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Sample records for red bean phaseolus

  1. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  2. Phytohemagglutinins augment red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induced allergic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, B P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-11-20

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a commonly consumed bean has been reported to induce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Phytohemagglutinins (PHAs, mainly PHA-P) contribute a major proportion of red kidney bean seeds. However, their roles in red kidney bean induced allergic reactions are still to be explored. This study was carried out to understand the role of PHAs in allergic manifestations using BALB/c mice and cultures of splenocyte, RBL-2H3 cells as well as bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs). Also, the characterization of allergic components from PHA-P was studied by LC-MS/MS. Enhanced levels of specific IgE and IgG1, clinical scores, cytokines and chemokines, β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene, prostaglandin D2 and abrupt histological changes in the intestine, lung and spleen indicated a pivotal role of PHA-P in red kidney bean allergy. Further, LC-MS/MS study revealed two IgE binding components of PHA-P as PHA-L and PHA-E. Enhanced specific IgE/IgG1 and β-hexosaminidase level elucidated the possible role of PHA-L and PHA-E in allergic manifestations. Furthermore, in the presence of IgE inhibitor piceatannol, reduced β-hexosaminidase release to some extent was noticed. The up regulated expression of GATA-3 and T-bet expression was observed in PHA-L as well as PHA-E groups. Taken together, this study revealed the fact that allergenicity potential of red kidney bean may get augmented due to the presence of different phytohemagglutinins. Although food allergy is an immune provocation induced mainly by dietary allergenic protein components of the food, the role of dietary lectins in the food induced allergic manifestations cannot be ruled out. Here we provide the systematic evidences about the allergenic potential of PHAs and further disclosed the culprit components as PHA-L and PHA-E. It is an important finding that the PHA-L and PHA-E can cause allergic manifestations via not only the IgE mediated pathway but also the non

  3. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

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    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  5. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B; Tsang, P W; Wang, J

    2001-07-01

    A homodimeric lectin adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kDa was isolated from red kidney beans. The hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. The lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. The N-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from Phaseolus vulgaris but showed some similarity to chitinases. It exerted a suppressive effect on growth of the fungal species Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus, and Rhizoctonia solani. The lectin had low ribonuclease and negligible translation-inhibitory activities.

  6. Binding of isolectins from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to purified rat brush-border membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, D H; Banwell, J G

    1985-12-13

    Ingestion of red kidney bean phytohemagglutinin causes impaired growth and intestinal malabsorption, and facilitates bacterial colonization in the small intestine of weanling rats. We have studied interactions of the highly purified phytohemagglutinin erythroagglutinating (E4) and mitogenic (L4) isolectins with microvillous membrane vesicles prepared from rat small intestines. E4 and L4 were radioiodinated with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. E4 and L4 isolectins both bound to microvillous membrane vesicles. Binding was saturable and reversible. Each mg of membrane protein bound 744 +/- 86 micrograms E4 and 213 +/- 21 micrograms L4. The apparent Ka for E4 and L4 binding was 2.5 x 10(-6) and 13.0 x 10(-6) M-1, respectively. Binding of each 125I-labelled isolectin was abolished by 100-fold excess of unlabelled isolectin. In each case binding also was inhibited by appropriate oligosaccharide inhibitors, indicating that isolectin-microvillous membrane interactions were mediated by carbohydrate recognition. Patterns of saccharide inhibition of isolectin binding were different for E4 and L4. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated mutual noncompetitive inhibition of E4 and L4 binding consistent with steric hindrance. Therefore, E4 and L4 each bound to its own set of receptors. Based on the known saccharide specificities of E4 and L4, these data indicate that there are differences in expression of complex asparagine-linked biantennary and tri- or tetraantennary oligosaccharides at the microvillous surface. The data also provide the possibility that direct interactions of one or more phytohemagglutinin isolectins with intestinal mucosa in vivo may contribute to the antinutritional effects associated with ingestion of crude red kidney beans.

  7. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  8. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    : Microfiltration, membrane, Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP, fermented red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

  9. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Comparison of Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus calcaratus under different Intercropping Arrangements

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    A Koocheki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a sustainable practice used in many developed and developing countries and an essential element of agricultural sustainability. Intercropping is simultaneous growing of two or more crops during a given season on same location. Such a method enables the utilization of common limiting resources more efficiently than the species grown separately. Using two species with different growth habits and the least competitive characteristics in intercropping, increases the efficiency of resources (light, water and nutrients and absorption in comparison with the sole cropping (Fernandez-Aparicio et al., 2008. The study of intercropping of borage (Borago officinalis L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. showed that the highest economic yield was achieved in monoculture and the lowest economic yield was obtained in four rows of borage plus four rows of bean, but the maximum land equivalent ratio was calculated in 2:2 intercropping. The aim of current study was to determine the best combination and efficiency of resource utilization in intercropping of additive series of chickpea and black cumin. The results were compared to respective monoculture and the advantages of intercropping was determined. The effects of planting different ratios of two crops on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. was also investigated. The results of intercropping of additive series showed that the highest grain and biological yield of chickpea were obtained through monoculture and the lowest grain and biological yield of chickpea achieved by planting ratio of 100% sesame and 10% chickpea. Materials and Methods To evaluate the effects of different intercropping arrangements of sunflower, sesame and red bean on growth characteristics, yield components and yield, a field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing seasons of 2009

  11. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

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    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  12. Yield and Physiological Response of Red Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Cutting Irrigation off at Different Growth Stages

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    Shadi Sadat Mohajerani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and graduall reduction of available water resources are the limiting factors of crop production. To investigate the effect of water deficit stress on yield and components of some red bean genotypes a split plot experiment in the form of randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch. The treatments consisted of full irrigation (control, cutting irrigation off during flowering stage, cutting irrigation off of pod filling stage and three genotypes of red bean (derakhshan, goli, and D81083. The results showed that the effect of cutting off irrigation during the growth stages on biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod was significant. The results also showed that the highest seed yield belonged to the full irrigation (control treatment, where D81083 and goli produced higher yields than derakhshan. Highest grain yield was belonged to goli at full irrigation (control treatment. Among the genotypes under study, D81083 had the lowest amount of reduction equal to 60 percent during cutting off irrigation at flowering stage. Number of seeds per pod decreased when irrigation was cutted off during the flowering stage. Derakhshan produced higher yield than the other genotypes and its seed per pod decreased by 38 percent. The results also revealed that red bean genotypes were very sensitive to deficite water stress. As a whole D81083 and goli genotypes were higher yielders than Derakhshan under limited water conditions.

  13. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  14. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  15. Performance of climber common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    pathogen co-adaptation in Malawi. Proceed- ings of Bean/Cowpea CRSP Eastern African Regionalisation. Workshop, Lilongwe, p. 7. Mloza Banda HR, Ferguson AE, Mkandawire ABC (2003). The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  16. Advances in the improvement of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change, high temperature and drought are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), native to the Sonora desert located in the northern part of Mexico and southwest o...

  17. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqi; Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Wang, Guirong

    2015-07-03

    The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr) annotation, gene ontology (GO) classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

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    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  20. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  1. Red kidney beans - to eat or not to eat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in kidney beans are responsible for this ...

  2. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  3. Aluminium Tolerance of Four Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties ('Rosecoco'– GLP 2, 'Mwitemania'– GLP X 92, 'Mwezi Moja' – GLP 1004, and French bean – 'Amy') locally obtained from seed merchants in Kenya were investigated for their aluminium tolerance under two techniques of screening, namely root elongation and staining.

  4. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Rhizobium. INTRODUCTION. In Senegal, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) needs to be inoculated with elite Rhizobium strains in the growing area called Niayes zone (Diouf et al., 1999). Usually, seeds of common bean supplied to farmers are often treated with fungicide to prevent losses due to seed- borne pathogens.

  5. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

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    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  6. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  7. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  9. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  11. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  12. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  13. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Field Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosols in Kenya. C Owino-Gerroh, JK Keter, JP Mbuvi. Abstract. The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with ...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  16. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  17. Aluminium-phosphate interactions in the rhizosphere of two bean species: Phaseolus lunatus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Cesco, Stefano; Tomasi, Nicola; Pinton, Roberto; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants differ in their response to high aluminium (Al) concentrations, which typically cause toxicity in plants grown on acidic soils. The response depends on plant species and environmental conditions such as substrate and cultivation system. The present study aimed to assess Al-phosphate (P) dynamics in the rhizosphere of two bean species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L., in rhizobox experiments. Root activity of the bean species induced up to a sevenfold increase in exchangeable Al and up to a 30-fold decrease in extractable P. High soluble Al concentrations triggered the release of plant-specific carboxylates, which differed between soil type and plant species. The results suggest that P. vulgaris L. mitigates Al stress by an internal defence mechanism and P. lunatus L. by an external one, both mechanisms involving organic acids. Rhizosphere mechanisms involved in Al detoxification were found to be different for P. vulgaris L. and P. lunatus L., suggesting that these processes are plant species-specific. Phaseolus vulgaris L. accumulates Al in the shoots (internal tolerance mechanism), while P. lunatus L. prevents Al uptake by releasing organic acids (exclusion mechanism) into the growth media. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  19. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  20. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  1. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  2. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  3. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  4. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  5. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    .... Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce...

  7. Nutritional analyses for proteins and amino acids in beans (Phaseolus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical index is a good estimator of seed protein quality of Phaseolus beans. In order to estimate this value, a protein hydrolysis and amino acid quantification are realised. The problems inherent to these techniques are presented.

  8. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  9. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Thimmapuram Jyothi; Meyers Blake C; Liu Zhanji; Kalavacharla Venu; Melmaiee Kalpalatha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequence...

  10. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  11. Origin of year-long bean (Phaseolus dumosus Macfady, Fabaceae) from reticulated hybridization events between multiple Phaseolus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina-Vargas, Angela M; McKeown, Peter C; Flanagan, Nicola S; Debouck, Daniel G; Kilian, Andrzej; Hodkinson, Trevor R; Spillane, Charles

    2016-08-06

    Improved understanding of the secondary gene pools of crops is essential for advancing genetic gain in breeding programmes. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is a staple crop with several wild relatives in its secondary gene pool. The year-long bean, P. dumosus, an important crop in Guatemala, is considered particularly closely related to P. vulgaris and a potential source of novel variation. However, the genetic diversity and relationship to other Phaseolus species of P. dumosus remain unclear. We conducted the first comprehensive investigation of P. dumosus genetic diversity using both nuclear and chloroplast genome markers. Our nuclear marker set included over 700 markers present within the Phaseolus DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) array, which we applied to P. dumosus and other relatives of P. vulgaris (including every secondary gene pool species: P. acutifolius, P. albescens, P. coccineus and P. costaricensis). Phaseolus dumosus arose from hybridization of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, followed by at least two later hybridizations with sympatric congener populations. Existing P. dumosus collections have low genetic diversity. The under-utilized crop P. dumosus has a complex hybrid origin. Further sampling in the region in which it arose may uncover additional germplasm for introgressing favourable traits into crops within the P. vulgaris gene pool. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L. submitted to cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Oliveira Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a source of nutrients and contains phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolic compounds and tannins in two bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: the biofortified carioca bean (Pontal and the common bean (commercial. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and their fractions was also measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS methods. The thermal processing decreased the phenolic compounds, tannins and the antioxidant activity of beans. The Pontal cultivar exhibited higher levels of phenolic compounds even after cooking. For cooked beans, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the commercial beans by the DPPH method. Regarding to the fractions, in general, lower values of antioxidant activity by DPPH were observed for beans after cooking, except for fraction 6 of the Pontal bean and fraction 3 of the commercial bean. For fraction 4 no significant differences were observed by the ABTS method for both cultivars after thermal processing.

  13. EFFECT OF CONSUMING GREEN BEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS JUICE ON MATERNAL BLOOD PROFILE DURING PREGNANCY

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    Stefani Anastasia S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of anemia in pregnancy is caused by iron deficiency. Thus, giving iron tablets is an effort to deal with anemia. A green bean (Phaseolus Radiatus juice is considered helping the absorption of iron effectively. Objective: To analyze the effect of green bean (Phaseolus Radiatus juice on changes in blood profile levels in pregnant women with anemia who received Fe tablet supplementation. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest posttest with control group design conducted from November 2016 to January 2017 in the working area of the Community Health Center of Kedungmundu Semarang. Consecutive sampling was used in this study to select 40 samples based on the hypothesis formula of two independents. There were 20 samples assigned in each group. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Independent t-test. Results: The results of this study showed that there were significant increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocytes (p = 0.000 after given green bean (Phaseolus Radiatus juice. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of green bean (Phaseolus Radiatus juice in increasing the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocytes. It is expected that this green bean juice can be used as an alternative treatment to deal with anemia in pregnant women.

  14. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Buendía Héctor F; Díaz Lucy M; Prieto Sergio; Blair Matthew W; Cardona César

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Za...

  16. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  17. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117

  18. MODELLING OF HYDRATION OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.): EFFECT OF THE LOW-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L R López López; J A Ulloa; P Rosas Ulloa; J C Ramírez Ramírez; Y Silva Carrillo; A Quintero Ramos

    2017-01-01

    ..., mathematical modelling, ultrasound, water diffusivity, Weibull's model 1. INTRODUCTION Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a grain legumes that belong to the family of Fabaceae. They provide an affordable source of protein (16-33%), almost two to three times that of cereals), and also are a rich source of dietary fibre, starch, minerals...

  19. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  20. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity

  1. Towards understanding of plant mitochondrial VDAC proteins: an overview of bean (Phaseolus VDAC proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Saidani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the main grain legume consumed worldwide, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is generally considered as a model for food legumes. The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC is the major transport pathway for inorganic ions, metabolites, and tRNA, and consequently it controls the exchange of these compounds between the cytoplasm and the mitochondrion. Two VDAC isoforms of Phaseolus coccineus have been investigated experimentally. However, plant VDACs are known to belong to a small multigenic family of variable size. Here, we combine available experimental as well as genomic and transcriptomic data to identify and characterize the VDAC family of Phaseolus vulgaris. To this aim, we review the current state of our knowledge of Phaseolus VDAC functional and structural properties. The genomic and transcriptomic data available for the putative VDACs of Phaseolus vulgaris are studied using bioinformatics approach including homology modelling. The obtained results indicate that five out of the seven putative VDAC encoding sequences (named PvVDAC1–5 share strongly conserved motifs and structural homology with known VDACs. Notably, PvVDAC4 and PvVDAC5 are very close to the two abundant and characterized experimentally VDAC isoforms purified from Phaseolus coccineus mitochondria.

  2. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo in Nicaragua.

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    Delfia Marcenaro

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the

  3. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  4. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  5. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  6. The Effect of vermicompost on salt tolerance of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beyk Khurmizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, increasing production of waste as a result of population growth, increased food consumption, industrial development and urbanization growth, is regarded as a serious challenge. Vermicompost, as an end product of urban waste recycling with proper physicochemical features, can play an effective role in plant growth and development and also in reducing harmful effects of various environmental stresses on plants. For this purpose, a study with the aim of investigating the effects of vermicompost and salinity interactions on morphological traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Light Red Kidney seedlings was performed. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design, including five different volumetric ratios of vermicompost and sand (0:100; 10:90; 25:75; 50:50 and 75:25, and four levels of salinity (30, 60, 90 and 120 mmol l-1 NaCl, equal to 2.75, 5.50, 8.25 and 11 deciSiemens per meter (dS/m respectively, along with control (0.00, in three replications. Seeds were cultured in plastic pots and sampling of seedlings was done after 28 days. The results showed that in an environment without stress, vermicompost had significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the stem length, internodes number, area and dry weight of leaves, diameter, dry weight and total roots length, while having no significant effect on stem dry weight. The interaction between salinity and vermicompost has significant effect on the stem length, internodes number, the area and dry weight of leaves and dry weight of roots but no significant effect was observed on the stem dry weight, diameter and total roots length. Thus, in the low levels of salinity, all ratios of vermicompost and in high levels of salinity, high ratios of vermicompost can limit the negative effects of salinity on bean seedlings.

  7. Preliminary investigation into the use of lima bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paracetamol tablets formulated were evaluated for uniformity of weight, dimensions, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The paracetamol granules and tablets formulated with 0 – 10 %w/w Phaseolus lunatus starch as disintegrant were comparable in granule flow properties, tablet weight variation ...

  8. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  9. Variability within the common bean phaseolus vulgaris germ plasm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean production in Uganda is characterized by ... characterization of the available germ plasm form the discussion basis of this paper. ... was geographical origin, local variety name, seed colour the diversity noted within the present bean collection is a and size. By 1984 a total of204 landraces were collected, reflection of ...

  10. Canning Quality Evaluation of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed the optimum hydration coefficient value of 1.8 for all common bean varieties. Visual appearances, splits, degree of clumping, starchiness, flavor and taste and seed size were also determined through a visual rating procedure as canning quality traits. Awash Melka and Awash-1 bean varieties revealed a ...

  11. 8566 assessment of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern. Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical,.

  12. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  13. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-08

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grain...... element composition under farmers’ cropping conditions. It was found that variations between genotypes in the proportions of elements in the grain dry matter across a wide range of conditions could be linear with an additional 20% iron (Fe) or zinc (Zn) for some genotypes. However, this linearity was only...

  15. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...... breaking strains for further studies, BCMV RU1 was tagged with the sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was visualized directly without destruction of the tissue. In this paper we present details of the construction of the infectious clone and discuss its application in studies of BCMV...

  16. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa; Marisa Vieira de Queiroz; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Celia Alencar de Moraes; Elza Fernandes Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10² to 2.8 x 10³ CFU g-1 of fresh weight. ...

  17. [Effect of the seed coat on the hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, L F; Bressani, R; Elías, L G

    1989-09-01

    Samples of cotyledons and whole black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), Tamazulapa variety were stored during six weeks at 37 degrees C and 90% relative humidity to establish chemical and physical changes which occur during storage, and to determine the role played by the seed coat in the hard-to-cook phenomenon. After the storage period, samples of whole beans were divided in two subsamples, with and without the seed coat. These two samples and the cotyledons were analyzed for cooking time, water absorption, dietary fiber, tannic acid, soluble pectins and phytic acid. Cooking time of the whole beans increased from 99 to more than 480 minutes in the six-weeks period; for the cotyledons this value increased from 45 to 111 minutes. Cooking time of the dehulled bean, stored as whole bean, increased from 45 to 111 minutes. Cooking time of the dehulled bean, stored as whole bean, increased from 45 to 103 minutes. Water absorption in the whole beans and the cotyledons decreased, although in the cotyledons it was higher, due perhaps to the great absorption capacity to the seed coat. No changes were observed in the dietary fiber content of the cotyledons nor in the beans dehulled after storage. However, in the whole grains neutro-detergent fiber decreased, while acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin did not present significant changes. On the other hand, soluble pectates decreased in the whole bean and in the cotyledons; nevertheless the tannin content (as tannic acid) decreased only in the whole beans (from 3.28 to 1.64 mg/g). The data obtained suggest that the seed coat plays a significant role in the hard-to-cook process of hardening of the bean, before and during storage.

  18. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Beans (Phaseolus ssp.) as a Model for Understanding Crop Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Bellucci, Elisa; Rodriguez, Monica; Murgia, Maria L.; Gioia, Tania; Santo, Debora; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most significant outcomes in the literature regarding the origin of Phaseolus genus, the geographical distribution of the wild species, the domestication process, and the wide spread out of the centers of origin. Phaseolus can be considered as a unique model for the study of crop evolution, and in particular, for an understanding of the convergent phenotypic evolution that occurred under domestication. The almost unique situation that characterizes the Phaseolus genus is that five of its ∼70 species have been domesticated (i.e., Phaseolus vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. dumosus, P. acutifolius, and P. lunatus), and in addition, for P. vulgaris and P. lunatus, the wild forms are distributed in both Mesoamerica and South America, where at least two independent and isolated episodes of domestication occurred. Thus, at least seven independent domestication events occurred, which provides the possibility to unravel the genetic basis of the domestication process not only among species of the same genus, but also between gene pools within the same species. Along with this, other interesting features makes Phaseolus crops very useful in the study of evolution, including: (i) their recent divergence, and the high level of collinearity and synteny among their genomes; (ii) their different breeding systems and life history traits, from annual and autogamous, to perennial and allogamous; and (iii) their adaptation to different environments, not only in their centers of origin, but also out of the Americas, following their introduction and wide spread through different countries. In particular for P. vulgaris this resulted in the breaking of the spatial isolation of the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, which allowed spontaneous hybridization, thus increasing of the possibility of novel genotypes and phenotypes. This knowledge that is associated to the genetic resources that have been conserved ex situ and in

  20. Nutritional and protein quality of dry Brazilian beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Alves REZENDE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the world's largest producer of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., which are one of the most widely consumed grain legumes in the world. Seven improved genotypes of dry, coloured, Brazilian common beans were analysed for their nutritional (chemical composition, oligosaccharides, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and protein quality (amino acid profile, amino acid score, trypsin inhibitor activity and in vitro protein digestibility. The grain bean cultivars studied showed a high content of fibre, with some aromatic amino acids present at higher levels than the Food and Agriculture Organization reference protein. The dry beans had intermediate protein digestibility, ranging from 50.3% in the BRS Notável cultivar to 66.9% in the Jalo Precoce cultivar. The studied dry beans contained anti-nutritional and flatulence factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. However, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were high. Improved grain beans have important nutritional characteristics that need to be preserved, and some negative, anti-nutritional characteristics. The results presented in this study can be used to assist the identification of appropriate processing techniques that maintain the positive features of dry beans and eliminate their negative attributes.

  1. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  2. Physicochemical properties of nixtamalized black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Ramos, David; Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan de Dios; Véles-Medina, José Juan; Salazar, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of three nixtamalization processes using wood ashes, Ca(OH)2, and CaCl2 on the physicochemical properties of beans. Raw beans had C-type starch, 10.10% resistant starch (RS), and two DSC endotherms: 1) starch gelatinization, and 2) melting of amylose-lipid complexes plus protein denaturation. Nixtamalization increased the Ca and Fe content, decreased the RS content to 4.19-4.43%, and produced starch retrogradation. DSC and FT-IR analysis of the flours evidenced a "stabilizing" effect of cooking with NaCl and CaCl2 on bean proteins. In contrast, cooking with wood ashes and Ca(OH)2 produced denaturation of bean proteins, decreasing the second transition enthalpy and absorption bands of amide I, II and III. Results showed that traditional and classic nixtamalization of beans are alternatives to obtaining mineral fortified flours that could be used as ingredients in the elaboration of foods with a good nutritional profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the

  4. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavacharla, Venu; Liu, Zhanji; Meyers, Blake C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Melmaiee, Kalpalatha

    2011-10-11

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study. This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the development of molecular markers that

  5. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  6. Comparison of Grain Proteome Profiles of Four Brazilian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriela Barbosa; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Blank, Martina; Faria, Josias Correa de; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2017-08-30

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a source of proteins for about one billion people worldwide. In Brazil, 'BRS Sublime', 'BRS Vereda', 'BRS Esteio', and 'BRS Estilo' cultivars were developed by Embrapa to offer high yield to farmers and excellent quality to final consumers. In this work, grain proteomes of these common bean cultivars were compared based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare 349 matched spots in these cultivars proteomes, and all cultivars were clearly separated in PCA plot. Thirty-two differentially accumulated proteins were identified by MS. Storage proteins such as phaseolins, legumins, and lectins were the most abundant, and novel proteins were also identified. We have built a useful platform that could be used to analyze other Brazilian cultivars and genotypes of common beans.

  7. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  8. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  9. Examination of genetic diversity in common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was observed for the ...

  10. Phenotypic and seed protein analysis in 31 Lima bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic and seed protein analyses were performed on 31 accessions of Lima bean assembled in Ghana. Data on 16 phenotypic characters consisting of eight quantitative and eight qualitative were analysed. There were significant differences among the accessions based on the eight quantitative characters. Seed ...

  11. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the ... PCoA, majority individuals of Metekel (L) tended to form separate group. The result of the study ... endospermic and vary greatly in size and color from the small black wild type to the ...

  12. Examination of genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Division of Genetics and Pant Breeding Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir. Shalimar campus ..... of commercial beans to develop high yielding cultivars. Conflict of interests. The authors did not declare any conflict of interest. REFERENCES. Alzate-Marin AL ...

  13. Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing ‘multiple defence syndromes’ rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences. PMID:19424497

  14. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Srivastava, 2002), hemp (Saçılık et al., 2003), quinoa seeds (Vilche et al., 2003), vetch (Yalçın and Özarslan,. 2004), caper seed (Dursun and Dursun, 2005), sweet corn seed (Coşkun et al., 2006), black-eyed pea (Unal et al., 2006), Turkish Göynük Bombay beans (Tekin et al.,. 2006), some grain legume ...

  15. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  16. Evaluation of Nicaraguan common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Common bean landraces are an important component of the cropping systems of the Nicaraguan small-scale farmers. They have also been used in breeding programs for the development of improved cultivars. The knowledge about these landraces is, however, incomplete as regards adaptive, physiological and molecular traits. Neither their genetic diversity and its distribution nor the way in which this genetic diversity has changed over time has been well studied. The general purpose of this work was ...

  17. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aluminium (0.345 to 0.499), galvanized iron (0.346 to 0.489), medium density fibreboard (MDF) (0.325 to 0.426) and glass (0.287 to 0.345) as the moisture content increased from 10.01 to 25.00% d.b. The shelling resistance of white kidney bean grains decreased as the moisture content increased from 105.18 to 71.44 N.

  18. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  19. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  20. Protein and Metalloprotein Distribution in Different Varieties of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Effects of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are among the main sources of protein and minerals. The cooking of the grains is imperative, due to reduction of the effect of some toxic and antinutritional substances, as well as increase of protein digestibility. In this study, the effects of cooking on albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins concentration and determination of Fe associated with proteins for different beans varieties and on phaseolin concentration in common and black beans were evaluated. Different extractant solutions (water, NaCl, ethanol, and NaOH were used for extracting albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins, respectively. For the phaseolin separation NaOH, HCl, and NaCl were used. The total concentration of proteins was determined by Bradford method; Cu and Fe associated with phaseolin and other proteins were obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Cooking promoted a negative effect on (1 the proteins concentrations (17 (glutelin to 95 (albumin % of common beans and (2 phaseolin concentration (90% for common and black beans. Fe associated with albumin, prolamin, and glutelin was not altered. In Fe and Cu associated with phaseolin there was an increase of 20 and 37% for the common and black varieties, respectively.

  1. Genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. LMTR 3, a diazotrophic symbiont of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradyrhizobium sp. LMTR 3 is a representative strain of one of the geno(species of diazotrophic symbionts associated with Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru. Its 7.83 Mb genome was sequenced using the Illumina technology and found to encode a complete set of genes required for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and additional genes putatively involved in root colonization. Its draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXC00000000.

  2. Phytic acid in stored common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Unzón, H Y; Ortega-Delgado, M L

    1989-09-01

    Four varieties of common bean seeds stored at 4 degrees C, 80% relative humidity, for one to eight years showed no differences in proximal chemical composition, Seeds 5-6 years old absorbed more water than 1 to 4 year-old seeds. The cooking time required for five year-old seeds was 6 hours, while the fresh seeds needed 3/4-to-one hour cooking time. The most remarkable difference was in phytic acid content, which decreased 94% to 98% during long storage.

  3. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  4. Occurrence of isoflavonoids in Brazilian common bean germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Paula Feliciano; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2014-10-08

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is present in the daily diet of various countries and, as for other legumes, has been investigated for its nutraceutical potential. Thus, 16 genotypes from different gene pools, representing seven types of seed coats and different responses to pathogens and pests, were selected to verify their isoflavone contents. The isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein and the flavonols kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin were found. Grains of the black type showed the highest concentrations of isoflavonoids and were the only ones to exhibit daidzein. IAC Formoso, with high protein content and source of resistance to anthracnose, showed the greatest concentration of genistein, representing around 11% of the content present in soybean, as well as high levels of kaempferol. Arc 1, Raz 55, and IAC Una genotypes showed high content of coumestrol. The results suggest the use of IAC Formoso to increase the nutraceutical characteristics in common bean.

  5. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  6. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M.; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  7. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Andrea; Gepts, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins are a large and diverse family of water channel proteins that are essential for several physiological processes in living organisms. Numerous studies have linked plant aquaporins with a plethora of processes, such as nutrient acquisition, CO2 transport, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about this protein family in common bean. Here, we present a genome-wide identification of the aquaporin gene family in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a legume crop essential for human nutrition. We identified 41 full-length coding aquaporin sequences in the common bean genome, divided by phylogenetic analysis into five sub-families (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Residues determining substrate specificity of aquaporins (i.e., NPA motifs and ar/R selectivity filter) seem conserved between common bean and other plant species, allowing inference of substrate specificity for these proteins. Thanks to the availability of RNA-sequencing datasets, expression levels in different organs and in leaves of wild and domesticated bean accessions were evaluated. Three aquaporins (PvTIP1;1, PvPIP2;4 and PvPIP1;2) have the overall highest mean expressions, with PvTIP1;1 having the highest expression among all aquaporins. We performed an EST database mining to identify drought-responsive aquaporins in common bean. This analysis showed a significant increase in expression for PvTIP1;1 in drought stress conditions compared to well-watered environments. The pivotal role suggested for PvTIP1;1 in regulating water homeostasis and drought stress response in the common bean should be verified by further field experimentation under drought stress.

  9. Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

    2007-12-01

    The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans.

  10. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  11. Diallel analysis to choose parents for black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L M; Carneiro, P C S; Vale, N M; Barili, L D; Silva, L C; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2016-08-29

    In this study, conducted in two different seasons, we aimed to choose parents to obtain promising segregating populations for the extraction of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines that are superior in terms of disease resistance, plant architecture, and grain yield. Twelve parents were arranged in two groups to compose a partial diallel in a 5 x 7 scheme. Group 1 was composed of parents with black grains and erect plant architecture, while group 2 was composed of parents that had carioca grains and were resistant to the main fungal diseases that occur in the common bean. The following traits were evaluated: severity of angular leaf spot (ALS), plant architecture (PAG), and grain yield (YIELD). The data were analyzed according to a partial diallel model using parents and F1 hybrids. In the genetic control of ALS and PAG, additive effects were predominant, while for YIELD, additive effects were predominant in one season and dominance effects were in another season, because it is a more complex trait than ALS and PAG. For YIELD, we observed an interaction between general combining ability and specific combining ability between seasons. The genes that control ALS, PAG, and YIELD were in eight of the 12 parents evaluated in the diallel. The cultivar 'BRS Estilo' is suitable to use as a parent in common bean breeding in terms of ALS, PAG and YIELD. Recurrent selection is the most recommended option for simultaneously breeding for PAG, YIELD, and resistance to angular leaf spot in bean culture.

  12. Genetic assessment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions by peroxidase gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemli, Seda; Kaya, Hilal Betul; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2014-06-01

    Peroxidase, a plant-specific oxidoreductase, is a heme-containing glycoprotein encoded by a large multigenic family in plants. Plant peroxidases (POXs, EC 1.11.1.7) play important roles in many self-defense interactions in plants. Here, 67 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes were studied using a POX gene-based marker method. Comparison of POX genes could resolve evolutionary relationships in common bean. Eighty fragments were obtained with 20 primer pairs that amplified one (POX8c) to eight (ATP29) bands, with a mean of four bands per primer pair. The average (polymorphic information content) PIC value for the POX products was 0.40. The maximum variation (93%) was found between Turkey (#33) and India (#52) and between Antalya (#33) and India (#53). The minimum variation (0%) was found among four pairs: Bozdag (#2) and Karadeniz (#38), Kirklareli (#11) and Turkey (#15, 16, 43), Bandirma (#13) and Turkey (#15, 16, 43), and Kirklareli (#10) and Bandirma (#22). UPGMA was used to discriminate the common bean genotypes into five clusters, while STRUCTURE software was used to investigate the genetic population structure. The results showed that POX gene family markers can be used to study genotypic diversity and provide new information for breeding programs and common bean improvement practices. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Green manure and its influence on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green manures have been used as biomass producers and suppliers of nutrients and keep the soil productive potential in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of dry biomass and nutrient concentration and accumulation in plants of green manure in two cropping systems, without associating and associated with millet and its influence on the nutritional status of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in succession in agroecological production. Four legumes (Canavalia ensiformis Adans; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; Crotalaria juncea L.; Mucuna pruriens (L. DC and one grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. as association plant, were evaluated. A randomized block design was used, with eight treatments and four repetitions. The green manure plants were cut and left on the ground at 60 days after planting and bean was planted 20 days after cutting the manure plants. The evaluated variables were dried biomass production, nutrient content of green manure and nutrient content in leaves of beans in succession. The production of dry biomass of green manure was higher than 9.00 t ha-1. Mucuna stood out with the greatest tenors of N, Ca, Mg, pork beans with the highest tenors of K, Cu, Mn. The greatest accumulation of P, K and Ca nutrients was in pigeon pea. The highest values of N and Mg were obtained in mucuna. Higher C / N relation was obtained in rotalaria.

  14. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  15. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  16. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  17. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Leeuwen, P. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets

  18. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  19. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  20. Understanding and improving flavor in snap beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  1. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  2. A Comparative Study of Normal and Hard-to-Cook Brazilian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Ultrastructural and Histochemical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Elisabeth; LAJOLO, Franco M.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    Legume seeds stored under high temperature and humidity develop a texture defect known as hard-to-cook (HTC). Structural and histochemical characteristics of normal and HTC beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were studied after storing them at 5°C/40% relative humidity (RH) or 40°C/75% RH for 60 days. Cotyledonary cells of HTC beans showed contraction of the cell content, whereas the cytoplasm of normal seeds occupied the total cell volume. Cell walls of HTC beans appear more compact, showing smaller ...

  3. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  4. Stress induced acquisition of somatic embryogenesis in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; López, Liliana; León-Ramírez, Claudia G; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Verver-y-Vargas, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been shown to be a recalcitrant plant to induce somatic embryogenesis (SE) under in vitro conditions. We used an alternative strategy to induce SE in common bean based upon the use of a cytokinin (BAP) coupled with osmotic stress adaptation instead of SE response that is induced by auxins. Explants derived from zygotic embryos of common bean were subjected to osmotic stress (sucrose 12 % w/v, 0.5 M) in the presence of BAP 10 mg/L and adenine free base 40 mg/L to induce somatic embryos from specific competent cells of the apical meristem and cotyledonary node. Somatic embryos were obtained from the competent cells in a direct response (direct SE). In a secondary response (secondary SE), those somatic embryos formed proembryogenic masses (PEM) that originated/developed into secondary somatic embryos and showed the SE ontogeny. Maturation of somatic embryos was achieved by using different osmolality media and converted to plants. Full-visible light spectrum was necessary to achieve efficient plant regeneration. Long-term recurrent SE was demonstrated by propagation of PEM at early stages of SE. This protocol is currently being applied for stable genetic transformation by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and bioballistics as well as for basic biochemical and molecular biology experiments.

  5. Screening of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for resistance against temperate root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemael, Wim Ml; Moens, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    An important part of the production area of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Belgium is located on the sandy soils of the provinces of Antwerp and Limburg where Meloidogyne chitwoodi (Golden), M. fallax (Karssen) and M. hapla (Chitwood) are present. The host plant status of ten bean cultivars for root-knot nematodes was determined by evaluating penetration, development and egg mass formation after inoculation with second-stage juveniles. The tested cultivars were poor to good hosts for M. chitwoodi, non-hosts or bad hosts for M. fallax and excellent hosts for M. hapla. Significantly fewer M. fallax were found in the roots, and their development was delayed. Penetration of M. hapla took place over a longer period than that of M. chitwoodi and M. fallax. The number of mature females of M. chitwoodi in cv. Polder 6 weeks after inoculation was no different from that in other cultivars, although fewer egg masses were found on this cultivar in the screening test. There was no influence of M. chitwoodi on vegetative growth of cv. Polder. The differences found in host plant status of bean cultivars stress the importance of a correct diagnosis of the Meloidogyne species in agricultural fields. Cultivar Polder showed potential as a trap crop for M. chitwoodi. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  7. Effects of the Domestic Cooking on Elemental Chemical Composition of Beans Species (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Alessandra S. T. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking is imperative for beans owing to the presence of compounds that can negatively affect nutritional value. Additionally, the heating of beans can increase protein digestibility and induce desirable sensory properties. However, cooking also causes considerable changes in the composition of numerous chemical constituents, including amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. For this, effects of domestic cooking on the essential element concentrations in various beans species (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were investigated using jalo, fradinho, rajado, rosinha, bolinha, black, and common species. Elemental determination was made with flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after sample digestion in a closed-vessel microwave oven using a diluted oxidant mixture. Analytical methods were evaluated with an addition and recovery test and analysis of certified reference materials (apple and citrus leaves. Ca, Cu, K, and Mg were present mainly in rajado, Cu in jalo, Fe in black, S and Zn in fradinho, and P in rosinha species. Thermal treatment did not affect Cu, Fe, S, and Zn concentrations, but it increased Ca, K, Mg, P, and Zn concentrations in jalo and black species. Ca concentration decreased in fradinho and rajado species, as did Fe concentration in jalo and rajado species.

  8. Molecular diversity of native bradyrhizobia isolated from lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Vinuesa, Pablo; Zúñiga-Dávila, Doris; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of a collection of 21 bradyrhizobial isolates from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) was assayed by molecular methods. Moderately high to high genetic diversity was revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) analysis of seven enzyme loci and genomic fingerprints with ERIC and BOX primers. Two groups with differences in growth rate were found among the isolates and their differentiation as two divergent bradyrhizobial lineages was supported by PCR-RFLP of the rpoB gene and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA and dnaK genes. Isolates with slow growth (SG) were identified as Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, while extra-slow growing isolates (ESG) constitute a new lineage different from all described Bradyrhizobium species. Three distinct symbiotic genotypes were detected among Lima bean bradyrhizobia by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the nifH and nodB genes. One genotype was found in the ESG lineage and two in B. yuanmingense. Another symbiotic genotype was detected in B. yuamingense isolated from Lespedeza plants. The identified bradyrhizobial lineages constitute sympatric species effectively nodulating Lima bean on the coast of Peru.

  9. Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Y.; A Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati

    2016-01-01

    In order to study yield and yield components in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and evaluating effect of intercropping on weed control, a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008. Treatments: included 1- sole crop of bean 2- sole crop of sweet basil 3- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows of bean and two rows of sweet basil) 4- strip inter...

  10. Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Antonette R.; Donofrio, Nicole; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; McClean, Phillip E.; Lee, Rian K.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg, (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3-mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resist...

  11. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  12. Assimilate distribution in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during phosphate limitation

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    Iwona Ciereszko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of phosphate deficiency on the increased "C-assimilate transport from shoot to root of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was studied. The roots of plants were cultured in split configurations (a half of the root system was exposed to a short-term or long-term culture in phosphate-deficient nutrient medium, while the other half - in complete nutrient medium to establish the conditions of translocation enhancement. It was found that both short term Pi stress applied to a part of root and longer localized phosphate deficiency is not sufficient to increase assimilate transport from the shoot to the root. Low concentration of Pi in tissues of the whole plant as a signal for changes in assimilate distribution and sugar accumulation in the roots is discussed.

  13. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

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    Moraes R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F (cowpea weevil with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7% was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. The expression of a C. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds.

  14. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

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    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  15. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  16. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  17. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  19. [Nutritional evaluation of protein concentrates of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentils (Lens esculenta)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, H; Sanahuja, J C

    1978-06-01

    The composition and nutritive value were determined in navy bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil meal (Lens esculenta), and in their respective protein concentrates obtained through extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. Sulfur amino acids per gram of nitrogen were lower in the concentrates than in the meals, while there was no difference for lysine and threonine. The white bean protein concentrate had a lower biological value than the meal but better digestibility, although trypsin inhibitor concentration was unchanged. Digestibility greatly improved with heating but it did not increase beyond 81% even after autoclaving. Autoclaved samples supplemented with methionine reached a biological value of 83. The lentil protein concentrate also had a lower biological value than the meal but digestibility was high for both samples (91%) and remained unchanged after heating. Trypsin inhibitors were absent. After supplementing with methionine, a biological value of only 63 was obtained, due to the low level of tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. In spite of the concentrates' lower biological value, it was proved that they equalled the meals' potential for complementing cereal, as their content in lysine and threonine is high. The concentrates have the additional advantage of allowing effective supplementation without increasing the legume-cereal ratio.

  20. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  1. Seed germination and seedling growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by magnetized saline water

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    Fateme Aghamir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water is considered eco-friendly physical presowing seed germination.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetized watertreatments on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris germination under saline conditions (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mM NaCl. This experiment was performed as factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD with three replications. The results revealed that the roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and roots to shoots ratio, chlorophyll content index, water uptake, tissue water contentwere significantly affected by magnetized water.Irrigation with magnetized water significantly increased the physiologic factors such as germination percentage and index, vigor index and salt tolerance index, compared to untreated control seeds.Mean germination time and parameters T1, T10, T25, T50and T90 (required time for germination of one to 90 percent of seeds were reduced significantly in all magnetized water treated plants in comparison to control.The results also demonstrated that magnetized water was conducive to promote the growth of bean seedlings under saline conditions.

  2. Effect of Salt Stress on Three Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Anna ASSIMAKOPOULOU; Ioannis SALMAS; Kallimachos NIFAKOS; Panagiotis KALOGEROPOULOS

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is increasingly forced to utilize marginal waters to meet its increasing demands, which in turn increases the risks of soil salinization and yield reduction in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean basin. Given that the bean is an extremely salt sensitive species, the purpose of the present work was to study the effect of 0 and 75 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) on leaf characteristics, growth, pod yield and ion accumulation of three green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) culti...

  3. Improving adaptation to drought stress in white pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L): genotypic effects on grain yield, yield components and pod harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume crop in Africa and Latin America where rainfall pattern is unpredictable. The objectives were to identify better yielding common bean lines with good canning quality under drought, and to identify traits that could be used as sele...

  4. Marker-assisted molecular profiling and RNA-Seq reveal a disease resistance cluster associated with Uromyces appendiculatus infection in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to fungal rust along wit...

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci underlying seven agronomic traits in Middle American diversity panel in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide associate studies (GWAS) provide an experimental ap...

  6. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

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    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  9. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  10. Basal root whorl number: a modulator of phosphorus acquisition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, M A; Widrig, A; Vieira, R F; Brown, K M; Lynch, J P

    2013-10-01

    Root architectural phenes enhancing topsoil foraging are important for phosphorus acquisition. In this study, the utility of a novel phene is described, basal root whorl number (BRWN), that has significant effects on topsoil foraging in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Whorls are defined as distinct tiers of basal roots that emerge in a tetrarch fashion along the base of the hypocotyl. Wild and domesticated bean taxa as well as two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were screened for BRWN and basal root number (BRN). A set of six RILs contrasting for BRWN was evaluated for performance under low phosphorus availability in the greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse, plants were grown in a sand-soil media with low or high phosphorus availability. In the field, plants were grown in an Oxisol in Mozambique under low and moderate phosphorus availability. Wild bean accessions tended to have a BRWN of one or two, whereas cultivated accessions had BRWN reaching four and sometimes five. BRWN and BRN did not vary with phosphorus availability, i.e. BRWN was not a plastic trait in these genotypes. Greater BRWN was beneficial for phosphorus acquisition in low phosphorus soil. Genotypes with three whorls had almost twice the shoot biomass, greater root length and greater leaf area than related genotypes with two whorls. In low phosphorus soil, shoot phosphorus content was strongly correlated with BRWN (R(2) = 0.64 in the greenhouse and R(2) = 0.88 in the field). Genotypes with three whorls had shallower root systems with a greater range of basal root growth angles (from 10 to 45 ° from horizontal) than genotypes with two whorls (angles ranged from 60 to 85 ° from horizontal). The results indicate that BRWN is associated with increased phosphorus acquisition and that this trait may have value for selection of genotypes with better performance in low phosphorus soils.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

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    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions.

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    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  14. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10² to 2.8 x 10³ CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  16. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Buendía Héctor F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract derived from Phaseolus angularis beans.

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    Yu, Tao; Ahn, Hyo Min; Shen, Ting; Yoon, Keejung; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Yong Jin; Yang, Hyun Mo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Changhyuk; Han, Moon Hi; Cha, Sang-Hun; Kim, Tae Wong; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, Jae Youl

    2011-10-11

    Phaseolus angularis Wight (adzuki bean) is an ethnopharmacologically well-known folk medicine that is prescribed for infection, edema, and inflammation of the joints, appendix, kidney and bladder in Korea, China and Japan. The anti-inflammatory effect of this plant and its associated molecular mechanisms will be investigated. The immunomodulatory activity of Phaseolus angularis ethanol extract (Pa-EE) in toll like receptor (TLR)-activated macrophages induced by ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Poly (I:C), and pam3CSK was investigated by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) levels. To identify which transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB and their signaling enzymes can be targeted to Pa-EE, biochemical approaches including reporter gene assays, immunoprecipitation, kinase assays, and immunoblot analyses were also employed. Finally, whether Pa-EE was orally available, ethanol (EtOH)/hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced gastritis model in mice was used. Pa-EE dose-dependently suppressed the release of PGE(2) and NO in LPS-, Poly(I:C)-, and pam3CSK-activated macrophages. Pa-EE strongly down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Interestingly, Pa-EE markedly inhibited NF-κB, activator protein (AP)-1, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) activation; further, according to direct kinase assays and immunoblot analyses, Pa-EE blocked the activation of the upstream signaling molecules spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), p38, and transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Finally, orally administered Pa-EE clearly ameliorated EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Our results suggest that Pa-EE can be further developed as a promising anti-inflammatory remedy because it targets multiple inflammatory signaling enzymes and transcription factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

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    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  19. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  20. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different environments

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    Oblessuc Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%. This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4% under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b

  1. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS) is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%). This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4%) under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b marker is a potential tool

  2. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

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    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  3. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

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    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-08-05

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability.

  4. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

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    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars.

  5. Identification of novel drought-tolerant-associated SNPs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Emiliano eVillordo-Pineda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a leguminous in high demand for human nutrition and a veryimportant agricultural product. Production of common bean is constrained by environmental stressessuch as drought. Although conventional plant selection has been used to increase production yield andstress tolerance, drought tolerance selection based on phenotype is complicated by associatedphysiological, anatomical, cellular, biochemical and molecular changes. These changes are modulatedby differential gene expression. A common method to identify genes associated with phenotypes ofinterest is the characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs to link them to specificfunctions.In this work, we selected two drought-tolerant parental lines from Mesoamerica, Pinto Villa and PintoSaltillo. The parental lines were used to generate a population of 282 families (F 3:5 and characterizedby 169 SNPs . We associated the segregation of the molecular markers in our population withphenotypes including flowering time, physiological maturity, reproductive period, plant, seed and totalbiomass, reuse index, seed yield, weight of 100 seeds and harvest index in three cultivation cycles.We observed 83 SNPs with significant association (p < 0.0003 after Bonferroni correction with ourquantified phenotypes. Phenotypes most associated were days to flowering and seed biomass with 58and 44 associated SNPs respectively. Thirty-seven out of the 83 SNPs were annotated to a gene with apotential function related to drought tolerance or relevant molecular/biochemical functions. Some SNPssuch as SNP28 and SNP128 are related to starch biosynthesis, a common osmotic protector; andSNP18 is related to proline biosynthesis, another well-known osmotic protector.

  6. Ethylene Biosynthesis and Cadmium Toxicity in Leaf Tissue of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1

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    Fuhrer, JüRg

    1982-01-01

    Stress ethylene production in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Taylor's Horticultural) leaf tissue was stimulated by Cd2+ at concentrations above 1 micromolar. Cd2+-induced ethylene biosynthesis was dependent upon synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by ACC synthase. Activity of ACC synthase and ethylene production rate peaked at 8 h of treatment. The subsequent decline in enzyme activity was most likely due to inactivation of the enzyme by Cd2+, which inhibited ACC synthase activity in vitro at concentrations as low as 0.1 micromolar. Decrease in ethylene production rate was accompanied by leakage of solutes and increasing inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production. Ca2+, present during a 2-hour preincubation, reduced the effect of Cd2+ on leakage and ACC conversion. This suggests that Cd2+ exerts its toxicity through membrane damage and inactivation of enzymes. The possibility of an indirect stimulation of ethylene biosynthesis through a wound signal from injured cells is discussed. PMID:16662438

  7. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  8. Regulation of Nodule Glutamine Synthetase by CO2 Levels in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, José-Luis; Sánchez, Federico; Soberón, Mario; Flores, Miguel Lara

    1992-01-01

    Nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants were grown for 17 days after infection in normal (0.02%) CO2 and from day 8 to 17 in high (0.1%) CO2 in order to increase nitrogen fixation and define how nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) isoforms are regulated by the ammonia derived from the bacteroid. Nitrogenase activity was detected by day 10, and by day 17 activity was over twofold higher in 0.1% of CO2 compared with plants grown in 0.02% CO2 and inoculated with Rhizobium wild-type strain CE3. Likewise, plant fresh weight increased in response to increased CO2, particularly in plants inoculated with the Rhizobium phaseoli mutant strain CFN037. Glutamine synthetase specific activity increased 2.5- to 6.5-fold from day 11 to 17. However, increased CO2 did not appear to have an effect on GS specific activity. Analysis of the nodule GS polypeptide composition revealed that the γ polypeptide was significantly reduced in response to high CO2, whereas the β polypeptide was not affected. The significance of this result in relation to the regulation of GS isoforms and their role in the assimilation of ammonia in the nodule is discussed in this paper. ImagesFigure 4 PMID:16668681

  9. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Affantrange, Xochitl Alvarado; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and enhanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Results Three 'omics' approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics were used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication (COD). All three approaches were able to classify common bean according to their COD using unsupervised analyses; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences exist in gene transcription, protein expression, and synthesis and metabolism of small molecules among common bean cultivars representative of different COD. Metabolomic analyses of multiple cultivars within two common bean gene pools revealed cultivar differences in small molecules that were of sufficient magnitude to allow identification of unique cultivar fingerprints. Conclusions Given the high-throughput and low cost of each of these 'omics' platforms, significant opportunities exist for their use in the rapid identification of traits of agronomic and nutritional importance as well as to characterize genetic diversity. PMID:21126341

  11. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  12. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.

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    Azalea Guerra-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1 provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2 examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3 identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20 and P. dumosus (35. Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated

  13. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, Azalea; Suárez-Atilano, Marco; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Piñero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1) provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2) examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3) identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs) from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20) and P. dumosus (35). Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication

  14. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

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    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-04-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. Copyright © 2016 Iwata-Otsubo et al.

  15. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

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    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  16. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

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    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

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    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  18. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

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    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  19. Inoculation of new rhizobial isolates improve nutrient uptake and growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and arugula (Eruca sativa).

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    de Souza, Eduardo M; Bassani, Victor L; Sperotto, Raul A; Granada, Camille E

    2016-08-01

    In the current agricultural model, the massive use of chemical fertilizer causes environmental and economic losses. Inoculation of plant-growth-promoting (PGP) nitrogen-fixing bacteria is an alternative to the use of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. In this study, rhizobia strains isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) root nodules were evaluated in an effort to identify an efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobia strain able to improve bean germination and growth. Common bean plants were collected from seven sites in southern Brazil, and 210 native rhizobia isolates were obtained. Evaluation of PGP traits showed that most of the rhizobia isolates were non-siderophore producers and weak indolic compounds producers. Under laboratory conditions, rhizobia isolates E15 (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and L5 (Rhizobium radiobacter) increase germination percentage, length, and dry weight of common bean and arugula (Eruca sativa) seedlings. Under greenhouse conditions, common bean plants inoculated with the rhizobia isolates VC28 and L15 (both Rhizobium fabae) presented the highest nodule number and shoot dry matter, while VC28 also presented the highest values of shoot nitrogen and potassium. Isolate L17 presented highly effective N fixation, even with reduced nodulation. These new rhizobia isolates are attractive PGP alternatives to chemical fertilizers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities.

  1. Polyphenolic compounds appear to limit the nutritional benefit of biofortified higher iron black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Beebe, Steve E; Reed, Spenser; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2014-03-26

    Our objective was to determine if a biofortified variety of black bean can provide more bioavailable-iron (Fe) than a standard variety. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus-vulgaris L.), a standard (DOR500; 59μg Fe/g) and biofortified (MIB465; 88μg Fe/g) were used. The DOR500 is a common commercial variety, and the MIB465 is a line developed for higher-Fe content. Given the high prevalence of Fe-deficiency anemia worldwide, it is important to determine if Fe-biofortified black beans can provide more absorbable-Fe. Black bean based diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for the broiler (Gallus-gallus) except for Fe (dietary Fe-concentrations were 39.4±0.2 and 52.9±0.9 mg/kg diet, standard vs. biofortified, respectively). Birds (n=14) were fed the diets for 6-weeks. Hemoglobin-(Hb), liver-ferritin and Fe-related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency and total-body-Hb-Fe values were used to estimate Fe-bioavailability. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency values were higher (Pbeans on days 14, 21 and 28; indicating a compensatory response to lower dietary-Fe. Final total-Hb-Fe body content was higher in the biofortified vs. the standard group (26.6±0.9 and 24.4±0.8 mg, respectively; Pbean varieties (P>0.05). Such extremely-low in-vitro Fe-bioavailability measurement is indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenolic-compounds that may inhibit Fe-absorption. High levels of these compounds would be expected in the black bean seed-coats. The parameters of Fe-status measured in this study indicate that only a minor increase in absorbable-Fe was achieved with the higher-Fe beans. The results also raise the possibility that breeding for increased Fe-concentration elevated the levels of polyphenolic-compounds that can reduce bean Fe-bioavailability, although the higher levels of polyphenolics in the higher-Fe beans may simply be coincidental or an environmental effect. Regardless, Fe

  2. Draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri LMTR 21T isolated from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru

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    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri is a prevalent species in root nodules of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru. LMTR 21T is the type strain of the species and was isolated from a root nodule collected in an agricultural field in the Peruvian central coast. Its 8.29 Mbp genome encoded 7635 CDS, 71 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs genes. All genes required to stablish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host were present. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXB00000000.

  3. Genomic analysis of storage protein deficiency in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Sudhakar ePandurangan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome

  4. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  5. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  6. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

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    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  8. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  10. Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  12. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  13. White beans provide more bioavailable iron than red beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron-biofortification of crops is a strategy that alleviates iron deficiency. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an attractive candidate for biofortification. However, beans are high in poly-phenols that may inhibit iron absorption. In vitro studies have shown that iron bioavailability from ...

  14. Effect of alkali treatments on the nutritive value of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, V; Sumathi, S

    1995-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatments of common bean seeds with red seed coat on the stability of antinutritional factors such as tannins, phytates and trypsim inhibitors, vitamins such as niacin and riboflavin and on protein quality has been studied. The samples were processed by soaking and pressure cooking in alkalies such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. At low temperature sodium carbonate and at high temperature sodium bicarbonate were found to be most effective in the extraction of tannins. At both low and high temperatures sodium carbonate was found to be more efficient in destruction of phytates. In the case of trypsin inhibitors, extraction at both low and high temperatures with sodium bicarbonate was most effective. Sodium hydroxide treatment was found to be better as far as the retention of niacin and riboflavin was considered.

  15. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn), little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI), expansion coefficient (EC), and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS), in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs), covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of popping. Conclusions

  16. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  17. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  18. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  19. Analysis of genetic and nutritional diversity among selected accessions of dry beans and nuña beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans (Phaseolus spp.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide, with a value of over $17 billion harvested annually. They are one of the most ancient crops of the New World, having been cultivated for thousands of years. They are an environmentally diverse crop...

  20. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  1. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  4. Possible Reduction of the ٍٍEffect of Salinity on Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with Application of Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is the most important environmental stress that reduces plants growth and yield. It has been shown that salicylic acid, as an endogenous signal, is responsible for inducing stress tolerance in plants. In this experiment, the effect of salicylic acid and sodium chloride on growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris was studied. When bean plants were at two-leaf stage, they were sprayed by three concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM. Then, plants were treated with two concentrations of sodium chloride (zero and 100 mM for 14 days. The results showed that salinity caused a significant reduction in fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, relative chlorophyll content, percentage of relative water content (RWC of leaf, stress index and significant increase in proline and soluble sugars as compared to the control treatment. Plants that were treated with both concentrations of salicylic acid showed higher fresh and dry weights. Also, application of salicylic acid in both concentrations, in saline conditions, improved the percentage of leaf RWC, amount of relative chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm of leaves as compared to control plants. In summary, it was concluded that spraying of salicylic acid on bean plants could improve growth and thus resistance to salinity under saline conditions.

  5. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Astudillo-Reyes

    Full Text Available Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA. Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381 were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP, zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF and heavy metal associated (HMA family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  6. Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Kopplin, Philippe-Schmitt; Bosco, Federica; Vignola, Lisiana; Uhl, Jenny; Lucio, Marianna; Milella, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (i.e., Protected Geographical Indication), and cultivated in Basilicata (southern Italy). For this purpose, α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays were assessed; among all bean ecotypes, the tight green seed colour of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50=1.1±0.1μg/ml and IC50=19.3±1.1μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical compound screening of all Fagioli di Sarconi beans performed by flow injection-electrospray ionization-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (uHRMS) and based on the calculation of elemental formulas from accurate m/z values, was helpful to annotate specific compounds, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are most likely responsible for their biological activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  8. Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain.

  9. Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 μg.mL-1 H2O).

  10. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  11. Evaluation of foliar phenols of 25 Mexican varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as antioxidants and varietal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Alfonso; Almaraz-Abarca, Norma; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhri; González-Elizondo, María Del Socorro; Herrera-Arrieta, Yolanda; Pajarito-Ravelero, Arnulfo; Alanís-Bañuelos, Ruth Elizabeth; Torres-Morán, Martha Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and the foliar phenol composition of 25 Mexican varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) were evaluated. Phaseolus coccineus was analysed with comparative aims. The high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection analysis revealed 27 phenolics in the leaves of P. vulgaris (13 quercetin-3-O-glycosides, 8 kaempferol-3-O-glycosides, 2 myricetin glycosides and 4 phenolic acids) and 5 in P. coccineus (2 kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, 2 apigenin-7-O-glycoside and 1 luteolin-7-O-glycoside). All extracts showed high levels of phenols and flavonoids (0.964-5.601 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, and 0.287-1.418 mg g⁻¹ dry tissue, respectively) and relevant antioxidant properties, suggesting that the leaves of the varieties of P. vulgaris are a significant source of natural antioxidants. The foliar phenol profiles were species-specific and, besides, the qualitative variation allowed discriminating among varieties of P. vulgaris. These profiles can represent an important varietal authenticity proof.

  12. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  13. Allelic relationships of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite and the proposal of a new anthracnose resistance gene, Co-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Michelite to races 8 and 64 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of bean anthracnose, was characterized. Crosses were made between Michelite and Mexico 222 cultivars and the F2 population was inoculated with race 64 in order to study the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose in Michelite. The segregation of F2 population fitted in a ratio of 3R:1S, showing the presence of a dominant gene in Michelite gene conditioning resistance to race 64. Allelism tests were conducted with F2 populations derived from crosses between Michelite and AB 136, AND 277, BAT 93, Cornell 49-242, G 2333, Kaboon, Mexico 222, Michigan Dark Red Kidney (MRDK, Ouro Negro, Perry Marrow, PI 207262, TO, TU, and Widusa. All the cultivars (except Mexico 222 were resistant to race 64. While F2 derived from the Michelite x Mexico 222 was inoculated with race 8. Additionally, allelism tests indicated that the gene present in Michelite is independent from Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-7, Co-9 and Co-10 genes. The monogenic inheritance observed in Michelite and the independence of this gene from those previously characterized allow the authors to propose that the anthracnose resistant gene in Michelite should be named Co-11.

  14. Breeding for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rust resistance in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, T. L. P. O.; FALEIRO, F. G.; DESSAUNE, S. N.; PAULA JUNIOR, T. J. de; MOREIRA, M. A.; E. G. BARROS

    2013-01-01

    Common bean is an economically, nutritionally, and socially important crop. It is grown in distinct regions and different seasons around the world by subsistence level farmers with low-technology input as well as by farmers that use high input technologies. One important factor that can limit the bean growing and drastically affect grain yields is the high number of destructive pathogens that attack and cause serious damage to the crop. Among them is bean rust, incited by the fungus Uromyces ...

  15. Functional Characterization of Bean Zaragoza Starch (Phaseolus Lunatus L. and Quantification of the Resistant Starch

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    Piedad M. Montero-Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a potential source of starch, representing between 30 and 50% of its dry weight, this is an essential energy source for humans. Currently its use is widespread in the food industry as an additive or raw material in food compounds, due to its nutritional, functional properties as a thickening agent and stabilizer of suspensions and dispersions. We evaluated several functional properties of starch variety zaragoza red bean, was obtained initial gelatinization temperature and final (71°C (81°C respectively, the solubility was 8.3% at 90°C, swelling power was 6.6% at 80°C, and water retention capacity was 4.4% at 80°C. The apparent viscosity was evaluated between 20 and 75 °C giving as results viscosities between 1.096 and 0.98 Cp respectively. The results showed that the tested temperatures significantly affect the solubility, swelling power, water holding capacity and viscosity of the starch. The amylose and amylopectin content was 21.1% and 78.19%. Finally, was obtained 9,24% resistant starch and compared with other conventional non starchy sources in order to acquire new knowledge about this material native to the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  16. Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield and yield components in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and evaluating effect of intercropping on weed control, a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008. Treatments: included 1- sole crop of bean 2- sole crop of sweet basil 3- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows of bean and two rows of sweet basil 4- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows of sweet basil and four rows of bean 5- row intercropping of bean and sweet basil were with and without weed control. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Results showed that dry weight of vegetative organs and stem percent of sweet basil, in sole crop with weed control treatment were significantly higher than in other treatments. And highest leaf percentage was in four rows bean and two rows sweet basil intercropping. There was no significant difference in plant height in the first harvest of sweet basil but in second harvest row intercropping had highest height. Maximum leaf area index (LAI was absorbed in four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean. Effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage was not significant. Highest essential oil yield was in sole crop sweet basil and four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean intercropping. For bean economic and biological yield, number of pods, number of seeds per plant and height were affected by different treatments and but there was no significant difference in number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and harvest index in bean. The highest leaf area index in bean was in row intercropping. Lowest dry mater of weed was in row intercropping and the highest in sole crop. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER was obtained in row intercropping with weed control.

  17. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

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    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of raw and extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. pinto) in chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, I; Centeno, C; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Marzo, F; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2006-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200, and 300 g/kg) of raw kidney bean and extruded kidney bean in broiler chick (0 to 21 d of age) diets on performance, digestive organ sizes, protein and amino acid digestibilities, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and blood parameters. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with 3 levels of kidney bean with and without extrusion. Positive control without kidney bean was used. Increasing the kidney bean content in the diet reduced weight gain and consumption, and increased the feed-to-gain ratio. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights, and intestinal viscosity were increased in response to increasing kidney bean concentration in the diet. The inclusion of different concentrations of kidney bean did not affect the apparent ileal digestibility of essential and nonessential amino acids, except for Met, Phe, and Cys, which were increased. Increasing kidney bean in the diet did not affect blood parameters, except for total protein, which was increased, and for androstenedione and testosterone, which were reduced. Extrusion significantly improved weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights were reduced and spleen weight, cecal and intestinal viscosity were increased by extrusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and all essential and nonessential amino acids were improved by extrusion. Like-wise, extrusion increased significantly the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and testosterone. We concluded that the inclusion of kidney bean in chicken diets cause a negative effect on performance and CP and amino acid digestibilities, and modified digestive organ sizes, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and some blood parameters. These effects were counteracted by the extrusion of kidney bean. However, the inclusion of extruded kidney bean in a chick diet resulted in poorer

  19. Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Growth Indices in Strip Intercropping

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    M Nasiri Mahallati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems are one of the best approaches in development of sustainable agriculture. Based on this purpose, the present study was conducted to evaluate effect of strip intercropping on maize and bean growth analysis and their yield during 2009. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block with 3 replications and 6 treatments based on replacement design. The treatments were strip width, which included 2 rows bean plus 2 rows maize, 3 rows bean plus 3 rows maize, 4 rows bean plus 4 rows maize, 5 rows bean plus 5 rows maize, maize monoculture, and bean monoculture. Crop growth ratio, relative growth ratio, biological yield, economic yield, harvest index and land equivalent ratio were measured. Our results indicated that all of the measured traits were increased in the strip intercropping treatments compare to the monoculture treatments. Increasing of strip width in the central row of intercropping treatments in comparison with the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment led to decrease crop growth rate (15.3% and 28.7%, relative growth rate (17.5% and 19.2%, biological yield (30.9% and 14%, economic yield (52.9% and 20.2%, harvest index (31.9% and 7.3% in maize and bean, respectively. With increasing of strip width, all of the measured traits decreased more in the central rows than the side rows. The highest (1.45 and the lowest (1.22 land equivalent ratio were found in the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment and five rows bean plus five rows maize treatment, respectively. Partial of maize had more role compare to bean in terms of enhance land equivalent ratio.

  20. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  1. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  2. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Advances in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) genetics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a drought and heat-tolerant sister species of common bean with similar nutritional characteristics and with potential for expanded production in agroecological zones that are marginal due to abiotic stress. A key to expanded production of this orphan crop is the improvement of biotic ...

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Proteinaceous Films from Seven Mexican Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Montalvo-Paquini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean protein concentrate (BPC as a protein source from seven varieties of Mexican common beans (alubia, flor de mayo, garbancillo, peruano, pinto, mantequilla, and negro was utilized for formulating edible films (EF. EF were prepared with BPC (3% w/w and glycerol as a plasticizer by the casting method; their thickness, water content, soluble matter, protein solubility, color, puncture strength, elongation, water vapor permeability (WVP, and chemical properties (Fourier transform infrared, FTIR, and spectroscopy were evaluated. Tested EF had an average thickness of 0.045±0.001 mm. Good stability was observed since the studied polymers did not exceed 35% of the total soluble matter while protein solubilities were not greater than 3%. EF made from peruano bean protein presented a lower value of total matter solubility (25.38±2.24% than the other tested EF. A low value of WVP (2.06±0.25×10-10 g m/Pa s m2 was observed in films from negro bean protein, while EF from flor de mayo bean protein exhibited the highest values of puncture strength (17.35±0.82 MPa and elongation (38.21±0.64%. Most bean protein EF had reddish or brownish color; however, films from alubia and peruano bean proteins displayed light yellowish colors. FTIR spectra of EF revealed that glycerol did not react with the studied bean proteins through covalent bonds.

  5. High genetic variability in endophytic fungi from the genus Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, T T; de Souza Leite, T; de Queiroz, C B; de Araújo, E F; Pereira, O L; de Queiroz, M V

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the present study were to identify, to analyse the phylogenetic relations and to evaluate the genetic variability in Diaporthe endophytic isolates from common bean. Diaporthe sp., D. infecunda and D. phaseolorum strains were identified using multilocus phylogeny (rDNA ITS region; EF1-α, β-tubulin, and calmodulin genes). IRAP (Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism) and REMAP (Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism) molecular markers reveal the existence of high genetic variability, especially among D. infecunda isolates. It was concluded that the multilocus phylogenetic approach was more effective than individual analysis of ITS sequences, in identifying the isolates to species level, and that IRAP and REMAP markers can be used for studying the genetic variability in the genus Diaporthe particularly at the intraspecific level. The combined use of molecular tools such as multilocus phylogenetic approach and molecular markers, as performed in this study, is the best way to distinguish endophytic strains of Diaporthe isolated from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  7. Evaluation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds inoculation with Rhizobium phaseoli and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegari, M; Rahmani, H A; Noormohammadi, G; Ayneband, A

    2008-08-01

    To study the effect of co-inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Rhizobium, on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was investigated in 2 consecutive years under field condition of plant growing evidence indicates that soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. PGPR strains Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 and Azospirillum lipoferum S-21 as well as two highly effective Rhizobium strains were used in this study. Common bean seeds of three cultivars were inoculated with Rhizobium singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate their effect on growth characters. A significant variation of plant growth in response to inoculation with Rhizobium strains was observed. Treatment with PGPR significantly increased pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seed, weight of seeds per plant, weight of pods per plant, total dry matter in R6 as well as seed yield and protein content. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR demonstrated a significant increase in the yield and yield components. The results showed that all treatments of bacteria increased yield; however, strains Rb-133 with Pseudomonas fluorescens P-93 gave the highest seed yield, number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seed, seed protein yield, number seed per pod, seed protein yield.

  8. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants. Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  9. Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Giardini, Alessandro; Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Biagetti, Eleonora; Santilocchi, Rodolfo; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi; Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the nucleotide diversity of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, which is characterized by two independent domestications in two geographically distinct areas: Mesoamerica and the Andes. This provides an important model, as domestication can be studied as a replicate experiment. We used nucleotide data from five gene fragments characterized by large introns to analyse 214 accessions (102 wild and 112 domesticated). The wild accessions represent a cross-section of the entire geographical distribution of P. vulgaris. A reduction in genetic diversity in both of these gene pools was found, which was three-fold greater in Mesoamerica compared with the Andes. This appears to be a result of a bottleneck that occurred before domestication in the Andes, which strongly impoverished this wild germplasm, leading to the minor effect of the subsequent domestication bottleneck (i.e. sequential bottleneck). These findings show the importance of considering the evolutionary history of crop species as a major factor that influences their current level and structure of genetic diversity. Furthermore, these data highlight a single domestication event within each gene pool. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this evidence indicates the Oaxaca valley in Mesoamerica, and southern Bolivia and northern Argentina in South America, as the origins of common bean domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov., an indigenous N2-fixing symbiont of the Ecuadorian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Martins, Talita Busulini; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Marçon Delamuta, Jakeline Renata; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-09-01

    There are two major centres of genetic diversification of common bean (Phaseolus vilgaris L.), the Mesoamerican and the Andean, and the legume is capable of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several rhizobia; Rhizobium etli seems to be the dominant species in both centres. Another genetic pool of common bean, in Peru and Ecuador, is receiving increasing attention, and studies of microsymbionts from the region can help to increase our knowledge about coevolution of this symbiosis. We have previously reported several putative new lineages from this region and here present data indicating that strains belonging to one of them, PEL4, represent a novel species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, PEL4 strains are positioned in the Rhizobium phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade, but show unique properties in several morphological, physiological and biochemical analyses, as well as in BOX-PCR profiles ( Rhizobium fabae. DNA-DNA hybridization ( Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov. The type strain is CNPSo 671(T) ( = UMR 1450(T) = PIMAMPIRS I 5(T) = LMG 27578(T)).

  11. Mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of metals in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage induced by accumulation of heavy metals, were investigated in bean seedlings treated with two selected metal concentrations for 7 days. Metal content is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay is used and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied for investigation of DNA damages. The increasing metal concentration in the treatment medium changed synchronously metal content in samples, and decreased total antioxidant activity in all samples with exception only for samples treated with Ni and Cd. The obtained "DNA fingerprints" demonstrated that the increasing metal concentrations induced changes in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with untreated control samples). The highest number of missing bands was observed in samples treated with zinc (total 4 bands) and nickel (total 4 bands) at both concentrations. These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance is involved in changes of antioxidant levels and DNA damages of the seedlings, which may help to understand the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants.

  12. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  13. Characterization and Comparison of Protein and Peptide Profiles and their Biological Activities of Improved Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mexico and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-06-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates. The objective was to compare protein profile, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of improved common bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. Bean protein isolates (BPI) were prepared from 15 common bean cultivars and hydrolyzed using pepsin/pancreatin. Thirteen proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and protein in-gel tryptic-digestion-LC/MS. Protein profile was similar among common bean cultivars with high concentrations of defense-related proteins. Major identified proteins were phaseolin, lectin, protease and α-amylase inhibitors. Lectin (159.2 to 357.9 mg lectin/g BPI), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (inh) (4.3 to 75.5 mg trypsin inh/g BPI), Bowman-Birk inhibitor (5.4 to 14.3 μg trypsin-chymotrypsin inh/g BPI) and α-amylase inhibitor activity (2.5 to 14.9% inhibition relative to acarbose/mg BPI) were higher in Mexican beans compared to Brazilian beans. Abundant peptides were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with molecular masses ranging from 300 to 1500 Da and significant sequences were SGAM, DSSG, LLAH, YVAT, EPTE and KPKL. Potential bioactivities of sequenced peptides were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) and antioxidant capacity. Peptides from common bean proteins presented potential biological activities related to control of hypertension and type-2 diabetes.

  14. Fine-mapping of a major QTL controlling angular leaf spot resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Beat; Manzanares, Chloe; Jara, Carlos; Lobaton, Juan David; Studer, Bruno; Raatz, Bodo

    2015-05-01

    A major QTL for angular leaf spot resistance in the common bean accession G5686 was fine-mapped to a region containing 36 candidate genes. Markers have been developed for marker-assisted selection. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important grain legume and an essential protein source for human nutrition in developing countries. Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the pathogen Pseudocercospora griseola (Sacc.) Crous and U. Braun is responsible for severe yield losses of up to 80%. Breeding for resistant cultivars is the most ecological and economical means to control ALS and is particularly important for yield stability in low-input agriculture. Here, we report on a fine-mapping approach of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) ALS4.1(GS, UC) for ALS resistance in a mapping population derived from the resistant genotype G5686 and the susceptible cultivar Sprite. 180 F3 individuals of the mapping population were evaluated for ALS resistance and genotyped with 22 markers distributed over 11 genome regions colocating with previously reported QTL for ALS resistance. Multiple QTL analysis identified three QTL regions, including one major QTL on chromosome Pv04 at 43.7 Mbp explaining over 75% of the observed variation for ALS resistance. Additional evaluation of 153 F4, 89 BC1F2 and 139 F4/F5/BC1F3 descendants with markers in the region of the major QTL delimited the region to 418 kbp harboring 36 candidate genes. Among these, 11 serine/threonine protein kinases arranged in a repetitive array constitute promising candidate genes for controlling ALS resistance. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers cosegregating with the major QTL for ALS resistance have been developed and constitute the basis for marker-assisted introgression of ALS resistance into advanced breeding germplasm of common bean.

  15. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  16. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Guillermo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabaceae (legumes is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean 1. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome.

  17. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianwu; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Luís Fernández-Vázquez, José; Santamaría, Rosa Isela; Arellano, Jesús; Cevallos, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background Fabaceae (legumes) is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes) for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa) chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean [1]. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels) also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome. PMID:17623083

  18. Seeding Dates and Cultivars Effects on Stink Bugs Population and Damage on Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Y G; Gómez, J R; Klingen, I

    2017-12-01

    Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2012-2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars "Ica Pijao," "Cubacueto 25-9," and "Chévere." Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010-2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012-2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010-2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012-2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. "Chévere" and the lowest in cv. "ICA Pijao" during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. "ICA Pijao" and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

  19. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  20. Extraction and Purification of a Lectin from Red Kidney Bean and Preliminary Immune Function Studies of the Lectin and Four Chinese Herbal Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed micelles were used to extract lectin from red kidney beans and factors affecting reverse micellar systems (pH value, ionic strength and extraction time were studied. The optimal conditions were extraction at pH 4–6, back extraction at pH 9–11, ion strength at 0.15 M NaCl, extraction for 4–6 minutes and back extraction for 8 minutes. The reverse micellar system was compared with traditional extraction methods and demonstrated to be a time-saving method for the extraction of red kidney bean lectin. Mitogenic activity of the lectin was reasonably good compared with commercial phytohemagglutinin (extracted from Phaseolus vulgaris Mitogenic properties of the lectin were enhanced when four Chinese herbal polysaccharides were applied concurrently, among which 50 μg/mL Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides (APS with 12.5 μg/mL red kidney bean lectin yielded the highest mitogenic activity and 100 mg/kg/bw APS with 12.5 mg/kg/bw red kidney bean lectin elevated mouse nonspecific immunity.

  1. Physicochemical and thermal properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Great Northern bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ratnayake, Wajira S

    2014-03-01

    The compositions and properties of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars (Beryl-R, Coyne, Gemini, Marquis, and Orion) were investigated. Starch was isolated from each cultivar by a wet milling process. Isolated, unmodified starches were characterized for granular, molecular, thermal, and rheological properties. Smooth surfaces and essentially similar granule sizes and shapes were observed among all cultivars. Amylose contents were in the range 21.0% to 22.6%. Amylose and amylopectin molecular weights were approximately 10(5) and 10(9) Da, respectively. Typical C-type X-ray pattern was observed in all cultivars. Significant differences were observed among cultivars in percentage relative crystallinities, which were in the range 18.2% to 23.8%. The relative crystallinity was independent of amylose proportion and molecular weight. The 5 Great Northern bean cultivars differed in their thermal and rheological properties. Coyne and Gemini had low gelatinization enthalpies. In pasting profile analysis, Coyne had the lowest peak and final viscosities. Granule size, polymer proportion, and molecular weights had major influences on gelatinization and pasting properties of Great Northern bean starches. Great Northern bean is one of the major varieties of dry-edible beans produced worldwide. Starch is the major component in Great Northern beans, which accounts for approximately 40% of its composition. Although most legume starches have been studied in detail, physicochemical and functional properties of Great Northern bean starch are largely unknown. This study investigated the properties and thermal behaviors of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars. The new information reported in this article, on starch properties, would pave ways to find new ingredient and product applications for Great Northern beans in food processing. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence, identification and phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium proliferatum on bean seed (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Popović Tatjana; Milošević Dragana; Vasić Mirjana; Nikolić Zorica; Tamindžić Gordana; Ivanović Žarko

    2016-01-01

    During the routine quality control analysis on bean seeds in 2015, Fusarium fungal infection was observed on an average of 17% of the bean seed. The objective of this paper was isolation and identification of Fusarium sp. based on the pathogen's morphological and molecular characteristics. Morphological identification of Fusarium isolates was performed on PDA and CLA. DNA of 14 Fusarium sp. isolates was extracted directly from the mycelium (~ 100 mg wet weight), with a Dneasy Plant Mini Kit (...

  4. Comparative evaluation of phosphorus accumulation and partitioning in seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Rosa Piergiovanni; Lucia Lioi; Vincenzo Montesano; Giulio Sarli

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing attention towards common bean due to its health benefits, prevention to human diseases and as ingredient for functional or fortified foods. Phosphorus, an essential element for plant growth, is mainly stored in seeds as phytic acid (Phy). Phy is negatively associated with mineral bioavailability, but, at the same time, is a natural antioxidant. Accumulation and partitioning of phosphorus were analysed in seeds of ten Italian common bean landraces for three subsequent gr...

  5. [Role of black bean Phaseolus vulgaris on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala.

  6. Bioactive Compounds from Mexican Varieties of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: Implications for Health

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    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin. This confers black bean with an elevated antioxidant capacity. The most prominent genotypes within this group are the “Negro San Luis”, “Negro 8025” and “Negro Jamapa” varieties. Conversely, the analyzed evidence shows that more studies are needed in order to expand our knowledge on the nutraceutical quality of the Mexican bean genotypes, either grown or wild-type, as well as their impact on health in order to be used in genetic improvement programs or as a strategy to encourage their consumption. The latter is based on the high potential it has for health preservation and disease prevention.

  7. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of (210)Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and (210)Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the (210)Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the (210)Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg(-1) fresh wt. The results suggest that the (210)Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the (210)Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common bean plants "Phaseolus vulgaris L." is frequently attacked by the two spotted spider mite (TSSM Tetranychus urticae, causing a substantial decrease in bean plant growth and yield as well as leaflet structure. Therefore, for commercial bean cultivation in the field controlling TSSM infection is necessary. ResultsFoliar application of salicylic acid (SA or methyl jasmonate (MeJA on common bean plants before or after two spotted spider mite infestation proved to be effective in reducing infestations. In most concentrations these elicitors significantly improved common bean plant growth i.e. had a positive effect on plant height, number of branches, shoot dry weight and leaf area per plant and bean yield. SA at 100 mg/l had the strongest positive effect. Moreover, application of elicitors significantly altered leaflet anatomical characters i.e. increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and changed the dimension of vascular bundles. Alternatively, TSSM infestation had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters.ConclusionWe conclude that SA or MeJA could be used for controlling TSSM infestation, to improve plant growth and to improve bean yield in the field.

  9. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  10. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  11. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris and Runner (P. coccineus Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl; one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−, osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars, and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl− transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus.

  12. Genetic analysis of the response to eleven Colletotrichum lindemuthianum races in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Ana; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2014-04-30

    Bean anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.- Scrib. Resistance to C. lindemuthianum in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) generally follows a qualitative mode of inheritance. The pathogen shows extensive pathogenic variation and up to 20 anthracnose resistance loci (named Co-), conferring resistance to specific races, have been described. Anthracnose resistance has generally been investigated by analyzing a limited number of isolates or races in segregating populations. In this work, we analyzed the response against eleven C. lindemuthianum races in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) common bean population derived from the cross Xana × Cornell 49242 in which a saturated linkage map was previously developed. A systematic genetic analysis was carried out to dissect the complex resistance segregations observed, which included contingency analyses, subpopulations and genetic mapping. Twenty two resistance genes were identified, some with a complementary mode of action. The Cornell 49242 genotype carries a complex cluster of resistance genes at the end of linkage group (LG) Pv11 corresponding to the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-2. In this position, specific resistance genes to races 3, 6, 7, 19, 38, 39, 65, 357, 449 and 453 were identified, with one of them showing a complementary mode of action. In addition, Cornell 49242 had an independent gene on LG Pv09 showing a complementary mode of action for resistance to race 453. Resistance genes in genotype Xana were located on three regions involving LGs Pv01, Pv02 and Pv04. All resistance genes identified in Xana showed a complementary mode of action, except for two controlling resistance to races 65 and 73 located on LG Pv01, in the position of the previously described anthracnose resistance cluster Co-1. Results shown herein reveal a complex and specific interaction between bean and fungus genotypes leading to anthracnose resistance. Organization

  13. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) PvTIFY orchestrates global changes in transcript profile response to jasmonate and phosphorus deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background TIFY is a large plant-specific transcription factor gene family. A subgroup of TIFY genes named JAZ (Jasmonate-ZIM domain) has been identified as repressors of jasmonate (JA)-regulated transcription in Arabidopsis and other plants. JA signaling is involved in many aspects of plant growth/development and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified the TIFY genes (designated PvTIFY) from the legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and functionally characterized PvTIFY10C as a transcriptional regulator. Results Nineteen genes from the PvTIFY gene family were identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Most of these were induced upon methyl-JA elicitation. We selected PvTIFY10C as a representative JA-responsive PvTIFY gene for further functional analysis. Transcriptome analysis via microarray hybridization using the newly designed Bean Custom Array 90 K was performed on transgenic roots of composite plants with modulated (RNAi-silencing or over-expression) PvTIFY10C gene expression. Data were interpreted using Gene Ontology and MapMan adapted to common bean. Microarray differential gene expression data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Comparative global gene expression analysis revealed opposite regulatory changes in processes such as RNA and protein regulation, stress responses and metabolism in PvTIFY10C silenced vs. over-expressing roots. These data point to transcript reprogramming (mainly repression) orchestrated by PvTIFY10C. In addition, we found that several PvTIFY genes, as well as genes from the JA biosynthetic pathway, responded to P-deficiency. Relevant P-responsive genes that participate in carbon metabolic pathways, cell wall synthesis, lipid metabolism, transport, DNA, RNA and protein regulation, and signaling were oppositely-regulated in control vs. PvTIFY10C-silenced roots of composite plants under P-stress. These data indicate that PvTIFY10C regulates, directly or indirectly, the

  14. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region.

  16. Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Guzman-Maldonado, Horacio S; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-07-01

    Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of soaking prior to cooking on the levels of phytate and tannin of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) and the protein value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Elizabete; de Oliveira, Admar Costa; Queiroz, Keila da Silva; Reis, Soely Marie Pissini Machado

    2003-04-01

    The effect of soaking in domestic processing, on the nutritive value of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) cv IAC-Carioca, was studied. Five treatments were carried out with experimental diets, and offered to male, recently weaned Wistar rats. The protein sources were, respectively, control diet (casein) (CC), casein plus the soluble solids found in the soaking water (CSS), freeze dried bean cooked without soaking (BNS), freeze dried bean cooked with the non-absorbed soaking water (BSW), freeze dried bean cooked without the non-absorbed soaking water (BSNW). and an aproteic diet (AP) for corrective purposes. The anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannins), were determined in the differently processed beans and in the soaking water. The following values for the reduction of phytates were obtained: BNS (20.9%), BSNW (60.8%) and BSW (53.0%), and the tannins were reduced by: BNS (86.6%), BSNW (88.7%) and BSW (89.0%). No significant differences were observed between the various treatments using the common bean as protein source, with respect to the net protein ratio (NPR). With respect to the digestibility corrected by non-protein diet, values varying between 94.1% and 94.6% for casein, and between 57.5% and 61.4% for the common bean, were observed, the treatment BNS being more digestible. It was concluded that soaking did not interfere with the NPR of the experimental diets containing the common bean as protein source, nor did it reduce the tannin content. However soaking was capable of reducing the phytate levels in the common bean. On the other hand, soaking was unable to increase the protein digestibility of the common bean, since the treatment BNS showed the highest value for digestibility.

  18. Screening of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars against root-lesion nematode species

    OpenAIRE

    Söğüt, Mehmet Ali; GÖZ, Fatma Gül; ÖNAL, Tufan; DEVRAN, Zübeyir; TONGUÇ, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, screening of 15 Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars and genotypes (Zülbiye, Kınalı, Perla, Kwintus, Özayşe, Tokat Sırık, Musica, Şelale, Nadide, Gina, Serra, Karabağ, Funda, and Lepus) and 1 Pisum sativum cultivar (Araka) for host suitability to 4 root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus thornei, P. crenatus, P. neglectus, and P. penetrans, was carried out in 2010 and 2011 under controlled conditions. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with 7 replicates. Appr...

  19. Characterization of seed coat post harvest darkening in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadr, Hanny T; Wright, Lori C; Pauls, K Peter; Bett, Kirstin E

    2011-12-01

    Seed coat post harvest darkening (PHD) represents a problem for producers and consumers of several market classes of dry bean. There are three PHD phenotypes: (1) non-darkening (ND), (2) slow darkening (SD) and (3) regular darkening (RD). The inheritance of PHD was elucidated by evaluating populations derived from crosses among multiple RD, SD and ND genotypes. Results indicate that at least two unlinked major genes control the PHD trait in common bean. Recessive epistasis with three phenotypic classes explains the segregation ratios of populations from crosses between SD and ND parents. One gene, J, is responsible for whether a bean will darken as seeds from plants that are jj do not darken at all. Another gene, sd, influences how quickly a seed coat will darken with sdsd individuals darkening more slowly than those with the dominant Sd allele.

  20. Occurrence, identification and phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium proliferatum on bean seed (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the routine quality control analysis on bean seeds in 2015, Fusarium fungal infection was observed on an average of 17% of the bean seed. The objective of this paper was isolation and identification of Fusarium sp. based on the pathogen's morphological and molecular characteristics. Morphological identification of Fusarium isolates was performed on PDA and CLA. DNA of 14 Fusarium sp. isolates was extracted directly from the mycelium (~ 100 mg wet weight, with a Dneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany. Following DNA extraction, the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region was amplified by PCR with the primer pair EF1 and EF2. An amplicon of 700 bp was amplified in all tested isolates. Identification of one isolate was performed by sequencing the translation elongation factor EF-1a gene. Completed morphological and molecular characteristics of isolates, as well as the results of sequencing confirmed that Fusarium proliferatum was the causal agent of bean seed rot.

  1. Effect of Temperature on Expression of Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. In Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Omwega, C. O.; Thomason, I. J.; ROBERTS, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil temperature on the expression of resistance in several common bean lines carrying resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) was studied under controlled temperatures in temperature tank and growth chamber conditions. Resistance to M. javanica and M. incognita race 1 in bean lines A315, A328, A445, G1805, and G2618 was stable at 24-30 C. However, there was a significant increase in reproduction of M. javanica on A315, A328, and A445 when temperature was increased ...

  2. Effect of Bacterial Distribution and Activity on Conjugal Gene Transfer on the Phylloplane of the Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke B.; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacIq prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance marker. Thus, transconjugants could be enumerated by plating and visualized in situ as green fluorescent cells. Sterile bean seedlings were inoculated with donors and recipients at densities of approximately 105 cells per cm2. To manipulate the density and metabolic activity (measured by incorporation of [3H]leucine) of the inoculated bacteria, plants were grown at various relative humidities (RH). At 100% RH, the transconjugants reached a density of 3 × 103 CFU/cm2, corresponding to about one-third of the recipient population. At 25% RH, numbers of transconjugants were below the detection limit. Immediately after inoculation onto the leaves, the per-cell metabolic activity of the inocula increased by up to eight times (100% RH), followed by a decrease to the initial level after 96 h. The metabolic activity of the bacteria was not rate limiting for conjugation, and no correlation between the two parameters was observed. Apparently, leaf exudates insured that the activity of the bacteria was above a threshold value for transfer to occur. Transconjugants were primarily observed in junctures between epidermal cells and in substomatal cavities. The distribution of the transconjugants was similar to the distribution of indigenous bacteria on nonsterile leaves. Compared to polycarbonate filters, with cell densities equal to the overall density on the leaves, transfer ratios on leaves were up to 30 times higher. Thus, aggregation of the bacteria into microhabitats on the phylloplane

  3. ZnO nanoparticles and root colonization by a beneficial pseudomonad influence essential metal responses in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Hansen, Trevor; Stewart, Jacob; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into commercial products are reactive on plants. Here, the influence of a root-associated bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) on the responses of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to commercial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. ZnO NPs (250-1000 mg Zn/kg) significantly (p = 0.05) impacted root elongation after 7 days; only at 1000 mg/kg was shoot growth significantly inhibited. Zn solubilized from ZnO NPs correlated with root growth inhibition (r(2 )= 0.8709); solubility of Fe (r(2 )= 0.916) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.997), and shoot accumulation of Zn (r(2 )= 0.9095), Fe (r(2 )= 0.9422) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.789). Root ferric reductase activity diminished 31% in NP-exposed plants. Amendments with Zn ions at 6 mg/kg, corresponding to Zn solubilized from the NPs, did not replicate the responses, suggesting a nano-specific contribution of the ZnO. Neither NPs (500 mg Zn/kg) nor Zn ions affected root colonization by PcO6. Siderophore production by PcO6 increased 17% by exposure to NPs and 11% with Zn ions (18 mg/kg). PcO6 restored plant ferric reduction under NP exposure, but decreased uptake of Zn and Fe, 58 and 18%, respectively, suggesting soil bacteria could reduce plant accumulation of metals under toxic exposure levels, while negatively affecting uptake of essential elements. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that growth and balance of essential metals in bean exposed to ZnO NPs were influenced by the NPs and bacterial colonization of NP-exposed roots, indicating subtle effects of NPs in plant nutrition.

  4. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arishya Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80∘C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin.

  5. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  6. Chemical and functional properties of different common Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Marquezi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six different common bean cultivars (BRS Embaixador, BRS Pitanga, BRS Estilo, Pérola, BRS Campeiro and BRS Esplendor were characterized aiming to determine possible uses for them in various food products. The samples were analysed to determine their chemical composition, weight per hundred beans, pH, water and oil absorption capacities (WAC and OAC, respectively, foaming at pH 2.5, 5.6 and 8.0 and emulsifying properties. The relationship between the physicochemical and functional properties was described using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results of the chemical composition, weight per hundred beans, WAC and OAC showed differences even between cultivars of the same commercial group. Foaming also varied between the cultivars and foaming capacity and stability were greatest at pH 5.6 and 8.0. The emulsifying capacity proved quite high for all cultivars, as well as the stability of the emulsion. According to these properties, with the contribution of the PCA, each different bean cultivar can be destined to specific applications according to its physicochemical properties.

  7. Isolation and characterization of 13 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Ding, Yi; Hu, Zhenhua; Lin, Chufa; Wang, Shuzhen; Wang, Bingcai; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Guolin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO) protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (H(E)) and observed heterozygosity (H(O)) levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  8. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought.

  9. Degradation of ureidoglycolate in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is catalysed by a ubiquitous ureidoglycolate urea-lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alfonso; Raso, María José; Pineda, Manuel; Piedras, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    A ureidoglycolate-degrading activity was analysed in different tissues of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants during development. Activity was detected in all the tissues analysed, although values were very low in seeds before germination and in cotyledons. After radicle emergence, the activity increased due to high activity present in the axes. The highest levels of specific activity were found in developing fruits, from which the enzyme was purified and characterised. This is the first ureidoglycolate-degrading activity that has been purified to homogeneity from a ureide legume. The enzyme was purified 280 fold, and the specific activity for the pure enzyme was 4.4 units mg(-1), which corresponds to a turnover number of 1,055 min(-1). The native enzyme has a molecular mass of 240 kDa and consists of six identical or similar-sized subunits each of 38 kDa. The activity of the purified enzyme was completely dependent on manganese and asparagine. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic, Michaelian kinetics for ureidoglycolate with a K(m) value of 3.9 mM. This enzyme has been characterised as a ureidoglycolate urea-lyase (EC 4.3.2.3).

  10. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  12. Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana G; Sćiban, Marina B; Petrović, Nada J

    2010-04-01

    The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plastic expression of heterochrony quantitative trait loci (hQTLs) for leaf growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libo; Clavijo, Jose A; Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Bhakta, Mehul S; Gezan, Salvador A; Carvalho, Melissa; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Heterochrony, that is, evolutionary changes in the relative timing of developmental events and processes, has emerged as a key concept that links evolution and development. Genes associated with heterochrony encode molecular components of developmental timing mechanisms. However, our understanding of how heterochrony genes alter the expression of heterochrony in response to environmental changes remains very limited. We applied functional mapping to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for growth trajectories of leaf area and leaf mass in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in two contrasting environments. We identified three major QTLs pleiotropically expressed under the two environments. Further characterization of the temporal pattern of these QTLs indicates that they are heterochrony QTLs (hQTLs) in terms of their role in influencing four heterochronic parameters: the timing of the inflection point, the timing of maximum acceleration and deceleration, and the duration of linear growth. The pattern of gene action by the hQTLs on each parameter was unique, being environmentally dependent and varying between two allometrically related leaf growth traits. These results provide new insights into the complexity of genetic mechanisms that control trait formation in plants and provide novel findings that will be of use in studying the evolutionary trends. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Bean arcelin : 1. Inheritance of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its effect on seed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Andreas, J; Yandell, B S; Bliss, F A

    1986-04-01

    SDS-PAGE of seed proteins from the seeds of a nondomesticated bean of Mexican origin (Phaseolus vulgaris L., PI 325690) revealed the presence of a novel 38 kd protein which appeared to be neither an altered phaseolin nor a lectin fraction. The protein was named arcelin, after Arcelia, the town in the state of Guerrero near which PI 325690 had been collected. The pure line, UW 325, was derived by self fertilization of the plant from a single arcelin-containing seed of PI 325690. Despite a low percentage seed phaseolin (14.6%), seed phenotype, seed germination, plant growth, pollen fertility, and percentage seed protein of UW 325 were normal. Analyses of F2 and F3 seeds from a single F1 plant of the cross 'Sanilac'XPI 325690-3 revealed that arcelin expression was inherited as a single gene and that presence was dominant to absence of arcelin. The mean percentage phaseolin in the seeds of homozygous dominant Arc/Arc F3 families (14.0%) was significantly lower than that of the homozygous recessive arc/arc seeds (44.7%). The distribution of percentage phaseolin values for seeds within segregating families was bimodal and nonoverlapping. Without exception, seeds containing arcelin (Arc+phenotype) contained a lower percentage phaseolin than seeds lacking arcelin (Arc-phenotype). Although arcelin presence was associated with low percentage phaseolin, the Arc/Arc and Arc/arc genotypes were similar for seed weight and percentage total seed protein.

  15. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  16. Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Antonette R; Donofrio, Nicole; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; McClean, Phillip E; Lee, Rian K; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-05-23

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg, (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3-mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant "Sierra" and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U. appendiculatus, isolated leaf RNA at specific time points, and sequenced their transcriptomes. First, molecular markers were used to locate and identify a 250 kb deletion on chromosome 10 in mutant crg (which carries a deletion at the Crg locus). Next, we identified differential expression of several disease resistance genes between Mock Inoculated (MI) and Inoculated (I) samples of "Sierra" leaf RNA within the 250 kb delineated region. Both marker assisted molecular profiling and RNA-seq were used to identify possible transcriptomic locations of interest regarding the resistance in the common bean to race 53. Identification of differential expression among samples in disease resistance clusters in the bean genome may elucidate significant genes underlying rust resistance. Along with preserving favorable traits in the crop, the current research may also aid in global sustainability of food stocks necessary for many populations.

  17. Localization of phytase transcripts in germinating seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Louadj, Lamia; Ounane, Ghania; Abadie, Josiane; Amenc, Laurie; Bargaz, Adnane; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-01

    The work provides the first-time evidence of tissue-specific expression of a phytase gene in the germinating seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytase enzyme plays a major role in germinating seeds. It is also active during N2 fixation within nodules of legumes. The effect of phosphorus (P) deficiency on phytase gene expression and localization in N2-fixing root nodules has been recently studied in hydroaeroponic culture of Phaseolus vulgaris. In this study, phytase gene transcripts within the germinating seed tissues of the P-inefficient P. vulgaris recombinant inbred line RIL147 were in situ localized with a similar RT-PCR recipe as that used for nodules. Our results show that the phytase gene expression was mainly localized in the outer layers, vascular cells and parenchyma of germinating seeds whereas it was localized in the inner and middle cortex of nodules. Image analysis quantified higher fluorescence intensity of the phytase transcript signal in the seed embryo than in radicles, cotyledons or the nodule cortex. Furthermore, the phytase activity was 22-fold higher in cotyledons (43 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dry weight) than in nodules (2 nmol min(-1) g(-1) dry weight). The K m and V m values of phytase activity in cotyledons were also significantly higher than in nodules. Interestingly, the amplified sequence of cDNA phytase exhibited highest homology with the Glycine max purple acid phosphatase (NM_001289274) 90 % for germinating seed as compared to nodule phytase cDNA displaying 94 % homology with the Glycine max phytase (GQ422774.1). It is concluded that phytase enzymes are likely to vary from seeds to nodules and that phytase enzymes play key roles in the use of organic P or N2 fixation, as it is well known for germination.

  18. SALINITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn the physiological reaction in young bean plants was studied. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were treated for 7 days with NaCl and Na2SO4 (concentration 100 mM, starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the equimolar concentrations of both salt types caused stress in the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and caused changes in stomata status (conductivity, number and size. The transpiration and the cell water potential in salt-treated plants were reduced. The MDA level in root and shoot, and the proline content was increased.

  19. EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE OF BEAN PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Nevena STOEVA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn some physiological parameters in young bean plants (cv. Lody was studied under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The plants were treated for 7 days with 50 and 100 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 , starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the applied doses of both salt types caused stress on the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and the plastid pigment content. The amount of proline in the tissues of the salt-treated plants was increased, while the cell water potential was reduced.

  20. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  1. Metabolic engineering of folate and its precursors in Mexican common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Rivera, Naty G; García-Salinas, Carolina; Aragão, Francisco J L; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío Isabel

    2016-10-01

    Folate (vitamin B9) deficiency causes several health problems globally. However, folate biofortification of major staple crops is one alternative that can be used to improve vitamin intakes in populations at risk. We increased the folate levels in common bean by engineering the pteridine branch required for their biosynthesis. GTP cyclohydrolase I from Arabidopsis (AtGchI) was stably introduced into three common bean Pinto cultivars by particle bombardment. Seed-specific overexpression of AtGCHI caused significant increases of up to 150-fold in biosynthetic pteridines in the transformed lines. The pteridine boost enhanced folate levels in raw desiccated seeds by up to threefold (325 μg in a 100 g portion), which would represent 81% of the adult recommended daily allowance. Unexpectedly, the engineering also triggered a general increase in PABA levels, the other folate precursor. This was not observed in previous engineering studies and was probably caused by a feedforward mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Results from this work also show that common bean grains accumulate considerable amounts of oxidized pteridines that might represent products of folate degradation in desiccating seeds. Our study uncovers a probable different regulation of folate homoeostasis in these legume grains than that observed in other engineering works. Legumes are good sources of folates, and this work shows that they can be engineered to accumulate even greater amounts of folate that, when consumed, can improve folate status. Biofortification of common bean with folates and other micronutrients represents a promising strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations around the world. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield components in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Önder Mustafa; Kahraman Ali; Ceyhan Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Determination of breeding criteria is quite important for plant breeders. The present study was carried out to determine yield and its components which are affecting seed yield and to study the relationships between yield components and other characteristics. A total of 42 common bean genotypes that are widely grown in Turkey were used as material. Direct and indirect effects of the yield components on seed yield were analyzed using path coefficient analysis. Seed yield (kg ha-1) was most aff...

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus.

  4. MicroRNAs associated with drought response in the pulse crop common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2017-09-10

    Drought stress significantly reduces common bean yields. Recently, some drought-related miRNAs were found in various plants. However, reports of miRNAs involved in drought stress in common bean are limited. Here, we obtained four sRNA samples from drought-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars of common bean that experienced with or without drought treatment. A total of 49 novel miRNAs and 120 known miRNAs were detected. Under drought treatment, 9 and 7 known miRNAs were down and up-regulated, respectively, and 5 and 3 of the novel miRNAs were increased and decreased, respectively. Among these miRNAs, four miRNAs shared the same pattern of expression between Long 22-0579 and Naihua. Target genes of these miRNAs included transcription factors, protein kinases, and nuclear transcription factors. Finally, we verified all of the differentially expressed miRNAs by RT-qPCR, and we identified 16 miRNAs that are potentially associated with the drought stress response. These miRNAs and target genes will be useful in future basic studies and in applied studies investigating how miRNA regulation can be used to enhance drought resistance in plant species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of tempeh flour from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Bastidas, M; Reyes-Fernández, E Z; López-Cervantes, J; Milán-Carrillo, J; Loarca-Piña, G F; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2010-10-01

    The effects of solid state fermentation (SSF) on physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of common bean flour were studied. SSF increased protein content (21.7%) and decreased lipids (-38.4%), carbohydrates (-3.5%) and phytic acid (-58.3%). Fermented (tempeh) flour showed higher dispersability, lower water solubility index and pH than unfermented flour. Fermentation also increased an average of 0.21 g/100 g protein, six of the essential amino acids (EAAs), including total sulfur (Met + Cys), the limiting EAAs in unfermented flour (score = 0.91); Lys and Trp decreased 0.21 and 0.09 g/100 g protein, respectively. SSF improved the in vitro protein digestibility and the calculated protein efficiency ratio. Tempeh flour had 2.2-fold more phenolics than the bean flour and exhibited antiradical activity (43%) and antioxidant activity (38%) correlated with total phenolics content. Common bean tempeh flour may be considered for the fortification of widely consumed legume-based food products and also for the prevention of pathologies associated with oxidative stress.

  6. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  7. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P content was not affected by this thermal treatment. Rats fed raw kidney bean lost BW rapidly and the majority died by 9 d. Pretreatment of the beans by extrusion cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P < 0.01) food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  8. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  9. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly am...

  10. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

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    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  11. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.

  12. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.; Casquero, P.A.; Mayo, S.; Almirall, A.; Plans, M.; Simó, J.; Romero-del-Castillo, R.; Casañas, F.

    2016-11-01

    The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits). The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively). Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively). Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01) and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001) than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp. (Author)

  13. Effect of Temperature on Expression of Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. In Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwega, C O; Thomason, I J; Roberts, P A

    1990-10-01

    The effect of soil temperature on the expression of resistance in several common bean lines carrying resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) was studied under controlled temperatures in temperature tank and growth chamber conditions. Resistance to M. javanica and M. incognita race 1 in bean lines A315, A328, A445, G1805, and G2618 was stable at 24-30 C. However, there was a significant increase in reproduction of M. javanica on A315, A328, and A445 when temperature was increased from 26 to 30 C. This increase did not reflect a change from a resistant to a susceptible reaction or classification. Resistance in A315 is derived from G1805, whereas resistance in A328 and A445 is derived from G2618. Alabama No. 1, PI 165426, and PI 165435, with resistance to M. incognita race 2, were heat stressed at temperatures above 27 C. Resistance to M. incognita race 2 in Alabama No. 1 and PI 165435 was lost at 30 C, but PI 165426 supported low reproduction of M. incognita race 2 at all temperatures. Poor root development at 30 C may have been responsible, in part, for the poor development of M. incognita race 2 on PI 165426.

  14. Comparative evaluation of phosphorus accumulation and partitioning in seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rosa Piergiovanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing attention towards common bean due to its health benefits, prevention to human diseases and as ingredient for functional or fortified foods. Phosphorus, an essential element for plant growth, is mainly stored in seeds as phytic acid (Phy. Phy is negatively associated with mineral bioavailability, but, at the same time, is a natural antioxidant. Accumulation and partitioning of phosphorus were analysed in seeds of ten Italian common bean landraces for three subsequent growing seasons. Some important seed quality traits were also evaluated. For comparative purposes, the landrace harvests of two growing locations were analysed. A wide variation of total and phytic phosphorus contents was recorded among the landraces. Moreover, P accumulation and partitioning between Phy and inorganic P, as well as seed quality traits, resulted strongly affected by growing location. Statistically significant increases of Phy levels were recorded for harvests obtained outside the traditional area of cultivation. These results highlight how the cultivation of a landrace outside of its traditional area will appreciably affect harvest quality.

  15. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Casquero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits. The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively. Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively. Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01 and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001 than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp.

  16. Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs

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    Francisco Castillo Rangel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (control; 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25; and 0.40 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40. Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate, MRT (mean retention time, and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN. Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM, which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg−1/h and MRT (h were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg−1 of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.

  17. Transformation of plastids in soil-shaded lowermost hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) during a 60-day cultivation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2017-04-01

    The maintenance but substantial transformation of plastids was found in lowermost hypocotyl segments of soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Magnum) during a 60-day cultivation period. Although the plants were grown under natural light-dark cycles, this hypocotyl segment was under full coverage of the soil in 5-7 cm depth, thus it was never exposed to light. The 4-day-old plants were fully etiolated: amyloplasts, occasionally prolamellar bodies, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and protochlorophyll (Pchl) were found in the hypocotyls of these young seedlings. The 633 and 654 nm bands in the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra indicated the presence of Pchlide and Pchl pigments. During aging, both the Pchlide and Pchl contents increased, however, the Pchl to Pchlide ratio gradually increased. In parallel, the contribution of the 654 nm form decreased and in the spectra of the 60-day-old samples, the main band shifted to 631 nm, and a new form appeared with an emission maximum at 641 nm. The photoactivity had been lost; bleaching took place at continuous illumination. The inner membranes of the plastids disappeared, the amount of starch storing amyloplasts decreased. These data may indicate the general importance of plastids for plant cell metabolism, which can be the reason for their maintenance. Also the general heterogeneity of plastid forms can be concluded: in tissues not exposed to light, Pchl accumulating plastids develop and are maintained even for a long period. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Annotation, Phylogeny and Expression Analysis of the Nuclear Factor Y Gene Families in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Carolina eRípodas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plant nuclear factor Y (NF-Y genes have gained major interest due to their roles in many biological processes in plant development or adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly in the root nodule symbiosis established between legume plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria. NF-Ys are heterotrimeric transcriptional complexes composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC, which bind with high affinity and specificity to the CCAAT box, a cis element present in many eukaryotic promoters. In plants, NF-Y subunits consist of gene families with about ten members each. In this study, we have identified and characterized the NF-Y gene families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain legume of worldwide economical importance and the main source of dietary protein of developing countries. Expression analysis showed that some members of each family are up-regulated at early or late stages of the nitrogen fixing symbiotic interaction with its partner Rhizobium etli. We also showed that some genes are differentially accumulated in response to inoculation with high or less efficient R. etli strains, constituting excellent candidates to participate in the strain-specific response during symbiosis. Genes of the NF-YA family exhibit a highly structured intron-exon organization. Moreover, this family is characterized by the presence of upstream ORFs when introns in the 5' UTR are retained and miRNA target sites in their 3' UTR, suggesting that these genes might be subjected to a complex post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple protein alignments indicated the presence of highly conserved domains in each of the NF-Y families, presumably involved in subunit interactions and DNA binding. The analysis presented here constitutes a starting point to understand the regulation and biological function of individual members of the NF-Y families in different developmental processes in this grain legume.

  19. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean.

  20. Conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid by a NADP-dependent dehydrogenase in bean and spinach leaf. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewus, M.W.; Bedgar, D.L.; Saito, Kazumi; Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-11-01

    An NADP-dependent dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of L-sorbosone to L-ascorbic acid has been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Spinacia oleracea L. and partially purified. It is stable at {minus}20{degree}C for up to 8 months. Molecular masses, as determined by gel filtration, were 21 and 29 kilodaltons for bean and spinach enzymes, respectively. K{sub m} for sorbosone were 12 {plus minus} 2 and 18 {plus minus} 2 millimolar and for NADP{sup +}, 0.14 {plus minus} 0.05 and 1.2 {plus minus} 0.5 millimolar, for bean and spinach, respectively. Lycorine, a purported inhibitor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, had no effect on the reaction.

  1. Determination of replacement of some inorganic elements in pulvinus of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) at chilling temperature by the WDXRF spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Faruk; Budak, Gokhan; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Kadi, Nuray; Karakurt, Halil; Erdal, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Gina 2004) were exposed to chilling temperatures until leaves are wrinkled (9 day), that is, showed nyctinastic movement. Pulvinus were subsequently were cut from the leaves. Concentrations of inorganic elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu) in the pulvinus were measured by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry. Results indicated that concentration change (%) was not significant for Ca (0.82) but it was significant for K, P, Cl, S, and especially Cu concentrations (5.4%, 12.8%, 40.2%, 43.7%, 365%, respectively) in pulvinus of plants exposed to chilling temperature compared with control group. We hypothesize here the presence of association between nyctinasti movement brought about by pulvinus at chilling temperature in bean and changes of K, P, Cl, S and especially Cu concentrations measured by WDXRF analysis method.

  2. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  3. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max) both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip) may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH) GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV) regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In addition to transcript

  4. Evidence for Introduction Bottleneck and Extensive Inter-Gene Pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) Hybridization in the European Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from “pure” accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with “pure” accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed. PMID:24098412

  5. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  6. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  7. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  8. Relationship between seed coat colors and patterns with phenolic content and antioxidant activity in a collection of 120 heirloom accessions of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) from the National Plant Germplasm System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide. They are the most important legume for direct human consumption with more than 23 million metric tons produced in 2013; more than twice that of the next most important legume, chickpea (Cicer...

  9. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  10. Genetic variation for drought resistance in small red seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in major growing regions of Ethiopia mainly due to drought, caused by low and erratic rainfall. A field experiment was carried out at Gofa in Southern Ethiopia, to assess genetic variability for drought resistance in forty-nine small red seeded common bean genotypes ...

  11. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  12. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Tako

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g, were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively. In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05. In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05. Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05, indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore

  13. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius orally administered to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferriz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that a lectin rich fraction (TBLF extracted from Tepary bean seeds differentially inhibits cancer cells proliferation in vitro. Before testing the in vivo anticancer effect, the acute and subchronic toxicological assays in rats were conducted, where an oral dose of 50 mg/body weight kg was determined as the NOAEL. This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC after 24 h of the orally administered 50 mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72 h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weight, histopathological analysis and blood markers for nutritional status and for liver, pancreas and renal function were not affected. Our results suggest that 50 mg/kg TBLF administered by oral route, exhibit no toxicity in rats and it was well tolerated. Further studies will focus on long-term studies.

  14. Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield components in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of breeding criteria is quite important for plant breeders. The present study was carried out to determine yield and its components which are affecting seed yield and to study the relationships between yield components and other characteristics. A total of 42 common bean genotypes that are widely grown in Turkey were used as material. Direct and indirect effects of the yield components on seed yield were analyzed using path coefficient analysis. Seed yield (kg ha-1 was most affected by biologic yield (84.56%, harvest index (65.47% as positive and negatively affected by number of main branches per plant (28.45% and flowering day (13.27% respectively. Correlation analysis showed that seed yield (kg ha-1 was effected by biologic yield (0.8224**, harvest index (0.2913** as positive and negatively affected by flowering day (-0.3256**, first pod height (-0.2473**, plant height (-0.2406** and pod number per plant (-0.2272* respectively. According to the path analysis, the biologic yield, harvest index, number of main branch per plant and days to flowering are important due to direct effect on the increase of seed yield on selection studies.

  15. Spatial dependence in experiments of progeny selection for bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Jorge da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In field experiments, it is often assumed that errors are statistically independent, but not always this condition is met, compromising the results. An inappropriate choice of the analytical model can compromise the efficiency of breeding programs in preventing unpromising genotypes from being selected and maintained in the next selection cycles resulting in waste of time and resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial dependence of errors in experiments evaluating grain yield of bean progenies using analyses in lattice and randomized blocks. And also evaluate the efficiency of geostatistical models to describe the structure of spatial variability of errors. The data used in this study derived from experiments arranged in the lattice design and analyzed as lattice or as randomized blocks. The Durbin-Watson test was used to verify the existence of spatial autocorrelation. The theoretical semivariogram was fitted using geostatistical models (exponential, spherical and Gaussian to describe the spatial variability of errors. The likelihood ratio test was applied to assess the significance of the geostatistical model parameters. Of the eight experiments evaluated, five had moderate spatial dependence for the randomized blocks analysis and one for both analyses, in lattice and randomized blocks. The area of the experiments was not a determinant factor of the spatial dependence. The spherical, exponential and Gaussian geostatistical models with nugget effect were suitable to represent the spatial structure in the randomized block analysis. The analysis in lattice was efficient to ensure the independence of errors.

  16. Phytochemical characterisation of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; Arráez-Román, David; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Although green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) constitute a major agro-industrial crop worldwide and involve many bean varieties, the phytochemical composition and how this fluctuates among varieties is not well known. The purpose of this work was to conduct a comprehensive characterisation of the phytochemical compounds found in three varieties of green bean. Hydromethanol extracts from green beans were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) in order to characterise phytochemical compounds from different varieties of P. vulgaris L. The compounds were characterised based on interpreting their mass spectrum provided by the TOF-MS as well as by comparison with information from the literature (some compounds have been described previously in Fabaceae). In this work, 72 phytochemical compounds were tentatively characterised by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. These compounds were classified as, 10 phenolic acids, 59 flavonoids, two lignans and an iridoid. Notably, out of the 72 compounds, 54 are new and their isomers have been characterised for the first time in green beans. The phytochemical composition of three different varieties of P. vulgaris L have been characterised using HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. A total of 72 phytochemical compounds were characterised, 54 being reported in green beans for the first time. Among these were the main flavonoids detected. These results highlight the influence that variety can exert on the quality of phytochemicals. Given that new phytochemical compounds have been characterised, this study offers a useful approach for improving and updating the food-composition tables. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, M Carolina; Madriñán, Santiago; This, Dominique; Blair, Matthew W

    2012-07-16

    The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants' reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean.

  18. Molecular ecology and selection in the drought-related Asr gene polymorphisms in wild and cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The abscisic acid (ABA) pathway plays an important role in the plants’ reaction to drought stress and ABA-stress response (Asr) genes are important in controlling this process. In this sense, we accessed nucleotide diversity at two candidate genes for drought tolerance (Asr1 and Asr2), involved in an ABA signaling pathway, in the reference collection of cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a core collection of wild common bean accessions. Results Our wild population samples covered a range of mesic (semi-arid) to very dry (desert) habitats, while our cultivated samples presented a wide spectrum of drought tolerance. Both genes showed very different patterns of nucleotide variation. Asr1 exhibited very low nucleotide diversity relative to the neutral reference loci that were previously surveyed in these populations. This suggests that strong purifying selection has been acting on this gene. In contrast, Asr2 exhibited higher levels of nucleotide diversity, which is indicative of adaptive selection. These patterns were more notable in wild beans than in cultivated common beans indicting that natural selection has played a role over long time periods compared to farmer selection since domestication. Conclusions Together these results suggested the importance of Asr1 in the context of drought tolerance, and constitute the first steps towards an association study between genetic polymorphism of this gene family and variation in drought tolerance traits. Furthermore, one of our major successes was to find that wild common bean is a reservoir of genetic variation and selection signatures at Asr genes, which may be useful for breeding drought tolerance in cultivated common bean. PMID:22799462

  19. Potential of Native Rhizobia in Enhancing Nitrogen Fixation and Yields of Climbing Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Contrasting Environments of Eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Gilbert; Mburu, Simon W; Njeru, Ezekiel M; Kimiti, Jacinta M; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John M

    2017-01-01

    Climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Kenya is greatly undermined by low soil fertility, especially in agriculturally prolific areas. The use of effective native rhizobia inoculants to promote nitrogen fixation could be beneficial in climbing bean production. In this study, we carried out greenhouse and field experiments to evaluate symbiotic efficiency, compare the effect of native rhizobia and commercial inoculant on nodulation, growth and yield parameters of mid-altitude climbing bean (MAC 13 and MAC 64) varieties. The greenhouse experiment included nine native rhizobia isolates, a consortium of native isolates, commercial inoculant Biofix, a mixture of native isolates + Biofix, nitrogen treated control and a non-inoculated control. In the field experiments, the treatments included the best effective native rhizobia isolate ELM3, a consortium of native isolates, a commercial inoculant Biofix, a mixture of native isolates + Biofix, and a non-inoculated control. Remarkably, four native rhizobia isolates ELM3, ELM4, ELM5, and ELM8 showed higher symbiotic efficiencies compared to the Biofix. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in symbiotic efficiency between the two climbing bean varieties. Field results demonstrated a significant improvement in nodule dry weight and seed yields of MAC 13 and MAC 64 climbing bean varieties upon rhizobia inoculation when compared to the non-inoculated controls. Inoculation with ELM3 isolate resulted to the highest seed yield of 4,397.75 kg ha-1, indicating 89% increase over non-inoculated control (2,334.81 kg ha-1) and 30% increase over Biofix (3,698.79 kg ha-1). Farm site significantly influenced nodule dry weight and seed yields. This study, therefore, revealed the potential of native rhizobia isolates to enhance delivery of agroecosystem services including nitrogen fixation and bean production. Further characterization and mapping of the native isolates will be imperative in development of effective

  20. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Y.; A Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati

    2016-01-01

    In order to study radiation use efficiency and radiation interception in intercropping of herb sweet basil and common bean, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the growing season of 2008. Treatments were 1) sole crop of bean , 2) sole crop of sweet basil, 3) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows bean and two rows sweet basil), 4) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows sweet basil and four...

  1. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  2. Physical and cooking characteristics of some Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulses are an essential component of our diet especially in developing world, information on their physical properties is needed for designing the machines, while cooking quality is important for consumer acceptance. Four kidney bean cultivars were evaluated for their composition, physical, cooking and textural properties. Protein, ash and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 in the range of 22.3–26.7%, 3.5–3.8% and 62.1–65.9%, respectively. Physical properties determined at 10.0% moisture revealed that the length, breadth, thickness and equivalent diameter of seeds varied significantly in the range of 11.45–16.45 mm, 6.65–7.00 mm, 4.70–6.13 mm and 7.31–9.24 mm, respectively. Bulk density varied from 0.78 to 0.81 g/mL and angle of repose from 15.20° to 18.67°. Hydration capacity and swelling capacity of the seeds varied significantly in the range of 0.12–0.42 g/seed and 0.09–0.28 mL/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds differed significantly from 68.67 to 86.67 min. Soaking of seeds reduced cooking time by 15.33–30.67 min.

  3. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanji; Crampton, Mollee; Todd, Antonette; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2012-03-23

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common bean genetic map. A total of 30

  4. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R) genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs) from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv) resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs). Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs) were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77%) of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93%) PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS) and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated into the common

  5. Identification of expressed resistance gene-like sequences by data mining in 454-derived transcriptomic sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhanji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes in the world. Several diseases severely reduce bean production and quality; therefore, it is very important to better understand disease resistance in common bean in order to prevent these losses. More than 70 resistance (R genes which confer resistance against various pathogens have been cloned from diverse plant species. Most R genes share highly conserved domains which facilitates the identification of new candidate R genes from the same species or other species. The goals of this study were to isolate expressed R gene-like sequences (RGLs from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and expressed sequence tags (ESTs of common bean, and to develop RGL-tagged molecular markers. Results A data-mining approach was used to identify tentative P. vulgaris R gene-like sequences from approximately 1.69 million 454-derived sequences and 116,716 ESTs deposited in GenBank. A total of 365 non-redundant sequences were identified and named as common bean (P. vulgaris = Pv resistance gene-like sequences (PvRGLs. Among the identified PvRGLs, about 60% (218 PvRGLs were from 454-derived sequences. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis confirmed that PvRGLs were actually expressed in the leaves of common bean. Upon comparison to P. vulgaris genomic sequences, 105 (28.77% of the 365 tentative PvRGLs could be integrated into the existing common bean physical map. Based on the syntenic blocks between common bean and soybean, 237 (64.93% PvRGLs were anchored on the P. vulgaris genetic map and will need to be mapped to determine order. In addition, 11 sequence-tagged-site (STS and 19 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS molecular markers were developed for 25 unique PvRGLs. Conclusions In total, 365 PvRGLs were successfully identified from 454-derived transcriptomic sequences and ESTs available in GenBank and about 65% of PvRGLs were integrated

  6. Isolation and Characterization of NADP+ -Linked Isocitrate Dehydrogenase in Germinating Urd Bean Seeds (Phaseolus mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Srivastava

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42 has been purified to homogeneity from germinating urd bean seeds. The enzyme NADP+ -linked isocitrate dehydrogenase is a tetrameric protein (molecular weight 130,000; gel filtration made up of four identical monomers (sub unit molecular weight about 32,000-33,000; PAGE in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Thermal inactivation of purified enzyme at 40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C shows single exponential loss of enzyme activity suggesting that the inactivation of this enzyme follows simple first order kinetics (rate constants for purified enzyme 0.020, 0.043 and 0.077 min–1 at 40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C respectively. Thermal inactivation in presence of glutathione and dithiothretol at 45 °C and 50 °C also follows simple first order kinetics, but the presence of these compounds protects the loss of enzyme activity. The enzyme shows optimum activity at pH 7.3-8.0. The variation of Vmax and Km at different pH values (6.5-8.0 suggests that proton behaves as an "Uncompetitive Inhibitor". A basic group is present at the active site of enzyme which is accessible for protonation in this pH range in the presence of substrate only, with a pKa equal to 6.8. Successive dialysis against EDTA and phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 at 0-4 °C gives an enzymatically inactive protein. Thermal inactivation of this protein at 45 °C and 50 °C shows an exponential loss of enzyme activity as in the case of untreated (native enzyme. Full activity is restored on adding Mn2+ (3.75mM to a solution of this protein. Addition of Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ brings about partial recovery. Alkali metal ions bring about 75% inhibition at 4mM concentration. The inhibition is stronger at high concentration of Na+ and K+ . Other metal ions are not effective.

  7. The influence of aluminium availability on phosphate uptake in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Sciortino, Marco; Ghizzi, Massimiliano; Gianquinto, Giorgio; Gessa, Carlo E

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium toxicity is one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity on acid soils. High levels of available aluminium in soil may induce phosphorus deficiency in plants. This study investigates the influence of Aluminium (Al) on the phosphate (P(i)) uptake of two Phaseolus species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney and Phaseolus lunatus L. The two bean species were treated first with solutions of Al at different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100microM, pH 4.50) and second with solutions of P(i) (150microM) at pH 4.50. The higher the Al concentration the higher the Al concentration sorbed but P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney adsorbed significantly more Al than P. lunatus L. Both species released organic acids: P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney released fumaric acid and P. lunatus L. fumaric and oxalic acids which could have hindered further Al uptake. The two bean species showed a sigmoid P(i) uptake trend but with two different mechanisms. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney showed a starting point of 3h whereas P. lunatus L. adsorbed P(i) immediately within the first minutes. In addition, P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney presented significantly higher P(i) uptake (higher uptake rate 'k' and higher maximum adsorption 'a' of the kinetic uptake model). The Al treatments did not significantly influence P(i) uptake. Results suggest that P. lunatus L. might adopt an external Al detoxification mechanism by the release of oxalic acid. P. vulgaris L var. Red Kidney on the other hand seemed to adopt an internal detoxification mechanism even if the Al sorbed is poorly translocated into the shoots. More detailed studies will be necessary to better define Al tolerance and/or resistance of Phaseolus spp.

  8. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

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    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  9. Asymmetry of gene flow and differential geographical structure of molecular diversity in wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Gepts, P

    2003-01-01

    Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), we analyzed the genetic structure of wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Mesoamerica at different geographical levels to test the hypothesis of asymmetric gene flow and investigate the origin of weedy populations. We showed both by phenetic and admixture population analyses that gene flow is about three- to four-fold higher from domesticated to wild populations than in the reverse direction. This result, combined with other work, points to a displacement of genetic diversity in wild populations due to gene flow from the domesticated populations. The weedy populations appear to be genetically intermediate between domesticated and wild populations, suggesting that they originated by hybridization between wild and domesticated types rather than by escape from cultivation. In addition, the domesticated bean races were genetically similar confirming a single domestication event for the Mesoamerican gene pool. Finally, the genetic diversity of the domesticated bean population showed a lower level of geographic structure in comparison to that of the wild populations.

  10. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovation Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Khanra, Partha [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Srivastava, Suneel Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials.

  11. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  12. Effect of controlled lactic acid fermentation on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of tempeh obtained from unhulled common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Mickowska, Barbara

    2014-01-30

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food of high nutritional quality obtained by fungal fermentation of dehulled, soaked and cooked legumes. The aim of this research was to study the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 20174 activity on selected parameters of tempeh made from unhulled seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Lactobacillus plantarum cells were applied during soaking of seeds (submerged fermentation) or during solid state fermentation with Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis (co-cultivation). Tempeh obtained from common beans contained 200 g kg⁻¹ protein of 34% in vitro bioavailability. Fungal fermentation caused decomposition of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose levels in seeds, on average by 93, 84 and 73% respectively. Enhanced antiradical (DPPH•, ABTS•+) capacity was accompanied by increased soluble phenol content. Application of Lactobacillus in the fermentation procedure increased tempeh protein and in vitro protein bioavailability by 18 and 17% respectively. Mixed culture tempeh contained lower levels of stachyose (25%), verbascose (64%) and condensed tannins (20%). Co-cultivation enhanced both DPPH•-scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity. The application of Lactobacillus in most cases improved the nutritional parameters of tempeh from unhulled common beans. It may also be recommended to obtain products with diverse antioxidant properties as compared with fungal fermentation alone. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... 2018, African Crop Science Society. African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... genetic base of this crop, especially for adaptation to extreme environments. The runner bean (Phaseolus .... Agriculture (CIAT) in Cali-Palmira,. Colombia, from a Phaseolus vulgaris.

  14. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  15. Effect of illumination on the content of melatonin, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during germination of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Liébana, Rosa; Herrera, Teresa; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Sanchez-Puelles, Carlos; Benítez, Vanesa; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2014-11-05

    This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.

  16. A model of canopy irradiance in relation to changing leaf area in a phytotron-grown snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J. H.; Reynolds, J. F.

    1984-03-01

    Simple exponential decay models were used to describe the variation in irradiance profiles within a snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canopy over a 33-day period of canopy development. The extinction coefficients of these models were varied over time as a function of changing canopy leaf area; nonlinear least-squares procedures were used to estimate parameter values. The resultant model response surfaces depict the changes in canopy irradiance that accompany canopy maturation and illustrate the dynamic nature of canopy closure. A criterion index is defined to aid in assessing the applicability of these models for use in whole-plant simulation models, and an evaluation of these models is given based on this index, their predictive accuracy, and the utility for use within varying modeling frameworks.

  17. Polyphenol oxidase activity and differential accumulation of polyphenolics in seed coats of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) characterize postharvest color changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, M A Susan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2008-08-27

    Postharvest darkening of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was evaluated in a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between CDC Pintium (a regular-darkening line) and 1533-15 (a slow-darkening line). Flavonoid metabolite concentrations, polyphenol oxidase activity, lignin concentration, and seed coat anatomy characteristics were assessed for cosegregation with the darkening phenotype. Significantly lower kaempferol concentrations (p = 0.00001) together with differences in polyphenol oxidase activity (p = 0.0045) were two of the key findings associated with these recombinant inbred lines. In addition, two different assays (thioglycolic acid and Klason lignin) to quantify lignin together with an assessment of extractable condensed tannin were used to estimate the contribution of these polymers to changes in the seed coat tissue. This is the first report of precise biochemical characterization of polyphenolics that associate with postharvest darkening in legumes.

  18. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  19. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  20. THE EFFECT OF PROCESS CONDITIONS IN PREPARATION OF VEGETABLE BROTH AS SAVORY FLAVOR FROM MUNG BEANS (Phaseolus radiatus L. USING INOCULUM OF Rhizopus-C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustine Susilowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of vegetable broth from mung beans (Phaseolus radiatus L. in semi pilot scale is an attempt development to get product of savory flavor in larger scale. The aim of this activity was to find out the effect of process multiplication on composition of vegetable broth from mung beans using inoculum of Rhizopus-C1 through brine fermentation in mixtures of inoculum, salt, and mung beans of 26, 23, and 51 %. This activity was conducted in both temperature of fermentation (room temperature and 30 °C, various time of fermentation (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks and process scales, namely laboratory scale (300 g and semi pilot scale (± 25 kg, respectively. The result of experiment indicated that fermentation temperature and time and process scales were tend to affect on composition of product. The length of fermentation time would increase concentrations of dissolved protein, N-amino and reducing sugar, decreased concentrations of fat and Volatile Reduction Substance (VRS, while concentrations of total protein, and water were tend to be constant in laboratory and semi pilot scales at the both process temperatures. Multiplication in preparation process of inoculum (7 kg using starter of Rhizopus-C1 resulted inoculum with activities of proteolytic of 0.71 U/g, and amilolytic of 17.5 U/g at 56 h of incubation. The whole process in semi pilot scale decreased composition of products. The optimal treatment based on recovery of total protein, and the highest amino acids as N-amino in semi pilot scale was at fermentation temperature of 30 ºC for 10 weeks with concentrations of water of 44.96%, total protein of 11.77% (dry matter, dissolved protein of 8 mg/mL, N-amino of 15.4 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 582.5 mg/mL, fat of 0.26% and, VRS of 90 µeq.reduction/g.   Keywords: Brine fermentation, vegetable broth, mung beans (Phaseolus radiatus L., Rhizopus-C1, semi pilot

  1. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  2. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  3. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  4. EFFECT OF SOLAR DEHYDRATION METHOD ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEN BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuna Priyanka; R.C. Chandni; Amar Sankar; A.V. Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Studies were done by different chemical treatments under solar dehydration of Green beans. The Green beans were treated by five different methods which are mentioned and the end product was underwent analysis for physico-chemical characteristics, nutritional characteristics, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Five treatments of different proportions with Magnesium chloride, Sodium chloride, Sodium bicarbonate and Magnesium oxide were done for solar dehydration of Green beans and (0.1%...

  5. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  6. Microbiological and toxicological effects of Perla black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extracts: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Díaz, Víctor Javier; Gaytán-Ramos, Angel A; Dávalos-Balderas, Alfredo José; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Barbosa-Quintana, Alvaro; Sanson, Misu; López-Reyes, Alberto Gabriel; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the microbiological and toxicological effects of three Perla black bean extracts on the growth and culture of selected pathogenic microorganisms, the toxicity over Vero cell lines and an in vivo rat model. Three different solvents were used to obtain Perla black bean extracts. All three Perla black bean extracts were tested for antibacterial and antiparasitic activity and further analysed for intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC(50)). Methanol Perla black bean extract was used for acute toxicity test in rats, with the up-and-down doping method. All Perla black bean extracts inhibited bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes showed inhibition, while Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes did not. Acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were tested in parasites. The best IC(50) was observed for Giardia lamblia, while higher concentrations were active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The Vero cells toxicity levels (IC(50)) for methanol, acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were [mean +/- S.D. (95% CI)]: 275 +/- 6.2 (267.9-282.0), 390 +/- 4.6 (384.8-395.2) and 209 +/- 3.39 (205.6-212.4) microg/ml, respectively. In vivo acute toxicity assays did not show changes in absolute organ weights, gross and histological examinations of selected tissues or functional tests. The acetic acid and methanol Perla black bean extract proved to exhibit strong antibacterial activity and the acidified water Perla black bean extract exerted parasiticidal effects against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolitica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The three Perla black bean extracts assayed over Vero cells showed very low toxicity and the methanol Perla black bean extract in vivo did not cause toxicity.

  7. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  8. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin. Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity.

  9. From flower to seed: identifying phenological markers and reliable growth functions to model reproductive development in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Gezan, Salvador A; Boote, Kenneth J; Vallejos, C Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The lack of dependable morphological indicators for the onset and end of seed growth has hindered modeling work in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We have addressed this problem through the use of mathematical growth functions to analyse and identify critical developmental stages, which can be linked to existing developmental indices. We performed this study under greenhouse conditions with an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype of contrasting pod and seed phenotypes, and three selected recombinant inbred lines. Pods from tagged flowers were harvested at regular time intervals for various measurements. Differences in flower production and seed and pod growth trajectories among genotypes were detected via comparisons of parameters of fitted growth functions. Regardless of the genotype, the end of pod elongation marked the beginning of seed growth, which lasted until pods displayed a sharp decline in color, or pod hue angle. These results suggest that the end of pod elongation and the onset of color change are reliable indicators of important developmental transitions in the seed, even for widely differing pod phenotypes. We also provide a set of equations that can be used to model different aspects of reproductive growth and development in the common bean. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  11. Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-10-15

    Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20-76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a selected lectin-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in two cell-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Gabriele, Morena; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Longo, Vincenzo; Pucci, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Legumes and particularly beans are a key food of Mediterranean diet representing an important source of proteins, fiber, some minerals and vitamins and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic effects of a new fermented powder of a selected lectin-free and phaseolamin-enriched variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), named Lady Joy. Lady Joy lysate (Lys LJ) was studied in human erythrocytes and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. The antioxidant and anti-hemolytic properties of Lys LJ, studied in an ex vivo erythrocytes system using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA-RBC) and the hemolysis test, evidenced a dose-dependent antioxidant activity as well as a significant hemolysis inhibition. Besides, results evidenced that Lys LJ treatment significantly decreased the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion, Lys LJ showed both an antimutagenic effect in yeast and a strong scavenging activity in yeast and human cells.

  13. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn. ) Bri and Cav. on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achwanya, O.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars were evaluated for their responses to the air pollutants ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in combination, as well as for their reaction to the alpha and delta races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Bri and Cav. Variation in response to both the pollutants and the fungus was noted among the cultivars. Anthracnose caused a reduction in the biomass of some cultivars of the order of 50%. A negative correlation of (r = -0.72, p < 0.0001) was found between the disease severity and the total plant biomass. Greater than additive effects of O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ mixtures were demonstrated. Chlorophyll content and biomass were found to be reliable variables for assessing treatment effects. The pollutants appeared to stimulate the disease development. Greater pollutant injury was also in the presence of the anthracnose disease. The results indicated that there was an interaction between the fungal disease and the air pollutants. Implications for evaluating bean cultivars for resistance to C. lindemuthianum under polluted atmosphere are suggested.

  14. Genotypic Response of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Natural Field Infection of Ascochyta Blight (Phoma exigua var. diversispora (Bubak Boerema under Diverse Environmental Conditions in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Urinzwenimana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight, caused by Phoma exigua var. diversispora (Bubak Boerema, is a serious constraint in the cultivation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Rwanda, particularly in the cool and wet highland production areas. In order to identify resistant genotypes, a germplasm evaluation study was conducted to quantify the impact of the disease on phenotypic and agronomic traits under natural conditions. Field screening trials of 39 bush (Types I, II and III and 36 climbing (Type IV genotypes from different accessions within and outside the country were conducted at three sites, namely, Rwerere, Nyamagabe and Musanze Research Stations, for two seasons. The relative area under the disease progress curve (RAUDPC based on evaluations of the disease severity (percentage leaf area infected, was used to evaluate the genotypes. Thirteen genotypes were identified with some level of ascochyta resistance. The study revealed Rwandan genotypes G 2333 and SMC 18 as new sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight. Additional results showed a negative relationship (r = −0.42 and −0.51 for Seasons A and B, respectively between ascochyta infection and yield. Further relationships were identified between the plant flower colour and seed size to ascochyta resistance. Some of the identified resistant genotypes can be used to introgress ascochyta resistance into susceptible Rwandan market classes of common bean genotypes.

  15. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds by PEG 600–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was established. According to a Box–Behnken design (BBD, involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH42SO4 (w/w, 18% PEG 600 (w/w, 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  16. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seeds by PEG 600-Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhibiao; Liu, Chunhong

    2017-09-22

    A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600/(NH₄)₂SO₄ aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds was established. According to a Box-Behnken design (BBD), involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH₄)₂SO₄ (w/w), 18% PEG 600 (w/w), 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH₄)₂SO₄ aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  17. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study radiation use efficiency and radiation interception in intercropping of herb sweet basil and common bean, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the growing season of 2008. Treatments were 1 sole crop of bean , 2 sole crop of sweet basil, 3 strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows bean and two rows sweet basil, 4 strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows sweet basil and four rows bean, 5 row intercropping of bean and sweet basil. Sweet basil was harvested at two times during the course of experiment. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Results showed that in intercrop the fraction of intercepted radiation (F was higher than the sole crop F. radiation use efficiency (RUE of sweet basil in intercrop treatments was increased compared to sole crop and highest RUE of sweet basil obtained in secondary harvest of row intercropping (3.4g/Mj, and the highest RUE of bean obtained in row intercrop too (2.4g/Mj. Light extinction coefficient of bean was obtained as 0.55 and sweet basil 0.47 respectively. The highest Leaf area index (LAI in bean was obtained in sole crop (4.3 and the highest LAI in sweet basil in first harvest was in strip intercropping with 4 rows sweet basil (3.2 and secondary harvest was in sole crop sweet basil (2.5.

  18. Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and gene expression in rust (uromyces appendiculatus) inoculated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation s...

  19. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9%) displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22), signal transduction (21), protein synthesis and processing (20), development and cytoskeletal organization (12), transport of proteins (7), gene expression and RNA metabolism (4), redox reactions (4), defense and stress responses (3), energy metabolism (3), and hormone responses (2). Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as molecular

  20. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  1. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9%) displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22), signal transduction (21), protein synthesis and processing (20), development and cytoskeletal organization (12), transport of proteins (7), gene expression and RNA metabolism (4), redox reactions (4), defense and stress responses (3), energy metabolism (3), and hormone responses (2). Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as molecular

  2. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  3. Effect of Intercropping Patterns of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgarMill, Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L on Growth, Qualitative and Quantitative Characters and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh ranjbar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ecological agriculture is an integrated system that gives credit to higher quality of products. Using of ecological agriculture and low input systems or other similar systems as a replacement for conventional systems turn out to progress in sustainable agriculture and protecting environment health. One of the best approaches to achieve these goals is to use mixed farming. Many experiments have shown that mixed farming has higher yield than sole cropping. The other benefits of mixed farming are: management of insects, weeds and diseases, promotion of diversity, improvement of products quality and also increase in stability and sustainability. These goals also achieved by decreasing in use of non-renewable resources and also reducing environment risks. Hence, assessment of intercropping patterns of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar, Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris on qualitative and quantitative characters and yield components were the purposes of this experiment. Materials and methods: In order to study yield and yield components in different intercrops of fennel, sesame and bean, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2010-2011growing season. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were consisted of: pure stand of fennel, sesame and bean, row intercropping of sesame-bean with recommended density (1:1, fennel-bean (1:1, fennel-sesame (1:1 and intercrops of fennel- sesame - bean (1:1:1. The field of experiment was prepared at the end of March, a month before sowing; 30 ton/ hectare manure fertilizer was used. Because of sowing these 3 crops in a low input system, non-chemical approaches to control weeds and diseases during the growth season were employed. In order to determine crops seed yield and their biological yield in this experiment, sampling was done after omitting of margin effects (0.5 m first and

  4. Identification of Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Polyphenols That Inhibit and Promote Iron Uptake by Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jonathan J; Tako, Elad; Kochian, Leon V; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-07-01

    In nutritional studies, polyphenolic compounds are considered to be inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Because they are presumed to act in a similar manner, total polyphenols are commonly measured via the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. This study measured the content of polyphenolic compounds in white and black beans and examined the effect of individual polyphenols on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Analysis of seed coat extracts by LC-MS revealed the presence of a range of polyphenols in black bean, but no detectable polyphenols in white bean. Extracts from black bean seed coats strongly inhibited iron uptake. Examination of the eight most abundant black bean seed coat, non-anthocyanin polyphenols via Caco-2 cell assays showed that four (catechin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, and kaempferol 3-glucoside) clearly promoted iron uptake and four (myricetin, myricetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin 3-glucoside) inhibited iron uptake. The four inhibitors were present in 3-fold higher total concentration than the promoters (143 ± 7.2 vs 43.6 ± 4.4 μM), consistent with the net inhibitory effect observed for black bean seed coats. The ability of some polyphenols to promote iron uptake and the identification of specific polyphenols that inhibit Fe uptake suggest a potential for breeding bean lines with improved iron nutritional qualities.

  5. Molecular identification and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented kidney beans flours (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Gabriel D; Hébert, Elvira M; Saavedra, Lucila; Zárate, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods including (GTG)5-based PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to differentiate and identify the isolated LAB to species level. LAB counts ranged from around 0.89±0.81 to 8.74±0.03logcfu/g with a pH decline from 6.4 to 3.9 throughout fermentation. Four genera and nine species of LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella cibaria and W. paramesenteroides were found on kidney beans. Twenty five LAB strains were assessed for their abilities to grow on kidney bean extracts, acidifying capacities (pH and acidification rates), amylolytic, proteolytic, tannase and gallate decarboxylase activities as well as pathogens inhibition by antimicrobials. Based on these properties E. durans CRL 2178 and W. paramesenteroides CRL 2182 were inoculated singly and combined in Alubia kidney bean flour and fermented for 24h at 37°C. LAB strains were beneficial for removing trypsin inhibitors and tannins from sourdoughs and for improving amino acids and phenolics contents, increasing the antioxidant activities of kidney bean matrices. Selected strains have potential as starter cultures for obtaining fermented bean products with high nutritional and functional

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic...

  7. A Model to Predict the Effects of Postharvest Environment on Quality Deterioration of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HANADA, Yusuke; YASUNAGA, Eriko; UCHINO, Toshitaka; TANAKA, Fumihiko; NAKANO, Kohei; CHIKUSHI, Jiro

    2011-01-01

      This study aimed to establish a model to predict the effects of various storage conditions of temperature, oxygen concentration and storage period on respiration rate and quality deterioration of the common bean...

  8. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaedtke, Stephanie M; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia; de la Grandville, Paul; Dutartre, Martin; Stassart, Pierre M; Chable, Véronique; Negri, Valeria; Raggi, Lorenzo

    2017-02-28

    Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  9. Cinética de congelamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a baixas temperaturas Freezing kinetics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti-Mata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi obter as curvas de congelamento do feijão, cultivar 'gordo', nas temperaturas de -25, -50, -170 e -196 ºC e determinar sua difusividade térmica efetiva. Com vista à obtenção das curvas de congelamento das sementes nas temperaturas de -25 e -50 ºC utilizou-se um freezer criogênico horizontal; para a temperatura de -170 ºC, o vapor de nitrogênio e, para a temperatura de -196 ºC, as sementes foram submersas no nitrogênio líquido. Afim de expressar o comportamento cinético do congelamento das sementes de feijão, foi usado o modelo de Fourier levando-se em consideração o primeiro termo da série, além dos Modelos I e II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os três modelos representam satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais da cinética de congelamento; apesar disto, com o Modelo II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte se obtém o maior coeficiente de determinação. Constata-se também que, para congelar as sementes de feijão até atingir o equilíbrio térmico na temperatura de -25 ºC, o tempo necessário foi de 1200 min; em temperatura de -50 ºC o equilíbrio foi atingido com 480 min; a -170 ºC o equilíbrio se deu em 180 min e, a -196 ºC, em 30 min.The objective of this study was to obtain the freezing curves of beans, variety 'gordo' at temperatures of -25, -50, -170 and -196 ºC, and determine their effective thermal diffusivity. For the curves of freezing beans seeds at temperatures of -25 and -50 ºC a cryogenic horizontal freezer was used, for temperature of -170 ºC, nitrogen vapor was used and at temperature of -196 ºC seeds were submerged in liquid nitrogen. To express the kinetic behavior of the freezing of bean seeds, the Fourier model was used taking into account the first term of the series and; Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte model I and II. The results indicate that the three models satisfactorily represent the experimental data of the kinetics of freezing, though with

  10. Availability of iron in grains common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) irradiated;Disponibilidade de ferro em graos de feijao comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigide, Priscila

    2002-07-01

    Common bean is the legume more consuming in Brazil, however, the average income of the farming in Brazil is low must the infestation of the grains, to fight these losses the irradiation process is an alternative healthful if compared the chemical handling. The objective of this research was evaluate the iron availability in irradiated raw and cooked beans (doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy). It was carried through the centesimal composition, anti nutritional factors (tannins and phytate) and iron dialyses for the method 'in vitro'. Cooking diminished the mainly components of the composition with exception of available carbohydrates, the protein content of 27.4 and 23.9; fat 1.2 and 1.1; fibre 23.7 and 18.6, carbohydrates 43.3 and 52.5; respectively for raw grains and cooked. It also had reduction in the amount of tannin which if correlated reversely with the applied doses, with exception of the dose of 2 kGy, varying of 1.56 (10 kGy) to 2.49 (2 kGy) to the for raw grains and traces (10 kGy) to 0.103 (2 kGy ) for grains cooked. The phytate varied of 4.63 (2 kGy) to 8.28 (0 kGy) and 5.29 (6 kGy) to the 9.55 (0 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked. In relation to the dialysed iron, the content varied of 1.16 (0 kGy) to 2.39 (6 kGy) and 5.33 (0 kGy) to the 8.02 (6 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked The dose of 6 kGy showed positive effect availability such as raw as cooked grain, it being recommended for the utilization. (author)

  11. Effects of Plant Density and Cow Manure Levels on Growth Criteria of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars under Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Legumes after cereals are the second source of human food and in Iran they are the second most important food after the wheat. Legumes protein is four times as much as that of grains and 10 to 20 times as much as that of glandular plants. In addition, beans are planted in Iran in a wide area and knowing optimal farming factors can be an important step in increasing them. One of the most important factors determining the yield of cowpea (Vign asinensis L. is appropriate plant density. Plant density defines the number of plants per square meter, which in turn determines the area available to each individual plant. For most crops, plant density has a major influence on biomass, crop yield and economic profitability. In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., plant density can affect canopy architecture, light conversion efficiency, duration of vegetative growth, dry matter production, seed yield and ultimately, the economic productivity of a crop. Therefore, optimizing plant density, which may be defined by both the number of plants per unit area and the arrangement of plants on the ground, is a pre-requisite for obtaining higher productivity of common bean. However, the other yield components such as number and weight of pods and seeds per plant and 100- seed weight which are established at a later stage in the course of the crop cycle are significantly affected by environmental conditions. Furthermore, the contribution efficiency of these components in the final seed yield is also associated with the number of plants per unit area. Therefore, varying plant density may be a viable alternative to manipulate the productivity of bean under different environmental conditions through their changes in physiological processes. Madani et al. (2008 showed that plant density had significant effect on LAI and shoot dry weight of bean. Moeinit et al. (2009 reported the increase in common bean seed yield with the increase in plant density. Another

  12. Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and haemoglobin concentrations and anthropometric indicators of school children with low vitamin A concentrations in a malaria-endemic setting. ... Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-23. Mean values for outcome variables were ...

  13. Avaliação da biodiversidade de rizóbios simbiontes do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em Santa Catarina Assessment of biodiversity in rhizobia symbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Stocco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os solos brasileiros, em geral, apresentam uma população abundante de rizóbios capazes de nodular e fixar N2 em simbiose com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; contudo, a diversidade dessas bactérias ainda é pouco conhecida. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a biodiversidade de microssimbiontes do feijoeiro em Santa Catarina e, para isso, foram obtidos 117 isolados de nódulos de plantas coletadas em campo, em 23 áreas do extremo oeste, do meio oeste e do planalto sul catarinense. Com base nos atributos morfofisiológicos, os isolados foram classificados em nove grupos. Pela análise dos perfis de DNA após a amplificação (PCR com o "primer" BOX, que codifica regiões conservadas e repetidas do genoma, 107 perfis distintos foram agrupados em um nível final de similaridade de apenas 26,9 %. Os perfis obtidos pela amplificação do gene 16S ribossômico - referência na taxonomia atual de procariotos - seguida pela digestão com três enzimas de restrição (técnica de RFLP-PCR, resultaram em seis agrupamentos principais e cinco bactérias isoladas. As populações consistiram de 17,1 % de Rhizobium tropici, 35,9 % de R. etli, 32,5 % de R. leguminosarum, 1,7 % de R. giardinii e 12,8 % com perfis distintos das espécies descritas de rizóbios de feijoeiro. R. tropici predominou em solos ácidos do meio oeste e do planalto sul, R. leguminosarum não foi detectado no extremo oeste e R. etli ocorreu nas três regiões, essas duas últimas espécies em solos menos ácidos. Os resultados enfatizam a diversidade genética elevada de rizóbios, inter e intra-específica, nos solos catarinenses, inclusive com a indicação de novas espécies.Brazilian soils usually present a great number of populations of rhizobial bacteria capable of nodulating and fixing N2 in symbiosis with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., but the diversity of these bacteria is still poorly known. This study aimed to assess the biodiversity of micro-symbionts of

  14. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  15. Microstructure of Black, Green and Red Gram

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Enamuthu; Crites, Shelly G.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    The three most commonly consumed legumes (grams or pulses) in India, black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), or urd , green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) or mung, and red gram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) or tur, were examined by scanning electron microscopy . Seed coat and internal features were examined to differentiate these legumes from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) , adzuki beans (Vigna angu/aris) and lentils (Lens culinaris). Cross-sections of the seed coats of black, green and re...

  16. Removal of pesticides from wastewater at golf courses using plants (removal by mung beans; Phaseolus radiatus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, T; Niiro, M; Motobu, H

    1994-01-01

    Many studies have been done on the removal of pollutants from wastewater using aquatic plants. Water hyacinth has been the most widely-used plant, and systems using water hyacinth are well-established. These systems, however, have a few problems in their practical use. In a previous paper, we proposed a new system that could be used as a substitute for a conventional system or, as a secondary system to assist the conventional one. Mung beans will be used to remove pollutants in this system. In the previous experiment, the removal characteristics of nutrient salts such as NO2-, NO3-, NH4+ and phosphorus salts from wastewater in residential areas were examined. Mung beans exhibited good characteristics for removing these nutrient salts. At present, pesticides used at golf courses have become a severe environmental problem polluting water supplies. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to verify whether our new system using mung beans was also effective in removing pesticides from wastewater at golf courses. An experiment was conducted on seven different pesticides. They were three insecticides; Diazinon, Fenitrothion and Chlorpyrifos, three fungicides; Captan, Isoprothiolane and Chlorothalonil, and a herbicide; Simazine. The experimental results showed that, under experimental conditions, the pesticides were rapidly removed and that they exhibited no harmful effects on the growth of the mung beans. Mung beans may be used, therefore, to remove pesticides from wastewater at golf courses although further research is needed.

  17. Determinação do coeficiente cultural (Kc do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of the crop coefficient (Kc for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Mendonça

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A evapotranspiração de uma cultura é uma das principais informações exigidas para o manejo de irrigação e para fins de planejamento do uso da água. Dentre as abordagens disponíveis para a estimativa do consumo de água pelas plantas, destaca-se o uso de coeficientes de cultura (Kc associados a estimativas da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Buscou-se determinar, aqui, os valores de Kc para as diferentes fases fenológicas do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar em lançamento UENF-47, através da utilização de um lisímetro de pesagem e compará-los com os valores propostos pela FAO 56. Concluiu-se que as equações de ajustamento propostas por Allen et al. (1998 se mostraram eficientes para a correção e ajustamento dos coeficientes culturais obtidos neste experimento e que os coeficientes culturais das fases 3 (Kc méd e 4 (Kc fim sugeridos também por Allen et al. (1998 se ajustaram bem ��s condições de cultivo do feijoeiro cultivado no período de outono/inverno, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.The evapotranspiration of a crop is one of the main information required for proper irrigation management and to develop an efficient water usage plan. Among the methods to estimate the amount of water that is consumed by plants, the use of crop coefficients (Kc, associated with estimates of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, stands as one of the most promising. This work aimed to deterime the values of Kc for different phenological phases of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of the cultivar UENF-47. Determination of Kc values was performed using a weighing lisimeter and results were compared with values obtained through the FAO 56 standard. Results showed that the adjustment equations proposed by Allen et al. (1998 were adequate for fitting the values of Kc obtained in this experiment. It has been shown that the crop coefficients for phenological phases 3 and 4 proposed by Allen et al. (1998 are adequate

  18. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos; Fábio Ramos Alves; Leônidas Leoni Belan; Pablo Diego Silva Cabral; Frederico de Pina Matta; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker Moraes

    2012-01-01

    The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted...

  20. Expression and validation of PvPGIP genes for resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, R C C; Lima, T F C; Fernandes-Brum, C N; Chalfun-Junior, A; Santos, J B

    2016-08-19

    The interaction between polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), produced by plants, and endopolygalacturonases (PGs), produced by fungi, limits the destructive potential of PGs and can trigger plant defense responses. This study aimed to i) investigate variation in the expression of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes and its relationship with resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum); ii) determine the expression levels of PvPGIP genes at different time points after inoculation with white mold; and iii) investigate differences in PvPGIP gene expression between two white mold isolates with different levels of aggressiveness. Four bean lines were analyzed, including two lines from a recurrent selection for white mold (50/5 and 84/6), one resistant line that was not adapted to Brazilian conditions (Cornell 605), and one susceptible line (Corujinha). Gene expression was investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after inoculation. The isolate UFLA 03 caused no significant difference in the relative expression of any gene examined, and was inefficient in discriminating among the genotypes. For the isolate UFLA 116, all of the genes were differentially expressed, as they were associated with resistance to white mold, and the expressions increased until the third day after inoculation. The 50/5 line was not significantly different from the Corujinha line for all of the genes analyzed. However, this line had a resistance level that was similar to that of Cornell 605, according to the straw test. Therefore, the incorporation of PvPGIP genes can increase the resistance of lines derived from recurrent selection.

  1. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  3. Spatial-temporal analysis of polyethylene glycol-reduced aluminium accumulation and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action in root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Ma, Yanqi; Horst, Walter J; Yang, Zhong-Bao

    2016-07-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major limiting factors for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on tropical acid soils. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-induced osmotic stress (OS) simulating drought stress reduces Al accumulation in the entire root tips of common bean by alteration of cell-wall (CW) porosity, which might be regulated by two genes encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, PvXTH9 and PvXTHb The aim of this research was to understand the spatial and temporal regulation of both XTH genes in PEG-mediated Al accumulation in the root tips. In this study the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Al-inhibited root elongation, Al accumulation, XTH gene expression and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) enzyme action in the root tips were analysed under PEG-induced OS by a combination of physiological and molecular approaches such as quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ fluorescence detection of XET in root tips. The results showed that Al accumulation, expression of XTH genes and XET action were distinctly reduced in the apical 0-2, 2-7 and 7-12 mm zones under OS, implying a potential regulatory role of XTH genes and XET enzyme in CW Al accumulation in these zones. The results provide novel insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of CW structure modification as a response of plant roots to OS, which will contribute to mitigate Al and drought stresses, severely limiting crop yields on acid soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Domestication of small-seeded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) landraces in Mesoamerica: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andueza-Noh, Rubén H; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Chacón-Sánchez, María I

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the Mesoamerican small-seeded landraces of Lima bean may have been domesticated more than once in Mesoamerica, once in central-western Mexico and another one in an area between Guatemala and Costa Rica. However, these findings were based on sequencing of only one locus from nuclear DNA, and additional confirmation was needed. Here we contribute with additional data on the origin of the Mesoamerican landraces and document the founder effect due to domestication. We characterized 62 domesticated, 87 wild and six weedy Lima bean accessions with ten microsatellite loci. Genetic relationships were analyzed using genetic distances and Bayesian clustering approaches. Domestication bottlenecks were documented using inter-population comparisons and M ratios. The results support at least one domestication event in the area of distribution of gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and also show that some landraces are genetically related to wild accessions of gene pool MII. Also, our data support founder effects due to domestication in Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces. Although we could not establish more specifically the place of origin of the Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces, our results show that these are not a genetically homogeneous group, a finding that may be compatible with a scenario of more than one domestication event accompanied by gene flow. The complex genetic makeup of landraces that we found indicates that a more comprehensive geographic and genomic sampling is needed in order to establish how domestication processes and gene flow have shaped the current genetic structure of landraces.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the East African highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asfaw, A.; Blair, M.W.; Almekinders, C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The East African highlands are a region of important common bean production and high varietal diversity for the crop. The objective of this study was to uncover the diversity and population structure of 192 landraces from Ethiopia and Kenya together with four genepool control genotypes using

  7. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Mui Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477 when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought. After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags. We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  8. EDTA shuttle effect vs lignosulfonate direct effect providing Zn to navy bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L ‘Negro Polo’ in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Cieschi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Lignosulfonates (LS fertilizers are used as an eco-friendly alternative to chelate formulations. The mechanisms of Zn release in the rhizosphere by both types of products are compared. The ability to provide Zn to Phaseolus vulgaris L of non-modified and chemically modified ZnLS and ZnEDTA is compared in a hydroponic assay. Stable isotope 67Zn was used to study Zn source (fertilizer, ZnFer, or native, ZnNat uptake and distribution in plants in two soil pot experiments. ZnEDTA was the best treatment to provide both ZnFer and ZnNat to navy bean plants. A shuttle effect mechanism and an isotopic exchange may occur. ZnLS from eucalyptus (ZnLSE provides more Zn to the plant than LS from spruce (ZnLSS. Chemical modifications of ZnLSE does not improve its efficiency. A double dose of ZnLSE provides similar ZnFer in leaves and similar soluble ZnFer content in soil than ZnEDTA. A model for the Zn fertilizers behaviour in the soil and plant system is presented, showing the shuttle effect for the synthetic chelate and the direct delivery in the rhizosphere for the Zn-LS complex.

  9. D-Glucosone and L-sorbosone, putative intermediates of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in detached bean and spinach leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Spinacia oleracea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazumi; Nick, J.A.; Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-11-01

    D-(6-{sup 14}C)Glucosone that had been prepared enzymically from D-(6-{sup 14}C)glucose was used to compare relative efficiencies of these two sugars for L-ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis in detached bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv California small white) apices and 4-week-old spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv Giant Noble) leaves. At tracer concentration, {sup 14}C from glucosone was utilized by spinach leaves for AA biosynthesis much more effectively than glucose. Carbon-14 from (6-{sup 14}C)glucose underwent considerable redistribution during AA formation, whereas {sup 14}C from (6-{sup 14}C)glucosone remained almost totally in carbon 6 of AA. In other experiments with spinach leaves, L-(U-{sup 14}C)sorbosone was found to be equivalent to (6-{sup 14}C)glucose as a source of {sup 14}C for AA. In the presence of 0.1% D-glucosone, conversion of (6-{sup 14}C) glucose into labeled AA was greatly repressed. In a comparable experiment with L-sorbosone replacing D-glucosone, the effect was much less. The experiments described here give substance to the proposal that D-glucosone and L-sorbosone are putative intermediates in the conversion of D-glucose to AA in higher plants.

  10. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant. PMID:24078924

  11. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  12. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai as resistance inducers against white rot Sclerotium rolfsii. Sacc in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez María A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evalúate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum as resistance inducers against white rot Sclerotium rolfsii. in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. peroxidase enzymes (POX and Final Disease Incidence (DI an experiment was set, using the fungi in greenhouse conditions. The fungus inductor, under the commercial formulation was applied at a concentration of 1 x 107 conidia / mL to seeds of P. vulgaris cv. "Magdaleno" (cvM and cv "Tacarigua" (cvT. Three days after the application was placed 3 sclerotia of the pathogen in the crown of the plants and placed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications. Samples leaf to analysis of enzymes; from day 1 to day 7 post-inoculation were subjected. The separation of the isoenzymes was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The activity was induced POX 24hours after the application of T. harzianum and maintained until day seven. The enzyme activity by the pathogen was induced, fifth day in the cvT and second day at the cvM, revealing that potentially can be considered a resistant material. The results were consistent with those found in the assay under greenhouse conditions as DI decreased to 46% in the cvM demonstrating the importance of biochemical studies to determine the timing and frequency of application of the inductor, to design an integrated disease management along the crop.

  13. Transcriptional analysis of drought-induced genes in the roots of a tolerant genotype of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gustavo Henrique; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes; Beraldo, Ana Luiza Ahern; da Silva, Márcio José; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2013-03-28

    In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477) when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as "driver" the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought). After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags). We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  14. A comparative analysis of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste for the growth and yield of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate and compare the responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to three types of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste (MSW). Different amendment rates were used and evaluated for their effect on germination, growth, and marketable yield. MSW-derived vermicomposts and composts were substituted into mineral brown-earth soil, applied at rates of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% (v/v) in plastic pots of 7.2-L capacity. Green beans which are grown in 40% vermicompost/soil mixtures and compost/soil mixtures yielded 78.3-89.5% higher fruit weights as compared to control. Results showed that MSW vermicomposts consistently outperformed equivalent quantities of composts in terms of fruit yield, shoot, and root dry weights, which can be attributed to the contributions of physicochemical properties and nutrients content (N, P, and K) in the potting experiments. Consequently, it seemed likely that MSW vermicompost provided other biological inputs such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and plant growth hormones (PGHs), which could have a considerably positive effect on the growth and yields of P. vulgaris as compared to composts. More in-depth scientific investigation is required in order to identify the distinctive effects and the exact mechanisms of these PGRs in MSW vermicomposts which influenced plant growth responses.

  15. Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica

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    Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19" and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE, number of nodes (NNO, number of trifoliate leaves (NRT, fresh matter weight (FWE and dry matter weight (DWE of shoots, root weight (RWE, number of root nodules (NRO and final population (FPO of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

  16. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  18. Optimization of enzymatic production of anti-diabetic peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins, their characterization and biological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to optimize the production of bioactive peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate and to determine their biological potential using biochemical and in silico approaches. Protein fractions were generated using eight commercially available proteases after 2, 3 and 4 h and 1:20, 1:30 and 1:50 enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios. The best combination of conditions to generate anti-diabetic peptides was with alcalase for 2 h and E/S of 1:20; with inhibition values for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, 96.7%), α-amylase (53.4%) and α-glucosidase (66.1%). Generated peptides were characterized using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecular docking analysis was performed to predict individual peptide biological potential using DockingServer®. Peptides EGLELLLLLLAG, AKSPLF and FEELN inhibited DPP-IV more efficiently in silico through free energy interactions of -9.8, -9.6 and -9.5 kcal mol(-1), respectively, than the control sitagliptin (-8.67 kcal mol(-1)). The peptide TTGGKGGK (-8.97 kcal mol(-1)) had higher inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase compared to the control acarbose (-8.79 kcal mol(-1)). Peptides AKSPLF (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)) and WEVM (-10.1 kcal mol(-1)) generated a lower free energy interaction with the catalytic site of α-amylase in comparison with acarbose (-9.71 kcal mol(-1)). Bean peptides inhibited the tested enzymes through hydrogen bonds, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The main bindings on the catalytic site were with ASP192, GLU192 and ARG 253 on DPP-IV; TYR151, HIS201 and ILE235 on α-amylase; and ASP34, THR83 and ASN32 on α-glucosidase. For the first time, a systematic evaluation and characterization of the anti-diabetic peptides from black bean protein isolate is presented with the potential for inhibiting important molecular markers related to diabetes.

  19. Effect of different cooking conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some selected Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Gálvez; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2009-07-08

    The effects of different cooking conditions such as soaking, atmospheric (100 degrees C) or pressure boiling (121 degrees C), and draining of cooking water following thermal treatment on phenolic compounds and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity from two selected Brazilian bean cultivars (black and yellow-brown seed coat color) were investigated using a factorial design (2(3)). Factors that significantly reduced the total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity in both cultivars were the soaking and draining stage. Independent of cooking temperature, total phenolics and antioxidant capacities were enhanced in treatments without soaking and where cooking water was not discarded, and this was likely linked to an increase of specific phenolic compounds detected by high performance liquid chromatography such as flavonols and free phenolic acids in both cultivars. Cooking of beans either at 100 or 121 degrees C, without a soaking stage and keeping the cooking water, would be recommendable for retaining antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  20. Flowering and pod setting of seven snap bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at the differentiated crop conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Łabuda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment in 2003-2004 years 5 yellowpods and 2 greenpods cultivars of snap bean in unheated high tunnel were cultivated. The sowing date in tunnel was 16 April, and 24 or 26 April in the field when soil of nonwoven PP 17 were cover. Flowering of plants periods in tunnel were 25-32 days and in the field - 31-37 days. Snap bean plants in differentiated condition of cultivations in tunnel as well as in the field created a similar number of inflorescence and flowers in inflorescence. However pod setting were differentiated. Number of pods per plant in tunnel condition in relation to of cultivars were 13-22 and in the field were twice more in the range as mean 24.5-35.5.

  1. Reaction of common bean varieties ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. to the infection for Uromyces phaseoli (Pers. Wint var. typica Arth

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    Arth Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the reaction of twenty-five common bean varieties to Uromyces phaseoli (Pers.Wintvar. typica Arth infection using the methodology informed by the Colombian International Center of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT. These experiments were developed in the Agricultural Experimental Station belonging to the Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Las Villas Central University, under a design of random blocks with four repetitions in the period between January to April 2011. The evaluations of infection intensity and pustule type were carried out weekly starting from the beginning of disease symptoms in 15 plants for varieties. Results evidenced differences in the response of varieties as well as a different behavior to the infection for this phytopathogen fungus. Guama 23 variety was classified as resistant highly to the infection for U. phaseoli. This work constitutes a fundamental tool for future programs on genetic improvement of common bean cultivation in Cuba.

  2. Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Myounghai; Gepts, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Domesticated materials with well-known wild relatives provide an experimental system to reveal how human selection during cultivation affects genetic composition and adaptation to novel environments. In this paper, our goal was to elucidate how two geographically distinct domestication events modified the structure and level of genetic diversity in common bean. Specifically, we analyzed the genome-wide genetic composition at 26, mostly unlinked microsatellite loci in 349 accessions of wild and domesticated common bean from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools. Using a model-based approach, implemented in the software STRUCTURE, we identified nine wild or domesticated populations in common bean, including four of Andean and four of Mesoamerican origins. The ninth population was the putative wild ancestor of the species, which was classified as a Mesoamerican population. A neighbor-joining analysis and a principal coordinate analysis confirmed genetic relationships among accessions and populations observed with the STRUCTURE analysis. Geographic and genetic distances in wild populations were congruent with the exception of a few putative hybrids identified in this study, suggesting a predominant effect of isolation by distance. Domesticated common bean populations possessed lower genetic diversity, higher F(ST), and generally higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) than wild populations in both gene pools; their geographic distributions were less correlated with genetic distance, probably reflecting seed-based gene flow after domestication. The LD was reduced when analyzed in separate Andean and Mesoamerican germplasm samples. The Andean domesticated race Nueva Granada had the highest F(ST) value and widest geographic distribution compared to other domesticated races, suggesting a very recent origin or a selection event, presumably associated with a determinate growth habit, which predominates in this race.

  3. Testing Domestication Scenarios of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in Mesoamerica: Insights from Genome-Wide Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Sánchez, María I; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Plant domestication can be seen as a long-term process that involves a complex interplay among demographic processes and evolutionary forces. Previous studies have suggested two domestication scenarios for Lima bean in Mesoamerica: two separate domestication events, one from gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and another one from gene pool MII in the area Guatemala-Costa Rica, or a single domestication from gene pool MI in central-western Mexico followed by post-domestication gene flow with wild populations. In this study we evaluated the genetic structure of the wild gene pool and tested these two competing domestication scenarios of Lima bean in Mesoamerica by applying an ABC approach to a set of genome-wide SNP markers. The results confirm the existence of three gene pools in wild Lima bean, two Mesoamerican gene pools (MI and MII) and the Andean gene pool (AI), and suggest the existence of another gene pool in central Colombia. The results indicate that although both domestication scenarios may be supported by genetic data, higher statistical support was given to the single domestication scenario in central-western Mexico followed by admixture with wild populations. Domestication would have involved strong founder effects reflected in loss of genetic diversity and increased LD levels in landraces. Genomic regions affected by selection were detected and these may harbor candidate genes related to domestication.

  4. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  5. The Qualitative Differences for Photosynthetic Content of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Populations  in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Ali ALIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity analysis of common bean populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select genetic material to be used for further crossings. Twenty (20 common bean populations were analyzed using qualitative traits, chlorophyll “a” (Chl ‘a’, chlorophyll “b” (Chl ‘b’, total chlorophyll “a+b” (Total Chl and carotenoides. The design of the experiment was conducted with leaves of common bean collected from different regions of Kosovo. The experiment was completely randomly with four repetitions. Pigments were extracted by grinding 80-100 mg freshly sampled leaves in 80% (v/v acetone/water containing MgCO3, at room temperature, preserved in the dark for 24 hours. Concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoid content was measured by spectrophotometer using absorbance recorded at 663 nm, 644 nm and 452.3 nm for maximum absorption of Chl ‘a’, Chl ‘b’, and carotenoids respectively. According to our data the differences between populations for Chl ‘a’, and Chl ‘b’ was significantly higher at level of probability LSDp=0.01. The average values for Chl ‘a’, was 1.67 mg.g-1, while for Chl‘b’was 0.74 mg.g-1. In addition, the results for carotenoids content between populations were with high differences.

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  7. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  8. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  9. Gene-based SSR markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) derived from root and leaf tissue ESTs: an integration of the BMc series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Hurtado, Natalia; Chavarro, Carolina M; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Giraldo, Martha C; Pedraza, Fabio; Tomkins, Jeff; Wing, Rod

    2011-03-22

    Sequencing of cDNA libraries for the development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as well as for the discovery of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) has been a common method of developing microsatellites or SSR-based markers. In this research, our objective was to further sequence and develop common bean microsatellites from leaf and root cDNA libraries derived from the Andean gene pool accession G19833 and the Mesoamerican gene pool accession DOR364, mapping parents of a commonly used reference map. The root libraries were made from high and low phosphorus treated plants. A total of 3,123 EST sequences from leaf and root cDNA libraries were screened and used for direct simple sequence repeat discovery. From these EST sequences we found 184 microsatellites; the majority containing tri-nucleotide motifs, many of which were GC rich (ACC, AGC and AGG in particular). Di-nucleotide motif microsatellites were about half as common as the tri-nucleotide motif microsatellites but most of these were AGn microsatellites with a moderate number of ATn microsatellites in root ESTs followed by few ACn and no GCn microsatellites. Out of the 184 new SSR loci, 120 new microsatellite markers were developed in the BMc (Bean Microsatellites from cDNAs) series and these were evaluated for their capacity to distinguish bean diversity in a germplasm panel of 18 genotypes. We developed a database with images of the microsatellites and their polymorphism information content (PIC), which averaged 0.310 for polymorphic markers. The present study produced information about microsatellite frequency in root and leaf tissues of two important genotypes for common bean genomics: namely G19833, the Andean genotype selected for whole genome shotgun sequencing from race Peru, and DOR364 a race Mesoamerica subgroup 2 genotype that is a small-red seeded, released variety in Central America. Both race Peru and Mesoamerica subgroup 2 (small red beans) have been understudied in comparison to race Nueva

  10. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  11. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of a navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein fraction produced using a solvent-free method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mousa; Rajabzadeh, Amin Reza; Tabtabaei, Solmaz; Marsolais, Frédéric; Legge, Raymond L

    2016-10-01

    A solvent-free electrostatic separation method was employed to separate navy bean flour (NBF) into protein-rich (PR) and starch-rich (SR) fractions. The physicochemical properties of NBF and separated fractions were compared to proteins (navy bean isolate (NBI) and 7S globulin) prepared using a wet process. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the protein distribution in the isolated fractions was similar to that of NBF. The protein profile of NBI and 7S globulin was found to be devoid of certain proteins that were found in the NBF and PR fraction. Amino acid analysis revealed that the NBI and 7S globulin had a lower content of sulfur-containing amino acids compared to NBF and the electrostatically isolated fractions. CD and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that denaturation of the proteins during the acid precipitation is likely. This novel solvent-free electrostatic separation process preserves the native protein structure found in NBF and improves the recovery of some of the smaller MW proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  14. Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium gallicum Nodulate Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in a Traditionally Managed Milpa Plot in Mexico: Population Genetics and Biogeographic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Vinuesa, Pablo; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Souza, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    The stability of the genetic structure of rhizobial populations nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris cultivated in a traditionally managed milpa plot in Mexico was studied over three consecutive years. The set of molecular markers analyzed (including partial rrs, glnII, nifH, and nodB sequences), along with host range experiments, placed the isolates examined in Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli and Rhizobium gallicum bv. gallicum. Cluster analysis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and plasmid profile data separated the two species and identified numerically dominant clones within each of them. Population genetic analyses showed that there was high genetic differentiation between the two species and that there was low intrapopulation differentiation of the species over the 3 years. The results of linkage disequilibrium analyses are consistent with an epidemic genetic structure for both species, with frequent genetic exchange taking place within conspecific populations but not between the R. etli and R. gallicum populations. A subsample of isolates was selected and used for 16S ribosomal DNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, nifH copy number determination, and host range experiments. Plasmid profiles and nifH hybridization patterns also revealed the occurrence of lateral plasmid transfer among distinct multilocus genotypes within species but not between species. Both species were recovered from nodules of the same plants, indicating that mechanisms other than host, spatial, or temporal isolation may account for the genetic barrier between the species. The biogeographic implications of finding an R. gallicum bv. gallicum population nodulating common bean in America are discussed. PMID:12571008

  15. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity. PMID:21414227

  16. The formation of microorganism communities in the soil under the effect of chitosan and runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies was the soil with introduced solutions containing 0,1% chitosan. These materials were obtained from the Institute of Chemical Fibres in L6d2 (in the form of a microcrystalline gel and also from the Department of Food Biochemistry and Chemistry of the University of Agriculture in Lublin (in a liquid form,i.e.dissolved in acetic acid. In order to set an experiment in a growth chamber, grey brown podzolic soil formed from loesses and taken from a mechanically treated belt of black fallow was used. The soil (1000 g was watered every 8 days with 100 ml of examined chitosan solutions per pot. Control soil was watered with sterile distilled water. Seven days after each watering, soil samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Then 25 runner bean seeds were sown into each pot. After six weeks of plants' growth the experiment was finished and the number of plants was counted, their healthiness determined and soil microbiological analysis was performed. Regardless of chitosan form introduced to the soil it stimulated the growth of bacteria and fungi, since in these experimental combinations was found a significantly higher number of microorganisms as compared with the control. A particular high increase in the number of microorganism colonies was observed with simultaneous growth of plants and the application of chitosan. A considerable increase of fungi colonies from the Trichoderma genus was found in the soil treated with chitosan in the form ofboth a microcrystalline gel and a liquid. The species of this genus are considered to be antagonists; it affects pathogenic fungi through competition, antibiosis and over-parasitism. An increase in colonies of saprophytic microorganisms, including antagonistic ones of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was observed in the soil treated with chitosan . On the other hand, in the soil after the growth of bean and treated watered with chitosan only few colonies of Fusarium oxysporum f

  17. Yield Responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. to Intercropping with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of intercropping on yield of black cumin in intercropping with chickpea and bean, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Crops were planted as pure stands and intercrops in three arrangements: A alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant, B two rows of field crops and one row of medicinal plant, C alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants. Results showed that land equivalent ratio was more than 1 in all treatment indicating seed yield of the plants were higher in pure stands compared to intercrops but the advantages of the intercropping compared to sole cropping. Black cumin performed best in alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant and alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants treatments and the highest partial land equivalent ratio was also related to black seed in these treatments.

  18. Minerals and chosen heavy metals retention in immature common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds depending on the method of preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Legumes are a good source of protein, and are also abundant in carbohydrates, B-group vita-mins, dietary fibre and mineral compounds. This work evaluates the retention of ash, eleven minerals and two heavy metals in products obtained from two common bean cultivars harvested before reaching full maturity, with a dry matter content of about 40%. Analyses were conducted on raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: two frozen and one canned (sterilized). The former comprised two types of frozen product: one traditionally produced (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking), the other a convenience, "ready-to-eat" product obtained using a modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting-heating to consumption temperature in a microwave oven). In cooked bean seeds of both cultivars, levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper were significantly lower, the only exception being the content of ash and sodium (due to added salt), than in blanched seeds; the changes in the remaining components were not so clear-cut and depended on the cultivar. Seeds frozen using the modified technology generally showed higher levels of the elements investigated than frozen products produced traditionally, with the exception of chromium, nickel and lead. Sterilized seeds had lower levels of ash, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper and chromium compared with both types of frozen product; retention levels of individual components depended on the cultivar examined. Conclusions. Compared with the traditionally produced frozen product, prepared for consumption, seeds after modified method of freezing (convenience food) contained significantly higher levels of ash and all macroelements, regardless of the cultivar. Seeds preserved by sterilization, compared with frozen seeds (either method of production) prepared for consumption, had lower content of most of the analyzed components.

  19. Genetic diversity, seed size associations and population structure of a core collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Hector F; Duque, Myriam C

    2009-10-01

    Cultivated common bean germplasm is especially diverse due to the parallel domestication of two genepools in the Mesoamerican and Andean centers of diversity and introgression between these gene pools. Classification into morphological races has helped to provide a framework for utilization of this cultivated germplasm. Meanwhile, core collections along with molecular markers are useful tools for organizing and analyzing representative sets of these genotypes. In this study, we evaluated 604 accessions from the CIAT core germplasm collection representing wide genetic variability from both primary and secondary centers of diversity with a newly developed, fluorescent microsatellite marker set of 36 genomic and gene-based SSRs to determine molecular diversity and with seed protein analysis to determine phaseolin alleles. The entire collection could be divided into two genepools and five predominant races with the division between the Mesoamerica race and the Durango-Jalisco group showing strong support within the Mesoamerican genepool and the Nueva Granada and Peru races showing less diversity overall and some between-group admixture within the Andean genepool. The Chile race could not be distinguished within the Andean genepool but there was support for the Guatemala race within the Mesoamerican genepool and this race was unique in its high level of diversity and distance from other Mesoamerican races. Based on this population structure, significant associations were found between SSR loci and seed size characteristics, some on the same linkage group as the phaseolin locus, which previously had been associated with seed size, or in other regions of the genome. In conclusion, this study has shown that common bean has very significant population structure that can help guide the construction of genetic crosses that maximize diversity as well as serving as a basis for additional association studies.

  20. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  1. Linhagens de feijão (phaseolus vulgaris L.: composição química e digestibilidade protéica Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Rivelli Mesquita

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão representa a principal fonte de proteínas para as populações de baixa renda, todavia a digestibilidade dessas proteínas é relativamente baixa. Por isto, os programas de melhoramento genético vêm trabalhando em busca de novas linhagens com níveis protéicos mais elevados. Assim, com a finalidade de fornecer informações aos melhoristas, neste trabalho foram analisadas 21 linhagens de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., quanto à composição centesimal e mineral, digestibilidade protéica, compostos fenólicos e inibidor de tripsina. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 21 tratamentos (linhagens e três repetições. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 22,34 a 36,28 g/100 g de matéria seca (MS; o de fibra detergente neutro de 7,56 a 20,91g/100 g MS; o de extrato etéreo de 0,53 a 2,55 g/100 g MS e o de cinzas de 2,97 a 4,87 g/100 g MS. Os teores, em g/100 g MS, de P, K, Ca, Mg e S variaram de 0,45 a 0,72; 1,51 a 2,48; 0,03 a 0,28; 0,18 a 0,34 e 0,28 a 0,45, respectivamente. Já os teores de Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe, em mg/kg MS, variaram de 11,37 a 17,73; 14,93 a 28,90; 36,67 a 69,90 e 71,37 a 126,90, respectivamente. A digestibilidade protéica in vitro variou de 18,03% a 48,32%. Os teores de compostos fenólicos variaram de 0,28 a 1,08 mg de ácido tânico/100 g MS e os de inibidor de tripsina de 59,93 a 151,07UTI/mg MS. Entre as linhagens com maiores teores protéicos a "ESAL 569" (bege com rajas marrons apresentou a maior digestibilidade protéica e também níveis consideráveis de minerais. A "P-180" (bege com rajas marrons ficou entre as linhagens com teores mais elevados de proteína bruta e entre as de maiores digestibilidades, além de ter apresentado teores elevados para a maioria dos minerais. Não foi observada nenhuma relação entre a digestibilidade da proteína e os teores de compostos fenólicos e inibidor de tripsina.Bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income

  2. susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in uganda abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Internaciaonal de Agricultura Tropical, Cali,. Colombia. 40pp. Shade, R.E., Pratt, R.C. and Pomeroy, M.A. 1987. Development and mortality of the bean weevil,. Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on mature seeds of tepary beans,. Phaseolus acutifolius and common beans,. Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental.

  3. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  4. A study on starch profile of rajma bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) incorporated noodle dough and its functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-08-01

    Starch profile reflects functional characteristics like digestibility and product quality. A study was aimed to incorporate rajma in noodle processing to improve product and nutritional quality and also to reduce starch digestibility. It is known that some of the pulses like Kidney beans have an isoforms of Starch-Branching-Enzyme (SBE) helps in converting amylose to amylopectin. Rajma flour was incorporated at 10%, 20% and 30% with Triticumdurum and subjected to rheological, physico-chemical and amylose/amylopectin determination using High-Performance-Size-Exclusion-Chromatography (HPSEC). Results revealed that rajma flour decreased peak-viscosity from 954 to 683 BU and increased water absorption. Protein and dietary fiber content increased significantly. Sensory profile showed higher overall quality (>8.5). In vitro starch digestibility reduced from 65% to 49%. Starch profile from HPSEC showed changes in amylose:amylopectin peak, this may be because of the presence of SBE, further studies may be required to support the hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal

    2016-02-01

    The foliar application of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 signifi‐ cantly increased plant height, root length, number of leaves/plant, the leaves’ area, total fresh and dry weights/ plant and yield (i.e., number, fresh and dry weights of pods/ plant and 100-seed weight. It also altered protein patterns in the two varieties and changed the phytohormone balance in the Nebraska variety by increasing the levels of growth-regulating substances, which explains the increase in both growth parameters and yield in GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 treated plants. An Atomic Absorption Spectrosco‐ py (AAS study unveiled the movement and residual accumulation of both forms of silver in different parts of the two bean varieties. The results indicate the successful use of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 in enhancing the growth and yield of the Bronco and Nebraska varieties under pot experiment conditions, and present a viable alternative to genetically modified (GM crops for ensuring food security.

  6. Variation of Pigment Content and Antioxidant Enzyme Activites in Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moharramnejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress (NaCl on fresh weight, pigment content and superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and catalase (CAT activities in nine genotypes of pinto bean exposed to two levels of NaCl 0 and 400 mM( were studied. A factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized design was carried out in laboratory conditions. Salinity stress increased carotenoids in the leaves while it decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll significantly. Salinity reduced by 24.31% fresh weight. Electrophoretic analyses were performed by using 8% slab polyacrylamide gels. For each isozymic band the “density × area” scores onto gels were evaluated by MCID software as enzymatic activity. Three isozymes were observed for each of SOD and POX and one for CAT. Salt stress increased activities of all observed enzymes. Application of salt stress increased activities of SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3. Their activity increment was estimate to be 26.31, 13.89 and 17.64 percent respectively. POX1, POX2 and POX3 activity increment, were also estimated to be48.38, 21 and 43.02 percent respectively. In the case of CAT it was 43.85 percent. Antioxidant enzymes activity increment could be important strategy for reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress.

  7. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  8. Effect of Heated Red Bean Pillow Application for College Women with Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeung-Im Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent cramps and pain. Effective treatment methods for dysmenorrhea are not yet fully understood. This research compares the effects of pain killers and heated red bean pillows.MethodsData were got on demographic data, menstrual cycle status, and activities of daily living (ADLs limitations, dysmenorrhea severity and menstrual pain scores. Following a 10% drop-out rate, 44 young women satisfied the inclusion criteria. To prevent any bias, the experimental and control groups were selected from different campuses. We used two sizes of red bean pillows: 15×18 cm, weighing 400g; and 13×11.5 cm, weighing 220g. For analysis, we used IBM SPSS statistics 19.0.ResultsNinety-nine point seven percentage of total subjects reported moderate to severe dysmenorrhea and 63.6% reported as moderate to severe daily activities limitations. The mean pain score with visual analogue scale was 80.2±9.42 of 100 and 86.4% used pain killers to alleviate menstrual discomfort in all the subjects. In both groups, all three variables showed significant improvement and the Moos's Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ scores changed significantly between menstrual and post-menstrual time point at within groups and not significantly different at premenstrual and menstrual time point at between groups. However, the MDQ score was significantly higher in experimental group than control group at post-menstruation time point and the degree of satisfaction was higher in the control group.ConclusionThis research shows that red-bean pillows on the abdomen are effective in assisting the ADL and diminishing pain severity. With regard to its safety the study indicates it can be a convenient and safe option for female students with menstrual discomfort in schoolas a non-pharmacological self-help.

  9. Variation in parameters related to growth in six genotypes of determinate shrub and indeterminate prostrated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Gustavo A Ligarreto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of six common bean accessions of the Mesoamericano and Andino genetic groups of the Colombia national germplasm bank at the Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica was evaluated using 41 quantitatives. The results revealed that five components explained 70.33% of the total variability of the six accessions and 13 variable were selected that were essential for differentiating the variation, including: dry weight of primary leaves, dry weight of trifoliate leaves, pod dry weight, seed dry weight, number of leaves, leaf area ratio (LAR, relative growth rate (RGR and leaf temperature. Of the two groups of cultivars, the three Meso-American ones were less efficient in the translocation of assimilates than the Andean ones because they had a higher number of leaves and, even with a high LAR, seen as the ratio of assimilation material per unit of plant material, they did not present the higher RGR values on average. Specifically, the Meso-American cultivar Tolima 16, which presented a relatively high seed dry weight, and the Andean cultivars Mexico 497 and Antioquia 19, which had a relatively low number of leaves, presented a high pod dry weight and so were highly efficient. Mediante el empleo de 41 caracteres cuantitativos de tipo fisiológico se evaluó un grupo de seis accesiones de fríjol arbustivo de los acervos genéticos Mesoamericano y Andino del banco de germoplasma de la nación colombiano ubicado en la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica

  10. Growth dynamics of two bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. l. Growth analysis by fixed periods Dinámica de crecimiento de dos variedades de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris L. l. análisis de crecimiento por periodos fijos

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    Maldonado Gustavo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Inthe vegetative phase of growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the dry matter gain depends on the physiological behavior and growth habit of the bean plant. The Growth process in relation to growth type were evaluated in the present study. The purpose of the study was to establish growth type and growth index relations in ICA-Cerinza (growth type 1 and
    ICA -Tundama (growth type 11 wich are both bush bean varieties. The plants were sown in 40.5 m2 plots, in rows spaced 0.5 m. and 0.12 m. between plants in a randomized completely block design with 4 replications; samples of 3 plants per plotwere taken 7 days each starting 15 to 78 days after emergence. Total dryweight (TOW Stem dryweight (SOW, leaf dry weight (LOW and total leaf area (TLA were
    determined. Relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf weight ratio (LWR, and specific leaf area (SLA, were determined by the classical aproach. Significant differences in TDW, SDW, LDW, and TLA between varieties were detected in the 15 and 78 days
    evaluations. Similar results were obtained for RGR, NAR, LAR, LWR, and SLA. The mean RGR was 0.0455 g. g-1 .day-1 in Cerinza and 0.0437 g.g-1.day -1 in Tundama but these were no statistically different. NAR and RGR had similar trends and were positive and significantly correlated. LAR decreced
    linearly in Cerinza, but it was cuadratic in Tundama with the highest values in the initial and the last evaluations. The LWR show that Tundama variety translocated more dry matter to assimilatory tissue formation. SLA was similar for the two varieties, but it was higher in the indeterminate (type 11, showing that Tundama had moretinny leaves. Growth analysis
    utilizing fixed time periods did not allow to detect differences between varieties. Apparently, these were similar in physiological behavior during the vegetative phase independently of growth type.
    La fase de crecimiento vegetativo de la planta de

  11. Functional expression and activity of the recombinant antifungal defensin PvD1r from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Defensins are basic, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are important components of plant defense against pathogens. Previously, we isolated a defensin, PvD1, from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds. Results The aim of this study was to overexpress PvD1 in a prokaryotic system, verify the biologic function of recombinant PvD1 (PvD1r) by comparing the antimicrobial activity of PvD1r to that of the natural defensin, PvD1, and use a mutant Candida albicans strain that lacks the gene for sphingolipid biosynthesis to unravel the target site of the PvD1r in C. albicans cells. The cDNA encoding PvD1, which was previously obtained, was cloned into the pET-32 EK/LIC vector, and the resulting construct was used to transform bacterial cells (Rosetta Gami 2 (DE3) pLysS) leading to recombinant protein expression. After expression had been induced, PvD1r was purified, cleaved with enterokinase and repurified by chromatographic steps. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that the overall process of the recombinant production of PvD1r, including cleavage with the enterokinase, was successful. Additionally, modeling revealed that PvD1r had a structure that was similar to the defensin isolated from plants. Purified PvD1 and PvD1r possessed inhibitory activity against the growth of the wild-type pathogenic yeast strain C. albicans. Both defensins, however, did not present inhibitory activity against the mutant strain of C. albicans. Antifungal assays with the wild-type C. albicans strains showed morphological changes upon observation by light microscopy following growth assays. PvD1r was coupled to FITC, and the subsequent treatment of wild type C. albicans with DAPI revealed that the labeled peptide was intracellularly localized. In the mutant strain, no intracellular labeling was detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that PvD1r retains full biological activity after recombinant production, enterokinase cleavage and purification. Additionally, our

  12. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  13. Determinación de las relaciones genéticas en 24 accesiones de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris Determination of genetic relationships among 24 collections of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Gutiérrez C. Martha Leticia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de Phaseolus vulgaris L., de las cuales 21 son de origen andino y tres mesoamericanas. Dentro de los materiales andinos, se incluyeron variedades mejoradas y cultivariedades regionales, procedentes de diversas zonas agroecológicas de Colombia. Para la  caracterización, se utilizaron 22 sistemas isoenzimáticos, ocho de los cuales mostraron buena resolución y fueron seleccionados como marcadores bioquímicos del estudio. Seis enzimas revelaron polimorfismos: Esterasa (EST, Malato deshidrogenasa (MOH, Oeshidrogenasa Shikimica (SKOH,
    Rubisco (RBCS, Isocitrato deshidrogenasa (IOH, y Glutamato deshidrogenasa (GOH. Las enzimas: Transaminasa glutámica oxalacética (GOT y Endopeptidasa (EP fueron monomórficas para todas las accesiones estudiadas. El polimorfismo se evidenció a través de 17 loci que codificaron para un mínimo de 34 alelos diferentes. Las enzimas IOH y GOHse reportan por primera vez en el fríjol común. Para establecer las relaciones entre los grupos, se usó la distancia de Jaccard y el algoritmo de agrupación UPGMA. El dendrograma obtenido conjugó dos grupos divididos en cinco subgrupos. Los grupos principales se separaron en primera instancia por el centro de domesticación: el mesoamericano y el andino, como era de esperarse. Los tres testigos mesoamericanos fueron separados del resto en un subgrupo. Las poblaciones andinas colombianas, en las cuales se centró la importancia de este estudio, fueron divididas en cuatro subgrupos que no discriminaron, en forma marcada las variedades mejoradas de las cultivariedades regionales. Los subgrupos se analizaron y discutieron de acuerdo con sus genealogías, orígenes geográficos y lugares de adaptación, más que por sus características morfológicas.
    Twenty four collections of common bean, 21 from Andean origin and three from Central America were characterized, using biochemical markers. Eight out of 22 isozyme systems showed good

  14. Multi-scale structure, pasting and digestibility of heat moisture treated red adzuki bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Binjia

    2017-09-01

    The pasting and digestibility of a red adzuki bean starch were simultaneously modulated by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) through altering the multi-scale structure. HMT, especially at high moisture content, could disrupt the granule integrity, semicrystalline lamellae, molecular order (crystallites) and molecular chains. Also, certain rearrangement of starch molecules occurred to form ordered structures with increased thermal stability as shown by DSC. This concomitant disordering and reassembly in the multi-scale structure converted the fractions of resistant starch (RS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) into that of slowly digestible starch (SDS). Furthermore, the emergence of thermally-stable orders increased the pasting temperature but suppressed the swelling of granules during heating. Hence, HMT-modified red adzuki starch may serve as a potential thickener/gelling agent with slow digestion rate for various foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. DESEMPENHO OPERACIONAL DE UMA SEMEADORA ADUBADORA À TRAÇÃO ANIMAL, COM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SULCADORES, REGULAGENS DE DISCO DE CORTE E COBERTURAS MORTAS, NO PLANTIO DIRETO DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PERFOMANCE EVALUATION OF AN ANIMAL TRACTION PLANTER WITH DIFFERENT SOIL OPENER SYSTEMS, COULTER SETTINGS AND MULCHINGS FOR BLACK BEANS DIRECT DRILLING (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.

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    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em um experimento realizado na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO, no ano de 1998, fez-se a avaliação do desempenho operacional de uma semeadora-adubadora a tração animal, no plantio direto do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. O experimento foi conduzido em um latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, textura média. Utilizaram-se dois tipos de cobertura morta, três sistemas de sulcador e duas regulagens para o disco de corte. O sistema de sulcador do tipo disco duplo defasado mobilizou menor volume de solo, exigiu menos potência no tracionamento e menor consumo de energia que os sistemas providos de sulcador do tipo facão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; tração animal; semeadora.

    In an essay, carried out in 1998, the performance of an animal traction planter for direct drilling of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a distrofic dark red oxisol in the experimental fields of the Agronomy School of the Federal University of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Two levels of mulching, three soil opener systems, and two coulter settings were compared. Double disc opener reduced soil disturbance, required less power traction and energy.

    KEY-WORDS: Zero tillage; animal traction; planter machine.

  16. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  17. The Effect of Bio-fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizers (Phosphate and Zinc on Yield and Yield Components of Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    and 30. They reported that dual inoculation increases plant productivity. In this study, phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused an increase in yield, yield component and shoot nutrient by increasing nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, growth hormones and creating favorable growth conditions. Also results showed that the consume of P fertilizers were decreased (50 percent with proper integration of chemical and bio-fertilizers. These results correspond with the results of other researchers (17, 22, 23, 24 and 27. Conclusion: In this research proper integration of bio- and chemical fertilizers was shown to increase yield and yield components with increasing and improving P and other nutrients’ uptake in both bean cultivars. The result also indicated that combining bio and chemical phosphate fertilizers increased the efficiency of phosphate fertilizers by 50 percent. Sadri cultivar is a suitable cultivar for Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari province and regions with a similar climate. Keywords: Phosphorus, Zinc, Mycorrhizal fungi, Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Insoluble phosphorus and zinc solubilizers

  18. The "one-step" Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived vector is a functional genomics tool for efficient overexpression of heterologous protein, virus-induced gene silencing and genetic mapping of BPMV R-gene in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Stéphanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Meziadi, Chouaib; Richard, Manon M S; Thareau, Vincent; Mary, Fanny; Mazoyer, Céline; Geffroy, Valérie

    2014-08-29

    Over the last two years, considerable advances have been made in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genomics, especially with the completion of the genome sequence and the availability of RNAseq data. However, as common bean is recalcitrant to stable genetic transformation, much work remains to be done for the development of functional genomics tools adapted to large-scale studies. Here we report the successful implementation of an efficient viral vector system for foreign gene expression, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and genetic mapping of a BPMV resistance gene in common bean, using a "one-step" BPMV vector originally developed in soybean. With the goal of developing this vector for high-throughput VIGS studies in common bean, we optimized the conditions for rub-inoculation of infectious BPMV-derived plasmids in common bean cv. Black Valentine. We then tested the susceptibility to BPMV of six cultivars, and found that only Black Valentine and JaloEEP558 were susceptible to BPMV. We used a BPMV-GFP construct to detect the spatial and temporal infection patterns of BPMV in vegetative and reproductive tissues. VIGS of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PvPDS) marker gene was successfully achieved with recombinant BPMV vectors carrying fragments ranging from 132 to 391 bp. Finally, we mapped a gene for resistance to BPMV (R-BPMV) at one end of linkage group 2, in the vicinity of a locus (I locus) previously shown to be involved in virus resistance. The "one-step" BPMV vector system therefore enables rapid and simple functional studies in common bean, and could be suitable for large-scale analyses. In the post-genomic era, these advances are timely for the common bean research community.

  19. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

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    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  20. Qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido com ou sem água de maceração Nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked with or without the use of soaking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., processado com o aproveitamento ou não da água de maceração. Grãos de duas cultivares de feijão comum - Iraí (grãos bege com estrias vermelhas e BRS Expedito (grãos pretos -foram submetidos à embebição em água destilada por oito horas, à temperatura ambiente. O cozimento foi realizado com e sem o aproveitamento da água de maceração. Os minerais foram determinados nos grãos e no caldo, separadamente, e os microrganismos, na mistura de grãos e caldo. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a composição de minerais nos grãos e no caldo de feijão não foi alterada pelo descarte da água de maceração para o cozimento. O caldo de feijão apresentou altos teores de fósforo, potássio, magnésio e enxofre. A eliminação da água de maceração não melhorou a qualidade microbiológica do feijão processado. O cozimento das cultivares de feijão Iraí e BRS Expedito pode ser realizado com o aproveitamento ou com o descarte da água de maceração, pois há manutenção do teor de minerais e da qualidade microbiológica do feijão.The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. processed with or without soaking water. Two common bean cultivars grains (Iraí and BRS Expedito were subjected to soaking in distilled water for eight hours, at environmental temperature. The cooking was made with the use or discard of soaking water. The minerals were determinated in grains and broth separatedely and microorganisms associated. The results did not show changes for the minerals content in grains and broth with discard of the soaking water. The bean broth showed high phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulfur content. The discard of the soaking water did not improve microbiological quality of the processed common beans. Iraí and BRS Expedito cultivars may

  1. In vitro and in vivo volatile flavour analysis of red kidney beans by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Dings, L.; Buhr, K.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The volatile flavour released from red kidney beans was evaluated in vitro (in a model mouth system) and in vivo (in-nose). The dynamic release of the volatile flavour compounds was analysed by proton transfer reaction¿mass spectrometry. The flavour compounds were identified by gas

  2. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  3. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Ayyappan

    Full Text Available Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2 and acetylation (H4K12ac in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai, while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  4. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Smolinski, Tomasz G; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  5. Daya Simpan Susu Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L. dengan Persentase Penambahan Sari Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilla Dwi Andrestian

    2015-06-01

    Mung bean milk is one of the diversification of processed mung beans. The process of making mung bean milk using Ultra High Temperature (UHT is abundantly sold in the market. As another alternative to have a high shelf life, it needs the addition of natural preservatives such as red ginger. In general, this research aim was to determine the effect of addition of the percentage of red ginger extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum on storability of green beans milk (Phaseolus radiatus L.. This research consisted of two phases, preliminary research and main research. The former stage was conducted to determine the best acceptability of nine treatment variations of red ginger extract addition. After preliminary research was made and it obtained the best results preferred by panelist, it was then followed by main research to determine the storability of green beans milk. From preliminary research, theres were three treatment preferred by panelists, namely P3 (0.75%, P5 (1.25% and P6 (1.5%. After that, those  treatments were tested for their storability in main research. From main research it showed that Q0 (control treatment can last for 0 day, Q1 treatment with the addition of red ginger extract 0,75% and Q2 (1.25% having storability for 1 day and Q3 (1.5% having the best treatment that had the longest storability (for 2 days. The more addition of red ginger extract, the longer storability of green beans milk. The best favored and longest storability of green beans milk was one added with red ginger extract of 1.5%. Keywords: Green Bean Milk, Storability, Red ginger

  6. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention

  7. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  8. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm trials to determine the optimum combination of maize (Zea mays L.) density, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar and bean spatial arrangement to produce high yields of the intercrop combination were conducted in Chinyika Resettlement Area (CRA) and at Domboshava Training Centre (DTC) during the 1996/97 ...

  9. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  10. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  12. Evaluating two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles of the protein phaseolin as markers of genetic differentiation and seed protein quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pedrouso, María; Bernal, Javier; Franco, Daniel; Zapata, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) profiles of the protein phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of common bean, display great number of spots with differentially glycosylated and phosphorylated α- and β-type polypeptides. This work aims to test whether these complex profiles can be useful markers of genetic differentiation and seed protein quality in bean populations. The 2-DE phaseolin profile and the amino acid composition were examined in bean seeds from 18 domesticated and wild accessions belonging to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. We found that proteomic distances based on 2-DE profiles were successful in identifying the accessions belonging to each gene pool and outliers distantly related. In addition, accessions identified as outliers from proteomic distances showed the highest levels of methionine content, an essential amino acid deficient in bean seeds. These findings suggest that 2-DE phaseolin profiles provide valuable information with potential of being used in common bean genetic improvement.

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided...

  14. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

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    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  15. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  16. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  17. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Daniel; Macaya, Gabriel; Guarino, Luigi; Baudoin, Jean Pierre; Rocha, Oscar J

    2008-09-01

    Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean F(st) = 0.2769), followed by control locations (mean F(st) = 0.0576) and experimental locations (mean F(st) = 0.0189). Similar findings were observed for Neis genetic distance between samples (d(ij) = 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively). Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed.

  18. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  19. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  20. Utilization of the Phaseolus vulgaris L. Waste biomass for decolorization of the textile dye Acid Red 57: determination of equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Sibel; Ozcan, Adnan; Kaynak, Zerrin; Ozcan, A Safa; Akar, Tamer

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, biosorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto a waste biomass of Phaseolus vulgaris L. was investigated by varying pH, contact time, biosorbent concentration and temperature, to determine the equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. The AR57 biosorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 20 min. Biosorption equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherm model well with high correlation coefficients. According to Langmuir isotherm model the maximum biosorption capacity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. for AR57 dye was determined as 4.09 x 10(- 4) mol g(- 1) or 215.13 mg g(- 1) at 20 degrees C. The thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy) for the biosorption of AR57 were indicated that the biosorption was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model agrees well with the dynamic behavior of the biosorption of AR57 onto P. vulgaris L., under various temperatures. The removal efficiency of the biomass was also examined in real textile wastewater.

  1. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  2. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of compost on the mobility of arsenic in soil and its uptake by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irrigated with arsenite-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Pigna, Massimo; Sommella, Alessia; Dynes, James J; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Violante, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The influence of compost on the growth of bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and its influence on the mobility of As in the soils and the uptake of As (as NaAs(III)O2) by plant components was studied at various compost application rates (3·10(4) and 6·10(4) kg ha(-1)) and at three As concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1)). The biomass and As and P concentrations of the roots, shoots and beans were determined at harvest time, as well as the chlorophyll content of the leaves and nonspecific and specifically bound As in the soil. The bean plants exposed to As showed typical phytotoxicity symptoms; no plants however died over the study. The biomass of the bean plants increased with the increasing amounts of compost added to the soil, attributed to the phytonutritive capacity of compost. Biomass decreased with increasing As concentrations, however, the reduction in the biomass was significantly lower with the addition of compost, indicating that the As phytotoxicity was alleviated by the compost. For the same As concentration, the As content of the roots, shoots and beans decreased with increasing compost added compared to the Control. This is due to partial immobilization of the As by the organic functional groups on the compost, either directly or through cation bridging. Most of the As adsorbed by the bean plants accumulated in the roots, while a scant allocation of As occurred in the beans. Hence, the addition of compost to soils could be used as an effective means to limit As accumulation in crops from As-contaminated waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Avaliação química, nutricional e fatores antinutricionais do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. irradiado Chemical and nutritional evaluation and antinutritional factors of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mechi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo o Brasil sendo o maior produtor de feijão, é necessário importar para suprir a grande demanda interna, que é agravada pelas grandes perdas por infestações durante o armazenamento. Para combater estas perdas o processo de irradiação dos feijões é uma alternativa. Foram avaliadas as alterações que ocorreram em grãos de feijão preto crus e cozidos irradiados nas doses de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10kGy e avaliadas a quantidade de ferro, taninos e ácido fítico, a digestibilidade da proteína e a disponibilidade de ferro. Para o teor de ferro em grãos cozidos não houve variação (média de 118,17mg/Kg. Os teores encontrados de taninos para o cru não variaram com a intensidade radioativa, não sendo possível detecção nos cozidos. Quanto ao teor de ácido fítico, ocorreu diminuição da quantidade com aumento da irradiação nos grãos crus até dose 8kGy. A digestibilidade da proteína diminuiu nos feijões crus com o aumento da irradiação. Ocorreu crescente aumento na disponibilidade de ferro nos feijões crus irradiados (exceto na dose 8kGy, que não varia das doses 4 e 6kGy. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho mostram que o processo de irradiação não compromete o valor nutricional do feijão preto.Even so Brazil be producer of bean, it is necessay import to supply the itern demand which is very big. The damage to swarm over during the storage occur with frequency. To battle this damages the process of irradiation of beans is an option. The modifications was evaluated in black beans crude and cooked irradiated with dosis of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy and evaluated the iron quantity, tannin and phitic acid, protein digestibity and iron availability. The iron content of cooked beans was not variation (mean 118.17mg/kg. The content of tannin for crude bean was not variation with the intensity of radiation. The phitic acid content decreased its quantity with irradiation dosis increase at crude beans until dosis 8kGy. The

  5. In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, Marcelo; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Tovar, Juscelino; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-07-01

    Pulses represent an important source of protein, as well as digestible and indigestible carbohydrates. Little information is available on the indigestible carbohydrates and antioxidant capacity of legume seeds. The cooked seeds of three pulses (black bean, chickpea and lentil) were evaluated for their indigestible fraction (IF), polyphenols content, antioxidant capacity and in vitro fermentability, including short-chain fatty acid production. The insoluble indigestible fraction (IIF) was higher than the soluble counterpart (soluble indigestible fraction, SIF). The SIF value was highest in black beans, while no difference was observed between chickpeas and lentils. Black beans and lentils had higher polyphenols content than chickpeas. The IF of black beans exhibited the lowest and chickpeas the highest associated polyphenols content. Condensed tannins were retained to some extent in the IF that exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The total IF of the three pulses produced short chain fatty acids (SCFA) after 24 h of in vitro fermentation by human colonic microflora. IF from black bean and lentil were best substrates for the fermentative production of butyric acid. It is concluded that the IF of pulses might be an important source of bioactive compounds.

  6. Copper bioavailability to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in long-term Cu-contaminated soils, uncontaminated soils, and recently Cu-spiked soils

    OpenAIRE

    Senkondo, Yasin Hassan; Semu, E; Tack, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Copper solubility and its bioavailability to Phaseolus vulgaris in long-term copper-contaminated soils, uncontaminated soils, and copper-spiked soils were studied. The role of plant factors, total copper load in soils, and/or the aging effect on the uptake of copper was explored so as to assess health risks through contamination of the food chain associated with growing the crop on such soils. Contaminated soils and clean soils were collected from coffee-growing fields in Kilimanjaro and Arus...

  7. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  8. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  9. TUC 510: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con alta tolerancia a las virosis presentes en el noroeste argentino TUC 510: New variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with high tolerance to viruses in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las virosis del mosaico dorado (Bean golden mosaic virus, BGMV y mosaico enano (Bean dwarf mosaic virus, BDMV constituyen las principales limitantes sanitarias a la producción de poroto en la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar una nueva variedad de poroto negro, con alto nivel de tolerancia a estas virosis y capaz de reemplazar a las variedades comerciales difundidas en el NOA. En 1995 se introdujeron ocho líneas avanzadas de poroto negro desde el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, que se probaron con los testigos comerciales NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 y TUC 500. Entre 1997 y 2000, estas líneas fueron evaluadas en ensayos comparativos de rendimientos (ECR en las localidades de Monte Redondo y La Cocha (Tucumán, y Campichuelo (Salta. El diseño experimental en todos los ensayos de campo fue el de bloques completos al azar. Se hicieron test de análisis de varianza individual y pruebas de homogeneidad de varianzas mediante el test de Levenne. Cada parcela estuvo formada por cuatro líneas de 6 m de largo, distanciadas a 0,70 m y con una densidad comercial de 16 semillas/m. Los parámetros de evaluación fueron: a durante el ciclo: tolerancia a las virosis y adaptación, tanto vegetativa como reproductiva (escala 1 a 9, CIAT y b en cosecha: rendimientos (kg grano limpio/ha y calidad comercial. El genotipo TUC 510 produjo los mayores rendimientos (media=1470 kg/ha generales y particulares por localidad evaluada. Además se destacó por su tolerancia (3,0 a las virosis del mosaico dorado y mosaico enano del poroto y capacidad de adaptación (3,0 a las condiciones ambientales evaluadas. Estas características fundamentaron la inscripción ante el Instituto Nacional de Semillas (INASE de TUC 510, como una nueva variedad de poroto negro.In the warmer areas of Northwestern Argentina, Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV and Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV constitute the main sanitary constraints

  10. Water Capture, and Use Efficiency and Productivity in Sole and Intercropping of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Najibnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate water capture and use efficiency and also productivity in sole and intercropping of three crops Rapeseed, Bean and Corn, an experiment was conducted in Mashhad in the growing season of 2007-2008. In this investigation six treatments including three sole cropping of the three crops (rapeseed sown in 22 September 2007, bean and corn in 29 April 2008 and three intercropping including double cropping (simultaneous sowing of corn and bean in 29 April 2008, two stage-relay intercropping of rapeseed, corn and bean (rapeseed in 22 September 2007, bean and corn in 29 April 2008 and finally three stage-relay intercropping of rapeseed, corn and bean (rapeseed sown in 22 September 2007, bean in 8 April 2008 and corn in 29 April 2008 were arranged in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that in general, cropping combination affected water capture and use efficiency and also water productivity (p≤0.01. Among intercropping treatments, two stage-relay intercropping showed the highest capture efficiency (0.43, three stage-relay intercropping had the highest water use and productivity in terms of biological yields (1.82 and 0.73 g/m2/mm, respectively and double cropping showed the highest water use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield (0.43 and 0.17 g/m2/mm, respectively. Among sole cropping treatments, rapeseed showed the highest capture efficiency (0.26, use efficiency and productivity in terms of biological yields (6.82 and 1.75 g/m2/mm, respectively and corn showed the highest use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield (1.5 and 0.35 g/m2/mm, respectively. In general, two stage-relay intercropping for capture efficiency, sole cropping of rapeseed for use efficiency and productivity in terms of biological yield, and sole cropping of corn for use efficiency and productivity in terms of seed yield were superior than others. However, it seems that such combinations of crops for

  11. Prediction of canned black bean texture (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from intact dry seeds using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando A; Cichy, Karen A; Sprague, Christy; Goffnett, Amanda; Lu, Renfu; Kelly, James D

    2018-01-01

    Texture is a major quality parameter for the acceptability of canned whole beans. Prior knowledge of this quality trait before processing would be useful to guide variety development by bean breeders and optimize handling protocols by processors. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive power of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS, 400-2498 nm) and hyperspectral imaging (HYPERS, 400-1000 nm) techniques for predicting texture of canned black beans from intact dry seeds. Black beans were grown in Michigan (USA) over three field seasons. The samples exhibited phenotypic variability for canned bean texture due to genetic variability and processing practice. Spectral preprocessing methods (i.e. smoothing, first and second derivatives, continuous wavelet transform, and two-band ratios), coupled with a feature selection method, were tested for optimizing the prediction accuracy in both techniques based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Visible/NIRS and HYPERS were effective in predicting texture of canned beans using intact dry seeds, as indicated by their correlation coefficients for prediction (Rpred ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP). Visible/NIRS was superior (Rpred = 0.546-0.923, SEP = 7.5-1.9 kg 100 g-1 ) to HYPERS (Rpred = 0.401-0.883, SEP = 7.6-2.4 kg 100 g-1 ), which is likely due to the wider wavelength range collected in visible/NIRS. However, a significant improvement was reached in both techniques when the two-band ratios preprocessing method was applied to the data, reducing SEP by at least 10.4% and 16.2% for visible/NIRS and HYPERS, respectively. Moreover, results from using the combination of the three-season data sets based on the two-band ratios showed that visible/NIRS (Rpred = 0.886, SEP = 4.0 kg 100 g-1 ) and HYPERS (Rpred = 0.844, SEP = 4.6 kg 100 g-1 ) models were consistently successful in predicting texture over a wide range of measurements. Visible/NIRS and HYPERS

  12. Peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) inhibit the angiotensin-I converting enzyme by interacting with its catalytic cavity independent of their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira; Mendoza, Sandra; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential and the antioxidant capacity of pure synthesized peptides (GLTSK, LSGNK, GEGSGA, MPACGSS and MTEEY) originally identified in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans (P. vulgaris L.) that had previously demonstrated antiproliferative activity against human colorectal cancer cells. The five peptides were able to inhibit ACE with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 65.4 (GLTSK) to 191.5 μM (MPACGSS). The combination of GLTSK and MTEEY increased the ACE inhibition by 30% compared to equieffective doses of the single peptides. According to molecular docking analysis, the five peptides had lower estimated free energy values (-6.47 to -9.34 kcal mol(-1)) when they interacted with the catalytic site of ACE than that of the substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (-5.41 kcal mol(-1)), thus inhibiting the enzymatic activity. According to molecular docking analysis, the five peptides interacted with four (His353, Ala354, Glu411 and Tyr523) out of 6 catalytic residues. Moreover, MPACGSS had the highest antioxidant activity according to Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (421.58 μmol FeSO4 mg(-1)), Fe(2+) chelation (2.01 μmol Na2EDTA mg(-1)) assays, and also in DPPH (748.39 μmol Trolox per mg of dry peptide) and ABTS (561.42 μmol Trolox mg(-1)) radical scavenging assays. The results support the hypothesis that peptides present in the non-digestible fraction of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may exert their physiological benefits independent of their antioxidant capacity, by ACE inhibition through interaction with its catalytic cavity.

  13. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  14. Generation of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs and investigation of their regulation upon Uromyces appendiculatus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Henry T; Cooper Bret; Xu Dong; Scheffler Brian; Campbell Kimberly B; Joshi Trupti; Thibivilliers Sandra; Stacey Gary

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is the second most important legume crop in the world after soybean. Consequently, yield losses due to fungal infection, like Uromyces appendiculatus (bean rust), have strong consequences. Several resistant genes were identified that confer resistance to bean rust infection. However, the downstream genes and mechanisms involved in bean resistance to infection are poorly characterized. Results A subtractive bean cDNA library composed of 10,5...

  15. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  16. Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans are a good source of essential nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals; they also contain phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. Phenolic compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity that promotes health benefits by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to c...

  17. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  18. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantit