data. These results determine the priors of the redshift distribution of redMaGiC galaxies, which were used for galaxy clustering measurements and as lenses for galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements in DES Y1 cosmological analyses. We empirically determine the bias in redMaGiC photometric redshift estimates using angular cross-correlations with Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) galaxies. For DES, we calibrate a single parameter redshift bias in three photometric redshift bins: $z \\in[0.15,0.3]$, [0.3,0.45], and [0.45,0.6]. Our best fit results in each bin give photometric redshift biases of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. To further test the redMaGiC algorithm, we apply our calibration procedure to SDSS redMaGiC galaxies, where the statistical precision of the cross-correlation measurement is much higher due to a greater overlap with BOSS galaxies. For SDSS, we also find best fit results of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. We compare our results to other analyses of redMaGiC photometric redshifts.

  3. Members of FOX family could be drug targets of cancers.

    Wang, Jinhua; Li, Wan; Zhao, Ying; Kang, De; Fu, Weiqi; Zheng, Xiangjin; Pang, Xiaocong; Du, Guanhua

    2018-01-01

    FOX families play important roles in biological processes, including metabolism, development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOX members in cancers, FOX members and drug resistance, FOX members and stem cells. Finally, FOX members as drug targets of cancer treatment were discussed. Future perspectives of FOXC1 research were described in the end. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms in the shock induced decomposition of FOX-7

    Mishra, Ankit; Tiwari, Subodh C.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv; CACS Team

    Experimental and first principle computational studies on FOX 7 have either involved a very small system consisting of a few atoms or they did not take into account the decomposition mechanisms under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. We have performed a large-scale reactive MD simulation using ReaxFF-lg force field to study the shock decomposition of FOX 7. The chemical composition of the principal decomposition products correlates well with experimental observations. Furthermore, we observed that the production of N2 and H2O was inter molecular in nature and was through different chemical pathways. Moreover, the production of CO and CO2 was delayed due to production of large stable C,O atoms cluster. These critical insights into the initial processes involved in the shock induced decomposition of FOX-7 will greatly help in understanding the factors playing an important role in the insensitiveness of this high energy material. This research is supported by AFOSR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0042.

  5. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...... differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle...

  6. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  7. A new case of the enigmatic Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp (FU98) in a fox from the Czech Republic

    Hodžić, A.; Mitková, B.; Modrý, David; Juránková, J.; Frgelecová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Steinbauer, V.; Duscher, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, 1 February (2017), s. 59-60 ISSN 0890-8508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. * 16S rRNA * groEL * blood * red fox * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.403, year: 2016

  8. Éloge to Robert Fox

    Efthymios Nicolaidis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Alexandre Koyré Medal awarded since 1968 to prominent historians of science was awarded to Robert Fox, leading historian of European science of the period from the 18th to the beginnings of the 20th century. The Medal was presented to Robert Fox during the 7th International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, Prague, 23 September 2016, and the Éloge describes his career and work.

  9. Single crystal spectrometer FOX at KENS

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Single crystal spectrometer FOX installed at H1 thermal neutron line on KENS has been renewed recently for the measurement of very weak scattering. We have installed a multidetector system of 36 linearly placed 3 He detectors with collimators instead of former four-circle diffractometer and scintillator detectors. Though the system is quite simple, a large two-dimensional reciprocal space is observed effectively with high S/N rate on new FOX. (author)

  10. High density of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens and resulting rodent exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Bastien, Matthieu; Vaniscotte, Amelie; Combes, Benoit; Umhang, Gerald; Germain, Estelle; Gouley, Valentin; Pierlet, Alice; Quintaine, Thomas; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amelie; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Boue, Franck; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine

    2018-03-08

    The faeces of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), and the domestic cat, Felis catus (Linnaeus), can be responsible for spreading eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) into the environment. The accidental ingestion of these eggs or oocysts, through consumption of raw fruits or vegetables grown in or in contact with contaminated soil, can lead to alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or toxoplasmosis in humans. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the faecal deposition by foxes and cats in kitchen gardens where fruits and vegetables are grown and its consequences for zoonosis transmission. The density of definitive host faeces is considered as one of the main factors in infection risk for intermediate hosts. The density of fox and cat faeces, as well as the prevalence of both AE and toxoplasmosis in rodent populations (contaminated by ingestion of eggs or oocysts), were compared within and outside kitchen gardens. Our results showed that the mean density of fox faeces did not significantly differ between kitchen gardens and habitat edges (0.29 ± 0.04 faeces/m 2 vs 0.22 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ), the latter being known as an area of high fox faeceal densities. The density of cat faeces was significantly higher within the kitchen garden than outside (0.86 ± 0.22 faeces/m 2 vs 0.04 ± 0.02 faeces/m 2 ). The sampled kitchen gardens might therefore be considered as possible hotspots for both fox and cat defecation. Of the 130 rodents trapped, 14% were infected by at least one species of fox or cat intestinal parasite. These rodents were significantly more often infected when they were exposed to a kitchen garden. These results suggest that the deposit of fox and cat faeces in kitchen gardens would significantly impact the risk of human exposure to E. multilocularis and T. gondii. and should be prevented using effective means.

  11. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-12-01

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ 2 = 122.1, df = 6, p fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of FoxP3+ cells in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the number of FoxP3(+) cells between periapical granulomas (PGs) and radicular cysts (RCs), and to correlate this number with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in these lesions and with epithelial thickness of RCs. Thirty PGs and 30 RCs were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-FoxP3 polyclonal antibody. FoxP3(+) cells were counted under a light microscope (×400 magnification) in five fields and the mean value was calculated for each specimen. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells according to type of lesion (PG vs. RC), intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (grade I/II vs. grade III), and epithelial thickness of RCs (atrophic vs. hyperplastic). FoxP3(+) cells were detected in most PGs (93.3%) and RCs (93.3%). The median number of FoxP3(+) cells was 2.40 in PGs and 1.00 in RCs, with this difference being statistically significant (P=0.005). No significant differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells were observed in terms of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.465) or epithelial thickness of RCs (P=0.737). The present results suggest a greater participation of regulatory T cells in the modulation of the inflammatory response in PGs. In addition, the presence of a less effective regulatory environment in RCs, together with the high levels of inflammatory mediators as reported in the literature, may contribute to the greater growth potential of these lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comprehensive Overview of the Duvernay Induced Seismicity near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Schultz, R.; Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Haug, K.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we summarize the current state of understanding regarding the induced seismicity related to Duvernay hydraulic fracturing operations in central Alberta, near the town of Fox Creek. Earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism. To corroborate this point, we use cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and moment tensor determinations to show fault motion consistency. The spatiotemporal clustering of sequences is strongly related to nearby hydraulic fracturing operations. In addition, we identify a strong preference for subvertical strike-slip motion with a roughly 45º P-axis orientation, consistent with ambient stress field considerations. The hypocentral geometry in two red traffic light protocol cases, that are robustly constrained by local array data, provide compelling evidence for planar features starting at Duvernay Formation depths and extending into the shallow Precambrian basement. We interpret these features as faults orientated approximately north-south and subvertically, consistent with moment tensor determinations. Finally, we conclude that the primary sequences are best explained as induced events in response to effective stress changes as a result of pore-pressure increase along previously existing faults due to hydraulic fracturing stimulations.

  14. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  15. FOOD OF THE SILVER FOX VULPES CHAMA The silver fox Vulpes ...

    habits as follows: "The South African Silver Fox is nocturnal, occasionally crepuscular, and goes about singly or in ... stigma attached to virtually any "fox" or "jackal" in southern Africa as killers offarm animals. Thus many ... of data for the species justifies pUblication of the results, while further work continues. MATERIAL AND ...

  16. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O' Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G

    2003-04-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by {delta}{sup 15}N) is positively correlated with increasing {delta}{sup 13}C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCB) > chlordane-related compounds ({sigma}CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane ({sigma}HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) {>=}chlorobenzenes ({sigma}ClBz) > DDT-related isomers ({sigma}DDT). In liver, {sigma}CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by {sigma}PCB > TOX > {sigma}HCH > {sigma}ClBz > {sigma}DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While {sigma}PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.

  17. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  18. High glucose induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells are regulated by FoxO3a.

    Chaoming Peng

    Full Text Available Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular complications in diabetes, whereas, the underlying mechanism is not fully clarified. FoxO transcription factors are involved in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the potential role of FoxO3a on the CMECs injury induced by high glucose.CMECs were isolated from hearts of adult rats and cultured in normal or high glucose medium for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h respectively. To down-regulate FoxO3a expression, CMECs were transfected with FoxO3a siRNA. ROS accumulation and apoptosis in CMECs were assessed by dihydroethidine (DHE staining and TUNEL assay respectively. Moreover, the expressions of Akt, FoxO3a, Bim and BclxL in CMECs were assessed by Western blotting assay.ROS accumulation in CMECs was significantly increased after high glucose incubation for 6 to 24 h. Meanwhile, high glucose also increased apoptosis in CMECs, correlated with decreased the phosphorylation expressions of Akt and FoxO3a. Moreover, high glucose incubation increased the expression of Bim, whereas increased anti-apoptotic protein BclxL. Furthermore, siRNA target FoxO3a silencing enhanced the ROS accumulation, whereas suppressed apoptosis in CMECs. FoxO3a silencing also abolished the disturbance of Bcl-2 proteins induced by high glucose in CMECs.Our data provide evidence that high glucose induced FoxO3a activation which suppressed ROS accumulation, and in parallel, resulted in apoptosis of CMECs.

  19. Fox Chase Network: Fox Chase Cancer Center's community hospital affiliation program.

    Higman, S A; McKay, F J; Engstrom, P F; O'Grady, M A; Young, R C

    2000-01-01

    Fox Chase Cancer Center developed a format for affiliation with community providers in 1986. Fox Chase Network was formed to establish hospital-based community cancer centers to increase access to patients involved in clinical research. Under this program, the Fox Chase Network now contributes 500 patients per year to prevention and clinical research studies. As relationships with community providers form, patient referrals have increased at Fox Chase Cancer Center and for each Fox Chase Network member. A dedicated staff is required to operate the central office on a day-to-day basis as well as at each affiliate. We have found this to be a critical element in each program's success. New challenges in the cancer business-increasing volumes with declining revenue-have caused us to reconfigure the services offered to affiliates, while maintaining true to our mission: to reduce the burden of human cancer.

  20. Qanuq Kayuqtuq Kaviqsiruaq (How the Fox Turned Red).

    Teeluk, Martha

    This children's story in the Kobuk Inupiaq language is a traditional tale told in the Alaskan Yupik-speaking areas. It is intended for elementary school children who have a good grasp of the language. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story and a short introduction in English is included. (NCR)

  1. CORD BLOOD NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELL COUNT: A SIMPLE BEDSIDE TEST OF PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH IMMEDIATE OUTCOME

    Ramesh Chand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asphyxia is a leading cause of foetal neonatal mortality and morbidity. Nucleated red blood cell count (NRBC produced as compensatory response to asphyxia in foetus and NRBC level can be correlated to asphyxia. Because the present indices are unhelpful in the diagnosis and prediction of the severity of asphyxia, we wished to investigate the relationship between the nucleated RBC count and the severity & immediate outcome of perinatal asphyxia. METHOD This prospective comparative study was conducted in maternity ward of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department and Paediatric Department of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur (Central UP, from January 2014 to September 2014. Newborns of term gestation were selected after satisfying inclusion criteria and were divided in 2 groups. The control group consisted 60 normal newborns and case group had 60 asphyxiated newborns. The cord blood was collected soon after birth, investigated for pH and making smears that were stained with Leishman’s stain. NRBCs were counted against 100 WBCs. The statistical analysis was done using IMSTAT. RESULTS The mean NRBC count in the study group was 22.63±6.95 as compared to 4.75±2.04 in the control group (p=<0.0001. The NRBC count was significantly higher in low pH, neonates with low Apgar scores of < 3 at 1 minutes, newborns with HIE stage III & in neonates who were neurological abnormal at discharge (P=0.0001. CONCLUSIONS A simple, easy to do, cost effective bedside test, such as NRBC count at time of delivery is a good marker of perinatal asphyxia & its forthcoming immediate neurological outcome.

  2. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF REARING KITS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS IN BLOOD OF POLAR FOXES FEMALE

    Roman SZYMECZKO

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the number of rearing kits on selected blood parameters in polar fox females in the fifth week of lactation. The haematological parameters were tested in the blood of polar fox females with small (group A-mean number of pups: 3.5 and large (group B-mean number of pups: 10.7 litter. In female polar foxes rearing 9-13 kits (group B there was found a lower number of red blood cells, a lower haematocrit value and lower concentration of haemoglobin. No significant (P<0.05 effect of litter size on the number of white blood cells was observed, however there was an essential (P<0.05 increase in the percentage of neutrophiles as well as lowering of lymphocytes in the total count of leucocytes in the female of polar foxes from B group. A large number of pups in litter significantly (P<0.05 lowered the content of glucose in female blood on the 35th day of lactation.

  3. High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia

    Lalošević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839 infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world.

  4. Amigos de Fox, breve historia de un "partido" efímero

    Roberto Tejeda Ávila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amigos de Fox fue más allá de la cuestión del financiamiento, conformó una red de ciudadanos con el propósito explícito de llevar a la Presidencia de la República a un candidato surgido de las filas de la oposición y "sacar al PRI de Los Pinos". Los artífices del concepto Amigos de Fox fueron un grupo de empresarios que se conocieron cuando trabajaban en Coca-Cola. A partir de estrategias de mercadotecnia y publicidad impulsaron una movilización ciudadana que tuvo éxito en el ámbito de la campaña presidencial del año 2000: su candidato ganó en las urnas. Amigos de Fox creó una estructura paralela al PAN que se comportó como un partido, expresando nuevas formas de participación electoral; primero impuso a Vicente Fox como el candidato oficial del PAN y después lo llevó a la Presidencia.

  5. 76 FR 13312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    2011-03-11

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... National Railway Bridge across the Fox River at Mile 55.72 at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After careful... On December 8, 2010, we published an NPRM entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River...

  6. Physiological stress and Hendra virus in flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Australia.

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress. Pooled and individual urine samples were non-invasively collected from under roosting flying-foxes at two latitudinally disparate regions in the eastern Australian state of Queensland. Hendra virus detection, and (in individual urine samples sex and species determination were PCR-based. Urinary cortisol measurement used a validated enzyme immunoassay. We found no direct correlation between increased urinary cortisol and Hendra virus excretion, but our findings do suggest a biologically plausible association between low winter temperatures and elevated cortisol levels in P. alecto in the lower latitude Southeast Queensland roosts. We hypothesize an indirect association between low winter temperatures and increased Hendra virus infection and excretion, mediated by the physiological cost of thermoregulation. Our findings and our approach are directly relevant to elaboration of the disease ecology of Nipah virus and other emerging henipaviruses in bats. More broadly, they inform investigation of emerging disease infection dynamics across the wildlife/livestock/human interface.

  7. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  8. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  9. HTLV-1 modulates the frequency and phenotype of FoxP3+CD4+ T cells in virus-infected individuals

    Satou Yorifumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-1 utilizes CD4 T cells as the main host cell and maintains the proviral load via clonal proliferation of infected CD4+ T cells. Infection of CD4+ T cells by HTLV-1 is therefore thought to play a pivotal role in HTLV-1-related pathogenicity, including leukemia/lymphoma of CD4+ T cells and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, it has been reported that a proportion of HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells express FoxP3, a master molecule of regulatory T cells. However, crucial questions remain unanswered on the relationship between HTLV-1 infection and FoxP3 expression. Results To investigate the effect of HTLV-1 infection on CD4+ T-cell subsets, we used flow cytometry to analyze the T-cell phenotype and HTLV-1 infection in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs of four groups of subjects, including 23 HTLV-1-infected asymptomatic carriers (AC, 10 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, 10 patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, and 10 healthy donors. The frequency of FoxP3+ cells in CD4+ T cells in AC with high proviral load and patients with HAM/TSP or ATL was higher than that in uninfected individuals. The proviral load was positively correlated with the percentage of CD4+ T cells that were FoxP3+. The CD4+FoxP3+ T cells, themselves, were frequently infected with HTLV-1. We conclude that FoxP3+ T- cells are disproportionately infected with HTLV-1 during chronic infection. We next focused on PBMCs of HAM/TSP patients. The expression levels of the Treg associated molecules CTLA-4 and GITR were decreased in CD4+FoxP3+ T cells. Further we characterized FoxP3+CD4+ T-cell subsets by staining CD45RA and FoxP3, which revealed an increase in CD45RA−FoxP3low non-suppressive T-cells. These findings can reconcile the inflammatory phenotype of HAM/TSP with the observed increase in frequency of FoxP3+ cells. Finally, we analyzed ATL cells and observed not only a high frequency of FoxP3 expression

  10. Comparison of selected immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes

    Kostro, K.; Woloszyn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to compare selected nonspecific immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes. It was found that out of three mitogens (Con A, La and PWM) only Con A stimulated the strongest lymphocyte proliferation in both species of foxes. Mean stimulation indices and the absolute values of incorporated thymidine were significantly higher in polar foxes. The average percentages of phagocytes and the fatal indices of neutrophils were comparable in both species of foxes, while the mean value of the phagocyte index was much higher in the silver fox. However, in polar foxes a higher concentration of lysozyme in the blood serum was found. The differences in the parameters may influence the susceptibility of these foxes to some infections already at the level of nonspecific primary response. (author)

  11. Swift fox survey along Heartland Expressway Corridor.

    2015-05-01

    The swift fox (Vulpes velox) is a small canid classified as endangered within the : state of Nebraska. Future construction of the Heartland Expressway Corridor (HEC), a : 300 km road expansion project in the panhandle of the state, may impact the res...

  12. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  13. THE GRAVITATIONAL SHEAR-INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES IN OBSERVATION AND IN THE ΛCDM MODEL

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) correlation function of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) can be modeled with the distribution function of a misalignment angle advocated recently by Okumura et al. For this purpose, we have accurately measured the GI correlation for the LRGs in the Data Release 6 (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which confirms the results of Hirata et al. who used the DR4 data. By comparing the GI correlation functions in the simulation and in the observation, we find that the GI correlation can be modeled in the current ΛCDM model if the misalignment follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a typical misalignment angle σ θ = 34.9 +1.9 -2.1 degrees. We also find a correlation between the axis ratios and intrinsic alignments of LRGs. This effect should be taken into account in theoretical modeling of the GI and intrinsic ellipticity-ellipticity correlations for weak lensing surveys.

  14. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Woeste, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests. Nearly all (93%) offspring were sired by a male parent within the seed orchard. The mean number of male parents per year was 69.5, or 47.6% of all clones in the seed orchard. Female clones in the early phenology group had more offspring sired from extra-orchard pollen (13%) than clones in the intermediate (5%) and late (1%) phenology groups. Distance was the largest influence on pollination success, and pollination occurred most often by male trees in the same subline as the maternal tree. Males in the early phenology group sired more offspring overall in the progeny pool and more offspring per mother tree than males in the intermediate or late phenology groups. Average genetic correlations among all OP progeny ranged between 0.2557 and 0.3529 with a mean of 0.28±0.01. The importance of progeny test genotyping for northern red oak improvement likely is increasing with the demand for improved varieties. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc assembly of full-sib families for genetic analysis. PMID:28166543

  15. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1 Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively. Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC or low (LC concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation relative to expected calving date (d-42 to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1 and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1 were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Wennerberg, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be grouped...... as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  17. Fox Una visión diferente

    Alfonso Navarro Bernachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El triunfo de Vicente Fox en las elecciones permite hablar en México de "evolución y no de transición democrática". Da cuenta de otras fuerzas políticas que han actuado, comenta la histórica jornada de julio que configuró el mejor escenario para México y determina la tarea del nuevo Presidente

  18. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Cornwall.

    Simpson, V R

    1996-11-02

    A post mortem examination on a young fox which had been observed to be clinically ill revealed a severe infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. A further 11 foxes were examined and four were infected with the parasite; three of these also had advanced lesions of sarcoptic mange. The cases all occurred outside the previously defined focus of endemic infection for dogs in Cornwall and they appear to be the first recorded cases of A vasorum in foxes in the United Kingdom.

  19. FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

    Day, Nancy F; Kimball, Todd Haswell; Aamodt, Caitlin M; Heston, Jonathan B; Hilliard, Austin T; Xiao, Xinshu; White, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Human speech is one of the few examples of vocal learning among mammals yet ~half of avian species exhibit this ability. Its neurogenetic basis is largely unknown beyond a shared requirement for FoxP2 in both humans and zebra finches. We manipulated FoxP2 isoforms in Area X, a song-specific region of the avian striatopallidum analogous to human anterior striatum, during a critical period for song development. We delineate, for the first time, unique contributions of each isoform to vocal learning. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of RNA-seq data revealed gene modules correlated to singing, learning, or vocal variability. Coexpression related to singing was found in juvenile and adult Area X whereas coexpression correlated to learning was unique to juveniles. The confluence of learning and singing coexpression in juvenile Area X may underscore molecular processes that drive vocal learning in young zebra finches and, by analogy, humans. PMID:29360038

  20. An aerial baiting system for the distribution of attenuated or recombinant rabies vaccines for foxes, raccoons, and skunks.

    Johnston, D H; Voigt, D R; MacInnes, C D; Bachmann, P; Lawson, K F; Rupprecht, C E

    1988-01-01

    An aerial baiting system was developed to deliver oral rabies vaccines to wild carnivore vectors of rabies, e.g., red fox, striped skunk, and raccoon. The bait consists of a polyethylene bag that contains either a 30-g hamburger ball or a 25-mL cube of polyurethane sponge coated with a wax-beef tallow mixture containing 100-150 mg of tetracycline as a biomarker. Attractants used with the sponge were added to the bag (e.g., liver slurry, cheeses, fish oils, or fruits). Baits (greater than 80,000) were dropped from light aircraft at densities of 18-120 baits/km2 over test areas in Ontario and Pennsylvania. Rates of bait acceptance were assessed by the presence of fluorescent tetracycline deposits in the teeth of animals obtained from hunters and trappers. Bait acceptance reached 74% in foxes, 54% in skunks, 43% in raccoons, and 85% in coyotes in the Ontario trials; bait acceptance by raccoons in a small trial in Pennsylvania reached 76%. Also, 66% of juvenile foxes that ate baits ate a second bait 7 or more days after eating the first, thus giving the potential for a booster effect. The cost of aerial distribution of bait (excluding cost of bait and vaccine) in Canadian dollars was $1.45/km2. The aerial distribution system is capable of economically reaching a high proportion of foxes, skunks, and raccoons over large areas. Trials with attenuated ERA (Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth) vaccines are under way in Ontario.

  1. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells are distinct from leukemia cells in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia.

    Toulza, Frederic; Nosaka, Kisato; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Pagliuca, Tony; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2009-11-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). It has been postulated that ATLL cells might act as regulatory T cells (T(regs)) which, in common with ATLL cells, express both CD25 and FoxP3, and so contribute to the severe immune suppression typical of ATLL. We report here that the frequency of CD25(+) cells varied independently of the frequency of FoxP3(+) cells in both a cross-sectional study and in a longitudinal study of 2 patients with chronic ATLL. Furthermore, the capacity of ATLL cells to suppress proliferation of heterologous CD4(+)CD25(-) cells correlated with the frequency of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) cells but was independent of CD25 expression. Finally, the frequency of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells was inversely correlated with the lytic activity of HTLV-1-specific CTLs in patients with ATLL. We conclude that ATLL is not a tumor of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, and that a population of FoxP3(+) cells distinct from ATLL cells has regulatory functions and may impair the cell-mediated immune response to HTLV-1 in patients with ATLL.

  2. Correlated accumulation of anthocyanins and rosmarinic acid in mechanically stressed red cell suspensions of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Strazzer, Pamela; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

    2011-02-15

    A red basil cell line (T2b) rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) was selected for the stable production of anthocyanins (ACs) in the dark. Cell suspension cultures were subjected to mechanical stress through increased agitation (switch from 90 to 150 rpm) to determine the relationship between AC and RA accumulation. Cell extracts were analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS, and the resulting data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. MS and MS/MS spectra facilitated the putative annotation of several complex cyanidin-based ACs, which were esterified with coumaric acid and, in some cases, also with malonic acid. It was also possible to identify various RA-related molecules, some caffeic and coumaric acid derivatives and some flavanones. Mechanical stress increased the total AC and RA contents, but reduced biomass accumulation. Many metabolites were induced by mechanical stress, including RA and some of its derivatives, most ACs, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, whereas the abundance of some RA dimers was reduced. Although AC and RA share a common early biosynthetic pathway (from phenylalanine to 4-coumaroyl-CoA) and could have similar or overlapping functions providing antioxidant activity against stress-generated reactive oxygen species, there appeared to be no competition between their individual pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kato, T.T. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  4. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation.

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Teilmann, Jenni; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Dietz, Rune; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even H

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] and stiffness [N/mm]) were measured. Sixteen foxes (EXP) were fed a wet food containing 7.7% OC-polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber in two periods of body fat deposition (Aug-Dec) and two periods of body fat mobilisation (Jan-July) in which the food contained less energy and only 2% blubber. SigmaOC food concentration in the food containing 7.7% whale blubber was 309 ng/g wet mass. This corresponded to a SigmaOC exposure of ca. 17 microg/kg body mass/d and a responding SigmaOC residue in subcutaneous adipose tissue of ca. 1700 ng/g live mass in the 8 EXP fat foxes euthanized after 16 months. A control group (CON) composed of 15 foxes were fed equal daily caloric amounts of clean pork (Sus scrofa) fat. After 16 months, 8 EXP and 7 CON foxes were euthanized (mean body mass=9.25 kg) while the remaining 8 EXP and 8 CON foxes were given restricted food rations for 6 months resulting in a body weight reduction (mean body mass=5.46 kg). The results showed that only BMD(skull) vs. BMD(vertebrae) were significantly correlated (R=0.68; p=0.03; n=10) probably due to a similar composition of trabecular and cortical osteoid tissue. No difference in any of the BMD measurements or femoral biomechanical properties was found between EXP and CON foxes although BMD baculum was 1.6-folds lower in the EXP group. However, lean summer foxes had significantly lower femoral biomechanical properties measured as displacement (mm), energy absorption (J) and time (s) biomechanical properties than fat winter foxes (all pbones from fasting which is in agreement with previous studies. Further, it should be

  5. Correlational study and randomised controlled trial for understanding and changing red meat consumption: The role of eating identities.

    Carfora, V; Caso, D; Conner, M

    2017-02-01

    The present studies aimed to contribute to the literature on psychological variables involved in reducing red meat consumption (RMC). Study 1 investigated whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), plus healthy-eating and meat-eating identities, could explain intentions to reduce RMC. Study 2 evaluated the effectiveness of an SMS text message intervention on self-monitoring to reduce RMC. In Study 1, data were collected daily using online food diaries for one week and a TPB questionnaire. Study 2 was a randomised controlled trial assessing pre- and post-RMC and TPB constructs by online food diaries and questionnaires over a one-week period. Participants were Italian undergraduates in each study (Study 1: N = 405; Study 2: N = 244). In Study 2, participants were randomly allocated to control and message condition groups. Participants in the message condition group received a daily SMS, which reminded them to monitor RMC, while participants in the control group did not receive any message. Only students who completed all measures were considered in the analyses (Study 1: N = 342; Study 2: N = 228). Study 1 showed that affective and instrumental attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and meat-eating identity explained intentions to reduce RMC, while subjective norm, past behaviour, and healthy-eating identity did not. Study 2 showed that an SMS intervention was effective in increasing intentions and reducing RMC. Mediation analyses indicated partial serial mediation through healthy-eating and meat-eating identities and intentions. The present studies provide support for the predictive validity of TPB in explaining intentions to reduce RMC and for the efficacy of an SMS intervention targeting self-monitoring in reducing RMC. Findings confirmed the important role of eating identities in explaining intentions to reduce RMC and in changing this behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of correlation between nucleated red blood cell count in term newborns and meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    Esmaeilian L

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF in newborns and its complications, and also based on indirect reports pointing out relationship between nucleated red blood cell (nRBC, as a marker of chronic hypoxia, and MSAF in term newborns, and in order to determine this relationship more accurately, this study was done on women with uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy that admitted for delivery at Shariati hospital in year 2000. After excluding confounding factors on nRBC, case group who includes infants with MSAF, and control group who have clear amniotic fluid were determined. Maternal age and parity, gestational age, birth weight, apgar score, neonatal out come, and FHR pattern as well as newborn hemoglobin values were evaluated. Venous cord blood was analyzed for nRBC counts per 100 WBC. Case and control groups were divided according to nRBC counts with cutoff point of 10 and then compared statistically. From the samples, 117 cases and 67 controls were evaluated. Maternal and neonatal factors were similar in two situations. Number of nRBC was 3.75±4.8 in control group and 12.04±11.7 in case group (P<0.01 and it was abnormal (>10 in 9 percent of newborns with clear fluid and 32 percent of MSAF (P<0.01. Cord blood nRBC count increased when meconium is passed intrauterine. This suggests that cases with MSAF may be at risk of chronic hypoxia. Cohort research is recommended to study the affect of delivery mode on the neonatal outcome in cases with MSAF and to evaluate the cause of fetal hypoxia in uncomplicated pregnancy with MSAF.

  7. Shaggy Lame Fox Syndrome in Pribilof Island Arctic Foxes ( Alopex lagopus pribilofensis), Alaska.

    Spraker, T R; White, P A

    2017-03-01

    A previously unrecognized condition is described in wild free-ranging Pribilof arctic foxes ( Alopex lagopus pribilofensis) from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA. This condition is called shaggy lame fox syndrome (SLFS) denoting the primary clinical signs first observed. Criteria used to suspect SLFS on gross examination included emaciation, failure to shed winter pelage and moderate to severe polyarthritis. Criteria used to confirm SLFS histologically included polyarthritis (characterized by lymphoplasmacytic synovitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, periosteal bony proliferation, and periarticular lymphoplasmacytic vasculitis) and systemic leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Other histological lesions often found included renal cortical infarcts, myocarditis with myocardial infarcts, lymphoplasmacytic meningitis, lymphoplasmacytic cuffing of meningeal and a few cerebral vessels, and cavitating infarcts of the brainstem and thalamus. The cause of SLFS is not known at this time; however, the gross and histological lesions suggest that the cause of SLFS may be a bacterial polyarthritis with a secondary immune-mediated vasculitis. These lesions are consistent with changes described with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in domestic dogs; E. rhusiopathiae was identified from the synovial membrane of a swollen stifle joint and the kidney from one fox using real-time polymerase chain reaction and with culture from a fox that had gross and histological lesions of SLFS. Therefore, E. rhusiopathiae is a possible etiological agent for SLFS.

  8. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  9. Porencephaly in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Yoshimoto, Saeko; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Une, Yumi

    2016-12-01

    A postmortem examination revealed a large brain cavity in the right cerebral hemisphere of a 9-year-old male fennec (Vulpes zerda). The cavity was filled with cerebrospinal fluid and extended to the right lateral ventricle. Swelling and displacement of the right hippocampal area were also observed. Histologic examination revealed no evidence of previous infarct lesions, hemorrhage, inflammation or invasive tumor cells. Observation of the defective part suggested a local circulatory disorder during the fetal stage, although the cause was not detected. No neurological symptoms that could enable a provisional diagnosis were observed during the course of his life. This is the first report of asymptomatic porencephaly in a fennec fox.

  10. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

    Robardet E.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression. Urbanisation level was the only influencing factor, with a decreasing gradient from rural [54%, CI 95% (40-68] to peri-urban [31%, CI 95% (15-52] and urban area [4%, CI 95% (0.7-15]. The consumption of Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp., grassland species, the main presumed intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis, was studied by the same approach. The two species were consumed less in the urban area and more in autumn than in spring. Anthropogenic food consumption was linked to urbanisation and to age. The frequency of anthropogenic food consumption decreased in the rural area. A global model explaining the presence of E. multilocularis and including urbanisation level and diet was then elaborated. Independently of urbanisation, there was a suggestion of less E. multilocularis infection with anthropogenic food consumption. Red foxes consuming Microtus sp. and A. terrestris had higher worm burden than those that did not. The results suggest that the decreasing gradient observed from rural to urban area is linked to behaviour and feeding habits.

  11. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at Pdairy cows in early lactation.

  12. ADAM-17 is a poor prognostic indicator for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and is regulated by FoxM1.

    Jiao, Xiaodong; Yu, Wenlong; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Ying; Wei, Peilian; Fang, Wenzheng; Yu, Guanzhen

    2018-05-18

    A-disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. Specific ADAMs are upregulated in human cancers and correlated with tumor progression and poor outcome, but rarely studied in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). This study aimed to explore the expression profiles of ADAMs and their potential underlying mechanisms promoting cancer progression. mRNA expression of ADAM-9, - 10, - 11, - 12, - 15, - 17, - 28, and - 33 was analyzed in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) samples. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of ADAM-10, - 17, - 28, and FoxM1 in HC. The regulation of ADAM-17 by FoxM1 and their functional study was investigated in vivo and in vitro. ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 were upregulated in tumors compared with matched non-cancerous tissues. IHC analysis revealed increased expression of ADAM-10, - 17, and - 28 in HC cells, and ADAM17 seems to be an independent prognostic factor. ADAM-17 is regulated by FoxM1. A decrease in the expression of ADAM-17 by silencing FoxM1 led to an inhibition of cell proliferation, tumor growth, and the production of tumor necrosis factor α. IHC analysis showed co-expression of FoxM1 and ADAM-17 in HC specimens. The findings of the present study show an important role of the cross-talk among FoxM1, ADAM-17, and TNFa in HC development and progression.

  13. The marine side of a terrestrial carnivore: intra-population variation in use of allochthonous resources by arctic foxes.

    Arnaud Tarroux

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in diet within generalist animal populations is thought to be a widespread phenomenon but its potential causes are poorly known. Inter-individual variation can be amplified by the availability and use of allochthonous resources, i.e., resources coming from spatially distinct ecosystems. Using a wild population of arctic fox as a study model, we tested hypotheses that could explain variation in both population and individual isotopic niches, used here as proxy for the trophic niche. The arctic fox is an opportunistic forager, dwelling in terrestrial and marine environments characterized by strong spatial (arctic-nesting birds and temporal (cyclic lemmings fluctuations in resource abundance. First, we tested the hypothesis that generalist foraging habits, in association with temporal variation in prey accessibility, should induce temporal changes in isotopic niche width and diet. Second, we investigated whether within-population variation in the isotopic niche could be explained by individual characteristics (sex and breeding status and environmental factors (spatiotemporal variation in prey availability. We addressed these questions using isotopic analysis and bayesian mixing models in conjunction with linear mixed-effects models. We found that: i arctic fox populations can simultaneously undergo short-term (i.e., within a few months reduction in both isotopic niche width and inter-individual variability in isotopic ratios, ii individual isotopic ratios were higher and more representative of a marine-based diet for non-breeding than breeding foxes early in spring, and iii lemming population cycles did not appear to directly influence the diet of individual foxes after taking their breeding status into account. However, lemming abundance was correlated to proportion of breeding foxes, and could thus indirectly affect the diet at the population scale.

  14. Resting state electroencephalographic correlates with red cell long-chain fatty acids, memory performance and age in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Sumich, Alexander; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were positively associated with fast frequency activity: alpha during eyes-open and beta during eyes-closed conditions. Frontal theta activity during both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was inversely associated with age and positively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels. Alpha activity correlated positively with performance on fluency for categories (semantic memory). Theta activity correlated inversely with performance on delayed (25 min) verbal memory (recall + recognition/2). No associations were observed between long-chain omega-6 and EEG measures. Results support differential associations for DHA and EPA with fast and slow EEG activity respectively. Results support EEG activity as an objective biomarker of neural function associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD.

  15. Correlations between frequency of infra-red active vibrational modes and copper-oxygen distance in copper oxides, application to superconductors

    Ganguly, P.; Infante, C.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Sreedhar, K.

    1990-05-01

    The infra-red spectra of a large number of ternary Cu(II) oxides with at least a quasi square-planar coordination of oxygen around the copper ions have been studied. The frequency of the bands with the highest frequency, υ max , is found to correlate extremely well with the shortest Cu-O distance. υ max increases at an impressive rate of ∼ 20 cm -1 per .01 A when the Cu-O distance becomes less than 1.97 A, which is the Cu 2+ -O 2- distance in square-planar CuO 4 complexes as obtained from empirical ionic radii considerations. The marked sensitivity may be used as a ''titration'' procedure not only to assign bands but also to obtain diagnostic information about local coordination in compounds derived, for example, from the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-d structure such as LaCaBaCu 3 O 7-d . The only example where this correlation fails is in the two-layer non-superconducting oxides derived from La 2 (Ca,Sr)Cu 2 O 6 . the significance of this result is discussed. The marked dependence of frequency on the bond-distance is qualitatively examined in terms of an increased electron-phonon coupling to account for the observed tendency of the superconducting transition temperature to go through a maximum as the average basal plane Cu-O distance is decreased. (author). 52 refs, 6 figs

  16. Echinococcus multilocularis infections of rural, residential and urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland

    Fischer C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined 267 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, for intestinal infections with Echinococcus multilocularis. This region is situated in the core area of the endemic range of this zoonotic cestode in Central Europe. Several factors were taken into account and urbanisation level appeared to be the most explicative to describe observed differences. The prevalence decreased significantly from rural and residential areas (prevalence of 52 %, CI 43-62 %, and 49 %, CI 38-59 %, respectively to the urban area (prevalence of 31 %, CI 19-42 %. A few juvenile foxes harboured very high burdens up to more than 120,000 worms and were significantly more heavily infected than adults. The intensity of infection decreased from rural and residential areas to the city, suggesting a lower contamination of the urban environment.

  17. Model estimates of leaf area and reference canopy stomatal conductance suggest correlation between phenology and physiology in both trembling aspen and red pine

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phenological variations impact water and carbon fluxes, as evidenced by the large interannual variability of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET). In northern Wisconsin we observed daily variations of canopy transpiration from hardwoods from 1.0 to 1.7 mm/day during the leaf unfolding period and 1.7 to 2.6 mm/day with leaves fully out. Correlations between such flux rates and phenology have not been extensively tested and mechanistic connections are in their infancy. Some data suggest that stomatal conductance and photosynthesis increases up to full expansion. Moreover, in conifers, the interaction of phenology and physiology is more complicated than in deciduous trees because needles are retained for several years. Using inverse modeling with a coupled photosynthesis-transpiration model we estimated reference canopy stomatal conductance, Gsref, for red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Gsref and leaf area index, L, for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), using 30-min continuous sap flux data spanning a period from just prior to the start of leaf expansion to just after leaf senescence. The red pine showed Gsref ramp up from 105 to 179 mmol m-2 leaf s-1, which represented a 37 to 50 percent increase in Gsref after accounting for maximum possible changes in L. After full leaf out, the trembling aspen were almost immediately defoliated, and then reflushed after three weeks. Model estimates of L reflected this pattern and were consistent with measurements. However, Gsref never exceeded 45 mmol m-2 s-1 prior to defoliation, but peaked at 112 mmol m-2 s-1 after reflushing. These results support the need for further work that aims to separate phenology and physiology.

  18. Investigation of neural correlates between perception of pain and hemodynamic response measured in the pre-frontal cortex using functional near infra-red spectroscopy

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri

    Perception of pain is multi-dimensional, comprising three major psychological dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. This dissertation study investigates the cognitive evaluation of pain, by acquiring functional Near Infra-Red Spectroscopic (fNIRS) measurements from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas, during mechanical and thermal pain stimulation induced on the subject's volar forearm. Clustered-wise analysis on the oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) response from specific PFC areas was followed by categorizing the resulting HbO response into early (0.1--12sec) and late (12.1--25sec) phases. For each respective phase, regression analysis was carried between the HbO-derived parameters and behaviorally measured pain rating. The major findings of this study include: (1) across both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, significant DeltaHbO deactivation was observed during the late phase, in the left hemispheric (LH) anterior PFC (aPFC) or Brodmann area 10 (BA 10). (2) Significant correlates of pain rating were observed in the LH prefrontal areas: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived peak intensity (PI) from LH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the LH dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC or BA 46) showed correlation with the pain rating. (3) The significant correlates observed from the right hemispheric (RH) PFC were: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived FWHM from the RH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under 41°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the RH DLPFC area correlated with the pain rating. (4) The late phase HbO-derived time to peak from LH aPFC reflected cognitive discrimination of two different pain levels (41°C and 48°C). The observed trend for DeltaHbO activation and deactivation could possibly be due to synaptic-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to increased or

  19. Biosynthesis of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the correlation with photosynthetic pigments in the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne.

    Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Elin; Asplund, Lillemor

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified in a variety of marine organisms from different trophic levels indicating a large spread in the environment. There is much evidence pointing towards natural production as the major source of these compounds in nature. However, much is still not known about the natural production of these compounds. Seasonal trend studies have shown large fluctuations in the levels of OH-PBDEs in Ceramium tenuicorne from the Baltic Sea. Yet, even though indications of stimuli that can induce the production of these compounds have been observed, none, neither internal nor external, has been assigned to be responsible for the recorded fluctuations. In the present study the possible relationship between the concentration of pigments and that of OH-PBDEs in C. tenuicorne has been addressed. Significant correlations were revealed between the concentrations of all OH-PBDEs quantified and the concentrations of both chlorophyll a and Σxanthophylls + carotenoids. All of which displayed a concentration peak in mid-July. The levels of OH-PBDEs may be linked to photosynthetic activity, and hence indirectly to photosynthetic pigments, via bromoperoxidase working as a scavenger for hydrogen peroxide formed during photosynthesis. Yet the large apparent investment in producing specific OH-PBDE congeners point towards an targeted production, with a more specific function than being a waste product of photosynthesis. The OH-PBDE congener pattern observed in this study is not agreeable with some currently accepted models for the biosynthesis of these compounds, and indicates a more selective route than previously considered in C. tenuicorne. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP OF FoxP3+ T REGULATORY CELLS TO DISEASE ACTIVITY AND ANTIBODY LEVELS IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the relationship of the count of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs to the clinical and laboratory parameters of disease activity and the levels of antibodies in a group of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 45 patients with early RA (2010 ACR/EULAR criteria who had not previously received treatment with methotrexate, including 39 women; median age was 52.0 [32.5; 57.5] years; disease duration, 5 [4; 6] months, DAS28 5.01 [4.18; 5.8]; 71.1% of the patients were rheumatoid factor (RF positive and 88.9% were anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positive. The relative and absolute counts of Treg (FoxP3+CD25+; CD152+surface; CD152+intracellular; FoxP3+CD127-; CD25+CD127-; FoxP3+ICOS+; FoxP3+CD154+; FoxP3+CD274+ were measured by immunofluorescence staining and multicolor flow cytometry. A control group consisted of 20 healthy donors who were matched for sex and age with the examined patients.Results and discussion. DАS28 was high, moderate, and low in 22 (48.9%, 20 (44.4%, and 3 (6.7% patients, respectively. As compared with the healthy donors, the patients with early RA were observed to have lower values in the percentage of FoxP3+CD25+ cells, in the percentage and absolute count of FoxP3+ICOS+ cells, in the percentage and absolute count of FoxP3+CD154+ and FoxP3+ CD274+ T cells; p<0.05 in all cases. Negative correlation was recorded between the percentage of FoxP3+CD25+ and C-reactive protein (CRP (r=-0.4; that of CD152+intracellular and DAS28 (r=-0.35, ESR (r=-0.46, CRP (r=-0.54; that of FoxP3+CD127 and CRP (r=-0.42; that of CD25+CD127 and DAS28 (r=-0.38, SDAI (r=-0.41, CDAI (r=-0.36, ESR (r=-0.39, CRP (r=-0.47; p<0.05 in all cases.The patients who were seronegative for RF were found to have higher values in the percentage of CD25+CD127, in the percentage and absolute count of Foxp3+CD154+ and Foxp3+CD274+ T lymphocytes.Conclusion. The given data may indicate that the

  1. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. SCP4 Promotes gluconeogenesis through Fox01/3a dephosphorylation

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is ne...

  3. Nutrition and behavior of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda).

    Dempsey, Janet L; Hanna, Sherilyn J; Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L

    2009-05-01

    Fennec foxes make popular pets because of their small size, minimal odor, and highly social behaviors. They are kept in zoos for conservation and educational programs. The exotic animal practitioner is most likely to be presented with fennec foxes that are overweight because of inappropriate diets or excessive feeding. Clients attempting to hand-rear fennec foxes need advice about formula selection, amounts to feed, protocols for keeping pups warm, and weaning. This article provides information on social behavior, reproduction, and parental behavior, nutrition, and hand-rearing.

  4. Source Determination of Red Gel Pen Inks using Raman Spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy combined with Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis.

    Mohamad Asri, Muhammad Naeim; Mat Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    The potential combination of two nondestructive techniques, that is, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with Pearson's product moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient (r) and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the actual source of red gel pen ink used to write a simulated threatening note, was examined. Eighteen (18) red gel pens purchased from Japan and Malaysia from November to December 2014 where one of the pens was used to write a simulated threatening note were analyzed using RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The spectra of all the red gel pen inks including the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note gathered from the RS and ATR-FTIR analyses were subjected to PPMC coefficient (r) calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). The coefficients r = 0.9985 and r = 0.9912 for pairwise combination of RS and ATR-FTIR spectra respectively and similarities in terms of PC1 and PC2 scores of one of the inks to the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note substantiated the feasibility of combining RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with PPMC coefficient (r) and PCA for successful source determination of red gel pen inks. The development of pigment spectral library had allowed the ink deposited on the threatening note to be identified as XSL Poppy Red (CI Pigment Red 112). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. The Fox Project: Advanced Development of Systems Software

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objectives of the Carnegie Mellon Fox Project are to improve the design and construction of systems software and to further the development of advanced programming language technology...

  6. The Fox Project: Advanced Development of Systems Software

    2000-01-01

    The long-term objectives of the Carnegie Mellon Fox Project are to improve the design and construction of systems software and to further the development of advanced programming language technology...

  7. Species distribution model for swift fox in Nebraska.

    2016-11-28

    The grasslands of Nebraska are highly altered due to anthropogenic development and : degradation. The loss and degradation of grasslands has significantly impacted populations of : swift fox (Vulpes velox), a Nebraska Natural Legacy Plan Tier1 at ...

  8. Establishment of the Fox Chase Network Breast Cancer Risk Registry

    Daly, Mary

    1997-01-01

    .... The development of the Fox Chase Cancer Center Breast Cancer Risk Registry was proposed to facilitate research in the epidemiologic and genetic predictors of disease and will permit evaluation...

  9. Architecture student Meredith Baber wins Kohn Pedersen Fox Traveling Fellowship

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2009-01-01

    Meredith Baber of Cartersville, Va., a fourth-year honors architecture student in the School of Architecture + Design, is the first student in the history of Virginia Tech to win a prestigious Kohn Pederson Fox (KPF) Associates Travelling Fellowship.

  10. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  11. Cs-137 in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Fuglei, Eva; Dowdall, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study presents 137 Cs muscle activity concentrations in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard over a period of several years and discusses the transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes through likely predator-prey relationships. Mean 137 Cs activity concentrations and 137 Cs T ag values (per trapping season) ranged from 0.51 ± 2.76 to 1.32 ± 2.89 Bq/kg (w.w.) and 5.1 x 10 -4 to 1.3 x 10 -3 m 2 /kg, respectively. Mean concentration ratios of 137 Cs in Arctic foxes compared to probable prey ranged from 1.0 to 7.9. On Svalbard, transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes is likely to occur via both marine and terrestrial food chains. The relative contribution of marine and terrestrial food sources to the diet of Arctic foxes may vary by location and by season and may lead to either an increase or decrease in the trophic transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes compared to transfer resulting from terrestrial only diets

  12. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  13. The forkhead transcription factor FoxY regulates Nanos.

    Song, Jia L; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    FoxY is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family that appeared enriched in the presumptive germ line of sea urchins (Ransick et al. Dev Biol 2002;246:132). Here, we test the hypothesis that FoxY is involved in germ line determination in this animal. We found two splice forms of FoxY that share the same DNA-binding domain, but vary in the carboxy-terminal trans-activation/repression domain. Both forms of the FoxY protein are present in the egg and in the early embryo, and their mRNAs accumulate to their highest levels in the small micromeres and adjacent non-skeletogenic mesoderm. Knockdown of FoxY resulted in a dramatic decrease in Nanos mRNA and protein levels as well as a loss of coelomic pouches in 2-week-old larvae. Our results indicate that FoxY positively regulates Nanos at the transcriptional level and is essential for reproductive potential in this organism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Lisa Alexander; Keith Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial...

  15. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  17. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  18. α-Synuclein Heterocomplexes with β-Amyloid Are Increased in Red Blood Cells of Parkinson’s Disease Patients and Correlate with Disease Severity

    Daniele, Simona; Frosini, Daniela; Pietrobono, Deborah; Petrozzi, Lucia; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Baldacci, Filippo; Fusi, Jonathan; Giacomelli, Chiara; Siciliano, Gabriele; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Ceravolo, Roberto; Martini, Claudia; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are characterized by abnormal accumulation/misfolding of specific proteins, primarily α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid1–42 (Aβ1–42) and tau, in both brain and peripheral tissues. In addition to oligomers, the role of the interactions of α-syn with Aβ or tau has gradually emerged. Nevertheless, despite intensive research, NDs have no accepted peripheral markers for biochemical diagnosis. In this respect, Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are emerging as a valid peripheral model for the study of aging-related pathologies. Herein, a small cohort (N = 28) of patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD) and age-matched controls were enrolled to detect the content of α-syn (total and oligomeric), Aβ1–42 and tau (total and phosphorylated) in RBCs. Moreover, the presence of α-syn association with tau and Aβ1–42 was explored by co-immunoprecipitation/western blotting in the same cells, and quantitatively confirmed by immunoenzymatic assays. For the first time, PD patients were demonstrated to exhibit α-syn heterocomplexes with Aβ1–42 and tau in peripheral tissues; interestingly, α-syn-Aβ1–42 concentrations were increased in PD subjects with respect to healthy controls (HC), and directly correlated with disease severity and motor deficits. Moreover, total-α-syn levels were decreased in PD subjects and inversely related to their motor deficits. Finally, an increase of oligomeric-α-syn and phosphorylated-tau was observed in RBCs of the enrolled patients. The combination of three parameters (total-α-syn, phosphorylated-tau and α-syn-Aβ1–42 concentrations) provided the best fitting predictive index for discriminating PD patients from controls. Nevertheless further investigations should be required, overall, these data suggest α-syn hetero-aggregates in RBCs as a putative tool for the diagnosis of PD. PMID:29520218

  19. Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate in Recreational Marathon Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study on Fox's and Tanaka's Equations

    Pantelis T. Nikolaidis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-based prediction equations of maximal heart rate (HRmax, such as the popular formulas Fox's 220-age, or Tanaka's 208-0.7 × age, have been widely used in various populations. Surprisingly, so far these equations have not been validated in marathon runners, despite the importance of the role of HRmax for training purposes in endurance running. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of Fox and Tanaka equations in a large sample of women and men recreational marathon runners. Participants (n = 180, age 43.2 ± 8.5 years, VO2max 46.8 mL/min/kg, finishers in at least one marathon during the last year performed a graded exercise test on a treadmill, where HRmax was measured. Measured HRmax correlated largely with age in the total sample (r = −0.50, p < 0.001, women (r = −0.60, p < 0.001 and men (r = −0.53, p < 0.001. In women, a large main effect of method on HRmax (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.294 was shown with measured HRmax lower than Fox-HRmax (−4.8 bpm; −8.4, −1.3 and Tanaka-HRmax (−4.9 bpm; −8.1, −1.8. In men, a moderate effect of assessment method on HRmax was found (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.066 with measured HRmax higher than Fox-HRmax (+2.8; 1.0, 4.6, Tanaka-HRmax higher than Fox-HRmax (+1.2; 0.7, 1.7. Based on these findings, it was concluded that Fox and Tanaka' formulas overestimated HRmax by ~5 bpm in women, whereas Fox underestimated HRmax in men by ~3 bpm. Thus, we recommend the further use of Tanaka's formula in men marathon runners. In addition, exercise physiologists and sport scientists should consider the observed differences among various assessment methods when performing exercise testing or prescribing training program relying on HR.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of FoxE from Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2, an FeII oxidoreductase involved in photoferrotrophy

    Pereira, L.; Saraiva, I. H.; Coelho, R.; Newman, D. K.; Louro, R. O.; Frazão, C.

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of the R. ferrooxidans SW2 iron oxidoreductase FoxE were obtained and the phase problem was solved by Fe SAD at 2.44 Å resolution. FoxE is a protein encoded by the foxEYZ operon of Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 that is involved in Fe II -based anoxygenic photosynthesis (‘photoferrotrophy’). It is thought to reside in the periplasm, where it stimulates light-dependent Fe II oxidation. It contains 259 residues, including two haem c-binding motifs. As no three-dimensional model is available and there is no structure with a similar sequence, crystals of FoxE were produced. They diffracted to 2.44 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Fe edge. The phase problem was solved by SAD using SHELXC/D/E and the experimental maps confirmed the presence of two haems per molecule

  1. CD147 (Basigin/Emmprin) identifies FoxP3+CD45RO+CTLA4+-activated human regulatory T cells.

    Solstad, Therese; Bains, Simer Jit; Landskron, Johannes; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Thiede, Bernd; Taskén, Kjetil; Torgersen, Knut Martin

    2011-11-10

    Human CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T cells are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous providing plasticity to immune activation and regulation. To better understand the functional dynamics within this subset, we first used a combined strategy of subcellular fractionation and proteomics to describe differences at the protein level between highly purified human CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cell populations. This identified a set of membrane proteins highly expressed on the cell surface of human regulatory T cells (Tregs), including CD71, CD95, CD147, and CD148. CD147 (Basigin or Emmprin) divided CD4(+)CD25(+) cells into distinct subsets. Furthermore, CD147, CD25, FoxP3, and in particular CTLA-4 expression correlated. Phenotypical and functional analyses suggested that CD147 marks the switch between resting (CD45RA(+)) and activated (CD45RO(+)) subsets within the FoxP3(+) T-cell population. Sorting of regulatory T cells into CD147(-) and CD147(+) populations demonstrated that CD147 identifies an activated and highly suppressive CD45RO(+) Treg subset. When analyzing CD4(+) T cells for their cytokine producing potential, CD147 levels grouped the FoxP3(+) subset into 3 categories with different ability to produce IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17. Together, this suggests that CD147 is a direct marker for activated Tregs within the CD4(+)FoxP3(+) subset and may provide means to manipulate cells important for immune homeostasis.

  2. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  3. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated mRNA levels of CTLA-4, FoxP3, and granzyme B in BAL, but not in blood, during acute rejection of lung allografts

    Madsen, Caroline B; Nørgaard, Astrid; Iversen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been related to acute rejection as have the cytotoxic T cells, their immunological counterpart. High expression of cytotoxic markers has been related to acute rejection incidents following both kidney and intestine transplantation, while the correlation between Fox...

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis found in 2 foxes in Southern Jutland

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    The news about these findings were released this morning [10 Jul 2013]. However, later today we detected another positive fox, from the same area, which is not mentioned in the press release (The press release, in Danish, can be found at http://www.vet.dtu.dk/Nyheder/Nyhed?id=%7bDC4E4263- 505A-4554......-BD23-BB1C85C34327%7d). Since September 2011 we have surveyed _E. multilocularis_ in wild carnivores. A total of 856 carnivores have been studied so far: 692 foxes, 150 raccoon dogs, 11 badgers, 3 raccoons, and one wolf. Of these, 7 foxes were positive, all of them originating from the same area...... in southern Denmark -- the Hojer region near the German border. At present, 32 foxes have been analyzed from this area (local prevalence: 7/32 = 21.9 percent; national prevalence: 7/692 = 1.0 percent). The 3 new findings were from foxes shot between December 2012 and February 2013 and revealed worm burdens...

  6. Expression of Fox genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    Daniel eAldea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox genes code for transcription factors that play important roles in different biological processes. They are found in a wide variety of organisms and appeared in unicellular eukaryotes. In metazoans, the gene family includes many members that can be subdivided into 24 classes. Cephalochordates are key organisms to understand the functional evolution of gene families in the chordate lineage due to their phylogenetic position as an early divergent chordate, their simple anatomy and genome structure. In the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae, 32 Fox genes were identified, with at least one member for each of the classes that were present in the ancestor of bilaterians. In this work we describe the expression pattern of 13 of these genes during the embryonic development of the Mediterranean amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We found that FoxK and FoxM genes present an ubiquitous expression while all the others show specific expression patterns restricted to diverse embryonic territories. Many of these expression patterns are conserved with vertebrates, suggesting that the main functions of Fox genes in chordates were present in their common ancestor.

  7. Fox Den Disease: An Interesting Case Following Delayed Diagnosis.

    Stehr, Ryan C; Kim, Nicholas; LoGiudice, John A; Ludwig, Kirk

    2015-06-01

    Pyoderma fistulans sinifica, also known as fox den disease, is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory disorder of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This disorder is often mistaken for other inflammatory skin disorders and treated inappropriately. The authors describe the case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the colorectal surgery service with a longstanding diagnosis of perirectal Crohn's disease. Despite aggressive immunosuppression and numerous surgical procedures, the patient continued to have unrelenting purulent drainage from the skin of his buttocks. Following wide excision of the affected skin and subcutaneous tissues by the colorectal surgeon, the plastic surgery team reconstructed the 30 cm x 55 cm wound using a combination of local flaps and skin grafts. The initial pathology report of the excised specimen confirmed the presence of nonspecific abscesses and inflammation. Upon special request by the plastic surgery team, the sample was resectioned with the specific intent of establishing a diagnosis of fox den disease. The additional slides met the criteria for an unequivocal diagnosis of fox den disease. Immunosuppression was discontinued and the patient healed his wounds without complication. Fox den disease is often overlooked because of the obscurity of the disease and the special histological sectioning needed to establish a diagnosis. In this case, the patient was unnecessarily treated with immunosuppressive drugs for more than 3 decades because of a misdiagnosis. With increased awareness of fox den disease, perhaps its pathophysiology can be better elucidated as more patients are appropriately diagnosed and treated.

  8. WHEN AND WHY DO HEDGEHOGS AND FOXES DIFFER?

    Keil, Frank C

    2010-01-01

    Philip E. Tetlock's finding that "hedgehog" experts (those with one big theory) are worse predictors than "foxes" (those with multiple, less comprehensive theories) offers fertile ground for future research. Are experts as likely to exhibit hedgehog- or fox-like tendencies in areas that call for explanatory, diagnostic, and skill-based expertise-as they did when Tetlock called on experts to make predictions? Do particular domains of expertise curtail or encourage different styles of expertise? Can we trace these different styles to childhood? Finally, can we nudge hedgehogs to be more like foxes? Current research can only grope at the answers to these questions, but they are essential to gauging the health of expert political judgment.

  9. Removing foxing stains from old paper at 157 nm

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Samardzija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm foxing stains were removed successfully from a 16th century old paper. Laser cleaning of stains and foxing from old paper manuscripts is far more effective at 157 nm in comparison to different wavelengths without leaving any yellowish after-effect on the paper. This is because at 157 nm illumination of old paper, complete bond breaking of all the organic molecules of the paper is taking place. Mass spectroscopy at 157 nm and for moderate laser intensities up to 1 mJ/cm 2 of old paper suffering from foxing indicate organic matter disintegration to small photofragments atomic, diatomic or triatomic, which are flying apart with supersonic speed. In addition high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) analysis over the effected areas indicate the presence of iron, suggesting that biological activity is taking place preferentially in paper areas containing iron

  10. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; De Fouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  11. 75 FR 31510 - Fox Chase Bancorp, Inc., Hatboro, PA; Approval of Conversion

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-43: OTS No. H-4707] Fox Chase Bancorp, Inc., Hatboro, PA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 14, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Fox Chase MHC and Fox Chase Bank, Hatboro...

  12. Kinetic study of the plastoquinone pool availability correlated with H2O2 release in seawater and antioxidant responses in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii exposed to single or combined high light, chilling and chemical stresses.

    Barros, Marcelo P; Necchi, Orlando; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    Under biotic/abiotic stresses, the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii reportedly releases massive amounts of H(2)O(2) into the surrounding seawater. As an essential redox signal, the role of chloroplast-originated H(2)O(2) in the orchestration of overall antioxidant responses in algal species has thus been questioned. This work purported to study the kinetic decay profiles of the redox-sensitive plastoquinone pool correlated to H(2)O(2) release in seawater, parameters of oxidative lesions and antioxidant enzyme activities in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii under the single or combined effects of high light, low temperature, and sub-lethal doses of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which are inhibitors of the thylakoid electron transport system. Within 24 h, high light and chilling stresses distinctly affected the availability of the PQ pool for photosynthesis, following Gaussian and exponential kinetic profiles, respectively, whereas combined stimuli were mostly reflected in exponential decays. No significant correlation was found in a comparison of the PQ pool levels after 24 h with either catalase (CAT) or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, although the H(2)O(2) concentration in seawater (R=0.673), total superoxide dismutase activity (R=0.689), and particularly indexes of protein (R=0.869) and lipid oxidation (R=0.864), were moderately correlated. These data suggest that the release of H(2)O(2) from plastids into seawater possibly impaired efficient and immediate responses of pivotal H(2)O(2)-scavenging activities of CAT and APX in the red alga K. alvarezii, culminating in short-term exacerbated levels of protein and lipid oxidation. These facts provided a molecular basis for the recognized limited resistance of the red alga K. alvarezii under unfavorable conditions, especially under chilling stress.

  13. In Vivo Safety Studies With SPBN GASGAS in the Frame of Oral Vaccination of Foxes and Raccoon Dogs Against Rabies

    Steffen Ortmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Marketing Authorization for an oral rabies vaccine in the European Union, not only safety studies in the target species, red fox and raccoon dog, are required. Since baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, specific safety studies in selected non-target species are compulsory. Furthermore, oral rabies vaccines are based on live, replication-competent viruses and thus distinct safety studies in the target species for such type of vaccines are also mandatory. Here, the results of these safety studies in target and selected non-target species for a 3rd generation oral rabies virus vaccine construct, SPBN GASGAS (Rabitec, are presented. The studies included the following species; red fox, raccoon dog, domestic dog, domestic cat, domestic pig, wild rodents. The following safety topics were investigated; overdose, repeated dose, dissemination, shedding, horizontal and vertical transmission. It was shown that SPBN GASGAS did not cause disease or any other adverse reaction in vaccinated animals and naïve contact animals. The vaccine did not disseminate within the host beyond the site of entry. No horizontal transmission was observed in wild rodents. In the target species, there was evidence that in a few cases horizontal transmission of vaccine virus could have occurred under these experimental conditions; most likely immediately after vaccine administration. The vaccine construct SPBN GASGAS meets therefore the latest revised minimal safety requirements as laid down in the European Pharmacopoeia.

  14. Pathological Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch in the stressed heart is transcriptionally controlled by the endothelial Brg1–FoxM1 complex

    Yang, Jin; Feng, Xuhui; Zhou, Qiong; Cheng, Wei; Shang, Ching; Han, Pei; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown. Here we report that the Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) chromatin remodeler and forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor cooperate within cardiac (coronary) endothelial cells of pathologically stressed hearts to trigger the Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch, angiotensin I-to-II conversion, and cardiac hypertrophy. In mice, cardiac stress activates the expression of Brg1 and FoxM1 in endothelial cells. Once activated, Brg1 and FoxM1 form a protein complex on Ace and Ace2 promoters to concurrently activate Ace and repress Ace2, tipping the balance to Ace2 expression with enhanced angiotensin II production, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Disruption of endothelial Brg1 or FoxM1 or chemical inhibition of FoxM1 abolishes the stress-induced Ace2-to-Ace switch and protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1 and FOXM1 expression is also activated in endothelial cells; their expression levels correlate strongly with the ACE/ACE2 ratio, suggesting a conserved mechanism. Our studies demonstrate a molecular interaction of Brg1 and FoxM1 and an endothelial mechanism of modulating Ace/Ace2 ratio for heart failure therapy. PMID:27601681

  15. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  16. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    Wenjing Han; Xiaoyan Li; Lele Wang; Honghao Wang; Kun Yang; Zhixin Wang; Ruijun Wang; Rui Su; Zhihong Liu; Yanhong Zhao; Yanjun Zhang; Jinquan Li

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, wh...

  17. FoxO6 and PGC-1? form a regulatory loop in myogenic cells

    Chung, Shih?Ying; Huang, Wei?Chieh; Su, Ching?Wen; Lee, Kuan?Wei; Chi, Hsiang?Cheng; Lin, Cheng?Tao; Chen, Szu-Tah; Huang, Kai?Min; Tsai, Mu?Shiun; Yu, Hui?Peng; Chen, Shen?Liang

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors of the FoxO (forkhead box O) family regulate a wide range of cellular physiological processes, including metabolic adaptation and myogenic differentiation. The transcriptional activity of most FoxO members is inhibitory to myogenic differentiation and overexpression of FoxO1 inhibits the development of oxidative type?I fibres in?vivo. In this study, we found that FoxO6, the last discovered FoxO family member, is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues but with higher e...

  18. Theoretical study on the mechanism of the reaction of FOX-7 with OH and NO2 radicals: bimolecular reactions with low barrier during the decomposition of FOX-7

    Zhang, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-12-01

    The decomposition of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) attracts great interests, while the studies on bimolecular reactions during the decomposition of FOX-7 are scarce. This study for the first time investigated the bimolecular reactions of OH and NO2 radicals, which are pyrolysis products of ammonium perchlorate (an efficient oxidant usually used in solid propellant), with FOX-7 by computational chemistry methods. The molecular geometries and energies were calculated using the (U)B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) method. The rate constants of the reactions were calculated by canonical variational transition state theory. We found three mechanisms (H-abstraction, OH addition to C and N atom) for the reaction of OH + FOX-7 and two mechanisms (O abstraction and H abstraction) for the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7. OH radical can abstract H atom or add to C atom of FOX-7 with barriers near to zero, which means OH radical can effectively degrade FOX-7. The O abstraction channel of the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7 results in the formation of NO3 radical, which has never been detected experimentally during the decomposition of FOX-7.

  19. Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the North Sea

    Langeveld, Bram W.; Mol, Dick; van der Plicht, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The first record of arctic fox Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Eurogeul area (North Sea) is reported based on a distal humerus fragment collected by private collectors from dredged sediments on ‘De Zandmotor’. It was radiocarbon dated to 29,900 + 550/- 490 BP (GrA-69520), which is younger

  20. Directional preference may enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes

    Červený, J.; Begall, S.; Koubek, Petr; Nováková, P.; Burda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2011), s. 355-357 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0687; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fox * hunting behaviour * magnetoreception * magnetic alignment Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2011

  1. The Doctor Fox Research (1973) Rerevisited: "Educational Seduction" Ruled Out

    Peer, Eyal; Babad, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In their study about the Dr. Fox lecture, Naftulin, Ware, and Donnelly (1973) claimed that an expressive speaker who delivered an attractive lecture devoid of any content could seduce students into believing that they had learned something significant. Over the decades, the study has been (and still is) cited hundreds of times and used by…

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Yang, Xiufeng; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) was sequenced using blood samples obtained from a female individual in Shanghai wildlife Park. Sequence analysis showed that the content of T (26.7%) in total composition was no more than C (27.2%), which is different from most of Canide individuals sequenced previously.

  3. Nighttime behavioral study of flying foxes on the southern coast of West Java, Indonesia.

    Hengjan, Yupadee; Saputra, Vidi; Pramono, Didik; Basri, Chaerul; Ando, Takeshi; Ohmori, Yasushige; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2018-05-30

    Flying foxes are important in the maintenance of forests and diversity. However, knowledge of their behavioral ecology, especially of movement and foraging patterns, which are essential for conservation and management of their populations, are not well known. Therefore, movement behavior of two individuals of Pteropus vampyrus were examined using an Argos telemetry system, and foraging pattern of Pteropus spp. was directly observed, at West Java province, Indonesia in October 2017. The maximum distance between the location at which bats were released and their furthest roost, recorded via satellite telemetry, was approximately 100 km. This reflects the long-distance flight ability of P. vampyrus. Daytime roosting sites and nighttime foraging places consisted of several types of habitats, such as intact forests, agricultural lands, and residential areas. This evidence indicated that there was habitat overlap between humans and bats in West Java province. According to direct observation of the behaviors of flying foxes at two locations within residental areas, various activities such as wing spreading, excretion, fighting, aggressive calls, movement, hanging relax, and hanging alert were found. The number of bat-visits to the trees varied among night hours, and had a positive correlation with the number of fruit dropping. The data obtained in this study have improved our understanding of nighttime behavior and habitat utilization of P. vampyrus, that can be used to support landscape management, species conservation, and disease prevention in regions of Southeast Asia.

  4. A profile of Keith AA Fox, cardiologist and researcher.

    Fox, Keith A A; Telfer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Professor Keith AA Fox speaks to Caroline Telfer, Commissioning Editor. Professor Keith AA Fox is the British Heart Foundation and the Duke of Edinburgh Professor of Cardiology at the University of Edinburgh (UK). He is a founding fellow of the European Society of Cardiology and is currently Chair of the Programme of the European Society of Cardiology. In addition, he was President of the British Cardiovascular Society from 2009 to 2012. Professor Fox gave the State-of-the-Art lecture on acute coronary syndromes at the American Heart Association, as well as the 2009 Plenary lecture at the European Society of Cardiology-American College of Cardiology Symposium, the Lord Rayner lecture of the Royal College of Physicians (London, UK) and the Sir Stanley Davidson Lecture of the Royal College (Edinburgh, UK). He was awarded the Silver Medal of the European Society of Cardiology in 2010. Professor Fox's major research interest lies in the mechanisms and manifestations of acute coronary arterial disease; his work extends from underlying biological mechanisms to in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. He is the author of more than 587 scientific papers (H-index Web of Science 73, Citations: 30,261 to March 2013). Professor Fox is chairman of the RITA program, co-chairman of ROCKET-AF and OASIS program, and chair of the GRACE program (the largest multinational study in acute coronary syndromes), and a lead investigator for studies on novel antithrombins, anticoagulants and antiplatelets. He is an International Associate Editor of the European Heart Journal and a member of the editorial boards of a number of journals. His current areas of research include the inhibition of coronary thrombosis and the role of platelets and inflammation in acute coronary syndromes.

  5. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1–3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (Pimmobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1–3 (P≤0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  6. Product (RED)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  7. FoxA1 binding to the MMTV LTR modulates chromatin structure and transcription

    Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Belikov, Sergey; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Wrange, Oerjan

    2005-01-01

    Novel binding sites for the forkhead transcription factor family member Forkhead box A (FoxA), previously referred to as Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 (HNF3), were found within the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR). The effect of FoxA1 on MMTV LTR chromatin structure, and expression was evaluated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mutagenesis of either of the two main FoxA binding sites showed that the distal site, -232/-221, conferred FoxA1-dependent partial inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) driven MMTV transcription. The proximal FoxA binding segment consisted of two individual FoxA sites at -57/-46 and -45/-34, respectively, that mediated an increased basal MMTV transcription. FoxA1 binding altered the chromatin structure of both the inactive- and the hormone-activated MMTV LTR. Hydroxyl radical foot printing revealed FoxA1-mediated changes in the nucleosome arrangement. Micrococcal nuclease digestion showed the hormone-dependent sub-nucleosome complex, containing ∼120 bp of DNA, to be expanded by FoxA1 binding to the proximal segment into a larger complex containing ∼200 bp. The potential function of the FoxA1-mediated expression of the MMTV provirus for maintenance of expression in different tissues is discussed

  8. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  9. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds

    Paillous, A.

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the ν (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm -1 . The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [fr

  10. Syntheses and Thermal Behaviors of Rb(FOX-7)·H2O and Cs(FOX-7)·H2O

    Luo, Jinan; Xu, Kangzhen; Wang, Min; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongshun; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi

    2010-01-01

    Two new energetic organic alkali metal salts, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene rubidium salt [Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O] and 1,1- diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene cesium salt [Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O], were synthesized by reacting of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) and rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in alkali methanol aqueous solution, respectively. The thermal behaviors of Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O and Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O were studied with DSC and TG methods. The critical temperatures of thermal explosion of the two compounds are 216.22 and 223.73 .deg. C, respectively. Specific heat capacities of the two compounds were determined with a micro-DSC method, and the molar heat capacities are 217.46 and 199.47 J mol -1 K -1 at 298.15 K, respectively. The adiabatic times-to-explosion were also calculated to be a certain value of 5.81 - 6.36 s for Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O, and 9.92 - 10.54 s for Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O. After FOX-7 becoming alkali metal salts, thermal decomposition temperatures of the compounds heighten with the rise of element period, but thermal decomposition processes become intense

  11. Orange-red emitting Gd2Zr2O7:Sm3+: Structure-property correlation, optical properties and defect spectroscopy

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Reghukumar, C.; Sudarshan, K.; Ghosh, P. S.; Pathak, Nimai; Kadam, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Local structure analysis of dopant ion, understanding host to dopant energy transfer dynamics and defects characterization in a doped material which plays an important role in the designing a highly efficient opto-electronic material. In this connection a new Sm3+ doped Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlore material was synthesized using gel-combustion technique and was characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD), time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TRPLS), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and density functional theory (DFT) based ab-initio calculation. Based on DFT site selective energetics calculation and luminescence decay measurement, it was observed that the Sm3+ was distributed at both Gd3+ and Zr4+ site with higher Sm3+ fraction at the Gd3+ site. PALS was used to probe the presence of defects in the phosphor. In this work intense orange-red emission is realized through manipulating the energy transfer from host defect emission (oxygen vacancies) to Sm3+ which allows color emission from green in undoped to orange-red in doped samples. Effect of dopant concentration and annealing temperature was probed using TRPLS and PALS. These all information is highly important for researcher looking to achieve pyrochlore based phosphor materials with high quantum yield.

  12. Caesium concentration factors in wild herbivores and the fox (Vulpes vulpes L.)

    Lowe, V.P.W.; Horrill, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selection of wild animals was sampled in the winter of 1986/87. The sites chosen for sampling were based on information obtained from surveys carried out by The Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in the spring and autumn of 1986. Animals included deer, grouse, hares and rabbits, and foxes which were collected as a top carnivore in the food chain. Variation in concentration of caesium between species from the same area was unpredictable; rabbits never exceeded 200 Bq kg -1 (fresh wt) of 137 Cs in their flesh, even when adjacent to deer forests with over 1000 Bq kg -1 in the venison. The greatest complication arose from areas of peaty uplands where the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs from weapons-testing was much higher than expected. This pre-Chernobyl contribution amounted to 630 Bq kg -1 in a red grouse from the Pennines, and 650 Bq kg -1 in a roe deer from near the Borders, being c. 60% of the total. Significant differences in concentration factors were found depending on species, food, sex, breeding condition and age. Contrasting the decrease of the two caesium isotopes in roe deer from forestry on peat with those from woodlands on mineral soils, it appeared that after an initial fall in concentration, the only decrease thereafter occurred on the mineral soils. Nowhere were radiocaesium concentrations high enough to cause concern amongst consumers of game and other wild animals, even when levels exceed 3000 Bq kg -1 (fresh wt) as they did in red deer, red grouse and the blue hare. (author)

  13. Lafora's-like disease in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Honnold, Shelley P; Schulman, F Yvonne; Bauman, Karen; Nelson, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    A 6-yr-old captive-born female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) had a history of multiple seizures and was treated with diazepam and phenobarbital therapy. Despite medical treatment, the seizures continued. They were intermittent and progressive, resulting in neurologic deficits and death of the animal within 6 mo of onset of the clinical signs. At necropsy, the animal was in good nutritional condition, and no gross lesions were noted in the brain. Histologically, amphophilic to basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase-resistant inclusions were present in the brain, heart, and liver. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions were variably electron dense, fibrillary to occasionally granular, and non-membrane bound. The clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural findings were consistent with Lafora's disease, which in humans is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive hereditary neurometabolic disorder characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy. This is the first report of Lafora's-like disease in a fennec fox.

  14. Palaeoclimate evolution across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary in the Nanxiong Basin (SE China) recorded by red strata and its correlation with marine records

    Ma, Mingming; Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Wenyan

    2018-03-01

    The climate during the Cretaceous Period represented one of the greenhouse states of Earth's history. Significant transformation of climate patterns and a mass extinction event characterised by the disappearance of dinosaurs occurred across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. However, most records of this interval are derived from marine sediments. The continuous and well-exposed red strata of the Nanxiong Basin (SE China) provide ideal material to develop continental records. Considerable research into stratigraphic, palaeontological, chronologic, palaeoclimatic, and tectonic aspects has been carried out for the Datang profile, which is a type section of a non-marine Cretaceous-Palaeogene stratigraphic division in China. For this study, we reviewed previous work and found that (1) the existing chronological framework of the Datang profile is flawed; (2) precise palaeoclimatic reconstruction is lacking because of the limitations of sampling resolution (e.g. carbonate samples) and/or the lack of efficient proxies; and (3) comparisons of climate changes between marine and continental records are lacking. To resolve these problems, detailed field observations and sampling, as well as environmental magnetic and rare earth element (REE) measurements, were carried out. The results show that (1) more accurate ages of the Datang profile range from 72 to 62.8 Ma based on a combination of the most recently published radiometric, palaeontological, and palaeomagnetic ages; (2) there is considerable evidence of palaeosol generation, which indicates that the red strata formed in a long-term hot, oxidising environment that lacked underwater conditions; (3) haematite was the dominant magnetic mineral in the red strata, and the variation trend of magnetic susceptibility was consistent with the oxygen isotope records from deep-sea sediments, which indicates that the content of haematite was controlled by the global climate; and (4) the palaeoclimate changes from 72 to 62.8 Ma in the

  15. Lattice Three-Species Models of the Spatial Spread of Rabies among FOXES

    Benyoussef, A.; Boccara, N.; Chakib, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible (S), infected or incubating (I), and infectious or rabid (R). They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.

  16. Analysis of the Structure and Function of FOX-4 Cephamycinase.

    Lefurgy, S T; Malashkevich, V N; Aguilan, J T; Nieves, E; Mundorff, E C; Biju, B; Noel, M A; Toro, R; Baiwir, D; Papp-Wallace, K M; Almo, S C; Frere, J-M; Bou, G; Bonomo, R A

    2016-02-01

    Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin, the FOX family, has grown to include nine unique members descended from the Aeromonas caviae chromosomal AmpC. To understand the basis for the unique cephamycinase activity in the FOX family, we determined the first X-ray crystal structures of FOX-4, apo enzyme and the acyl-enzyme with its namesake compound, cefoxitin, using the Y150F deacylation-deficient variant. Notably, recombinant expression of N-terminally tagged FOX-4 also yielded an inactive adenylylated enzyme form not previously observed in β-lactamases. The posttranslational modification (PTM), which occurs on the active site Ser64, would not seem to provide a selective advantage, yet might present an opportunity for the design of novel antibacterial drugs. Substantial ligand-induced changes in the enzyme are seen in the acyl-enzyme complex, particularly the R2 loop and helix H10 (P289 to N297), with movement of F293 by 10.3 Å. Taken together, this study provides the first picture of this highly proficient class C cephamycinase, uncovers a novel PTM, and suggests a possible cephamycin resistance mechanism involving repositioning of the substrate due to the presence of S153P, N289P, and N346I substitutions in the ligand binding pocket. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Generalization of a summation formula due to Fox

    Medhat A. Rakha

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research paper is to provide the generalization of Fox’s summation formula and to obtain 19 results of this type. The results are derived with the help of generalized Gauss’s second summation theorem recently obtained by Rakha, et al. and a general formula due to Fox. The results derived in this paper are simple, interesting, easily established and may be potentially useful.

  18. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Barros, Marcelo P; Granbom, Malena; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    Algal cells have developed different strategies to cope with the common environmentally promoted generation of H(2)O(2), which include induction of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), massive H(2)O(2) release in seawater, and synthesis of volatile halocarbons by specific peroxidases. The antioxidant adaptability of the economically important carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Gigartinales: Rhodophyta) was tested here against exposure to clofibrate (CFB), a known promoter of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in mammals and plants. Possibly as a consequence of CFB-induced H2O2 peroxisomal production, the maximum concentration of H(2)O(2) in the seawater of red algae cultures was found to occur (120+/-17 min) after the addition of CFB, which was followed by a significant decrease in the photosynthetic activity of PSII after 24 h. Interestingly, 4 h after the addition of CFB, the total SOD activity was about 2.5-fold higher than in the control, whereas no significant changes were observed in lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS) or in CAT and APX activities. The two H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes were only induced later (after 72 h), whereupon CAT showed a dose-dependent response with increasing concentrations of CFB. A more pronounced increase of TBARS concentration than in the controls was evidenced when a 50 microM Fe(2+/3+) solution (3:2 ratio) was added to CFB-treated cultures, suggesting that the combination of exacerbated H(2)O(2) levels in the seawater-in this work, caused by CFB exposure-and Fenton-reaction catalyst (ferric/ferrous ions), imposes harsh oxidative conditions on algal cultures. The bulk of data suggests that K. alvarezii possesses little ability to promptly induce CAT and APX compared to the immediately responsive antioxidant enzyme SOD and, to avoid harmful accumulation of H(2)O(2), the red alga presumably releases H(2)O(2) into the surrounding medium as an alternative mechanism.

  19. Spontaneous rickets in the wild arctic fox Alopex lagopus

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Normal and rachitic, skeletally immature arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) were subjected to physical examination, roentgenographic studies, and in some cases histologic studies. The involved animals had active rickets coupled with antecedent normal diaphyseal bone formation. Evaluation of all the long bones showed highly variable manifestations of the disease, which undoubtedly reflect different rates of physeal endochondral transformation and metaphyseal remodeling. Histologic examination showed distinct patterns of widening of the physes and variable osteodystrophy in the trabecular and cortical bone of the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. These aforementioned factors certainly would necessitate different regional calcium needs and, therefore, different regional responses to an overall calcium deficiency. The physes involved in the most rapid growth rates in this period showed the most widening of the growth plate, and the most dystrophic changes in the metaphysis. Skeletal injuries, including metaphyseal fractures and slow-down of longitudinal growth (particularly in the ulna) were also evident. Because of apparent dietary differences in the affected and normal fox kits, this juvenile-onset disease was presumed due to calcium-deficient intake following weaning. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of spontaneously occurring rickets in a wild animal in its natural habitat. There are several possible mechanisms for the variable widening of the physis and the loss of bone mineralization in these fox kits: calcium-deficient diet, binding of calcium in the bowel by high phosphorus intake, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin A toxicity. (orig.)

  20. AB126. Association between FOX03A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    Zhao, Shanchao; Bao, Jiming; Song, Xianlu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOX03A gene, encoding the forkhead box 03 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOX03A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOX03A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% c...

  1. Red Sirius

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  3. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat.

    Han, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lele; Wang, Honghao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. We found that FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  4. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    Wenjing Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. Conclusion This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  5. USP7 Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Modulation of FoxO1 Gene Promoter Occupancy

    Hall, Jessica A.; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Rodgers, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic forkhead protein FoxO1 is a key component of systemic glucose homeostasis via its ability to regulate the transcription of rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Important in the regulation of FoxO1 transcriptional activity are the modifying/demodifying enzymes that lead to posttranslational modification. Here, we demonstrate the functional interaction and regulation of FoxO1 by herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7; also known as herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease, HAUSP), a deubiquitinating enzyme. We show that USP7-mediated mono-deubiquitination of FoxO1 results in suppression of FoxO1 transcriptional activity through decreased FoxO1 occupancy on the promoters of gluconeogenic genes. Knockdown of USP7 in primary hepatocytes leads to increased expression of FoxO1-target gluconeogenic genes and elevated glucose production. Consistent with this, USP7 gain-of-function suppresses the fasting/cAMP-induced activation of gluconeogenic genes in hepatocyte cells and in mouse liver, resulting in decreased hepatic glucose production. Notably, we show that the effects of USP7 on hepatic glucose metabolism depend on FoxO1. Together, these results place FoxO1 under the intimate regulation of deubiquitination and glucose metabolic control with important implication in diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24694308

  6. [Relationship between FoxO1 Expression and Wound Age during Skin Incised Wound Healing].

    Chen, Y; Ji, X Y; Fan, Y Y; Yu, L S

    2018-02-01

    To investigate FoxO1 expression and its time-dependent changes during the skin incised wound healing. After the establishment of the skin incised wound model in mice, the FoxO1 expression of skin in different time periods was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that FoxO1 was weakly expressed in a few fibroblasts of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, vessel endothelium and dermis in the control group. The FoxO1 expression was enhanced in the epidermis and skin appendages around the wound during 6-12 h after injury, which could be detected in the infiltrating neutrophils and a small number of monocytes. FoxO1 was mainly expressed in monocytes during 1-3 d after injury, and in neovascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts during 5-10 d. On the 14th day after injury, the FoxO1 expression still could be detected in a few fibroblasts. The Western blotting results showed that the FoxO1 expression quantity of the tissue samples in injury group was higher than in control group. The FoxO1 expression peaked at 12 h and 7 d after injury. FoxO1 is time-dependently expressed in skin wound healing, which can be a useful marker for wound age determination. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. FoxA1 as a lineage-specific oncogene in luminal type breast cancer

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Ito, Emi; Azuma, Sakura; Honma, Reiko; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mika; Imai, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 is thought to be involved in mammary tumorigenesis. However, the precise role of FoxA1 in breast cancer development is controversial. We examined expression of FoxA1 in 35 human breast cancer cell lines and compared it with that of ErbB2, a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. We found that FoxA1 is expressed at high levels in all ErbB2-positive cell lines and a subset of ErbB2-negative cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 by RNA interference significantly suppressed proliferation of ErbB2-negative and FoxA1-positive breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 also enhanced the toxic effect of Herceptin on ErbB2-positive cell lines through induction of apoptosis. Taken together with previous data that FoxA1 is a marker of luminal cells in mammary gland, our present results suggest that FoxA1 plays an important role as a lineage-specific oncogene in proliferation of cancer cells derived from mammary luminal cells

  8. Acetylation curtails nucleosome binding, not stable nucleosome remodeling, by FoxO1

    Hatta, M.; Liu, F.; Cirillo, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional activity of FoxO factors is controlled through the actions of multiple growth factors signaling through protein kinase B, whereby phosphorylation of FoxO factors inhibits FoxO-mediated transactivation by promoting nuclear export. Phosphorylation of FoxO factors is enhanced by p300-mediated acetylation, which decreases their affinity for DNA. The negative effect of acetylation on FoxO DNA binding, together with nuclear FoxO mobility, is eliminated by over-expression of the de-acetylase Sirt1, suggesting that acetylation mobilizes FoxO factors in chromatin for inducible gene expression. Here, we show that acetylation significantly curtails the affinity of FoxO1 for its binding sites in nucleosomal DNA but has no effect on either stable nucleosome binding or remodeling by this factor. We suggest that, while acetylation provides a first, essential step toward mobilizing FoxO factors for inducible gene repression, additional mechanisms exist for overcoming their inherent capacity to stably bind and remodel nuclear chromatin.

  9. Neuronal IFN-beta-induced PI3K/Akt-FoxA1 signalling is essential for generation of FoxA1(+)Treg cells

    Liu, Yawei; Marin, Andrea; Ejlerskov, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Neurons reprogramme encephalitogenic T cells (Tenc) to regulatory T cells (Tregs), either FoxP3(+)Tregs or FoxA1(+)Tregs. We reported previously that neuronal ability to generate FoxA1(+)Tregs was central to preventing neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice...... lacking interferon (IFN)-β were defective in generating FoxA1(+)Tregs in the brain. Here we show that lack of neuronal IFNβ signalling is associated with the absence of programme death ligand-1 (PDL1), which prevents their ability to reprogramme Tenc cells to FoxA1(+)Tregs. Passive transfer-EAE via IFNβ......-competent Tenc cells to mice lacking IFNβ and active induced-EAE in mice lacking its receptor, IFNAR, in the brain (Nes(Cre):Ifnar(fl/fl)) result in defective FoxA1(+)Tregs generation and aggravated neuroinflammation. IFNβ activates neuronal PI3K/Akt signalling and Akt binds to transcription factor FoxA1...

  10. Sequence comparison of prefrontal cortical brain transcriptome from a tame and an aggressive silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    2011-01-01

    Background Two strains of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), with markedly different behavioral phenotypes, have been developed by long-term selection for behavior. Foxes from the tame strain exhibit friendly behavior towards humans, paralleling the sociability of canine puppies, whereas foxes from the aggressive strain are defensive and exhibit aggression to humans. To understand the genetic differences underlying these behavioral phenotypes fox-specific genomic resources are needed. Results cDNA from mRNA from pre-frontal cortex of a tame and an aggressive fox was sequenced using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform (> 2.5 million reads & 0.9 Gbase of tame fox sequence; >3.3 million reads & 1.2 Gbase of aggressive fox sequence). Over 80% of the fox reads were assembled into contigs. Mapping fox reads against the fox transcriptome assembly and the dog genome identified over 30,000 high confidence fox-specific SNPs. Fox transcripts for approximately 14,000 genes were identified using SwissProt and the dog RefSeq databases. An at least 2-fold expression difference between the two samples (p fox transcriptome. Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing significantly expanded genomic resources available for the fox, a species without a sequenced genome. In a very cost efficient manner this yielded a large number of fox-specific SNP markers for genetic studies and provided significant insights into the gene expression profile of the fox pre-frontal cortex; expression differences between the two fox samples; and a catalogue of potentially important gene-specific sequence variants. This result demonstrates the utility of this approach for developing genomic resources in species with limited genomic information. PMID:21967120

  11. Correlation between Platelet Gelsolin and Platelet Activation Level in Acute Myocardial Infarction Rats and Intervention Effect of Effective Components of Chuanxiong Rhizome and Red Peony Root

    Yue Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of platelet gelsolin in platelet activation of acute myocardial infarction is not defined. In order to provide a potential new antiplatelet target for Chinese medicine and to elucidate the contribution of Xiongshao capsule, the effective components of Chuanxiong rhizome and red peony root, in this study, we randomly allocated Sprague Dawley rats to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation or sham surgery and different drug prophylaxis as control. We found that gelsolin is highly expressed in platelet rich plasma and lowly expressed in platelet poor plasma, accompanied by the high platelet activation level in model rats; plasma actin filaments and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of platelet calcium ion increased and plasma vitamin D binding protein decreased in model rats. Xiongshao capsule could inhibit the gelsolin expression in platelet rich plasma and ischemic heart tissue simultaneously and reduce the level of plasma F-actin and MFI of platelet calcium ion. Our study concludes that platelet gelsolin is an important contributor to platelet activation, and platelet gelsolin inhibition may form a novel target for antiplatelet therapy. Xiongshao capsule may be a promising Chinese medicine drug for antiplatelet and aspirin-like cardioprotection effect.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovak Republic: The first record in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Dubinský, P.; Svobodová, V.; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Literák, I.; Martínek, K.; Reiterová, K.; Kolářová, L.; Klimeš, J.; Mrlík, Vojtěch

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (1999), s. 105-110 ISSN 0440-6605. [International Helminthological Symposium "Helminths, Helminthoses and Environment" /8./. Košice, 28.09.1999-01.10.1999] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/5012/99 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.514, year: 1999

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovak Republic: The first record in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    Dubinský, P.; Svobodová, V.; Turčeková, Ĺ.; Literák, I.; Martínek, K.; Reiterová, K.; Kolářová, L.; Klimeš, J.; Mrlík, Vojtěch

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 36, Supplementum (1999), s. 44 ISSN 0440-6605. [International Helminthological Symposium "Helminths, Helminthoses and Environment" /8./. 28.09.1999-01.10.1999, Košice] Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. A case report of visceral leishmaniasis in red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... leishmaniasis has been described in dogs and other ... and anti vector measures have been largely unsuccessful. (Mohebali et al., 2005). Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide and.

  15. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  16. The presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the Netherlands

    van der Giessen JWB; Rombout Y; Limper L; van der Veen; Moolenbeek C; Franchimont H; Homan W; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Er zijn onderzoekingen gedaan naar het voorkomen van Echinococcus multilocularis bij vossen in Nederland van 1996 tot 1998. Deze parasiet is de oorzaak van alveolaire echinococcose, een ernstige parasitaire zoonose. Hiervoor zijn eerst 272 vossen onderzocht in het grensgebied met Duitsland en

  17. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    sugar-salt solu-tion, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon.This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recentintroduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping par-tial sequences...... of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation(7–9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa.This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms fromother isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences...

  18. Genomic characterization of a novel poxvirus from a flying fox: evidence for a new genus?

    O'Dea, Mark A; Tu, Shin-Lin; Pang, Stanley; De Ridder, Thomas; Jackson, Bethany; Upton, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The carcass of an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) which died following entrapment on a fence was submitted to the laboratory for Australian bat lyssavirus exclusion testing, which was negative. During post-mortem, multiple nodules were noted on the wing membranes, and therefore degenerate PCR primers targeting the poxvirus DNA polymerase gene were used to screen for poxviruses. The poxvirus PCR screen was positive and sequencing of the PCR product demonstrated very low, but significant, similarity with the DNA polymerase gene from members of the Poxviridae family. Next-generation sequencing of DNA extracted from the lesions returned a contig of 132 353 nucleotides (nt), which was further extended to produce a near full-length viral genome of 133 492 nt. Analysis of the genome revealed it to be AT-rich with inverted terminal repeats of at least 1314 nt and to contain 143 predicted genes. The genome contains a surprisingly large number (29) of genes not found in other poxviruses, one of which appears to be a homologue of the mammalian TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the poxvirus described here is not closely related to any other poxvirus isolated from bats or other species, and that it likely should be placed in a new genus.

  19. Dynamics of the force of infection: insights from Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes.

    Fraser I Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the force of infection (FOI is an essential part of planning cost effective control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis in humans, a serious disease with a high fatality rate and an increasing global spread. Red foxes are high prevalence hosts of E. multilocularis. Through a mathematical modelling approach, using field data collected from in and around the city of Zurich, Switzerland, we find compelling evidence that the FOI is periodic with highly variable amplitude, and, while this amplitude is similar across habitat types, the mean FOI differs markedly between urban and periurban habitats suggesting a considerable risk differential. The FOI, during an annual cycle, ranges from (0.1,0.8 insults (95% CI in urban habitat in the summer to (9.4, 9.7 (95% CI in periurban (rural habitat in winter. Such large temporal and spatial variations in FOI suggest that control strategies are optimal when tailored to local FOI dynamics.

  20. CREB and FoxO1: two transcription factors for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis

    Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Hye-Sook; Kim, Min-Jung; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Under fasting conditions, hepatic glucose production is critical as a source of fuel to maintain the basic functions in other tissues, including skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and the brain. Fasting hormones glucagon and cortisol play major roles during the process, in part by activating the transcription of key enzyme genes in the gluconeogenesis such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase). Conversely, gluconeogenic transcription is repressed by pancreatic insulin under feeding conditions, which effectively inhibits transcriptional activator complexes by either promoting post-translational modifications or activating transcriptional inhibitors in the liver, resulting in the reduction of hepatic glucose output. The transcriptional regulatory machineries have been highlighted as targets for type 2 diabetes drugs to control glycemia, so understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms for transcription circuits for hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical in the potential development of therapeutic tools for the treatment of this disease. In this review, the current understanding regarding the roles of two key transcriptional activators, CREB and FoxO1, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic program is discussed. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 567-574] PMID:24238363

  1. Multiple-strain Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) from a breeding farm.

    Gnat, Sebastian; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Lagowski, Dominik; Troscianczyk, Aleksandra; Zieba, Przemyslaw

    2018-03-08

    Dermatophyte infections are extremely frequent worldwide, and their epidemiological features and distribution make them one of the most frequent infections all over the world. We identified and analysed multiform T. mentagrophytes strains isolated from a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) kept on a breeding farm. Identification of dermatophyte strains was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations of the infection with a micro- and macroscopic examination. To confirm the species affiliation fully, molecular differentiation methods were used. DNA was isolated from the dermatophytes with the phenol-chloroform method. The reaction of chitin synthase 1 (chs1) amplification was carried out to confirm the dermatophytes. The phylogenetic analysis was based on the ITS sequences. The polymerase chain reaction melting profile (PCR-MP) procedure was used for differentiation of dermatophyte genomes. Direct analysis of the material sampled from the clinical lesions revealed the presence of arthrospores in the samples collected from all animals with skin lesions. The macromorphology of the colonies obtained from material sampled from the same individual was not homogeneous. The PCR-MP electrophoregram indicated high variability of their genomes. Although the dermatophytes were isolated from one infected fox, no two identical genomic profiles were obtained. The PCR-MP result corresponds with the phenotypic diversity of the isolates. The findings about the multiple dermatophyte infection in one individual complicate any future epidemiology work and other clinical investigation. Previously, using only morphological characteristics, it had been assumed that one fungal isolate per patient could be diagnosed. The novel findings encourage application of the newly developed molecular typing methods in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis.

  2. Sequence comparison of prefrontal cortical brain transcriptome from a tame and an aggressive silver fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Sun Qi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two strains of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes, with markedly different behavioral phenotypes, have been developed by long-term selection for behavior. Foxes from the tame strain exhibit friendly behavior towards humans, paralleling the sociability of canine puppies, whereas foxes from the aggressive strain are defensive and exhibit aggression to humans. To understand the genetic differences underlying these behavioral phenotypes fox-specific genomic resources are needed. Results cDNA from mRNA from pre-frontal cortex of a tame and an aggressive fox was sequenced using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform (> 2.5 million reads & 0.9 Gbase of tame fox sequence; >3.3 million reads & 1.2 Gbase of aggressive fox sequence. Over 80% of the fox reads were assembled into contigs. Mapping fox reads against the fox transcriptome assembly and the dog genome identified over 30,000 high confidence fox-specific SNPs. Fox transcripts for approximately 14,000 genes were identified using SwissProt and the dog RefSeq databases. An at least 2-fold expression difference between the two samples (p Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing significantly expanded genomic resources available for the fox, a species without a sequenced genome. In a very cost efficient manner this yielded a large number of fox-specific SNP markers for genetic studies and provided significant insights into the gene expression profile of the fox pre-frontal cortex; expression differences between the two fox samples; and a catalogue of potentially important gene-specific sequence variants. This result demonstrates the utility of this approach for developing genomic resources in species with limited genomic information.

  3. Comparison of clinicopathological parameters with FoxM1 expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Sezen Kocarslan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that FoxM1 have a progressive oncogenic role in ccRRC. Our results suggested that higher expression of FoxM1 in tumor tissues predicts a locally aggressive behavior and poor outcome of patients with ccRCC, but not in patient with non-ccRCC.

  4. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Diane Bridge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms.We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases.These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  5. Impacts of habitat loss, climate change and pesticide exposure on kit fox populations

    Background / Question / Methods The San Joaquin kit fox is an endangered sub-species in decline due primarily to loss of habitat. This small, desert-adapted fox was once widely distributed across the floor of the southern San Joaquin Valley, but agriculture and development have ...

  6. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0374] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... from the regulation governing the operation of the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River...

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  8. Physiological adaptations to fasting in an actively wintering canid, the Arctic blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Puukka, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Hänninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological adaptations to fasting using the farmed blue fox (Alopex lagopus) as a model for the endangered wild arctic fox. Sixteen blue foxes were fed throughout the winter and 32 blue foxes were fasted for 22 d in Nov-Dec 2002. Half of the fasted blue foxes were food-deprived again for 22 d in Jan-Feb 2003. The farmed blue fox lost weight at a slower rate (0.97-1.02% body mass d(-1)) than observed previously in the arctic fox, possibly due to its higher initial body fat content. The animals experienced occasional fasting-induced hypoglycaemia, but their locomotor activity was not affected. The plasma triacylglycerol and glycerol concentrations were elevated during phase II of fasting indicating stimulated lipolysis, probably induced by the high growth hormone concentrations. The total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid and total protein levels and the urea:creatinine ratio decreased during fasting. Although the plasma levels of some essential amino acids increased, the blue foxes did not enter phase III of starvation characterized by stimulated proteolysis during either of the 22-d fasting procedures. Instead of excessive protein catabolism, it is liver dysfunction, indicated by the increased plasma bilirubin levels and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, that may limit the duration of fasting in the species.

  9. FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation to hypoxia by antagonizing Myc function

    Jensen, Kim Steen; Binderup, Tina; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Therkelsen, Ib; Borup, Rehannah; Nilsson, Elise; Multhaupt, Hinke; Bouchard, Caroline; Quistorff, Bjørn; Kjær, Andreas; Landberg, Göran; Staller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes FoxO3A as required for hypoxic suppression of mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption, and ROS production. Mechanistically, FoxO3A is shown to promote hypoxic cell survival by directly antagonizing c-Myc at nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes.

  10. Hedgehogs and Foxes at the Crossroads: Leadership and Diversity at the University of California

    González, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Following Clark Kerr's distinction between hedgehogs, or visionary leaders who know "one big thing," and foxes, or shrewd leaders who know "many things," this paper studies Kerr, an archetypical hedgehog, and David Gardner, a quintessential fox, as models for these two types of leaders. The paper also analyzes the hedgehog…

  11. The Doctor Fox Effect: A Paired Lecture Comparison of Lecturer Expressiveness and Lecture Content.

    Ramagli, Howard J., Jr.; Greenwood, Gordon E.

    The influence of the Doctor Fox effect on student ratings on instruction was examined. The idea for the Doctor Fox effect stemmed from the work of Erving Goffman and his notion that expressive behavior may influence an audience as much or more than substance when there is little time or reason for the audience to evaluate the presentation (1950).…

  12. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

    B.L. Cypher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability. Keywords: Channel islands, Endangered species, Food-item selection, Foraging ecology, Island fox, Urocyon littoralis

  13. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  14. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  15. Probing the Mechanism of Inactivation of the FOX-4 Cephamycinase by Avibactam.

    Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Hoshino, Tyuji; Lefurgy, Scott T; Bethel, Christopher R; Barnes, Melissa D; Zeiser, Elise T; Johnson, J Kristie; Bonomo, Robert A

    2018-05-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam is a "second-generation" β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination that is effective against Enterobacteriaceae expressing class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases, class A carbapenemases, and/or class C cephalosporinases. Knowledge of the interactions of avibactam, a diazabicyclooctane with different β-lactamases, is required to anticipate future resistance threats. FOX family β-lactamases possess unique hydrolytic properties with a broadened substrate profile to include cephamycins, partly as a result of an isoleucine at position 346, instead of the conserved asparagine found in most AmpCs. Interestingly, a single amino acid substitution at N346 in the Citrobacter AmpC is implicated in resistance to the aztreonam-avibactam combination. In order to understand how diverse active-site topologies affect avibactam inhibition, we tested a panel of clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing bla FOX using ceftazidime-avibactam, determined the biochemical parameters for inhibition using the FOX-4 variant, and probed the atomic structure of avibactam with FOX-4. Avibactam restored susceptibility to ceftazidime for most isolates producing bla FOX ; two isolates, one expressing bla FOX-4 and the other producing bla FOX-5 , displayed an MIC of 16 μg/ml for the combination. FOX-4 possessed a k 2 / K value of 1,800 ± 100 M -1 · s -1 and an off rate ( k off ) of 0.0013 ± 0.0003 s -1 Mass spectrometry showed that the FOX-4-avibactam complex did not undergo chemical modification for 24 h. Analysis of the crystal structure of FOX-4 with avibactam at a 1.5-Å resolution revealed a unique characteristic of this AmpC β-lactamase. Unlike in the Pseudomonas -derived cephalosporinase 1 (PDC-1)-avibactam crystal structure, interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) between avibactam and position I346 in FOX-4 are not evident. Furthermore, another residue is not observed to be close enough to compensate for the loss of these critical hydrogen

  16. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  17. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  18. Evaluation of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells during treatment of patients with brucellosis.

    Hasanjani Roushan, M R; Bayani, M; Soleimani Amiri, S; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M; Nouri, H R; Ebrahimpour, S

    2016-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) plays a critical role in the control of brucellosis. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a functional character in modulating the balance between host immune response and tolerance, which can eventually lead to chronic infection or relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the alteration of Tregs in cases of brucellosis before and after treatment. Thirty cases of acute brucellosis with the mean age of 41.03±15.15 years (case group) and 30 healthy persons with the mean age of 40.63±13.95 years (control group) were selected and assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood of all individuals. We analyzed the alteration of Treg cell count using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, and FoxP3 markers. The level of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells was increased in active patients compared with controls (2.5±0.99% vs 1.6±0.84%, p= 0.0004), but it had declined in the treated cases (1.83±0.73%, p=0.02). The level of Tregs was elevated in three relapsed cases. The frequency of Tregs and Treg/Teff (effector T cell) ratio was correlated with inverse serum agglutination test (SAT) and, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) titers as markers of treatment in brucellosis. Based on our findings, we suggest that regulatory cells, such as CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells, may contribute to the development of infection processes involving immune responses in brucellosis, and evaluation of regulatory T-cell levels may be a potential diagnostic strategy for the treatment outcome in chronic and relapsed cases of brucellosis.

  19. SCP4 Promotes Gluconeogenesis Through FoxO1/3a Dephosphorylation.

    Cao, Jin; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zhaoyong; Tong, Qiang; Chang, Jiang; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2018-01-01

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is negatively regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation, which leads to the cytoplasmic retention of FoxO1/3a. However, the nuclear phosphatase that directly regulates FoxO1/3a remains to be identified. In this study, we discovered a nuclear phosphatase, SCP4/CTDSPL2 (SCP4), that dephosphorylated FoxO1/3a and promoted FoxO1/3a transcription activity. We found that SCP4 enhanced the transcription of FoxO1/3a target genes encoding PEPCK1 and G6PC, key enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ectopic expression of SCP4 increased, while knockdown of SCP4 inhibited, glucose production. Moreover, we demonstrated that gene ablation of SCP4 led to hypoglycemia in neonatal mice. Consistent with the positive role of SCP4 in gluconeogenesis, expression of SCP4 was regulated under pathophysiological conditions. SCP4 expression was induced by glucose deprivation in vitro and in vivo and was elevated in obese mice caused by genetic (A vy ) and dietary (high-fat) changes. Thus, our findings provided experimental evidence that SCP4 regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and could serve as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of diet-induced glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Loss of Interdependent Binding by the FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 Forkhead Transcription Factors Culminates in Perturbation of Active Chromatin Marks and Binding of Transcriptional Regulators at Insulin-sensitive Genes*

    Yalley, Akua; Schill, Daniel; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Johnson, Nicole; Cirillo, Lisa Ann

    2016-01-01

    FoxO1 binds to insulin response elements located in the promoters of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), activating their expression. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 promotes cytoplasmic translocation, inhibiting FoxO1-mediated transactivation. We have previously demonstrated that FoxO1 opens and remodels chromatin assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter via a highly conserved winged helix motif. This finding, which established FoxO1 ...

  1. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Penelitian pembuatan kompon karet untuk sol dan foxing sepatu kanvas

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Exsperiments of making rubber compound for canvas shoe sole and foxing have been done by varying filler (MgCO3. Composition used for rubber compound is : pale crepe 100 parts; MgCO3 30 parts; CaCO3 75 parts; ZnO 10 parts; stearic acid 0,5 part; napthenic oil 2 parts; paraffin wax 0,5 part; titanium dioxide 10 parts ; AOSP 1 part; MBT 0,4 part; TMT 0,2 part and sulfur 2 parts. The products are 9 kinds of rubber compound and has been tested for physical properties. The physical tests consist of : tensile strength, elongation at break, permanent set, tear strength, elongation at break, permanent set, tear strength, hardness, density, abrassion and flexing. By evaluating their physical properties, the rubber compound for shoe sole and foxing containing 30 parts of MgCO3 and 75 parts of CaCO3 achieving the optimal degree and is in accordance with the Indonesian Industrial Standard for General Purpose of Canvas Shoe (SII.140785.

  3. Genetic regulation of canine skeletal traits: trade-offs between the hind limbs and forelimbs in the fox and dog

    Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Carrier, David R.; Chase, Kevin; Lark, Karl G.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Genetic variation in functionally integrated skeletal traits can be maintained over 10 million years despite bottlenecks and stringent selection. Here, we describe an analysis of the genetic architecture of the canid axial skeleton using populations of the Portuguese Water Dog Canis familiaris) and silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). Twenty-one skeletal metrics taken from radiographs of the forelimbs and hind limbs of the fox and dog were used to construct separate anatomical principal component (PC) matrices of the two species. In both species, 15 of the 21 PCs exhibited significant heritability, ranging from 25% to 70%. The second PC, in both species, represents a trade-off in which limb-bone width is inversely correlated with limb-bone length. PC2 accounts for approximately 15% of the observed skeletal variation, ~30% of the variation in shape. Many of the other significant PCs affect very small amounts of variation (e.g., 0.2–2%) along trade-off axes that partition function between the forelimbs and hind limbs. These PCs represent shape axes in which an increase in size of an element of the forelimb is associated with a decrease in size of an element of the hind limb and vice versa. In most cases, these trade-offs are heritable in both species and genetic loci have been identified in the Portuguese Water Dog for many of these. These PCs, present in both the dog and the fox, include ones that affect lengths of the forelimb versus the hind limb, length of the forefoot versus that of the hind foot, muscle moment (i.e., lever) arms of the forelimb versus hind limb, and cortical thickness of the bones of the forelimb versus hind limb. These inverse relationships suggest that genetic regulation of the axial skeleton results, in part, from the action of genes that influence suites of functionally integrated traits. Their presence in both dogs and foxes suggests that the genes controlling the regulation of these PCs of the forelimb versus hind limb may be found in

  4. Inhibition of FoxO1 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ induces p21 transcription.

    Chae, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kang, Joo-Young; Kim, Se-Ryeon; Jung, Hyeon-Soo; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2014-08-25

    Post-translational modification of forkhead family transcription factor, FoxO1, is an important regulatory mode for its diverse activities. FoxO1 is acetylated by HAT coactivators and its transcriptional activity is decreased via reduced DNA binding affinity. Here, we report that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300-mediated FoxO1 acetylation in an INHAT domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with FoxO1 and activated transcription of FoxO1 target gene, p21. Moreover, SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited acetylation of FoxO1 and increased p21 transcription induced by oxidative stress. Our results suggest that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibits FoxO1 acetylation and activates its transcriptional activity toward p21. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Configuration and stability of 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitrothylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene

    Wang, Yan Qun; Wang, Gui Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The configuration and stability of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene were studied using density functional theory with all-electron double numerical polarized basis sets. The results suggested that graphene had a greater impact on the planarity of FOX-7 molecules than did H-bonding. Under the synergistic effect of graphene and H-bonding, the geometry of H-bonded FOX-7 embedded in graphene was flatter than that of FOX-7 without H-bonds, which facilitated π–π stacking, as well as the stability of FOX-7 in graphene. The conjugated structure of FOX-7 contributed to its stability between layers of graphene. When the conjugated structure in FOX-7 was completely disrupted, the stabilization energy decreased by 48.6%. This theoretical work is useful for gaining new insights into the microscopic interaction of energetic molecules with graphene, and it will provide theoretical guidance for the encapsulation and storage of energetic materials

  6. FOX-2 Dependent Splicing of Ataxin-2 Transcript Is Affected by Ataxin-1 Overexpression

    Welzel, Franziska; Kaehler, Christian; Isau, Melanie; Hallen, Linda; Lehrach, Hans; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a fundamental posttranscriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression, and splicing defects have been linked to various human disorders. The splicing factor FOX-2 is part of a main protein interaction hub in a network related to human inherited ataxias, however, its impact remains to be elucidated. Here, we focused on the reported interaction between FOX-2 and ataxin-1, the disease-causing protein in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. In this line, we further evaluated this interaction by yeast-2-hybrid analyses and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we discovered that FOX-2 localization and splicing activity is affected in the presence of nuclear ataxin-1 inclusions. Moreover, we observed that FOX-2 directly interacts with ataxin-2, a protein modulating spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 pathogenesis. Finally, we provide evidence that splicing of pre-mRNA of ataxin-2 depends on FOX-2 activity, since reduction of FOX-2 levels led to increased skipping of exon 18 in ataxin-2 transcripts. Most striking, we observed that ataxin-1 overexpression has an effect on this splicing event as well. Thus, our results demonstrate that FOX-2 is involved in splicing of ataxin-2 transcripts and that this splicing event is altered by overexpression of ataxin-1. PMID:22666429

  7. A Fork in the Path: Developing Therapeutic Inroads with FoxO Proteins

    Kenneth Maiese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in clinical care for disorders involving any system of the body necessitates novel therapeutic strategies that can focus upon the modulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and longevity. In this respect, members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs that include FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 are increasingly being recognized as exciting prospects for multiple disorders. These transcription factors govern development, proliferation, survival and longevity during multiple cellular environments that can involve oxidative stress. Furthermore, these transcription factors are closely integrated with several novel signal transduction pathways, such as erythropoietin and Wnt proteins, that may influence the ability of FoxOs to act as a “double-edge sword” to sometimes promote cell survival, but at other times lead to cell injury. Here we discuss the fascinating but complex role of FoxOs during cellular injury and oxidative stress, progenitor cell development, fertility, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, cellular metabolism and diabetes, cell longevity, immune surveillance and cancer.

  8. Configuration and stability of 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitrothylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene

    Wang, Yan Qun [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Wang, Gui Xiang [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The configuration and stability of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene were studied using density functional theory with all-electron double numerical polarized basis sets. The results suggested that graphene had a greater impact on the planarity of FOX-7 molecules than did H-bonding. Under the synergistic effect of graphene and H-bonding, the geometry of H-bonded FOX-7 embedded in graphene was flatter than that of FOX-7 without H-bonds, which facilitated π–π stacking, as well as the stability of FOX-7 in graphene. The conjugated structure of FOX-7 contributed to its stability between layers of graphene. When the conjugated structure in FOX-7 was completely disrupted, the stabilization energy decreased by 48.6%. This theoretical work is useful for gaining new insights into the microscopic interaction of energetic molecules with graphene, and it will provide theoretical guidance for the encapsulation and storage of energetic materials.

  9. FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation to hypoxia by antagonizing Myc function

    Jensen, Kim Steen; Binderup, Tina; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of metazoan organisms to hypoxia engages a metabolic switch orchestrated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 mediates induction of glycolysis and active repression of mitochondrial respiration that reduces oxygen consumption and inhibits the production of potentially harmful...... tumour tissue in vivo and that FoxO3A short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing xenograft tumours are decreased in size and metabolically changed. Our findings define a novel mechanism by which FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation and stress resistance in hypoxia....... reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that FoxO3A is activated in hypoxia downstream of HIF-1 and mediates the hypoxic repression of a set of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. FoxO3A is required for hypoxic suppression of mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption, and ROS production and promotes...... cell survival in hypoxia. FoxO3A is recruited to the promoters of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes where it directly antagonizes c-Myc function via a mechanism that does not require binding to the consensus FoxO recognition element. Furthermore, we show that FoxO3A is activated in human hypoxic...

  10. Diets of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in continuous and fragmented prairie in Northwestern Texas

    Kamler, J.F.; Ballard, W.B.; Wallace, M.C.; Gipson, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) has declined dramatically since the 1800s, and suggested causes of this decline are habitat fragmentation and transformation due to agricultural expansion. However, impacts of fragmentation and human-altered habitats on swift foxes still are not well understood. To better understand what effects these factors have on diets of swift foxes, scats were collected in northwestern Texas at two study sites, one of continuous native prairie and one representing fragmented native prairie interspersed with agricultural and fields in the Conservation Reserve Program. Leporids, a potential food source, were surveyed seasonally on both sites. Diets of swift foxes differed between sites; insects were consumed more on continuous prairie, whereas mammals, birds, and crops were consumed more on fragmented prairie. Size of populations of leporids were 2-3 times higher on fragmented prairie, and swift foxes responded by consuming more leporids on fragmented (11.1% frequency occurrence) than continuous (3.8%) prairie. Dietary diversity was greater on fragmented prairie during both years of the study. Differences in diets between sites suggested that the swift fox is an adaptable and opportunistic feeder, able to exploit a variety of food resources, probably in relation to availability of food. We suggest that compared to continuous native prairie, fragmented prairie can offer swift foxes a more diverse prey base, at least within the mosaic of native prairie, agricultural, and fields that are in the Conservation Reserve Program.

  11. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  12. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  13. Cunnilingus apparently increases duration of copulation in the Indian flying fox, Pteropus giganteus.

    Jayabalan Maruthupandian

    Full Text Available We observed a total of 57 incidences of copulation in a colony of the Indian flying fox, Pteropus giganteus, over 13 months under natural conditions. The colony consisted of about 420 individuals, roosting in a Ficus religiosa tree. Copulations occurred between 07.00 h and 09.30 h from July to January, with more occurring in October and November. Initially males groomed their penis before approaching a nearby female. Females typically moved away and males followed. When the female stopped moving, the male started licking her vagina (cunnilingus. Typically each bout of cunnilingus lasted for about 50 s. In 57 out of 69 observations, the male mounted the female and copulated. The duration of copulation varied from 10 to 20 sec. After completion of copulation, the male continued cunnilingus for 94 to 188 sec. The duration of pre-copulatory cunnilingus and copulation was positively correlated whereas, the duration of pre- and post-copulatory cunnilingus was negatively correlated. Apart from humans, oral sex as foreplay prior to copulation is uncommon in mammals. Another pteropodid bat, Cynopterus sphinx exhibits fellatio with females licking the penis of males during copulation. It appears that bats, especially pteropodids perform oral sex, either cunnilingus or fellatio, possibly for achieving longer copulation.

  14. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy

    Reed, Sarah A.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current study, we tested the physiological significance of FoxO activation in the progression of muscle atrophy associated with cachexia. FoxO-DNA binding dependent transcription was blocked in the muscles of mice through injection of a dominant negative (DN) FoxO expression plasmid prior to inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or the induction of sepsis. Expression of DN FoxO inhibited the increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, cathepsin L, and/or Bnip3 and inhibited muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis. Interestingly, during control conditions, expression of DN FoxO decreased myostatin expression, increased MyoD expression and satellite cell proliferation, and induced fiber hypertrophy, which required de novo protein synthesis. Collectively, these data show that FoxO-DNA binding-dependent transcription is necessary for normal muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis, and further suggest that basal levels of FoxO play an important role during normal conditions to depress satellite cell activation and limit muscle growth.—Reed, S. A., Sandesara, P. B., Senf, S. F., Judge, A. R. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22102632

  15. FoxO1 and HNF-4 are involved in regulation of hepatic glucokinase gene expression by resveratrol.

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Unterman, Terry G; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-11-06

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol.

  16. FoxO1 and HNF-4 Are Involved in Regulation of Hepatic Glucokinase Gene Expression by Resveratrol*

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Unterman, Terry G.; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol. PMID:19740748

  17. Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate in Recreational Marathon Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study on Fox's and Tanaka's Equations

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2018-01-01

    Age-based prediction equations of maximal heart rate (HRmax), such as the popular formulas Fox's 220-age, or Tanaka's 208-0.7 × age, have been widely used in various populations. Surprisingly, so far these equations have not been validated in marathon runners, despite the importance of the role of HRmax for training purposes in endurance running. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of Fox and Tanaka equations in a large sample of women and men recreational marathon runners. Participants (n = 180, age 43.2 ± 8.5 years, VO2max 46.8 mL/min/kg, finishers in at least one marathon during the last year) performed a graded exercise test on a treadmill, where HRmax was measured. Measured HRmax correlated largely with age in the total sample (r = −0.50, p marathon runners. In addition, exercise physiologists and sport scientists should consider the observed differences among various assessment methods when performing exercise testing or prescribing training program relying on HR. PMID:29599724

  18. Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate in Recreational Marathon Runners: A Cross-Sectional Study on Fox's and Tanaka's Equations.

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2018-01-01

    Age-based prediction equations of maximal heart rate (HR max ), such as the popular formulas Fox's 220-age, or Tanaka's 208-0.7 × age, have been widely used in various populations. Surprisingly, so far these equations have not been validated in marathon runners, despite the importance of the role of HR max for training purposes in endurance running. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of Fox and Tanaka equations in a large sample of women and men recreational marathon runners. Participants ( n = 180, age 43.2 ± 8.5 years, VO 2max 46.8 mL/min/kg, finishers in at least one marathon during the last year) performed a graded exercise test on a treadmill, where HR max was measured. Measured HR max correlated largely with age in the total sample ( r = -0.50, p marathon runners. In addition, exercise physiologists and sport scientists should consider the observed differences among various assessment methods when performing exercise testing or prescribing training program relying on HR.

  19. Nearly suppressed photoluminescence blinking of small-sized, blue-green-orange-red emitting single CdSe-based core/gradient alloy shell/shell quantum dots: correlation between truncation time and photoluminescence quantum yield.

    Roy, Debjit; Mandal, Saptarshi; De, Chayan K; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Mandal, Prasun K

    2018-04-18

    CdSe-based core/gradient alloy shell/shell semiconductor quantum dots (CGASS QDs) have been shown to be optically quite superior compared to core-shell QDs. However, very little is known about CGASS QDs at the single particle level. Photoluminescence blinking dynamics of four differently emitting (blue (λem = 510), green (λem = 532), orange (λem = 591), and red (λem = 619)) single CGASS QDs having average sizes 600 nm). In this manuscript, we report nearly suppressed PL blinking behaviour of CGASS QDs with average sizes correlation between the event durations and found that residual memory exists in both the ON- and OFF-event durations. Positively correlated successive ON-ON and OFF-OFF event durations and negatively correlated (anti-correlated) ON-OFF event durations perhaps suggest the involvement of more than one type of trapping process within the blinking framework. The timescale corresponding to the additional exponential term has been assigned to hole trapping for ON-event duration statistics. Similarly, for OFF-event duration statistics, this component suggests hole detrapping. We found that the average duration of the exponential process for the ON-event durations is an order of magnitude higher than that of the OFF-event durations. This indicates that the holes are trapped for a significantly long time. When electron trapping is followed by such a hole trapping, long ON-event durations result. We have observed long ON-event durations, as high as 50 s. The competing charge tunnelling model has been used to account for the observed blinking behaviour in these CGASS QDs. Quite interestingly, the PLQY of all of these differently emitting QDs (an ensemble level property) could be correlated with the truncation time (a property at the single particle level). A respective concomitant increase-decrease of ON-OFF event truncation times with increasing PLQY is also indicative of a varying degree of suppression of the Auger recombination processes in these four

  20. FoxM1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snai1

    Yu, Chun-Peng; Yu, Shui; Shi, Lei; Wang, Song; Li, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) is aberrantly expressed in several types of human malignancy, and serves an important role in tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells has been associated cancer metastasis; however, the implication of FoxM1 in EMT and its putative roles in the regulation of cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression of FoxM1, Snai1 and E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with various meta...

  1. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  2. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Fuglei, E.; Bustnes, J.O.; Hop, H.; Mork, T.; Bjoernfoth, H.; Bavel, B. van

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 15 N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue

  3. Comparison between the use of open and walled platforms by juvenile blue foxes (Alopex lagopus

    Hannu Korhonen

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European recommendations require that platforms in the cages of farm foxes should have solid sides. The present study aimed to clarify how such a obstructed view affects platform use in farmbred blue foxes (Alopex lagopus. Experimental groups with open (16 males, 14 females and walled (16 males, 14 females platforms were compared from weaning to pelting. Both platform types were 110 cm long x 30 cm wide. Walled platforms had 23 cm high walls at the ends and rear, but open ones were without walls. Data were collected by daytime scanning observations and 24-h video recordings. Results for both sexes were parallel, showing that foxes significantly (p

  4. WITHDRAWN: Clinical Signs, Neuroanatomical Distribution and Histopathological Characterisation of Meningoencephalitis in Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) Associated with a Novel fox Circovirus.

    Stoll, A L; Mitchell, J A; Priestnall, S L

    2016-07-05

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP.

    Elkord, Eyad; Abd Al Samid, May; Chaudhary, Belal

    2015-08-21

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players of immune regulation/dysregulation both in physiological and pathophysiological settings. Despite significant advances in understanding Treg function, there is still a pressing need to define reliable and specific markers that can distinguish different Treg subpopulations. Herein we show for the first time that markers of activated Tregs [latency associated peptide (LAP) and glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32)] are expressed on CD4+FoxP3- T cells expressing Helios (FoxP3-Helios+) in the steady state. Following TCR activation, GARP/LAP are up-regulated on CD4+Helios+ T cells regardless of FoxP3 expression (FoxP3+/-Helios+). We show that CD4+GARP+/-LAP+ Tregs make IL-10 immunosuppressive cytokine but not IFN-γ effector cytokine. Further characterization of FoxP3/Helios subpopulations showed that FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs proliferate in vitro significantly less than FoxP3+Helios- Tregs upon TCR stimulation. Unlike FoxP3+Helios- Tregs, FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs secrete IL-10 but not IFN-γ or IL-2, confirming they are bona fide Tregs with immunosuppressive characteristics. Taken together, Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP, and FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs have more suppressive characteristics, compared with FoxP3+Helios- Tregs. Our work implies that therapeutic modalities for treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, allergies and graft rejection should be designed to induce and/or expand FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs, while therapies against cancers or infectious diseases should avoid such expansion/induction.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...... life cycles were represented equally in all parts of the country. The diversity of the surrounding fauna, and thereby the food items available for the foxes, seems to determine the spectrum of helminth species. Helminths requiring rodents as intermediate hosts were absent on the west coast, even...

  7. Winter activity of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis on the Cape ...

    1988-07-04

    Jul 4, 1988 ... With the start of pair formation in June-July allogrooming, which was not influenced by ... Foxes resumed activity from the same resting sites each day. Tydbesteding ...... mossambicus is active by day during winter, and at night.

  8. daf-16/FoxO promotes gluconeogenesis and trehalose synthesis during starvation to support survival.

    Hibshman, Jonathan D; Doan, Alexander E; Moore, Brad T; Kaplan, Rebecca Ew; Hung, Anthony; Webster, Amy K; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Chitrakar, Rojin; Hirschey, Matthew D; Baugh, L Ryan

    2017-10-24

    daf-16 /FoxO is required to survive starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans , but how daf-16I FoxO promotes starvation resistance is unclear. We show that daf-16 /FoxO restructures carbohydrate metabolism by driving carbon flux through the glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenesis and into synthesis of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose. Trehalose is a well-known stress protectant, capable of preserving membrane organization and protein structure during abiotic stress. Metabolomic, genetic, and pharmacological analyses confirm increased trehalose synthesis and further show that trehalose not only supports survival as a stress protectant but also serves as a glycolytic input. Furthermore, we provide evidence that metabolic cycling between trehalose and glucose is necessary for this dual function of trehalose. This work demonstrates that daf-16 /FoxO promotes starvation resistance by shifting carbon metabolism to drive trehalose synthesis, which in turn supports survival by providing an energy source and acting as a stress protectant.

  9. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    Ingolf P Rick

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.

  10. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    Cecilia A Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years. Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1 the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2 that the responsible government agencies in Australia support

  11. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil.

    Almeida, Aliny P; Souza, Tayse D; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil.

  12. Flying-foxes in the Australian urban environment—community attitudes and opinions

    Nina Y. Kung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban presence of flying-foxes (pteropid bats in eastern Australia has increased in the last 20 years, putatively reflecting broader landscape change. The influx of large numbers often precipitates community angst, typically stemming from concerns about loss of social amenity, economic loss or negative health impacts from recently emerged bat-mediated zoonotic diseases such as Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Local authorities and state wildlife authorities are increasingly asked to approve the dispersal or modification of flying-fox roosts to address expressed concerns, yet the scale of this concern within the community, and the veracity of the basis for concern are often unclear. We conducted an on-line survey to capture community attitudes and opinions on flying-foxes in the urban environment to inform management policy and decision-making. Analysis focused on awareness, concerns, and management options, and primarily compared responses from communities where flying-fox management was and was not topical at the time of the survey. While a majority of respondents indicated a moderate to high level of knowledge of both flying-foxes and Hendra virus, a substantial minority mistakenly believed that flying-foxes pose a direct infection risk to humans, suggesting miscommunication or misinformation, and the need for additional risk communication strategies. Secondly, a minority of community members indicated they were directly impacted by urban roosts, most plausibly those living in close proximity to the roost, suggesting that targeted management options are warranted. Thirdly, neither dispersal nor culling was seen as an appropriate management strategy by the majority of respondents, including those from postcodes where flying-fox management was topical. These findings usefully inform community debate and policy development and demonstrate the value of social analysis in defining the issues and options in this complex human

  13. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7)

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon black (CB) is an efficient optical sensitizer compatible with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7). • A CB doped insensitive explosive FOX-7 can be ignited by a low-power diode laser. • Laser ignitibility of the optically sensitized FOX-7 is mainly affected by laser power among the other parameters. • Inhomogeneities in the explosive affect laser ignition reliability. - Abstract: An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study

  14. Review of Arctic fox. Life at the top of the world, by Gary Hamilton

    Ims, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic fox is the only truly Arctic species among the terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the world. It is distributed across the circumpolar Arctic region. Like polar bears, Arctic foxes regularly traverse the pack ice of the polar basin, a fact that astonished Fridtjof Nansen during his attempt to reach the North Pole more than 100 years ago. However, despite its unique lifestyle, which in some respects is more fascinating than that of the polar bear, there has been no popular book (exce...

  15. Nodal-dependent mesendoderm specification requires the combinatorial activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin.

    Christopher E Slagle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA-binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals.

  16. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  17. A seismological overview of the induced earthquakes in the Duvernay play near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Schultz, Ryan; Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Haug, Kristine; Atkinson, Gail

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of understanding regarding the induced seismicity in connection with hydraulic fracturing operations targeting the Duvernay Formation in central Alberta, near the town of Fox Creek. We demonstrate that earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism using (i) cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, (ii) double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and (iii) moment tensor solutions to assess fault motion consistency. The spatiotemporal clustering of the earthquake sequences is strongly related to the nearby hydraulic fracturing operations. In addition, we identify a preference for strike-slip motions on subvertical faults with an approximate 45° P axis orientation, consistent with expectation from the ambient stress field. The hypocentral geometries for two of the largest-magnitude (M 4) sequences that are robustly constrained by local array data provide compelling evidence for planar features starting at Duvernay Formation depths and extending into the shallow Precambrian basement. We interpret these lineaments as subvertical faults orientated approximately north-south, consistent with the regional moment tensor solutions. Finally, we conclude that the sequences were triggered by pore pressure increases in response to hydraulic fracturing stimulations along previously existing faults.

  18. Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNA.

    Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N

    2010-04-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of the skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen crosslinks derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively spliced LH2 exon 13A, thereby increasing the levels of the long transcript of LH2 (LH2[long]), are linked to scleroderma disease. This study was undertaken to examine the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion, which leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) messenger RNA (mRNA). Phylogenetic sequence analysis of introns flanking exon 13A was performed. A tetracycline-inducible system in T-Rex 293 cells was used to induce Fox-2 protein, and endogenous LH2(long) mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An LH2 minigene was designed, validated, and used in Fox-2 overexpression and mutagenesis experiments. Knockdown of Fox-2 was performed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from SSc patients. Overexpression of Fox-2 enhanced the inclusion of exon 13A and increased the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreased LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that 2 of the 4 Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for inclusion of exon 13A. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Our findings indicate that Fox-2 plays an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease

  19. Pulses of movement across the sea ice: population connectivity and temporal genetic structure in the arctic fox.

    Norén, Karin; Carmichael, Lindsey; Fuglei, Eva; Eide, Nina E; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Lemmings are involved in several important functions in the Arctic ecosystem. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) can be divided into two discrete ecotypes: "lemming foxes" and "coastal foxes". Crashes in lemming abundance can result in pulses of "lemming fox" movement across the Arctic sea ice and immigration into coastal habitats in search for food. These pulses can influence the genetic structure of the receiving population. We have tested the impact of immigration on the genetic structure of the "coastal fox" population in Svalbard by recording microsatellite variation in seven loci for 162 Arctic foxes sampled during the summer and winter over a 5-year period. Genetic heterogeneity and temporal genetic shifts, as inferred by STRUCTURE simulations and deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, respectively, were recorded. Maximum likelihood estimates of movement as well as STRUCTURE simulations suggested that both immigration and genetic mixture are higher in Svalbard than in the neighbouring "lemming fox" populations. The STRUCTURE simulations and AMOVA revealed there are differences in genetic composition of the population between summer and winter seasons, indicating that immigrants are not present in the reproductive portion of the Svalbard population. Based on these results, we conclude that Arctic fox population structure varies with time and is influenced by immigration from neighbouring populations. The lemming cycle is likely an important factor shaping Arctic fox movement across sea ice and the subsequent population genetic structure, but is also likely to influence local adaptation to the coastal habitat and the prevalence of diseases.

  20. SA-4-1BBL costimulation inhibits conversion of conventional CD4+ T cells into CD4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells by production of IFN-γ.

    Shravan Madireddi

    Full Text Available Tumors convert conventional CD4(+ T cells into induced CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ T regulatory (iTreg cells that serve as an effective means of immune evasion. Therefore, the blockade of conventional CD4(+ T cell conversion into iTreg cells represents an attractive target for improving the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic approaches. Using a novel form of 4-1BBL molecule, SA-4-1BBL, we previously demonstrated that costimulation via 4-1BB receptor renders both CD4(+and CD8(+ T effector (Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells and increased intratumoral Teff/Treg cell ratio that correlated with therapeutic efficacy in various preclinical tumor models. Building on these studies, we herein show for the first time, to our knowledge, that signaling through 4-1BB inhibits antigen- and TGF-β-driven conversion of naïve CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells via stimulation of IFN-γ production by CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells. Importantly, treatment with SA-4-1BBL blocked the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into Treg cells by EG.7 tumors. Taken together with our previous studies, these results show that 4-1BB signaling negatively modulate Treg cells by two distinct mechanisms: i inhibiting the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells and ii endowing Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells. Given the dominant role of Treg cells in tumor immune evasion mechanisms, 4-1BB signaling represents an attractive target for favorably tipping the Teff:Treg balance toward Teff cells with important implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Dynamic occupancy modelling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes and ringtails.

    Green, David S; Matthews, Sean M; Swiers, Robert C; Callas, Richard L; Scott Yaeger, J; Farber, Stuart L; Schwartz, Michael K; Powell, Roger A

    2018-05-01

    Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence is particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. We studied the effects of removing nine fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and ringtails (Bassariscus astutus). Grey foxes (family: Canidae) are likely to compete with fishers due to their similar body sizes and dietary overlap, and ringtails (family: Procyonidae), like fishers, are semi-arboreal species of conservation concern. We used spatial capture-recapture to investigate fisher population numbers and dynamic occupancy models that incorporated interspecific interactions to investigate the effects members of these species had on the colonization and persistence of each other's site occupancy. The fisher population showed no change in density for up to 3 years following the removals of fishers for translocations. In contrast, fisher site occupancy decreased in the years immediately following the translocations. During this same time period, site occupancy by grey foxes increased and remained elevated through the end of the study. We found a complicated hierarchy among fishers, foxes and ringtails. Fishers affected grey fox site persistence negatively but had a positive effect on their colonization. Foxes had a positive effect on ringtail site colonization. Thus, fishers were the dominant small carnivore where present and negatively affected foxes directly and ringtails indirectly. Coexistence among the small carnivores we studied appears to reflect dynamic spatial partitioning. Conservation and management efforts should investigate how intraguild interactions may influence the

  2. Dos obras de Kohn-Pedersen-Fox/EE.UU

    Editorial, Equipo

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Two works by Pedersen Fox Associates PC are described in this article. In the first one, the play of volumes and the curved curtain wall façade are the leading part defining the building. At the same time it must be pointed out the decorative use of the different cladding materials and the contrast between the base of the volume and its upper part, of a very different feature from the point of view of the design. The second work takes benefit of the site with symbolic aims as for its façade, the whole being harmonized around a gardened inner court full colored.En la primera de ellas juegan un papel decisivo el cerramiento de muro-cortina y la línea curva de la fachada, elementos ambos que definen el edificio. Asimismo hay que destacar el empleo decorativo de los diferentes materiales de revestimiento y el contraste entre la base del edificio y la parte superior, de muy distinta concepción desde el punto de vista del diseño. La segunda de ellas aprovecha con fines simbólicos el emplazamiento del edificio en cuanto a su fachada principal armonizándolo con una distribución en torno a un patio interior ajardinado, con predominio del color.

  3. Characterization of the FoxL2 proximal promoter and coding sequence from the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Guo, Lei; Rhen, Turk

    2017-10-01

    Sex is determined by temperature during embryogenesis in snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Previous studies in this species show that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces ovarian development at temperatures that normally produce males or mixed sex ratios. The feminizing effect of DHT is associated with increased expression of FoxL2, suggesting that androgens regulate transcription of FoxL2. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the proximal promoter (1.6kb) and coding sequence for snapping turtle FoxL2 (tFoxL2) in frame with mCherry to produce a fluorescent reporter. The tFoxL2-mCherry fusion plasmid or mCherry control plasmid were stably transfected into mouse KK1 granulosa cells. These cells were then treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100nM DHT to assess androgen effects on tFoxL2-mCherry expression. In contrast to the main hypothesis, DHT did not alter expression of the tFoxL2-mCherry reporter. However, normal serum increased expression of tFoxL2-mCherry when compared to charcoal-stripped serum, indicating that the cloned region of tFoxL2 contains cis regulatory elements. We also used the tFoxL2-mCherry plasmid as an expression vector to test the hypothesis that DHT and tFoxL2 interact to regulate expression of endogenous genes in granulosa cells. While tFoxL2-mCherry and DHT had independent effects on mouse FoxL2, FshR, GnRHR, and StAR expression, tFoxL2-mCherry potentiated low concentration DHT effects on mouse aromatase expression. Further studies will be required to determine whether synergistic regulation of aromatase by DHT and FoxL2 also occurs in turtle gonads during the sex-determining period, which would explain the feminizing effect of DHT in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anoxia-responsive regulation of the FoxO transcription factors in freshwater turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-11-01

    The forkhead class O (FoxO) transcription factors are important regulators of multiple aspects of cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that activation of these transcription factors could play crucial roles in low oxygen survival in the anoxia-tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Two FoxOs, FoxO1 and FoxO3, were examined in turtle tissues in response to 5 and 20h of anoxic submergence using techniques of RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and DNA-binding assays to assess activation. Transcript levels of FoxO-responsive genes were also quantified using RT-PCR. FoxO1 was anoxia-responsive in the liver, with increases in transcript levels, protein levels, nuclear levels and DNA-binding of 1.7-4.8fold in response to anoxia. Levels of phosphorylated FoxO1 also decreased to 57% of control values in response to 5h of anoxia, indicating activation. FoxO3 was activated in the heart, kidney and liver in response to anoxia, with nuclear levels increasing by 1.5-3.7fold and DNA-binding activity increasing by 1.3-2.9fold. Transcript levels of two FoxO-target genes, p27kip1 and catalase, also rose by 2.4-2.5fold in the turtle liver under anoxia. The results suggest that the FoxO transcription factors are activated in response to anoxia in T. scripta elegans, potentially contributing to the regulation of stress resistance and metabolic depression. This study provides the first demonstration of activation of FoxOs in a natural model for vertebrate anoxia tolerance, further improving understanding of how tissues can survive without oxygen. © 2013.

  5. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  7. Uncertainties in ecological epidemiology: A cautionary tale featuring kit foxes and oil fields

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    Ecological epidemiology, like human epidemiology, often must employ encountered rather than statistically designed data set and must make comparisons among populations that differ in terms of various poorly defined confounding variables. These properties can result in false positive or false negative results if statistics are naively applied. The case in point is a study of a population of an endangered subspecies, the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), inhabiting an oil field. The fox population abundance declined sharply following an increase in oil development until it was virtually absent from the developed portion of the field. It was decided that the possibility of toxicological effects would be investigated by analyzing historic and current hair samples. Metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly higher for foxes from the developed area compared with those from undeveloped areas of the field. However, analysis of fur from two areas remote from oil fields and from another oil field indicated that the foxes from the developed portions of the subject oil field were not unusually metalliferous but that the foxes from the undeveloped portions were unusually low in metals. The conclusions of this study will be used to draw lessons for the design of studies in ecological epidemiology

  8. Expression of full-length and splice forms of FoxP3 in rheumatoid arthritis

    Ryder, L R; Woetmann, A; Madsen, H O

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the presence of full-length and alternative splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4 cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure...... the amount of FoxP3 mRNA full-length and splice forms. CD4-positive T cells were isolated from peripheral blood from 50 RA patients by immunomagnetic separation, and the FoxP3 mRNA expression was compared with the results from 10 healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed an increased expression of full......-length FoxP3 mRNA in RA patients when compared to healthy controls, as well as an increase in CD25 mRNA expression, but no corresponding increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The presence of an alternative splice form of FoxP3 lacking exon 2 was confirmed in both RA patients and healthy controls...

  9. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Pressanti, Charline; Delverdier, Maxence; Iriart, Xavier; Morcel, Frédérique; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    A 2-year-old male fennec fox presented with a 4 month history of nonpruritic, crusty skin lesions on the forehead, the pinnae and the tail tip. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements. On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fennec fox received oral itraconazole (5 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks) combined with a miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo applied on affected areas once weekly, followed with an enilconazole dip. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Trichophyton infection in a fennec fox and, although a postmortem examination was not performed, this is possibly the first report of fatal acute liver failure associated with itraconazole in a canid. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Missed, Not Missing: Phylogenomic Evidence for the Existence of Avian FoxP3.

    Michael P Denyer

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box transcription factor FoxP3 is pivotal to the development and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs, which make a major contribution to peripheral tolerance. FoxP3 is believed to perform a regulatory role in all the vertebrate species in which it has been detected. The prevailing view is that FoxP3 is absent in birds and that avian Tregs rely on alternative developmental and suppressive pathways. Prompted by the automated annotation of foxp3 in the ground tit (Parus humilis genome, we have questioned this assumption. Our analysis of all available avian genomes has revealed that the foxp3 locus is missing, incomplete or of poor quality in the relevant genomic assemblies for nearly all avian species. Nevertheless, in two species, the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and the saker falcon (F. cherrug, there is compelling evidence for the existence of exons showing synteny with foxp3 in the ground tit. A broader phylogenomic analysis has shown that FoxP3 sequences from these three species are similar to crocodilian sequences, the closest living relatives of birds. In both birds and crocodilians, we have also identified a highly proline-enriched region at the N terminus of FoxP3, a region previously identified only in mammals.

  11. Suitability of canine herpesvirus as a vector for oral bait vaccination of foxes.

    Reubel, Gerhard H; Wright, John; Pekin, Jenny; French, Nigel; Strive, Tanja

    2006-05-31

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using canine herpesvirus (CHV) as a vaccine vector for bait-delivered oral vaccination of wild foxes. To test the viability of CHV in baits, CHV was freeze-dried, incorporated into different baits, stored, and the remaining viral infectivity tested in cell culture after varying periods of time at different storage temperatures. Experimental baits (mouse carcasses) and commercial baits (FOXOFF and PROBAIT) were prepared with either liquid or freeze-dried CHV and tested in two fox trials for their capacity to induce CHV-specific antibodies following oral baiting. Freeze-drying and storage temperatures below 0 degrees C had a stabilizing effect to virus infectivity. When stored at -20 degrees C, freeze-dried CHV retained its full infectivity for up to 3 months in PROBAIT baits, the remaining infectivity in FOXOFF baits was 100-fold less. Oral baiting with CHV induced antiviral serum antibodies in all vaccinated foxes (20/20). None of the vaccinated foxes became ill or shed infectious virus into the environment although viral DNA was detected in body secretions as evaluated by PCR. The results indicate that CHV can be freeze-dried and stored over extended periods of time without loosing much of its infectivity. This is the first report of CHV being used for oral bait vaccination of foxes. It appears that CHV is well suited for use as a recombinant vector for wild canids.

  12. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  13. Eddies in the Red Sea: A statistical and dynamical study

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    correlated with stratification but positively correlated with vertical shear of horizontal velocity and eddy growth rate, suggesting that the generation of baroclinic instability is responsible for the activities of eddies in the Red Sea.

  14. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    2012-09-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc.; Geopulse Explorations Inc.; Global Technologies... accuracy of press releases concerning the company's revenues. 4. Fox Petroleum, Inc. is a Nevada...

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts from the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)from Alaska, USA

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report Sarcocystis arctica-like sarcocysts in muscles of Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Tongues of 57 foxes were examined for Sarcocystis infection using sev...

  16. Climate change and other stressors change modeled population size and hybridization potential for San Joaquin kit fox

    The San Joaquin kit fox was once widely distributed across the southern San Joaquin Valley, but agriculture and development have replaced much of the endangered subspecies’ habitat. We modeled impacts of climate change, land-use change, and rodenticide exposure on kit fox p...

  17. A mutation in the FOXE3 gene causes congenital primary aphakia in an autosomal recessive consanguineous Pakistani family

    Anjum, Iram; Eiberg, Hans; Baig, Shahid Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    of the population in this region of Pakistan which has prevailed for many months. CONCLUSIONS: FOXE3 is responsible for the early developmental arrest of the lens placode, and the complete loss of a functional FOXE3 protein results in primary aphakia. It can also be deduced that this mutation is quite primitive...

  18. SIRT1/FoxO3 axis alteration leads to aberrant immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells

    Di Vincenzo, Serena; Heijink, Irene H; Noordhoek, Jacobien A; Cipollina, Chiara; Siena, Liboria; Bruno, Andreina; Ferraro, Maria; Postma, Dirkje S; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    Inflammation and ageing are intertwined in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The histone deacetylase SIRT1 and the related activation of FoxO3 protect from ageing and regulate inflammation. The role of SIRT1/FoxO3 in COPD is largely unknown. This study evaluated whether cigarette smoke,

  19. Isolation and culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus

    Jiarong Bao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coat colour is a phenotypic marker of fur animal species, which was determined by the pigment generated from melanocytes. In this study, we developed and validated a method for isolation, purification and passage culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus. Skin biopsies were harvested from the dorsal region of adult foxes and enzyme digestion by Dispase II. The primary culture of melanocytes from arctic fox skin was obtained by using keratinocyte serum-free medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract with/without phorbol- 12-myristate-13-acetate, and by carrying out a medium change strategy. After serial passages, it yielded pure population of melanocytes, which become efficient tools for investigating the function of colour genes and unraveling the process of melanin synthesis.

  20. 2016-2017 Update of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    With a reported Richter magnitude (ML) of 4.8, the January 12, 2016 earthquake near Fox Creek is the largest event in Alberta during the past decade. This event led to the suspension of a nearby hydraulic fracturing well, in compliance with the provincial "traffic-light" protocol. In previous study, we examine the hypocenter location and focal mechanism of this earthquake, and the results support an anthropogenic origin. Since then (until August 2017), no event reached ML=4, while several ML>3 events occurred in the Fox Creek area. Their focal mechanisms are consistent with the ones from previous events that were induced by hydraulic fracturing, suggesting a strike-slip mechanism with either N-S or E-W trending fault. In 2017, the near-source station (distance Fox Creek region.