WorldWideScience

Sample records for recycled automobile tires

  1. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  2. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  3. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  4. New approaches to recycling tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  5. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  8. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  9. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  10. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  11. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  12. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.

  13. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  14. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  15. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  16. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  17. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  18. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  19. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  20. Automobile shredder residue: some recycling, resource recovery and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Obsolete automobiles are the most recycled high-volume consumer product, with a recovery rate of between 75 and 80 per cent by weight. Ferrous scrap metal from old automobiles in North America amounts to about 10 million tons per year. However, each ton of steel that is recovered, produces about 300 kg of automobile shredder residue (ASR), comprised of plastics, rubber, glass, foam, and textiles, contaminated by oil and other fluids. All combined, this represents about 0.3 million tons of waste materials from the 22 shredders in Canada. This amount is likely to increase as the amount of steel in automobiles decreases due to downsizing and weight reduction, emphasizing the need for new resource recovery and application techniques to deal with the ASR problem. This paper describes a number of new initiatives primarily in two areas: separation technologies, ranging from selective disassembly to physical/mechanical/chemical separation processes, and pyrolysis techniques for the recovery of valuable hydrocarbon resources contained in the plastics in the ASR. Recycling of the material into high performance composite materials, such as additives to concrete for increased tensile strength, shrinkage and crack resistance, without adverse effect on other properties such as durability and workability, also received attention. Energy recovery options and engineered landfilling wherein ASR is used as a landfill day cover material, are some other techniques that show considerable promise. In landfill applications the high absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metals such as lead, its high compressibility, erosion resistance, and good traction make it a highly desirable choice for use as day cover material. 25 refs.

  1. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  3. Automobile Tire Use Safety Normative Analysis%汽车轮胎使用安全规范分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮文刚

    2014-01-01

    轮胎是汽车与路面直接接触的主要部件,同时,在汽车行驶的过程中,它还起到了缓冲撞击的作用,能保证汽车的安全性和舒适性,增强汽车与路面的黏着力,所以,要安全使用汽车轮胎。列举了影响轮胎寿命的因素,指出了安全使用汽车轮胎的方法和延长轮胎寿命的措施,并且还指出了提高轮胎使用安全性的方法。%The tyre is a major part of the direct contact with the road car, at the same time, in the process of the car, it also have the effect of the cushion the impact, can guarantee the safety of the car and the comfort, enhance the adhesion of automobile and road surface, so to safe use of automobile tires. Lists the factors affecting the service life of tires, points out the safety car tyres methods and measures to extend the service life of tires, and also improve the safety of using tire method are pointed out.

  4. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  5. Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  6. History and development of the technology and automobiles; Tire no shinpo to kuruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, H. [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Junior College of Automobile Industry

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes automotive tires. Radial-ply tire production in Japan in 1990 has accounted for 83% of the entire tire production for new passenger cars, indicating rapid conversion from bias-ply tires to radial-ply tires. The latter tire has such features as worse riding comfort, better fuel consumption, less friction and better steering performance than in the former tire. The inferior riding comfort is caused from poor envelope characteristics and from generation of resonant vibration with the belt, but great improvement has been made by using rubber bushing in the suspension. To prevent standing wave that occurs in bias-ply tires at high speed driving, raising the internal pressure is recommended. The phenomenon that tires become to slide more easily due to dynamic pressure of water on a road is referred to as hydroplaning. To prevent accidents, speed of 80 km/h is recommended on a highway during rain. A unified theory was announced in 1969 that braking, driving and lateral forces are regarded as a function of slip ratio and slip angle. This is an indispensable theory for the automatic control theory. (NEDO)

  7. Recycled tire crumb rubber anodes for sustainable power production in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Davidson, Matthew; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong

    One of the greatest challenges facing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in large scale applications is the high cost of electrode material. We demonstrate here that recycled tire crumb rubber coated with graphite paint can be used instead of fine carbon materials as the MFC anode. The tire particles showed satisfactory conductivity after 2-4 layers of coating. The specific surface area of the coated rubber was over an order of magnitude greater than similar sized graphite granules. Power production in single chamber tire-anode air-cathode MFCs reached a maximum power density of 421 mW m -2, with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 25.1%. The control graphite granule MFC achieved higher power density (528 mW m -2) but lower CE (15.6%). The light weight of tire particle could reduce clogging and maintenance cost but posts challenges in conductive connection. The use of recycled material as the MFC anodes brings a new perspective to MFC design and application and carries significant economic and environmental benefit potentials.

  8. Testing impact attenuation on California playground surfaces made of recycled tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidair, Charles; Haas, Robert; Schlag, Robert

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether rubberized playground surfaces made of recycled tires comply with state-mandated standards for impact attenuation (measured with an accelerometer), and whether their properties change in response to temperature or time. The Head Impact Criterion (HIC) standard of 1000 was found to be a more sensitive indicator of compliance than the G(max) standard of 200(g). Of 32 playgrounds tested, 22 (69 percent) failed the HIC standard. As the heights of playground structures increased, so did the likelihood that the rubberized surface below would fail the HIC standard. Rubberized surfaces gave stable readings for the first three months following installation, and higher values in response to increasing surface temperature. An excessively high percentage of playground surfaces made of recycled tires failed the state-mandated standards designed to prevent serious head injury from falls. Future failures might be prevented by requiring installers to perform post-installation testing to verify compliance.

  9. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  10. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  11. Solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) operated with waste polymers. Case study: 2,4-dichlorophenol biodegradation with used automobile tires as the partitioning phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Annesini, M Cristina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Used automobile tire pieces were tested for their suitability as the sequestering phase in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor to treat 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). Abiotic sorption tests and equilibrium partitioning tests confirmed that tire "crumble" possesses very favourable properties for this application with DCP diffusivity (4.8 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and partition coefficient (31) values comparable to those of commercially available polymers. Biodegradation tests further validated the effectiveness of using waste tires to detoxify a DCP solution, and allow for enhanced biodegradation compared to conventional single-phase operation. These results establish the potential of using a low-cost waste material to assist in the bioremediation of a toxic aqueous contaminant.

  12. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  13. Compression Molding of Composite of Recycled HDPE and Recycled Tire Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.; Chen, Zhengyu; Li, Yanze; Peng, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Plastic and rubber recycling is an effective means of reducing solid waste to the environment and preserving natural resources. A project aimed at developing a new composite material from recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled rubber is currently being conducted at Eastern Illinois University. The recycled plastic pellets with recycled rubber particles are extruded into some HDPE/rubber composite strands. The strand can be further cut into pellets that can be used to fabricate other material forms or products. This experiment was inspired by the above-mentioned research activity. In order to measure Durometer hardness of the extruded composite, a specimen with relatively large dimensions was needed. Thus, compression molding was used to form a cylindrical specimen of 1 in. diameter and 1 in. thickness. The initial poor quality of the molded specimen prompted a need to optimize the processing parameters such as temperature, holding time, and pressure. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to obtain optimum combination of the parameters.

  14. Feasibility of operating a solid-liquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-08-15

    Finding new uses for waste or discarded material is an important environmental goal; being able to use a waste material to treat another waste is an even more attractive objective, and this was the purpose of the present work. We previously showed that used automobile tires have an affinity for a toxic contaminant, dichlorophenol (DCP), absorbing and releasing it based on concentration driving forces. Here we have exploited this phenomenon by using used tires as the sequestering phase in a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) to treat otherwise-toxic levels of DCP, far out-performing single phase operation in a sequencing batch bioreactor. A comprehensive examination of substrate loading, reactor exchange ratio, and tire fraction used, demonstrated that the tire-TPPB system could handle a 40% higher influent substrate loading and an increase of the exchange ratio value from 0.5 (prohibitive for single phase operation) to 0.7. Such improvement was obtained with a tire fraction ≤9%, comparable to that for commercial polymers previously employed in TPPBs. This study has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs for the treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants.

  15. On a Thermodynamic Mechanism of Dissipation of Mechanical Energy in Porous Elastomers as Applied to the Problem of Heating of Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Shnip, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that in the case of cyclic mechanical loads on a porous elastomer there are regimes in which irreversible processes of heat transfer between the gas and the elastomer are responsible for the appearance of a nonzero heat flux averaged over the period and directed from the gas into the condensed phase; this heat flux is compensated for with the dissipation of mechanical energy from the loading source. A possible influence of this mechanism of dissipation on the heating of automobile tires is assessed. Possible methods of recording of this effect are discussed.

  16. Tecnologias utilizadas para a reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética de pneus no Brasil Technologies for reusing, recycling and energetic valorization of tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto F. Lagarinhos

    2008-06-01

    and importers of tires must collect and give the final destination to the used tires. The distributors, retailers, re-modelers and final consumers are co-responsible for the collection of the used or unserviceable tires. In this study we review the technologies for reusing, recycling and energetic valorization of tires, in addition to presenting a flowchart of the reverse logistic process for new and used tires. Also included are statistical data of distribution channels, recycling goals and final destination for the used tires in the period from 2002 to 2006. In 2006, 240.62 thousand tons of unserviceable tires were recycled, which correspond to 48.12 million of automobile tires. The activities of laminating, grinding and manufacturing of rubber artifacts represented 50.02% of the total; the co-processing in clinker ovens represented 35.73%; the synthetic rubber regeneration represented 13.22% while 1.03% was used in the extraction and treatment of minerals.

  17. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  18. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaj, Pawel; Yang, Weihong; Błasiak, Włodzimierz; Forsgren, Christer

    2010-10-15

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues--ASR or "car fluff". One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H(2):CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/Nm(3) for liquids and 15 MJ/Nm(3) for solids fuels.

  19. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  20. Tire Maker’s Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Integrity and quality are vital for Kumho Tires to regain the Chinese market Kumho Tires Co.—one of China’s largest tire suppliers—used to enjoy a high profile in marketing, but it turned publicity-shy on the 14th Shanghai International Automobile

  1. Strategies for the enhancement of automobile shredder residues (ASRs) recycling: results and cost assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    With reference to the European regulation about the management of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs), Directive 2000/53/EC imposes the achievement of a recycling target of 85%, and 95% of total recovery by 2015. Over the last few years many efforts have been made to find solutions to properly manage the waste coming from ELVs with the aim of complying with the targets fixed by the Directive. This paper focuses on the economical evaluation of a treatment process, that includes physical (size and density), magnetic and electrical separations, performed on the light fraction of the automobile shredder residue (ASR) with the aim of reducing the amount of waste to dispose of in a landfill and enhancing the recovery of valuable fractions as stated by the EU Directive. The afore mentioned process is able to enhance the recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals of an amount equal to about 1% b.w. (by weight) of the ELV weight, and to separate a high energetic-content product suitable for thermal valorization for an amount close to (but not higher than) 10% b.w. of the ELV weight. The results of the economical assessment led to annual operating costs of the treatment ranging from 300,000 €/y to 350,000 €/y. Since the considered plant treats about 13,500 metrictons of ASR per year, this would correspond to an operating cost of approximately 20-25 €/t. Taking into account the amount and the selling price of the scrap iron and of the non magnetic metal recovered by the process, thus leading to a gain of about 30 €/t per ton of light ASR treated, the cost of the recovery process is balanced by the profit from the selling of the recovered metals. On the other hand, the proposed treatment is able to achieve the fulfillment of the targets stated by Directive 2000/53/EC concerning thermal valorization and reduce the amount of waste generated from ELV shredding to landfill.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the research and development of environmental technologies such as recycling. 2. Technology for reducing automobile running noise; 1998 nendo recycle nado kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Jidosha sokoon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Experiments and studies are conducted for reducing along-the-road automobile running noise. In the study of noise generation due to tire vibration, it is found that the main mechanism of noise generation on a well-drained pavement is the vibration of tires. A calculation model is built for estimating the vibration of the tire belt from the characteristics of the road surface and the tire. In the study of air column resonance in the tread groove, a method is studied of measuring fluctuations in the sound pressure in the tread groove. Measurement is conducted, and it is found that the generally accepted explanation, in which air column resonance is attributed to tread vibration generated upon collision of the tire with the road surface, needs further study for substantiation. In a model experiment, it is found that air column resonance hardly occurs on a well-drained pavement. In the study of hydroplaning, it is found that, even when the total volume of the tread longitudinal grooves is the same, the hydroplaning performance tends to improve when the groove arrangement and crown curvature are proper. (NEDO)

  3. Sorption study of toluene and xylene in aqueous solutions by recycled tires crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo-Nole, Luis A; Perales-Perez, Oscar; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R

    2011-01-15

    Sorption of toluene and xylene by tire crumb rubber (TCR) and its main components: carbon black (CB) and styrene-butadiene polymer (SBP) were evaluated. The 12 starting concentrations of adsorbates in aqueous solutions ranged from 0.05 mg/L to 100.0mg/L. The amounts of CB and SBP used in the sorption tests were determined considering their typical contents in tire crumb rubber (30% and 60% w/w, respectively). Freundlich's isotherms and Scatchard plot parameters suggested a two-step sorption process when TCR was used as the sorbent; whereas a single-step route was apparent when the sorption experiments were carried out with CB or SBP. Freundlich's n parameter was estimated at 0.65 for CB and 1.0 for both TCR and SBP. A removal of 60% of toluene and 81% of xylene from starting 50 ppm solutions was attained in the first 30 minutes of contact using 5 g/L of TCR.

  4. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  5. Used tire recycling to produce granulates: evaluation of occupational exposure to chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Barbara; Vincent, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Exposure was assessed in four facilities where used tires are turned into rubber granulates. Particulate exposure levels were measured using filter samples and gravimetric analysis. In parallel, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) screening was carried out using samples taken on activated carbon supports, followed by an analysis using a gas chromatograph coupled to a spectrometric detector. The exposure level medians are between 0.58 and 3.95 mg m(-3). Clogging of the textile fiber separation systems can lead to worker exposure; in this case, the measured concentrations can reach 41 mg m(-3). However, in contrast to the data in the literature, VOC levels >1 p.p.m. were not detected. The particulate mixtures deposited on the installation surfaces are complex; some of the chemical agents are toxic to humans. The results of this study indicate significant exposure to complex mixtures of rubber dust. Optimizing exhaust ventilation systems inside the shredders, with a cyclone for example, is essential for reducing the exposure of workers in this rapidly developing sector.

  6. On the Fresh/Hardened Properties of Cement Composites Incorporating Rubber Particles from Recycled Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fiore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the ameliorative effects on some properties of cement-based materials which can be obtained by incorporating rubber particles as part of the fine aggregates. The aim is to find out optimal cement composite/mortar mixtures, containing recycled-tyre rubber particles, suitable for specific engineering applications. Different percentages of rubber particles, from 0% to 75%, were used and, for each percentage, the suitable amount of sand was investigated in order to achieve the best fresh/hardened performances. In particular the following characteristics were examined: density, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, weight loss, flexural behaviour, thermal conductivity, rapid freezing and thawing durability, and chloride permeability. The experimental results were compared with the ones of cement composite specimens without rubber aggregates. Test results show that the proposed rubberized mortar mixes are particularly suitable for some industrial and architectural applications, such as under-rail bearings, road constructions, paving slabs, false facades, and stone backing.

  7. [Clinical manifestations of lead levels in children exposed to automobile battery recycling processes in Soacha and Bogotá, D.C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Myriam; Echeverry, Jairo

    2008-03-01

    Lead is a harmless metal if not handled directly in the industrial process. Even thought lead has been eliminated from the gasoline in many countries, automobile battery recycling continues to be a potential source of exposure and intoxication for the workers and their families, particularly of low income. The current investigation was initiated after an index case of lead poisoning was reported from Soacha, Cundinamarca, in central Colombia. Clinical investigation established lead levels and lead poison frequency in children with para-occupational lead exposure in the process of recycling automobile batteries. This was designed as a descriptive study, with selection of subjects with high risk of possible lead exposure. Minors, mostly of school age were recruited based on referral by relatives, neighbors or acquaintances, all of whom were involved in para-occupational exposure. Thirty two children, less than 12 years old (majority school age), were included. General and specific examinations of the children were made, and blood samples were taken for lead and hematological determinations. All subjects showed high levels of lead (2-9 times the maximum acceptable value) and, according to established criteria, two-thirds were rated as severely poisoned. The children with high levels of lead had tendency toward more specific hematological compromise and showing black gingival bordering (Burton border). This study communicates to the sanitary authorities and government a clear sign of alarm in that measures must be taken to diminish the occupational or para-occupational lead exposure of children by way of the automobile battery recycling industry.

  8. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (<15mm) heavy fluff ASR (fhf-ASR) is presented. Differences in density and resistance to crushing of fhf-ASR materials were identified as potentially the most suitable low cost, technologically simple means for the separating this waste into its three principal components - metals, minerals (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these.

  9. 汽车轮胎金属异物探测原理与探测系统设计%Detection principle of metallic foreign body in automobile tire and design of detective system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟; 马骁

    2012-01-01

    以汽车轮胎金属异物探测为目标,讨论金属异物探测原理,以电涡流传感器为基础,通过感应电涡流的变化实现金属异物探测.设计了一种金属异物探测系统,该探测器能伸进汽车轮胎面与翼子板、挡泥板之间的狭小空隙,有效地检测出刺入汽车轮胎的金属异物.探测器的设计使用PIC16F877单片机为核心处理部件,探测采样的感应信号经A/D转换后,采用频域分析法处理.结果表明,该探测器克服了传统的探测器抗干扰能力差的弱点,探测灵敏度和准确性高.%Taking the detection of metallic foreign body within automobile tire as a target, the detection principle of metallic foreign body was discussed. The detection of metallic foreign body was achieved by u-sing the change of inductive eddy current detected by inductive current sensor. A kind of detective system for detecting metallic foreign body in vehicle tire was designed. This detector could be put into the narrow space between the tire surface and wings plate or fender, and the metallic foreign body in automobile tires could be detected effectively. The PIC16F877 monolithic computer was used as core processing unit in the detector. After A/D conversion, the detecting sampling signals were analyzed by using the method of frequency domain processing. The result showed that the detective system could overcome the weakness of anti-interference ability with a traditional detector, and this system exhibited high sensitivity and accuracy.

  10. Determination of optimal parameters of purification water surface from oil and oil products by sorbent on the basis of worn automobile tires

    OpenAIRE

    YUSUBOV FAXRADDIN VALI; SHIXALIYEV КARAM SEYFI; ABDULLAYEVA МAYA YADIGAR

    2016-01-01

    The article describes an identification of optimal parameters for surface water purification from oil and oil products by sorbent based on worn automotive tires. In thus Optimal parameters for water surface purification from oil and oil products by sorbent have been found out on the basis of constructed regression model of the process.

  11. 废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系%Evaluation Index System of Circular Economy in Scrap Tire Recycling Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国平; 朱坦; 宋晖

    2009-01-01

    废旧轮胎是具有高再生价值的产品类废弃物,具备环境污染潜在性和资源性的双重性质.充分回收利用废旧轮胎既能缓解橡胶资源紧缺,又能解决废旧轮胎的环境污染问题.在调研的基础上,分析了我国废旧轮胎回收利用体系;初步构建了废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系,阐明了评价指标的含义,确定了评价的方法,并针对行业统计工作提出建议.%Scrap tire is a kind of wastes with high regenerative value which have dual natures of potential environmental pollution and resource. Over years, the disposal of scrap tire has become one of serious problems in environment. Recycling of scrap tire sufficiently can not only relieve the shortage of rubber resource, but also solve the problem of environmental pollution caused by scrap tire. On the basis of investigation, the scrap tire recycling system in China was analyzed in this paper. Preliminary evaluation index system was constructed, the meaning of indexes was clarified and evaluating method was ascertained. Finally, some suggestions for statistical work in scrap tire recycling industry were put forward.

  12. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies. Procedimientos para Manejar. Mantenimiento del Automovil. Llantas. (Procedures for Driving. Maintenance of an Automobile. Tires.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Rene

    This publication presents three suggested social studies curriculum units designed for the bilingual Spanish-English classroom, but which would also be useful in advanced Spanish language classes for English speakers. The units, developed for grades 7-11, are entitled, "Procedures for Driving,""Maintenance of an Automobile,"…

  13. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  14. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  15. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  16. Case study on the treatment and recycle of wastewater from automobile industry%汽车工业废水处理及回用工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建威; 司马卫平

    2015-01-01

    汽车制造企业排放的机械加工废水具有有机物成分复杂、矿物油浓度较高且具有一定毒性等特点,采用气浮—混凝沉淀—生物法—反渗透工艺进行深度处理后部分回用。工程实践表明:当进水COD为1000 mg/L左右时,在系统维持相对稳定的情况下,反渗透产水可满足企业生产工艺用水水质要求,而反渗透浓水达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978—1996)三级标准。%The wastewater discharge d from automobile industry are characterized by complicated components ,high concentration of mineral oil and toxicity. After the combined process ,air flotation-coagulation-biological process-reverse osmosis,has been used for the advanced treatment of it,this wastewater can be recycled partly. The practice results show that when the influent COD is about 1 000 mg/L and the system condition maintains relatively stable , the reverse osmosis produced water can meet the water quality requirements for the recycle in production ,and the condensed water from RO system can meet the third class criteria specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996).

  17. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  18. Aulice to Build 1,200,000 Units/Y All- steel Tires Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zao

    2012-01-01

    To adapt to the rapid development of automobile industry and to meet the market demand on high- performance tires, upon investigation, Hubei Aulice Tire Co., Ltd. intends to build all-steel radial tire production project with the output of 1,200,000 units per year.

  19. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  20. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  1. Application of Recycled Sealing Oil of Mixer in Tire Flap%废密炼机转子密封油在轮胎垫带胶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴克鹏; 杨兴云

    2014-01-01

    对混有炭黑、小料和混炼胶的废密炼机转子密封油(废机油)进行回收再利用,研究其在轮胎垫带胶中的应用。结果表明:废机油静置后分离出的上层澄清液体,以不大于4%的比例(质量含量)掺入芳烃油中,不影响芳烃油的正常使用;添加2份废机油中间层和下层分离产物,并调整加料顺序,试验配方胶料的加工性能和物理性能与生产配方相当,试验配方成品垫带的物理性能满足企业标准要求,停放后成品垫带表面无油污渗出,不变色,外观未出现异常现象。将废机油回收并用于芳烃油和垫带胶中,具有良好的经济效益和环保效应。%The waste sealing oil of mixer was recycled and applied in the tire lfap. The recycled oil contained carbon black, additives and some rubber compound. After allowed standing, the recycle oil was separated into clear oil in the upper layer and residue mixture in the middle and bottom layers. The upper layer clear oil was then added into aromatic oil and showed no negative effect on the normal use of the aromatic oil if the percentage of recycled oil did not exceed 4%. The residue mixture in the middle and bottom layers was applied in the tire lfap at the addition level of 2 phr. By adjusting the mixing process, the processing properties and physical properties of the rubber compound showed no change, and the performance of the ifnished lfap met the requirements of enterprise standard. The experimental results also showed that, there was no stain or oil bleed, no color change or appearance change after storage of the finished products. The application of recycled oil in the aromatic oil and the flap compound would deliver good economic and environmental beneifts.

  2. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  3. All-Metal Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Sword, Lee F.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    1994-01-01

    Tires used where elastomeric and pneumatic tires would not function. Metal tires withstand extreme temperatures. Used on Earth for vehicles and robots that fight fires or clean up dangerous chemicals.

  4. Revolutionizing tire life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2006-09-15

    Many oil sands operations are optimizing processes to prevent the current tire shortage from affecting profits. Typically, there are 3 options available to operators when dealing with a tire shortage: (1) increase the life of tires; (2) buy more tires from unconventional sources; and (3) park trucks. However, operators in the Elk Valley have seen a 28 per cent increase in the lifespan of their tires through using a variety of different options. Lifespan increases have been attributed to greater awareness of the tire shortage, and improved maintenance practices. Suncor's plant in Fort McMurray has made tires a focus of their operational excellence program. Over the last year a cross-functional task team of operations, maintenance, internal supply and technical personnel has met once a week to review tire strategies. Through a combination of supplier technology improvements and onsite initiatives, tire life has increased from the usual 2000 to 3000 hours to over 10,000 hours. Syncrude Canada has seen a 25 per cent increase in tire life through focusing on payloads, improvements in repair technologies and avoiding spillage from trucks to keep roads clean. Developed to aid operators in prolonging the lives of their tires, the Rimex Tyresense System is currently being tested on the tires of six 930E trucks. The system offers wireless reporting on 6 wheel positions in real time, and monitors heat and pressure on the front and rear axle tires. Operators in the Elk Valley are also optimizing forecasting methods to predict lifetimes of tires in order to adjust tire rotation strategies. Suncor and Syncrude are also working with tire suppliers to develop a tire design for oil sands operations, and are currently testing tires from a variety of international suppliers. Tire-swapping between operations that have varying impacts on tires has also been considered. It was concluded that increasing tire life requires a variety of approaches and solutions. 2 figs.

  5. The analysis of tire rubber traces collected after braking incidents using Pyrolysis-GasChromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, Garry

    2007-09-01

    Automobile tire marks can routinely be found at the scenes of crime, particularly hit-and-run accidents and are left on road surfaces because of sudden braking or the wheels spinning. The tire marks are left due to the friction between the tire rubber and the solid road surface, and do not always demonstrate the tire tread pattern. However, the tire mark will contain traces of the tire. In this study, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze 12 tires from different manufacturer's and their traces collected after braking incidents. Tire marks were left on a conglomerate road surface with sudden braking. The samples were pyrolysed without removal of contaminant in a micro-furnace type pyrolyser. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed on all the samples. All 12 samples were distinguished from each other. Each of the tire traces were identified as coming from there original source.

  6. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  7. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  8. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    measures the three dimensional deformation of the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with...off-road conditions. The combination of these two systems provide the three dimensional geometry, describing the tire-terrain interface from inside...that can be mounted inside a rolling tire, known as T2-CAM for Tire-Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system measures the three dimensional deformation of

  9. Rolling resistance of tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junio, M.; Roesgen, A.; Corvasce, F. [Goodyear Technical Center Luxembourg, Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg)

    1999-07-01

    After a review of the contribution of tire rolling resistance to fuel economy, the tire rolling resistance is defined and measurement methods discussed. The significant effects of the 'external' factors such as load, inflation, temperature, speed, etc. that are not controlled by the tire developers, are reviewed. Tire construction changes that reduce deformations and compound changes reducing hysteresis are discussed and information is provided on what has been achieved so far and what might be done in the future. (orig.)

  10. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja

    2017-01-01

    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  12. 报废汽车回收利用及无害化处理%Recycling and Harmless Treatment of the Discarded Automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利芳; 孟继军; 张蓉

    2014-01-01

    The discarded automobiles dismantling process and major pollutants were introduced. The main exhaust pollutants were winnowing broken-glass exhausts, odor and fugitive emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon. The main solid wastes were waste plastics, broken glass, waste leather fiber, broken dust, sludge, waste batteries, waste oil, waste liquid refrigerant, waste liquefied-gas tank, waste catalysts and oil gloves, oil rags and waste active fiber etc. . Based on the comprehensive review of the current application of the technology used to treat exhaust at home and abroad, the control technology and the problems were introduced. In response to the actually generated, pollution prevention measures were proposed.%介绍了汽车拆解工艺以及拆解过程中主要污染,主要废气污染物为车身破碎风选废气、臭气以及无组织排放的非甲烷总烃,固废为废塑料、碎玻璃、废皮革纤维、破碎粉尘、污泥、废蓄电池、废油液、废制冷剂、废液化气罐、废催化剂以及油手套、油抹布和废活性碳纤维等。结合国内外现有的污染治理措施,详细评述了“三废”治理技术及存在的问题。同时,针对实际产生的情况提出相应的污染防治措施。

  13. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  14. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company (Cooper) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in...

  15. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jorge; Velez, Fernando J.; Ferro, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Some applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to the automobile are identified, and the use of Crossbow MICAz motes operating at 2.4 GHz is considered together with TinyOS support. These WSNs are conceived in order to measure, process and supply to the user diverse types of information during an automobile journey. Examples are acceleration and fuel consumption, identification of incorrect tire pressure, verification of illumination, and evaluation of the vital signals of the driver. A brief survey on WSNs concepts is presented, as well as the way the wireless sensor network itself was developed. Calibration curves were produced which allowed for obtaining luminous intensity and temperature values in the appropriate units. Aspects of the definition of the architecture and the choice/implementation of the protocols are identified. Security aspects are also addressed.

  16. Continental Tire to Build New Tire Plant in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Ye

    2012-01-01

    According to Tire Comments of USA, Continental Tire earlier announced that in order to meet the increasing market demand on replacement tires of USA, German Tire Company had negotiated and reached an agreement on production capacity expansion with the South Carolina Government.

  17. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  18. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  19. An evaluation of some unbraked tire cornering force characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, T. J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of pavement surface condition on the cornering forces developed by a group of 6.50x13 automobile tires of different tread design was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The tests were made at fixed yaw angles of 3,4.5, and 6 deg at forward speeds up to 80 knots on two concrete surfaces of different texture under dry, damp, and flooded conditions. The results showed that the cornering forces were extremely sensitive to tread pattern and runway surface texture under all conditions and that under flooded conditions tire hydroplaning and complete loss of cornering force occurred at a forward velocity predicted from an existing formula based on tire inflation pressure. Futher, tests on the damp concrete with a smooth tire and a four-groove tire showed higher cornering forces at a yaw angle of 3 deg than at 4.5 deg; this indicated that maximum cornering forces are developed at extremely small steering angles under these conditions.

  20. An algorithm for the kinetics of tire pyrolysis under different heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Augustine; Balasubramanian, Rajashekhar

    2009-07-15

    Tires exhibit different kinetic behaviors when pyrolyzed under different heating rates. A new algorithm has been developed to investigate pyrolysis behavior of scrap tires. The algorithm includes heat and mass transfer equations to account for the different extents of thermal lag as the tire is heated at different heating rates. The algorithm uses an iterative approach to fit model equations to experimental data to obtain quantitative values of kinetic parameters. These parameters describe the pyrolysis process well, with good agreement (r(2)>0.96) between the model and experimental data when the model is applied to three different brands of automobile tires heated under five different heating rates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. The model agrees with other researchers' results that frequencies factors increased and time constants decreased with increasing heating rates. The model also shows the change in the behavior of individual tire components when the heating rates are increased above 30 K min(-1). This result indicates that heating rates, rather than temperature, can significantly affect pyrolysis reactions. This algorithm is simple in structure and yet accurate in describing tire pyrolysis under a wide range of heating rates (10-50 K min(-1)). It improves our understanding of the tire pyrolysis process by showing the relationship between the heating rate and the many components in a tire that depolymerize as parallel reactions.

  1. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  2. Fiscal 1996 R and D under a consignment from NEDO of environmental technology such as recycling. 2. Automobile running sound reduction technology (for public); 1996 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (recycle nado kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu). 2. Jidosha sokoon teigen gijutsu (seika hokokusho (kokaiyo ))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Tire/road noise and the running performance were studied. Test were conducted using drum testing machine. If kinds and frequencies of tires are different, noise radiation characteristics are also different, and the degree of the difference are more remarkable in tires of passenger cars than those of large sized cars. There is also observed special frequency noise caused by natural vibration of tires. Noise increases when there are translots in tires, it decreases when having the translots had angles. In hydroplaning, tires which had translots installed inclinedly generate less noise. The sound absorbing rate of the pavement using dense particle asphalt-concrete mixture is low, below 0.2, but the drainage type pavement (three kinds) showed high sound absorbing rates (0.4-0.7) in each kind. Noise reduction by the drainage type pavement was seen also in the engine type noise. Further, prediction of noise propagation was possible to a certain extent using the Allard model. As to lock braking force coefficients on the wet road, there are no definite differences between roads in terms of passenger cars, but the coefficients are higher in the drainage type pavement than that using the dense particle asphalt-concrete mixture in terms of large sized cars. On the dry road, those in the use of dense particle asphalt-concrete mixture are the highest. 3 refs., 96 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. China's Tire Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With strenuous efforts over many years,the tire industry in China has developed rapidly. Both the output and the exported quantity of tires already hold the leading position in the world. China has quickly become a major player in the international tire industry and is making significant impacts.

  4. TIRE WEAR MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a known relationship, an enhanced model for specific tire wear per kilometer has been developed. It is appropriate for practical use - for evaluation of the influence of different factors. Two types of experiments have been carried out with a testing device - one without sideslip, but with a known longitudinal slip, and the other one with the same longitudinal slip but also with a known sideslip. As a result, the coefficients of the proportion of the developed model have been evaluated. After the model validation, an analytical investigation concerning the influence of tire pressure, sideslip and longitudinal slip on the tire wear has been carried out. The results are presented graphically.

  5. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  6. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  7. Building with Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  8. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  9. WASTE TIRES AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre KISS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of energy applied is suitable for control of large amounts of old tires, from the standpoint of convenience, cost control and timeliness. With regard to energy recovery technology, the two processes are discussed in this paper include: direct combustion and pyrolysis.

  10. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Garcia; F. D. B. de Sousa; J.A. Lima; S. A. Cruz; C. H. Scuracchio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natura...

  11. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires. 23.733 Section 23.733 Aeronautics... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static...

  12. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  13. X-ray characterization of tire derived particles resulting from different solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, R.C.; Smithhart, C.B.; Quin, J.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Currently, 200 million scrap tires are being annually stockpiled, landfilled, or illegally dumped, with ca. 50 million scrap tires being recycled in a variety of ways. The current disposal methods are causing numerous short-term environmental problems. Whole tires occupy large amounts of space and may {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} or rise to the top of landfills, causing puncturing of the landfill cover. In an attempt to prevent floating, many landfills require that the scrap tires be shredded, a process which is energy intensive and wasteful. Scrap tire stock piles produce large health risks by providing a place for rodents and mosquitos to breed -- aiding in the spread of diseases. Large stockpile fires have also broken out in major cities in Florida, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. These fires are long lasting and produce unwanted smoke into the environment. For many reasons, the recycling of scrap tires is desirable. This paper describes the processing of scrap tires by several liquids and acids.

  14. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  15. Ring Model for Pneumatic Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危银涛; 范成建; 管迪华

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the ring modeling method for tires, emphasizing the differences among the various tire ring models. A general tire ring model was then developed including all the nonlinear terms in the ring strain and the initial stresses induced by the internal pressure and rotation. The general equations of motion were derived from the Hamilton principle whth the geometric parameters for the model directly obtained from the tire design. The physical parameters were calculated from experimental mode parameters. A numerical example is given for a 195/70 R14-type tire. The analysis shows that the predicted natural frequencies and the tire mode shape agree well with experimental results.

  16. "Tired" Professors Can Be Rejuvenated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At a recent national conference, colleagues from different academic disciplines but all worked in college or university teaching-improvement programs found that the subject most frequently discussed was how to improve the teaching of "tired" faculty members. Tired faculty members are most often senior professors who have worked at their…

  17. STUDY ON CONTACTING MELTING AND ANTI-SKID TECHNOLOGY FOR A TIRE TRACTION ON ICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of the mechanisms of melting film formation are performed. The results show that frictional heating is the dominant mechanism because temperature behaves in the manner predicted by the theory of frictional heating. A study of the active technology for anti-skid is also made. Conclusions indicate that adjusting tire pneumatic pressure can improve the control stability and the travelling safety of an ice-automobile.

  18. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  19. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  20. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  1. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate...

  2. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or...

  3. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  4. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  5. Analysis of Physical Properties and Mineralogical of Pyrolysis Tires Rubber Ash Compared Natural Sand in Concrete material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Waste tires pose significant health and environmental concerns if not recycled or discarded properly. At the same time, natural sand is becoming scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability. Waste tires as fine aggregate can be an economical and sustainable alternative to the natural sand. Recent years, the interest on recycling waste tires into civil engineering applications by the researchers has increased. In this research, the chemical and physical properties of the tires rubber ash and the natural sand have been analysed. The densities of the rubber ash are lower than the natural sand. Rubber ash had finer particle size compared to the natural sand. Almost all chemical in the natural sand had in rubber ash with the additional sulphur trioxide and zinc oxide in the rubber ash, made the rubber ash better than natural sand. Rubber ash seems to be a suitable material to use in concrete as sand replacement.

  6. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  7. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  8. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    HYBRID SOFT SOIL TIRE MODEL (HSSTM). PART I: TIRE MATERIAL AND STRUCTURE MODELING Taheri, Sh.a,1, Sandu, C.a...model the dynamic behavior of the tire on soft soil , a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the...terrains (such as sandy loam) and tire force and moments, soil sinkage, and tire deformation data were collected for various case studies based on a

  9. Recycling Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available What do you do after a product has served its function and is no longer needed? Ideally, you recycle it. What do you do if people have neglected or forgotten so much of what has been learned in recent years about paper recycling? Well, one of the things that someone can do is to write a book. Very little of the contents of such a book may be new. But the book itself can be highly valuable, representing a lot of effort to select and organized material that will be helpful for the current and upcoming generations of papermaking technologists. This editorial describes a new book by Dr. Pratima Bajpai entitled Recycling and Deinking of Recovered Paper. Readers who deal with the recycling of paper will probably want to have a copy of it on a handy shelf.

  10. Experiment Study on Inner and Outer Tire Steering Angle with Considering Lateral Sliding Angle for Heavy Duty Automobile%卡车考虑轮胎侧偏影响的内外轮转角关系试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁鹏翔

    2011-01-01

    It is introduced method about the relationship of inner and outer steering angle by considering lateral sliding. And with this method, the change of inner and outer steering angle by turning the steering wheel is analysed by experiment. It is showed that ackerman correction benefits the decrease of tire wear at small angle. But when steering angle increases step by step the difference of inner and outer steering angle is increasing which makes ackerman correction high to accelerate tire wear.%介绍了一种考虑轮胎侧偏影响的车轮内外角关系研究的方法,并通过试验分析了车轮内外轮的转角关系变化,同时使用该方法对车轮转角关系进行了分析。结果表明,在小转角的时候,百分比阿克曼校正率在合理范围内,随着转角增大该值逐步增大,轮胎内外轮侧偏角的差值也逐渐增大,使得轮胎磨损趋势增加。

  11. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety using wireless strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-03-01

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  12. Intelligent Tires Based on Measurement of Tire Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a ‘safe’ reference value.

  13. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  16. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  17. Approaches of Japan and Western nations to automobile fuel consumption improvement; Jidosha nenpi kaizen ni kansuru Nippon Obei no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M. [Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Some views are expressed toward the improvement of automobile fuel consumption. There is no need to give up the convenience that the automobile offers for the purpose of energy-saving. What is needed is the effective use of energy, and the most important technological tasks in this connection is the improvement of fuel consumption. Thanks to the efforts exerted by Japanese businesses, and to reduction in automobile size and improvement on engine performance in the Western countries, fuel consumption has steadily improved, only to reach a level where no more large-scale progress is expected without innovative technologies. For example, the adoption of the lean-burn system for higher performance will deteriorate the convenience that automobiles offer and efforts for lightening automobile bodies will encounter constraints (germane to recycling and pricing) in choosing proper materials. This report also evaluates alternate-energy automobiles and comments on Japan`s decision on its fuel consumption improvement targets. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Neutron vibrational spectroscopic studies of novel tire-derived carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchao; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke L; Veith, Gabriel M; Levine, Alan M; Lee, Richard J; Mahurin, Shannon M; Dai, Sheng; Naskar, Amit K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2017-08-23

    Sulfonated tire-derived carbons have been demonstrated to be high value-added carbon products of tire recycling in several energy storage system applications including lithium, sodium, potassium ion batteries and supercapacitors. In this communication, we compared different temperature pyrolyzed sulfonated tire-derived carbons with commercial graphite and unmodified/non-functionalized tire-derived carbon by studying the surface chemistry and properties, vibrational spectroscopy of the molecular structure, chemical bonding such as C-H bonding, and intermolecular interactions of the carbon materials. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption studies revealed the tailored micro and meso pore size distribution of the carbon during the sulfonation process. XPS and neutron vibrational spectra showed that the sulfonation of the initial raw tire powders could remove the aliphatic hydrogen containing groups ([double bond splayed left]CH2 and -CH3 groups) and reduce the number of heteroatoms that connect to carbon. The absence of these functional groups could effectively improve the first cycle efficiency of the material in rechargeable batteries. Meanwhile, the introduced -SO3H functional group helped in producing terminal H at the edge of the sp(2) bonded graphite-like layers. This study reveals the influence of the sulfonation process on the recovered hard carbon from used tires and provides a pathway to develop and improve advanced energy storage materials.

  20. Low temperature decomposition of styrene-butadiene rubber and used tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyung Jin [Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Kimpo College, Kimpo (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The disposal of automotive tires is an increasing environmental and economic problem but few methods have been proposed to tackle the problematic wastes in a systematic and efficient way. Therefore there is a demand for new recycling systems for automotive tires. Tire and raw material of tire i.e., SBR were degraded using supercritical fluid (SCF) process that is the low temperature degradation process relative to the convectional thermal degradation process. The oil yield was increased and that of char was decreased with the increased reaction temperature and pressure in SCF process. Byt the effect of temperature was larger than those of pressure. The oil yields of tire were 33.8-59.2% and 49.1-72.8% using THF and benzene respectively. So, benzene was suitable solvent in SCF process. The number average molecular weights of SBR and tire were decreased with the increased reaction time and temperature. The oil components were mostly 20 aromatic compounds. The optimum condition of SCF process was 320 degree C, 4000 psi in the case of benzene as a supercritical fluid. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  2. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  3. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  4. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  5. Power Transmission of UHF Passive Embedded RFID in Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbo Hu; Bing Si; Heng Shu; Jinrong Mo

    2014-01-01

    UHF passive RFID tags embedded in tires have a deep impact on tire life cycle management and tire monitoring. In this work, we present the power transmission of UHF passive embedded RFID in tires. In UHF passive embedded RFID systems in tires, the bidirectional radio link between reader and tags goes through air and tires. The total path loss contains reflection loss at tire-air boundaries and attenuation loss in the tires. The power transmission is based on the permittivity of tires and tire...

  6. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  7. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires. 25.733 Section 25.733 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a single wheel and tire assembly, the wheel must be fitted with...

  8. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  9. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  10. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  11. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  12. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  13. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media.

  14. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  15. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  16. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGROOVED TIRES § 569.9 Labeling of regroovable tires. (a) Regroovable tires. After August 30, 1969, each tire designed and constructed for regrooving shall be...

  17. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... purchasers, or non-pneumatic tires or non-pneumatic tire assemblies, by permanently molding into or onto the... manufacturer of a non-pneumatic tire or a non-pneumatic tire assembly shall permanently mold, stamp...

  18. Recovery and Modification of Waste Tire Particles and Their Use as Reinforcements of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by solid wastes is increasing in the last decades; one of these is referred to automotive tires, which are recycled by different methods, including mechanical grinding. One of the most recurrent applications is to use recycled particles as fillers in building materials, as hydraulic concrete. Nevertheless, detrimental values on the mechanical properties are obtained when they are added. For solving these problems, in this work, a novel proposal is to modify the physicochemical properties of the waste automotive tire particles, previously obtained by grinding process, by using gamma irradiation in order to use them as reinforcements of hydraulic concrete. The results show that improvements on the mechanical properties depend of gamma irradiation as well as concentration and size of waste tire particles. Moreover, SEM images are related to mechanical properties; for instance, rough surface of the tire particles changes when applying irradiation; more smooth surfaces are created, due to the cross-linking of polymer chains. Nevertheless, for higher doses, cracks are observed which are produced by scission of the polymer chains.

  19. Automobile shredder residue : a waste or a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2000-07-01

    In recent years several recycling and resource recovery technologies have been tested for the challenging task of recycling automobile shredder residues (ASR) with varying degrees of success. ASR is the nonrecyclable residue that remains after recyclable metals are extracted from old automobiles. The use of ASR as a landfill day cover seems to be a viable alternative for this material. Scientific evidence suggests that ASR is capable of acting as a sponge for heavy metals. The absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metal lead was presented along with evaluations for both standard leaching test protocols and dynamic column testing. Compared to soil, ASR has a greater absorption capacity for heavy metals such as lead. ASR also has other desirable features that make it an ideal choice for landfill day cover. For example, ASR provides a stable mat for vehicle traffic, minimizes erosion due to rainfall run off and is less prone to dusting. ASR is also capable of compression to less than 5 cm when overfilled. This conserves landfill volume and allows excavated soil to be used for other purposes. In addition, the use of ASR could prevent contamination of groundwater by preventing the leaching of heavy metals from landfills. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch...

  1. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  2. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles)...

  4. 轮胎动力学特性仿真分析研究%Simulation analysis research on tire dynamic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹力; 于江江

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the various commonly used tire model of the characteristics and application scope, according to the vehicle handling dynamics research needs, under Matlab environment using magic formula established tire dynamics model, and the automobile tire force and longitudinal slip rate, longitudinal force, lateral force and aligning torque and longitudinal slip rate, side Angle, camber Angle, vertical load such as the relation of the tire characteristics simulation analysis, the experimental results show that magic formula tire dynamics model can very well simulate the dynamic properties of tire, applicable to vehicle dynamics research field%分析了各种常用轮胎模型的特点与应用范围,根据汽车操纵动力学研究的需求,在Matlab环境下运用魔术公式建立了轮胎动力学模型,并对汽车轮胎力与纵向滑移率,纵向力、侧向力及回正力矩与纵向滑移率、侧偏角、外倾角、垂直载荷的关系等轮胎特性进行了仿真分析,实验结果表明,魔术公式轮胎动力学模型可以较好地模拟轮胎的动力学特性,适用于车辆动力学研究领域。

  5. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.733 Tires. Each landing... is not exceeded under— (1) The design maximum weight; (2) A load on each main wheel tire equal to the... obtained at the nose wheel, assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts as the most critical center...

  8. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  9. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... buildup factor shown in Table 1 from the measured inflation pressure. Table 1—Inflation...

  10. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  11. The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.

    2016-02-01

    The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.

  12. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  13. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may...

  14. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Gungor, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Kocaman, Suheyla, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  15. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  16. Comparison of end-of-life tire treatment technologies: a Chinese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfu; Xu, He; Gao, Yingnan; Tao, Yijun

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare different end-of-life tire (ELT) treatment technologies in China from an environmental and economic perspective. Four treatment technologies were evaluated: ambient grinding, devulcanization, pyrolysis and illegal tire oil extraction. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impact of each treatment based on the Eco-indicator 99 (Hierarchist approach) method provided by GaBi 4 software. The final result shows that pyrolysis represents the environmentally benign option while illegal tire oil extraction caused the worst damages. For the three legal treatments, although high credit was obtained when considering avoided impacts from recycled materials and energy, they have great impact as to respiratory effects (inorganic) dominantly contributed by energy production stage, which implies that the emphasis on environmental policies related to ELT treatment should shift from the control of emissions from treatment process to the reduction of energy consumption. A simplified comparison of net benefits and total impacts shows that the most eco-effective ELT treatment technology is pyrolysis, followed by dynamic devulcanization and ambient grinding. The illegal tire oil extraction, however, must be prohibited immediately because of its highest environmental pollution and lowest net benefit.

  17. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  18. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  20. Tire/road dynamic contact : study of different approaches to modelling of a tire

    OpenAIRE

    PAHLEVANI, Ladan; Duhamel, Denis; Hai-Ping, Yin; Cumunel, Gwendal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of safety and environment, reduction of the noise generated by tire vibrations on a road is very significant. In order to study the vibration properties of vehicle tires, various methods have been presented in literature. In most of these methods, the global structure of tires has been modelled as circular ring, orthotropic plate, periodic or full 3-dimensional models. A brief review of the characteristics of these models and comparison of their dynamic behaviour are the main purpose...

  1. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  2. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    rubber gasket that provides an air seal. Always replace the plastic cap with a metal cap or a self-sealing nylon cap. (6) Bend the valve stem to...Bead base The inner portion of the bead that is seated on the bead seat. Bead bundle A circumferentially stiff hoop usually made of steel wires

  3. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  4. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  5. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  6. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing... obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  7. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  8. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  9. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  10. Roadway Automobile Stability. A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Nedev, Valentin; Bachvarov, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of the roadway automobile motion is numerically analyzed. This model is intended to describe the roadway automobile stability. A previous paper [6] described the model in detail and the general method of qualitative analysis. In the present paper, we continue the discussion of stability by numerical simulations and the specific question we attempted to answer is: which parameter(s) of automobile geometry and quality of the roadway can serve as a reliable predictor(s) for ...

  11. Power Transmission of UHF Passive Embedded RFID in Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UHF passive RFID tags embedded in tires have a deep impact on tire life cycle management and tire monitoring. In this work, we present the power transmission of UHF passive embedded RFID in tires. In UHF passive embedded RFID systems in tires, the bidirectional radio link between reader and tags goes through air and tires. The total path loss contains reflection loss at tire-air boundaries and attenuation loss in the tires. The power transmission is based on the permittivity of tires and tire-air boundary conditions. We give an OCP method for measuring the permittivity of tires. By analyzing the radio link for UHF passive RFID, we establish a model of wave propagation of UHF embedded RFID in tires and make numerical analyses. Numerical analyses show that the error of the OCP methods for measuring the permittivity of tires is small, the parallel polarization and normal incidence of wave are chosen for improving the performance of the UHF embedded RFID in tires, and distance is chosen to keep power transmission function from locating valley.

  12. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment.

  13. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  14. Preliminary studies of the rubber from unserviceable tires irradiated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e, E-mail: blgasilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays there is a growth in the developing processes for modification of polymers with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, electron beam) for several industrial applications. An option is ionizing radiation process due to their capacity of inducing crosslinking and scission on a wide range of polymeric materials without initiators or chemicals products. This method has significant advantages on economical and ecological fields, when compared to chemical, thermal and mechanical process. The rubber recycling has been extensively discussed, mainly related to tire. There are reports with data about production and consumption of rubber and unserviceable tire. There is very few information about the destination of others rubber items, incineration and landfill are the main methods for elimination of unserviceable tire, however those methods are not environmentally friendly. It is necessary to study better and effective methods to recycle and to give value to rubber residue. This work is about the use of ionizing radiation for the recovery and/or reuse and processing rubber of unserviceable tire. The samples were irradiated with 200, 400 and 600 kGy radiation dose, 22.39 kGy/s dose rates, at room temperature and in the presence of air using an 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The analyses were performed from room temperature up to 600 deg C, heating rate of 10 deg C/min in the presence of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and air. By this technique it was possible to observe the effects of the radiation dose on the weight loss. (author)

  15. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  16. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  17. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  18. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de Andre

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire ma

  19. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  20. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  1. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  2. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  3. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  4. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  5. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-04-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  6. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz; Maria Rachel Russo Seydell

    2009-01-01

    The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber...

  7. Effect Of Operating Conditions On Scrap Tire Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo; Antonio Carlos Luz Lisbôa; Manoel Orlando Alvarez Méndez; Aparecido dos Reis Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  8. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must...

  9. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for tires. 1512.10 Section 1512... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.10 Requirements for tires. The manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less...

  11. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  12. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  13. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  14. Life cycle perspective of plastic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhorn, R. [Targeted Research on Waste Minimization and Recycling Project, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Some recent European Union directives on recycling plastics are discussed, with particular reference to the automobile industry, highlighting developing chemical technologies such as selective solution/precipitation approaches, to increase the fraction of high quality recyclates. Some promising technologies, including separation by tribo-electrical charging, sorting by optical means, separation by gasification, dissolution, hydrogenation and co-processing with heavy oil residues are described, with examples involving the conversion of mixed plastic waste by gasification, and the production of PA6 monomer from carpet waste. Conclusion based on study results to date indicate that with regard to 'end of life' vehicles the driving force for dismantling is the recovery of resalable parts and metal, not plastic. Technologies for dismantling are seen as relatively crude. Moreover, the large investment required to construct a full dismantling facility and the lack of a well-developed 'after market' for recycled products makes it unlikely that such a facility will be built in the near future. The most promising way to cope with the economic and ecological challenges appears to be a combination of chemical recycling and energy recovery, accompanied by an aggressive effort to develop the 'after market' for the recycled products. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  15. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  17. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  18. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  19. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH USED TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufikayo Aderinlewo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the properties of asphalt mix modified with ground tire. The ground tire was introduced into the asphalt in a melted form at varying percentages of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of the asphalt. The properties of the asphalt mixed with the ground tire were then obtained through penetration, softening point, flash and fire point and ductility tests. These properties were then compared with those of the control asphalt to determine the effectiveness of the ground tire in improving the asphalt properties. The results showed that the ground tire additive improved the asphalt properties considerably.

  1. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  2. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply... Cooper has met its burden of persuasion that the subject FMVSS No. 139 labeling noncompliances are...

  3. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  4. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  5. Automobile Shredder Residues in Italy: characterization and valorization opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Zanetti, M C

    2012-08-01

    At the moment Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) is usually landfilled worldwide, but European draft Directive 2000/53/CE forces the development of alternative solutions, stating the 95%-wt recovery of an End of Life Vehicle (ELV) weight to be fulfilled by 2015. This work describes two industrial tests, each involving 250-300 t of ELVs, in which different pre-shredding operations were performed. The produced ASR materials underwent an extended characterization and some post-shredding processes, consisting of dimensional, magnetic, electrostatic and densimetric separation phases, were tested on laboratory scale, having as main purpose the enhancement of ASR recovery/recycling and the minimization of the landfilled fraction. The gathered results show that accurate depollution and dismantling operations are mandatory to obtain a high quality ASR material which may be recycled/recovered and partially landfilled according to the actual European Union regulations, with particular concern for Lower Heating Value (LHV), heavy metals content and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as critical parameters. Moreover post-shredding technical solutions foreseeing minimum economic and engineering efforts, therefore realizable in common European ELVs shredding plants, may lead to multi-purposed (material recovery and thermal valorization) opportunities for ASR reuse/recovery.

  6. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  7. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  8. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  9. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inch deep. (1) Inspection procedure. Passenger car tires have tread depth indicators that become exposed when tread depth is less than two thirty-seconds of an inch. Inspect for indicators in any two... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type...

  10. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  11. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  12. Study of coagulant development and the characteristics for the treatment of tire remanufacturing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, E.S.; Yoon, I.M. [School of Natural Sciences, Honam Univ., Gwangju (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to test the performance of various combinations of coagulants for effective wastewater treatment of the tire recycling industry. From the jar-test results, two kinds of coagulants, namely AlSi-1 and PASi-1, were found to be effective in decreasing BOD and COD{sub Cr} values from the polluted wastewater among various combinations of coagulants. In comparison to Al-based or Si-based singular salts, the Si-Al combined salts (PASi-1) exhibited a higher removal efficiency of 90% turbidity, 93% SS, 70 {proportional_to} 85% BOD{sub 5} and 85 {proportional_to} 91% COD{sub Cr} at 15 {+-} 2 C, pH7.5 {proportional_to} 9.5 and 2.0 mM of coagulant dosage. At 30 {+-} 2 C of tire recycling effluents, the combination effect was clearly shown in the removal of COD{sub Cr} over a wider range of pH. The reaction mechanisms of AlSi-1 and PASi-1 were also schematically studied. (orig.)

  13. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  14. The First Color Tire of Doublestar-Dongfeng Tape-out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On November 16, the first color tire produced by Dou- blestar-Dongfeng Tire Co., Ltd. was taped out into the market, and military camouflage tires, color high-grade passenger car tires, color truck radial tires, color off-road tires and color per-sonality fashion tires were also taped out in the meantime, which have broken through the only market of black tires. Besides, the first color all steel tire of Double Star also made a successful test run experiment that traveled different kinds of roads and tens of thousands of kilometers.

  15. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  16. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  17. Determination of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates in tire and clothing textile samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny; Westerholm, Roger

    2013-09-13

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode has been developed for the separation and detection of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates. Ultra-sonication assisted solvent extraction of these compounds has also been developed and the overall method demonstrated on a selected clothing textile and an automobile tire sample. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries, as well as linearity and limits of detection have been evaluated. The calibration curves spanned over more than two orders of magnitude with coefficients of correlation R(2)>0.99 and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range 1.7-58pg injected and 18-140pg/g, respectively. The extraction recoveries ranged between 69% and 102% and the matrix effects between 75% and 101%. Benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates were determined in the textile sample and benzothiazole derivatives determined in the tire sample with good analytical performance.

  18. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial... September 20, 2013, based on a complaint filed by Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd. of Japan; Toyo Tire Holdings of Americas Inc. of Cypress, California; Toyo Tire U.S.A. Corp. of Cypress, California; Nitto Tire...

  19. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recapping or retreading tires for sale. 779.366 Section 779... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  20. Regulation and government programs from a Canadian recyclers perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L.G. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The environmental benefits of recycling were described. Recycling was defined as taking products at the end of their useful lives and then sorting and processing them to produce a secondary source of materials that can be used in the production of new goods. Recycling results in energy savings, creates jobs and reduces the demand for larger or more landfills. The author discussed many pros and cons regarding recycling in the following areas of concern: (1) the dumping of hazardous wastes by developed nations on developing nations, (2) the charging of disposal fees for waste, (3) taxing products made from recycled materials, (4) the use of air bags in automobiles, (5) the release of CFC from refrigerators, (6) blue box recycling programs, and (7) waste management at industrial parks. The actual response by various governments to these issues were also described. It was emphasized that often laws and regulations designed to control waste management when applied to recycling do not actually produce environmental improvements. Finally, new approaches with environmental solutions to some of the dilemmas associated with recycling were presented. 1 tab.

  1. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  2. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (h) Scrap metal processors and shredders that receive automobiles for recycling where the condition... supplier's compliance with NMVTIS cannot be ascertained, however, scrap metal processors and shredders must... determined based on this inspection, scrap metal processors and shredders may rely on primary...

  3. Tribology of tire and safety in rainy weather; Tire no tribology to utenjino soko anzensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, S. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The paper described a method to estimate friction coefficients between tire and road surface according to the road situation and a system to alarm hydroplaning generated in traveling. In the dynamic calculation on tire having been made so far, all should have been known including the length and width of tire ground, characteristics of tread rubber, and characteristics of side wall. Moreover, various characteristics of these change due to ware of tire, and there was a problem in real-time theoretical calculation of friction coefficients. Noticing that braking stiffness includes various characteristics of tire, the author and others found out that various characteristics needed for the calculation are sought from the force before/after the micro-braking/disturbance state and the slip ratio, and the problem was solved. The hydroplaning generated in driving the car can be noticed by measuring braking stiffness at the time of micro-accelerating/decelerating in traveling. It is expected to possibly express 'the degree of risk' and tell driver about it by the size of the braking stiffness. (NEDO)

  4. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  5. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber...

  6. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that..., Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, is a...

  7. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Cypress, California; Nitto Tire U.S.A. Inc. of Cypress, California; and Toyo Tire North America... Plaza Drive, Suite 200, Cypress, CA 90630 Nitto Tire U.S.A. Inc., 5665 Plaza Drive, Suite 200,...

  8. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    n- trac t<’d rebuildcr. All the se parations or defects were "natural". arising during th e manufacture or th e se rvice life of the tire . 1 one...500 tire test revealed the requirement to inspect the tires at 175 !^.iv;;.v.rai0; ^ ,.„.j«.^^:,.i...i^.».... vtt |:rj)ai| iJI \\: _:__^i

  9. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    when raytracing . Creating more complex models to better approximate the tire’s shape almost always requires more resources than can be justified...patterns can slow down a raytrace considerably. A strategy for models that will have a variety of uses is to include both treaded and slick (nontreaded...insert the default tire model. 12 8. Structure of a Tire Model Although it is not visible to the eye in normal raytracing , the tire models do include

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  11. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-04

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  12. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall height, and tire filling material. Simplified calculation model with spring-damper is derived from radial repeated compression test of used tire, which improves the calculation efficiency. Test and numerical simulation show that application of used tire cushion layer in rock shed can cushion rockfall impact and effectively reduce peak acceleration and the maximum impact force. Filling sand and gravel in tire can improve tire stiffness and energy absorption capacity but will decrease cushion effect due to its large density. With the same impact energy, light rockfall is more destructive than weight rockfall for used tire cushion layer.

  13. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  14. Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Tires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prapan KUCHONTHARA; Yukihiko MATSUMURA

    2001-01-01

      Supercritical water liquefaction of scrap tire rubber and Ishikari coal, separately and in mixtures was investigated to study the possible synergetic effects of coliquefaction between the feedstocks...

  15. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  16. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  17. Future possibilities for energy-storage automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-04-23

    Because of the potential threat of a future petroleum shortage, there is increased interest in developing alternative propulsion systems for automobiles, systems that will allow the nation to reduce its demand for petroleum by this part of the transportation sector. A four-year study which assessed the future of energy storage devices for use in automobile propulsion systems has been completed. Results of the energy storage device evaluation are presented. This includes projections of future device characteristics. In addition, the results of the propulsion system analysis are given. Future energy storage automobiles were conceptually designed and they are compared to each other and the baseline internal combustion engine vehicle for several levels of performance.

  18. Research Progress in Recycling of Waste Tyre%废轮胎资源化利用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瑞景; 关杰; 梁波

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber at home and abroad are reviewed, waste tire as example. The recycling status of waste tires in China, status quo and development of conventional recycling technology and pyrolysis disposal were reviewed. Pyrolysis technology is one kind of highly effective and the recycling of the emerging technology. It is in focused on the processing of waste tires. Several kinds of scrap tire pyrolysis technology application situation, existing problems and development trend is described. It is pointed out that the innovation, the quality of the pyrolysis products of pyrolysis technology improvement and utilization of the future development trend of recycling the waste tire has high economic and environmental value, which is helpful to solve the problem of rubber resources shortage in our country.%以废旧轮胎为例,综述了国内外废橡胶的回收利用、我国废轮胎的回收利用、常规资源化技术以及热解等处理方式的现状和发展趋势。热解技术是一种高效的、新兴的资源化处理技术,在废旧轮胎处理中受到了重点关注,详述了几种废旧轮胎热解技术应用现状、存在的突出问题及发展动向。指出热解技术的革新、热解产品的质量改善和资源化利用是未来的发展趋势,废轮胎的回收再利用具有较高的经济和环保价值,有利于解决我国橡胶资源短缺的问题。

  19. Consumption values and consumer attitude towards automobile purchase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Naveed Altaf; Selvan Perumal; Zolkifli Hussin

    2017-01-01

    .... A survey of 200 automobile consumers from Islamabad, Pakistan, selected via convenience sampling, was used to draw results on how consumers' consumption values affected their attitude towards automobile purchase...

  20. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  1. Model-based tire-road friction estimation for passenger vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Ning

    2009-07-01

    Except for aerodynamic force and gravity, all other forces that act on a vehicle have to be transmitted to the road by its tires. Tire-road friction information, in particular, the potential friction coefficient plays a significant role for longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics. To obtain high performance of vehicle dynamics control system (VDCS) and driver assistant systems (DAS) such as ABS, TCS, ESC, ACC and so on, the potential friction coefficient is necessary to be provided as a key parameter for such systems. The estimation technique of the potential friction coefficient is mainly based on the three sensor clusters, i.e., in-vehicle standard sensors, tire sensors and environmental sensors. Without any additional or expensive sensor, the approach based on in-vehicle standard sensors can be expected by automobile industry more easily. In this work, the approach has been first studied and then by using the additional IMU sensor. In the thesis, the friction estimator has been at first proposed on horizontal surfaces according to in-vehicle standard sensors. The tire model with the specific parametrization for longitudinal and lateral dynamics has been developed. The stability behavior of observer-based numerical implementation has been analyzed and the observer-based solution to the stability problem has been proposed. Considering practical driving with different tire slip angles of front and real wheels, the improved observer scheme LADE based on lateral dynamics has been proposed to estimate potential friction coefficient for front and rear wheels. The observer scheme LODE has been described to estimate potential friction potential coefficient for each wheel in braking situations and for each rear wheel in accelerating situations. To enhance the estimation performance, based on the basic theory of fault diagnosis the estimation quality monitoring system (EQMS) has been proposed to solve a possibly false convergence problem due to the uncertainties of the

  2. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  3. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  4. Experimental study on countermeasure against liquefaction-induced flotation of manhole using recycled materials packed in sandbags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaho Yoshida; Masaru Tonoo; Masakatsu Miyajima; Masaru Kitaura

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu earthquake in Japan caused serious damage to sewage facilities such as uplift of manholes and settlement of pavement above backfill soil for pipes. This paper deals with shake table tests in a 1 g gravity field on application of recycled materials for ground improvement to mitigation of liquefaction-induced flotation of manhole during earthquakes. The recycled materials used in tests were tire chips made of waste tires and crushed gravels made of waste reinforced concrete, and they were packed in sandbags. From the test results, it was confirmed that the recycled materials packed in sandbags could be treated as one of the countermeasures to restrain the flotation of manholes and settlement of ground surrounded by sandbags.

  5. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic. PMID:28208631

  6. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  7. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.11 Special rules for automobile...

  8. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  9. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  10. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  11. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  12. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  13. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposing a new consumer information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to a... union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR...

  14. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  15. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  16. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF TIRE MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern tire merges up to 300 different chemical elements, both organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic. During manufacturing, various processes are present such as mixing, calendering and extrusion, forming dozens of individual parts. Then, moulding and vulcanization inside special moulds provides the tire its final shape. Since the surface quality of moulds strongly affects the quality of tire, mould cleaning is a fundamental aspect of the whole tire production and cleaning techniques are in continuous development. This investigation proposes a global technology assessment of tire mould cleaning systems including uncommon solutions as multi-axis robots for cleaning on board by laser or dry ice, or ultrasonic cleaning which use cavitation. A specific attention is also focused on the industry adoption of spring-vents in moulds and how they are influencing the development the quality of final products.

  17. WTO UpholdsU.S.Tariffs on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lesley Cui

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization on September 5released the ruling of its Appellate Body,upholding President Obama's decision to impose three-year punitive tariffs on Chinese passenger and light truck tires.The Obama administration in September 2009placed a 35 percent safeguard duty on tires for cars and light trucks that Chinese manufacturers exported to the US,after the United Steelworkers (USW) complained that surging imports hurt home producers.Chinese tire imports were shown to have surged to record levels in the five years prior to the filing of the petition,causing significant market disruption.According to the USW,Chinese tire imports by volume grew 215%from 2004 until 2008,reaching a volume of 46 million tires.

  18. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  19. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  20. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  1. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  2. Limonene ethers from tire pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanciulescu, Maria; Ikura, Michio [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    Tire pyrolysis oil was produced by EnerVision Inc., Halifax, Canada using the continuous ablative reactor (CAR) system. The tire oil was separated by distillation into several fractions. Naphtha and limonene enriched naphtha were reacted with methanol over different catalysts. Batch experiments were carried out to separate limonene as methyl limonene ethers. Whole tire pyrolysis oil was distilled and the resulting distillates were redistilled to separate the limonene (bp about 176{sup o}C). Vacuum distillation yielded on average 25.5wt% naphtha containing 16.3wt% limonene (average). Redistillation increased the limonene concentration to approximately 32-37wt%. The conversion of limonene (mono-terpene) to limonene ethers (terpenoides) shifted the boiling point of the limonene derivatives out of the naphtha boiling range (IBP -190{sup o}C). This allowed the separation of fragrant limonene ethers from foul smelling naphtha. Alkoxylation reactions were performed mostly using methanol and acidic catalysts. The methyl ether [1-methyl-4-({alpha}-methoxy-isopropyl)-1-cyclohexene] has a boiling point of about 198{sup o}C which is higher than the end boiling point of the naphtha cut. Five heterogeneous catalysts (four zeolites and one ion exchange resin) were tested in a batch reactor. {beta}-Zeolite produced excellent results. The reaction of R-(+)-limonene with methanol in the presence of activated {beta}-zeolite yielded methyl ether, 87.5% at selectivity 89.7% with a maximum of 2h reaction time. Limonene conversion from whole naphtha to ethers was also high. (author)

  3. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, M. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA; Paranthaman, M. Parans [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Naskar, Amit K. [The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Li, Yunchao [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Akato, Kokouvi [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Gogotsi, Y. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2 g-1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98 % after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π–π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life—a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  4. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  5. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of self-combustion risk in tire derived aggregate fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marcos; San Martin, Ignacio; Olivella, Sebastian; Saaltink, Maarten W

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight tire derived aggregate (TDA) fills are a proven recycling outlet for waste tires, requiring relatively low cost waste processing and being competitively priced against other lightweight fill alternatives. However its value has been marred as several TDA fills have self-combusted during the early applications of this technique. An empirical review of these cases led to prescriptive guidelines from the ASTM aimed at avoiding this problem. This approach has been successful in avoiding further incidents of self-combustion. However, at present there remains no rational method available to quantify self-combustion risk in TDA fills. This means that it is not clear which aspects of the ASTM guidelines are essential and which are accessory. This hinders the practical use of TDA fills despite their inherent advantages as lightweight fill. Here a quantitative approach to self-combustion risk evaluation is developed and illustrated with a parametric analysis of an embankment case. This is later particularized to model a reported field self-combustion case. The approach is based on the available experimental observations and incorporates well-tested methodological (ISO corrosion evaluation) and theoretical tools (finite element analysis of coupled heat and mass flow). The results obtained offer clear insights into the critical aspects of the problem, allowing already some meaningful recommendations for guideline revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  8. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  9. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  10. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  11. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonhighway tires. 48.4073-3 Section 48.4073-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires of certain sizes. 48.4073-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  13. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires...

  16. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  17. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  18. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Siringi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tire derived aggregate (TDA has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  19. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  20. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  1. Study of heat production and transfer in shredded tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellassie, Kassahun G.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the heat transfer properties of shredded tires. The heat coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size

  2. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  3. Recycling of demolished concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, S. [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Iida, K. [Technology Centre of Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    There is a significant amount of research being conducted in Japan on ways to recycle demolished concrete. The material is already being used for road bases and foundations, but in the future, the concrete will have to be recycled as concrete aggregate. Recycling may also include the cement in the concrete in order to address the issue of global warming and carbon dioxide reductions. This initiative is in response to predictions that in the future there will be tremendous quantities of demolished concrete to deal with. Recycling of cement is also necessary in terms of resolving environmental problems and promoting sustainable development. The properties of concrete made with recycled aggregates were described and were compared with original concrete made of known materials. The paper also proposed an approach that should be taken to recycling concrete in the twenty-first century in which reduced limestone was used to reclaim cement. Recycled concrete with cement requires more energy, but uses less resources and discharges less carbon dioxide. Currently, recycled aggregate does not meet the Japanese Industrial Standard for concrete aggregate. The resistance to freeze/thaw cycles was not adequate. The amount of mortar adhered to the recycled aggregate had little affect on the strength and durability of recycled concrete. It was concluded that the quality of recycled concrete aggregate depends on the quality of original concrete. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  5. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data.

  6. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  7. Extraction of tire size code using local phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; He, Jin; Huang, Zhanhua

    2009-11-01

    Tire size code (TSC) specifies the dimensions of the tire, and some of its key limitations, such as load-bearing ability and maximum speed. The key challenge of vision based TSC identification is the low contrast of TSC to tire background. In order to extract TSC from low-contrast tire images, this paper proposed to consider the contours of TSC as the symmetry axes of the neighbor pixels along the contours. The symmetry axes were detected using local phase information which is robust to image brightness and contrast. Firstly, the ring shaped tire region was segmented and then expanded to a rectangular region, where all characters were upright. Due to the intensity values of the neighbor pixels along the contours of TSC were symmetric, the contours in low-contrast tire image were enhanced using local phase information, which is computed by Log-Gabor wavelets. Finally, the thin contours were extracted by non-maxima suppression and thresholding with hysteresis. Experiments on real tire images showed that, in comparison with intensity based algorithms, the proposed algorithm were robust to uneven illumination and low-contrast.

  8. Management of used tires, accomplishments in the world, and situation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that all over the world there are more than 550 million road vehicles in everyday use. Annually, 1.3 billion used tyres are dismantled from these vehicles due to safety reasons. A small number of these tyres end up reused as second-hand tyres or, after being retreated, as new ones. The rest are end of life tyres which are recycled or used as tire derived fuels under controlled combustion conditions. Modern vehicle tyres are a high-technological product containing, on the average, 85% hydrocarbon, 10-15% steel, as well as some other chemical materials. Tyres belong to high caloric materials, with calorific value of a passenger car tyre of approx. 30.2 MJ/kg being more than of hard coal and comparable to calorific value of petrol-coke. Having this in mind many countries use end of life tyres as safe alternative fuel in cement works or power plants. Undeveloped countries dump end of life tyres on legal and illegal scrap stockpiles. End of life tyres, if deposed correctly, don’t endanger the environment because they are chemically inert. However, since they can easily be burnt there is a real possibility of tyre dump fires, which in effect can lead to harmful products emission that extremely pollute the environment. End of life tyres represent a very important secondary material, which when recycled is transformed into a number of raw materials used in rubber industry, for road construction, sports facilities, residential and business buildings, artificial fish habitats in shallow seas, sea walls, steel production, etc. By the industrial procedures of controlled degradation, which have been uneconomical up till now, gaseous and liquid fuel can be obtained by natural rubber, steel and soot recycling. The countries of the EU, together with Norway and Switzerland, were the world leaders in the field of effective end of life tyre management in the year 2009. Out of 2.62 million tonnes of end of life tyres, 95% were restored or used as

  9. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  10. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  11. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  12. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  13. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  14. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  15. [Contamination of solid-cast rubber tires by microscopic fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A H; Olishevs'ka, S V; Zaslavs'kyĭ, V A; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The main peculiarities of fungal resistance of two types of unit cast rubber tires of domestic manufacture have been investigated. Rubber tires which contained synthetic plasticizer were non-resistant to fungal contamination in contrast to ones with natural plasticizer. Using the method of confocal laser-scanning microscopy, it was shown that inner layers of two types of rubber tires were contaminated with fungal mycelium. Our findings indicate that the investigation of microscopic fungi resistance of new materials is necessary for general mechanical rubber goods, especially exported to tropical climate countries.

  16. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  17. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  18. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation

  19. 76 FR 6603 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of...

  20. 76 FR 14906 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of...

  1. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  2. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  3. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  4. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  5. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  6. Any Chance Left for China's Large Engineering Tire Producers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The service the large engineering tire producers offer is to satisfy the lowest transport cost, moving the maximum volume of minerals at the lowest environmental costs and in the shortest period of time.

  7. Sailun to Invest the Project of Giant OTR Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoTian

    2011-01-01

    To further improve the product structure and boost the profitability and market competitive power, upon resolution, Sailun Co., Ltd. has recently planned to make investment to build the project of giant OTR radial tires.

  8. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  9. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  10. Efficient paper recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor-Svetec, Diana; Možina, Klemen; Blaznik, Barbara; Urbas, Raša; Vrabič Brodnjak, Urška; Golob, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Used paper and paper products are important raw material for paper and board industry. Paper recycling increases the material lifespan and is a key strategy that contributes to savings of primary raw material, reduction of energy and chemicals consumption, reduction of the impact on fresh water and improvement of waste management strategies. The paper recycling rate is still highly inhomogeneous among the countries of Central Europe. Since recovered paper is not only recycled in the country w...

  11. Development of a tire-replacement handler for large scaled dump trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, H. [Aomi Lime Stone Mine, Denkikakgaku-kogyo co. Ltd., Niigata (Japan); Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Tire replacement for large-scale mine haulage trucks is expensive and poses a burden to mine operators that intend to reduce costs. This study examined a method to move the central axis of a large scale tire to an optional height while remaining horizontal with the ground. The motion of a tire replacement handler system was analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. A tire handler unit attached to a bulldozer was then developed and tire replacement tests were conducted. The study showed that the optional height of the axis of a large diameter tire that has to be replaced can be adjusted smoothly. The rolling test for a large scale tire using a pair of 7 inch diameter steel pipes showed that the total time of front tire replacement was 282-303 minutes. The newly developed and simple tire handler unit was shown to have a broad range of applications and was cost effective. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  13. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  14. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  15. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  17. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  18. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  19. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  20. Fuel Efficient Tires: Government Regulatory Action Insights%Fuel Efficient Tires: Government Regulatory Action Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The labeling of tires for fuel efficiency is gen- erally based upon tire manufacturers measuring tire rolling resistance by a standard test method on an indoor laboratory machine, using data to grade the tires performance parameters and classifying the tire into a ratings system, and making the ratings information available to consumers. A comparison is made in order to better understand the various regulations being proposed in different countries around the world. The European Union, Japan and Korea now have mandatory labeling practices. The United States, China, and Brazil are also consider- ing tire labeling regulations.

  1. Recycling Wood Composite Panels: Characterizing Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Downgraded medium density fiberboard (MDF, particleboard (PB, and oriented strandboard (OSB panels were individually subjected to steam explosion treatment. Downgraded MDF and PB panels were separately treated with thermal chemical impregnation using 0.5% butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA. And downgraded PB panels were processed with mechanical hammermilling. The pH, buffer capacity, fiber length, and particle size of these recycled materials were evaluated. After the steam explosion and thermal chemical impregnation treatments, the pH and buffer capacity of recycled urea formaldehyde resin (UF-bonded MDF and PB furnishes increased and the fiber length decreased. The hammermilling of recycled PB was less likely to break particles down into sizes less than 1 mm2.

  2. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unice, Kenneth M., E-mail: ken.unice@cardno.com; Bare, Jennifer L.; Kreider, Marisa L.; Panko, Julie M.

    2015-11-15

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f{sub C}), tire wear (f{sub W}), terrestrial weathering (f{sub S}), leaching from TRWP (f{sub L}), and environmental availability from TRWP (f{sub A}) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F{sub T}) and release to water (F{sub R}) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F{sub T} for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5 × 10{sup −4} (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F{sub R} at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the weathering factor, f{sub S}, were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f{sub L}, and environmental availability factor, f{sub A,} was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K{sub ow}. Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. - Highlights: • Studied two vulcanization

  3. Plate tectonics: Crustal recycling evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.

  4. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  5. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  6. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  7. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  8. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  9. Car plastic fuel tanks: closed loop recycling process, design and lifecycle assessment (RECAFUTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yernaux, J-M. [SOLVAY SA, Research and Technology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    A cooperative European Union-sponsored project to recycle high density plastic material from used automobile fuel tanks back into the original application is discussed. The goal of the project was to introduce 40 per cent of regenerate into new plastic fuel tanks. The project involved the development of design-for-recycling guidelines, development of a process for efficient recovery of the material by using super-critical carbon dioxide directly in the extruder, development of a process for upgrading the recycled material, and life cycle assessment to determine the reliability of the recycling process by comparing it to other alternatives such as landfilling or energy recovery. The project was recently completed and international validation tests are currently underway. The feasibility of upgrading the laboratory extrusion facility to industrial scale is in the process of being evaluated, concurrently with the development of an appropriate business plan. 7 figs.

  10. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  11. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  12. 75 FR 31422 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Americas Tire Operations, LLC (collectively, ``Bridgestone'') and Titan Tire Corporation (``Titan... dumping margin. Among their claims, Bridgestone and Titan alleged that the Department erred in its...

  13. 78 FR 33341 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... surrogate value (``SV'') information,\\5\\ and on March 25, 2013, Titan Tire Corporation (``Petitioner... 25, 2013. \\7\\ See Letter from Petitioner entitled ``Case Brief of Titan Tire Corporation,...

  14. 75 FR 62505 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC (collectively, ``Bridgestone''), petitioners Titan Tire Corporation... Workers International Union, AFL-CIO-CLC (collectively, ``Titan''), interested party GPX...

  15. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  16. Effect of automobiles on global warming: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming threatens our environment as well as basic human needs. In the present scenario, increasing demand and excessive use of automobiles have increased the level of carbon dioxide emission in the environment, providing a significant contribution to increase the global warming. This paper deals with the modeling of the effect of automobiles on global warming. For this, three nonlinearly interacting variables namely; density of human population, density of automobiles and the concentration of carbon dioxide have been taken into account. In the modeling process, it is assumed that the density of automobiles increases in proportion to human population following a logistic growth. The model is analyzed using stability theory of ordinary differential equations. Local and global stability conditions are established to study the feasibility of the model system. It is shown that with increase in human population, the demand for automobiles increases which has significant effect on global warming increase.

  17. Effect of Topology Structure on the Output Performance of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Ran, B.; Li, X. L.; Wang, L.; Jiao, Y. T.; Xu, T. W.

    2017-05-01

    The majority of the thermal energy released in an automotive internal combustion cycle is exhausted as waste heat through the tail pipe. This paper describes an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG), designed to recycle automobile waste heat. A model of the output characteristics of each thermoelectric device was established by testing their open circuit voltage and internal resistance, and combining the output characteristics. To better describe the relationship, the physical model was transformed into a topological model. The connection matrix was used to describe the relationship between any two thermoelectric devices in the topological structure. Different topological structures produced different power outputs; their output power was maximised by using an iterative algorithm to optimize the series-parallel electrical topology structure. The experimental results have shown that the output power of the optimal topology structure increases by 18.18% and 29.35% versus that of a pure in-series or parallel topology, respectively, and by 10.08% versus a manually defined structure (based on user experience). The thermoelectric conversion device increased energy efficiency by 40% when compared with a traditional car.

  18. Experimental methodology for assessing the environmental fate of organic chemicals in polymer matrices using column leaching studies and OECD 308 water/sediment systems: Application to tire and road wear particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unice, Kenneth M; Bare, Jennifer L; Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-15

    Automobile tires require functional rubber additives including curing agents and antioxidants, which are potentially environmentally available from tire and road wear particles (TRWP) deposited in soil and sediment. A novel methodology was employed to evaluate the environmental fate of three commonly-used tire chemicals (N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulfenamide (CBS), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6-PPD) and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG)), using a road simulator, an artificial weathering chamber, column leaching tests, and OECD 308 sediment/water incubator studies. Environmental release factors were quantified for curing (f(C)), tire wear (f(W)), terrestrial weathering (f(S)), leaching from TRWP (f(L)), and environmental availability from TRWP (f(A)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) analyses. Cumulative fractions representing total environmental availability (F(T)) and release to water (FR) were calculated for the tire chemicals and 13 transformation products. F(T) for CBS, DPG and 6-PPD inclusive of transformation products for an accelerated terrestrial aging time in soil of 0.1 years was 0.08, 0.1, and 0.06, respectively (equivalent to 6 to 10% of formulated mass). In contrast, a wider range of 5.5×10(-4) (6-PPD) to 0.06 (CBS) was observed for F(R) at an accelerated age of 0.1 years, reflecting the importance of hydrophobicity and solubility for determining the release to the water phase. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the weathering factor, f(S), were observed when chemicals were categorized by boiling point or hydrolysis rate constant. A significant difference in the leaching factor, f(L), and environmental availability factor, f(A), was also observed when chemicals were categorized by log K(ow). Our methodology should be useful for lifecycle analysis of other functional polymer chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Burning Used Automotive Tires for Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Chul; Choi, Wook; Lim, Myung-Taeck

    Shredded tire, considered as a single compound in defining theoretical air/fuel ratio, was heated in a quartz reactor placed in an electric furnace under conditions of various excess air ratios, temperatures and heating rates; temperature of up to 1050°C, heating rate of 20, 50, and 80°C/min, and FR of 0.2-1.0. Mass of solid char decreased as the final reaction temperature was raised up to about 600°C around which it maintained a relatively constant value before beginning to increase again at the final reaction temperature of about 800°C. The two-phased decrease of solid char mass with a transition seems to be caused by different modes of combustion. The effects of heating rate and FR (Feed Ratio) were relatively smaller than that of temperature on the mass reduction of solid char, but were significant on the emission of CO and its oxidation to CO2. The fraction of smaller pores in solid char grew bigger as the final reaction temperature went up, resulting in higher surface area. Surface area also increased with decreasing FR from 0.8 to 0.4. Water injection proved so effective in increasing the surface area that the BET value almost doubled when proper amount of water was injected during combustion.

  20. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturer bearing the licensor's brand name. CT means a pneumatic tire with an inverted flange tire and rim... receipt by the manufacturer or brand name owner of the new information, whichever comes first....

  2. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  3. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  4. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  5. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  6. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-08-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  7. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  9. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of rubbe

  10. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... well with the vehicle to which it is attached. Either of these mismatches could present safety risks... asserted that this will result in a more demanding test that could lead to increased tire quality and... for spare tires would be a potential disincentive for a vehicle manufacturer to supply a spare tire...

  11. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires... requirements for manufacturers of tires. For each reporting period, a manufacturer (including a brand name... in interstate commerce, or imported tires in the United States shall submit the information...

  12. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... edges of the carcass or the linear distance between the exterior edges of the tread, both being measured...) It shall incorporate a tread wear indicator that will provide a visual indication that the tire has... specified in the table in S5.4.2.3 for the tire's non-pneumatic tire identification code designation....

  13. Analytical approach for predicting three-dimensional tire-pavement contact load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional tire–pavement contact loads of two truck tires—a new-generation wide-base tire (WBT) and a dual tire assembly (DTA)—were measured and analyzed. Extreme and typical values of tire inflation pressure (552, 690, 758, and 862 k...

  14. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for.... ACTION: Notice of Petition Grant. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... Responsibility and Reports (dated December 16, 2010). \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  15. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has... Responsibility and Reports, dated December 16, 2010. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  16. Tire MES Application Achievement Release Confer- ence Held by MESNAC and Jinyu Jointly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLingxin

    2011-01-01

    On October 29, MESNAC Co., Ltd. and Jinyu Tire Co., Ltd. jointly held the informatized whole-line application release conference of "precise production of tire enterprises and MES intelligent driving platform". Both parties held the strategic cooperation signing ceremony simultaneously, and 30 tire enterprises including Hangzhou Zhongce, Double Coin, Aeolus, etc. presented the confer- ence.

  17. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  18. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  19. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production......Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  20. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  1. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  2. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  3. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  4. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  5. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  6. On the Damping Properties of Modified Ground Rubber Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Large amounts of used rubber tires are discarded annually. A long time is neededfor them to degrade naturally. This poses two major problems: environmental pollutionand wastage of valuable rubber. On the other hand, with the harm of vibration and noisewidely recognized, desires to control them intensify. As an important means of vibrationcontrol, viscoelastic damping technology has advanced greatly. The need for cheap andhigh quality viscoelastic damping materials increases rapidly. This paper made a trial touse ground rubber tire (GRT) recovered from old tires to make damping materials. TheGRT is treated specially first. Then it was pressed into slabs and vulcanized. Finally, theproduct was cut into test samples. An Oberst beam was used to determine the loss factor βand storage modulus E. Results show that the damping materials exhibit good damping ability.

  7. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  8. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  9. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  10. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  11. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  12. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  13. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  14. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoruk, Marion J; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles from three major automobile manufacturers. Airborne concentrations were assessed using 90-min time-weighted average (TWA) samples under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method IP-1B to assess individual VOC compounds and total VOCs (TVOCs) calibrated to toluene. Static vehicle testing demonstrated TVOC levels of approximately 400-800 microg/m(3) at warm interior vehicle temperatures (approximately 80 degrees F), whereas TVOCs at least fivefold higher were observed under extreme heat conditions (e.g., up to 145 degrees F). The profile of most prevalent individual VOC compounds varied considerably according to vehicle brand, age, and interior temperature tested, with predominant compounds including styrene, toluene, and 8- to 12-carbon VOCs. TVOC levels under varied operating conditions (and ventilation) were generally four- to eightfold lower (at approximately 50-160 microg/m(3)) than the static vehicle measurements under warm conditions, with the lowest measured levels generally observed in the trials with the driver's window half open. These data indicate that while relatively high concentrations of certain VOCs can be measured inside static vehicles under extreme heat conditions, normal modes of operation rapidly reduce the inside-vehicle VOC concentrations even when the air conditioning is set on recirculation mode.

  15. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  16. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  17. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  18. Use of recycled plastic in concrete: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Khatib, Jamal; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2008-01-01

    Numerous waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, service industries and municipal solid wastes. The increasing awareness about the environment has tremendously contributed to the concerns related with disposal of the generated wastes. Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world. With the scarcity of space for landfilling and due to its ever increasing cost, waste utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Research is being carried out on the utilization of waste products in concrete. Such waste products include discarded tires, plastic, glass, steel, burnt foundry sand, and coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Each of these waste products has provided a specific effect on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The use of waste products in concrete not only makes it economical, but also helps in reducing disposal problems. Reuse of bulky wastes is considered the best environmental alternative for solving the problem of disposal. One such waste is plastic, which could be used in various applications. However, efforts have also been made to explore its use in concrete/asphalt concrete. The development of new construction materials using recycled plastics is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. This paper presents a detailed review about waste and recycled plastics, waste management options, and research published on the effect of recycled plastic on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The effect of recycled and waste plastic on bulk density, air content, workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact resistance, permeability, and abrasion resistance is discussed in this paper.

  19. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  20. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  1. Service Quality Challenges in an Indian Automobile Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Mangesh D. Jadhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market scenario in past decade changes very fast due to computation in a market. Changing a technology and launching new models in market are as per customer demand. Providing service quality is a big task to many organizations. Today automobile service sector faces many problems due to increase of customer expectation from branded company. This study overview the challenges faced by an Indian automobile service sector and find the various gaps which will directly or indirectly affects on service quality and factor which affects the service. The paper concludes with the gaps that affects on current position of four wheeler service industries their market share in automobile service industries.

  2. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  3. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  4. Scrap tire process turns waste into fuel. [USA - New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesla, M.R. (New York State Electric and Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States). Alternate Fuels Development)

    1994-05-01

    New York State Electric Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has in the last three years burned more than 1.3 million tyres to generate power, saving more than 16,000 tons of coal. The article describes how at the 73 MW Jennison power station scrap tires are chopped into 2x2 in. chips prior to mixing with coal near the coal pile (in a 20.80 tire chip to coal ratio) and combustion in stoker boilers with travelling chain grates. NYSEG has also test burned other alternative fuels such as creosote-treated wood and coal tar soils. 6 photos.

  5. Changes in Properties of Cement and Lime Mortars When Incorporating Fibers from End-of-Life Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Gil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the addition of fibers from end-of-life tires to commercial mortar mixtures. Two different types of mortar, one lime-plastic and other cement-fluid, are mixed with different percentage of fibers ranging from 0% to 1%. The changes in bulk density, consistency, compressive and flexural strength, dynamic Young modulus and water absorption are studied. According to the results, consistency is the property that shows more relevant changes for an addition of 0.25% fibers. Consistency is related to workability and affects the water absorption and the Young modulus values. On the contrary, bulk density and mechanical properties did not change with the addition of fibers. The results prove that this fiber, considered a waste from recycling of end-of-life tires, can be used in commercial mixtures without losing strength. On the other hand, mortar workability limits the amount of fibers that can be included in the mixture and this parameter determines the performance of the mortar.

  6. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawong, Achariya; Magee, Rogan; Peebles, Ken; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial interest in recovering energy from many unwanted byproducts from industries and municipalities. Co-combustion of these products with coal seems to be the most cost-effective approach. The combustion process typically results in emissions of pollutants, especially fine particles and trace elements. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic [As], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], manganese [Mn], molybdenum [Mo], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter [dp] > 0.5 microm), a submicrometer-mode ash (dp burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion.

  7. 77 FR 4996 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires... Pneumatic Off-the-road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Respondent Selection,'' dated December 13...

  8. 75 FR 62504 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China...''). See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

  9. 75 FR 76956 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission, in Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1... Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

  10. 75 FR 46917 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-912) New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

  11. 75 FR 24884 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December...., Tianjin Wanda Tyre Co., Ltd., and Triangle Tyre Co., Ltd. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires...

  12. 78 FR 78814 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People... Federal Register an antidumping duty order on OTR tires from the PRC.\\1\\ Under the Order, in the...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through... REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-2 Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct...

  14. Rate of Dissipation of the Energy of Low-Frequency Mechanical Disturbances in a Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    An expression for the rate of dissipation of the energy of low-frequency mechanical disturbances in a tire, accounting for the tired wheel radius, velocity of motion, and loading, has been derived. After processing experimental data on heating the tread rubber of an oversize tire by the proposed method, it has been revealed that about 30% of the energy of deformations appearing in motion of a loaded tire is converted into heat, and the coefficient of heat transfer between the tire and air has been derived.

  15. Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jeremy Edward

    In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within

  16. Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time%Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Augu'st 28, "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Market Conference was held by Double Coin Group (Anhui) Warrior Tires Co., Ltd. in Shanghai with a subject of " Wonderful Combination to Start the Fu- ture". Warrior tires came into the market, which changed the pattern of the Chinese medium and high-end passenger car tire market dominated by foreign brands, mark- ing the beginning of the national brand to stand on the international medium and high-end passenger car tire market.

  17. Measurements of tire contact condition and water flow during hydroplaning; Hydroplaning hasseiji no tire no secchi jotai to suiryu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Kagami, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    To improve hydroplaning performance, it is important to understand the contact condition and the state of flow around the tire while it is running on a water film. In this paper, two kinds of visualization methods were applied using a high-speed video camera. Firstly, the contact condition of the tire was visualized by colored water. Next, the state of flow around the tire contact area was visualized by particle tracing. From these results, the outline of flow around the tire became evident. (author)

  18. Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year%Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDing; Yan Ding

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Russian JSC Cordiant published an analysis report on Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012. In this report, the gross sales volume of all kinds of tires in Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012 were 30.6 million u- nits calculated by substance and RUB 130.9 billion calculated by currency, which increased by 19% and 21% compared with that of the same period of last year respectively. See Table 1 and Table 2 for the gross sales volume changes in Russian auto tire market calculated by substance and currency re- spectively.

  19. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  20. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  1. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  2. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  3. Titanium in the family automobile: The cost challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, F. H.; Friedrich, H.; Kiese, J.; Bergoint, D.

    2004-02-01

    With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.

  4. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  5. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  6. A gestão do conhecimento aplicada à reciclagem de componentes automotivos através do tratamento das informações contidas em documentos de patentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailson da Silva Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the technologies adopted for recycling and reuse of automobile components, through the analysis of patents documents. The automobile batteries recycling is the main topic, followed by the automatic disassembly of vehicles, tires recycling and polyurethane recycling. None document approached recycling of steel and aluminum or ceramics products. The reduced number of technologies for the recycling of the polymeric compounds (including polyurethane indicates that a bigger number of research and inventions must be elaborated in the next years, aiming at to the reduction of costs of processes and adequacy to the more restricted environmental legislation.

  7. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) ABSTRACT The world of vehicle design is a fast-paced iterative environment that...a Alexander A. Reidb David Gorsichb a Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory, Virginia Tech Mechanical Engineering Department b US Army Tank...simulations that are critical throughout the fast-paced iterative design process. Keywords: Terrain Surface, Road Surface, Tire Force Estimation

  8. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0881; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-029-AD; Amendment 39-17164; AD 2012-17-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments...

  9. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    dimensional (3D) steady state rolling tire was also performed with Radtherm software [5]. In this model, all three heat transfer modes, conduction ... convection , and radiation, are taken into account. The geometry and meshing information are imported in the format of Nastran from Hypermesh. The

  10. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  11. Test of Narrow Tires on M198 Towed Howitzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    following road opera- tions. 3. The proposed tires shall not experience any abnormal wear, tread splitting, stone cutting, bead chaffing, or rubber...c],t (’r iorlt ion , falt i(tle I i fe shortened, strenqth properties lcx rcdi, 42 tread w.er increased, a reduction in tonsil strcnqIth of body

  12. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... include any of the requirements for the consumer information and education portions of the TFECIP.\\4... two types of submissions would streamline the data management process. Finally, RMA cited Congress's... is often used to represent the finite element or mathematical model of a tire, rather than the name...

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TIRE RUBBER CONCRETE = PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DO CONCRETO ADICIONADO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Akasaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues disposal from tire rubber out of use has become a problem for most of countries. This work proposal is to provide an alternative and clean way to recycle this material that is harmful for the environment. The work’s aim is to study the behavior of tire rubber concrete through different mix proportions and two tire rubber aggregates gradation and evaluate properties as: compressive strength, splitting tensile test, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and workability. The tests were carried out to the ages of 7, 28 and 56 days using cylindrical specimens of (10x20 cm and (15x30 cm. The last specimens were used for modulus of elasticity tests. The results show that the addition of tire rubber in concrete reduces workability and mechanical properties values. = A disposição de resíduos provenientes de pneus fora de uso tem se tornado um problema para a maioria dos países. A proposta deste trabalho é proporcionar uma forma alternativa e limpa de reciclagem deste material prejudicial ao meio ambiente. O trabalho realizado tem como objetivo estudar o comportamento do concreto adicionado de resíduos de borracha de pneus; para isso, foram feitos vários traços com duas granulometrias diferentes e avaliadas propriedades como: resistência à compressão, resistência à tração, módulo de elasticidade, absorção de água e trabalhabilidade. Os ensaios foram feitos para as idades de 7, 28 e 56 dias em corpos-de-prova cilíndricos de dimensões (10x20 cm e (15x30 cm sendo o último utilizado apenas para o ensaio de módulo de elasticidade. Os resultados indicam redução nos valores referentes às propriedades mecânicas e perda na trabalhabilidade após a adição do resíduo.

  14. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  15. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  16. Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns all over the world and in Kuwait. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in Kuwait each year. Of these, more than 2 million scrap-tires (approximately 2 million tons are generated each year. In addition to this, about seven million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire–rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire–rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the total mineral aggregate’s volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire–rubber concrete.

  17. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  18. Nonvolatile RRAM cells from polymeric composites embedding recycled SiC powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo Del Mauro, Anna; Nenna, Giuseppe; Miscioscia, Riccardo; Freda, Cesare; Portofino, Sabrina; Galvagno, Sergio; Minarini, Carla

    2014-10-21

    Silicon carbide powders have been synthesized from tires utilizing a patented recycling process. Dynamic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy, and X-ray diffraction have been carried out to gather knowledge about powders and the final composite structure. The obtained powder has been proven to induce resistive switching in a PMMA polymer-based composite device. Memory effect has been detected in two-terminal devices having coplanar contacts and quantified by read-write-erase measurements in terms of level separation and persistence.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  20. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  1. Investigation of reinforcement of the modified carbon black from wasted tires by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; YANG Yong-rong; REN Xiao-hong; STAPF Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into recyclable products. Pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) is one of the most important products from the pyrolysis of used tires. Techniques for surface modifications of PCB have been developed. One of the most significant applications for modified PCB is to reinforce the rubber matrix to obtain high added values. The transverse relaxation and the chain dynamics of vulcanized rubber networks with PCB and modified PCB were studied and compared with those of the commercial carbon blacks using selective 1H transverse relaxation (T2) experiments and dipolar correlation effect (DCE) experiments on the stimulated echo. Demineralization and coupling agent modification not only intensified the interactions between the modified PCB and the neighboring polyisoprene chains, but also increased the chemical cross-link density of the vulcanized rubber with modified PCB. The mechanical testing of the rubbers with different kinds of carbon blacks showed that the maximum strain of the rubber with modified PCB was improved greatly. The mechanical testing results confirmed the conclusion obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). PCB modified by the demineralization and NDZ-105 titanate coupling agent could be used to replace the commercial semi-reinforcing carbon black.

  2. Radiation induced functionalism of polyethylene and ground tire rubber for their reactive compatibility in thermoplastic elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainleib, A.; Grigoryeva, O. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 02160 (Ukraine); Martinez B, G. [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Km. 12 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: fainleib@i.kiev.ua

    2009-07-01

    Reactive compatibility of recycled low-or high-density polyethylenes (LDPE and HDPE, respectively) and ground tire rubber (GTR) via chemical interactions of pre-functionalized components in their blend interface has been carried out. Polyethylene component was functionalized with maleic anhydride (MAH) as well as the rubber component was modified via functionalism with MAH or acrylamide using chemically or irradiation ({gamma} rays) induced grafting techniques. Additional coupling agents such as-p-phenylene diamine (PDA) and polyamide fiber (PAF, from fiber wastes) were used for some thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) producing. The grafting degree and molecular mass distribution of the chromatography analyses, respectively. TPE materials based on synthesized reactive polyethylenes and GTR as well as ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber were prepared by dynamic vulcanization of the rubber phase inside thermoplastic (polyethylene) matrix and their phase structure, and main properties have been studied using DSC, TGA, DMTA and mechanical testing. As a final result, the high performance TPE with improved mechanical properties has been developed. (Author)

  3. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  4. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  5. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  6. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  7. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  8. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  9. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  10. Tread wear and footprint geometrical characters of truck bus radial tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Wang, Guolin; An, Dengfeng; Ma, Yinwei

    2013-05-01

    Wear and mileage performance are the foremost performances for truck bus radial (TBR) tires. There are a lot of researches about the tire wear performance as well as the contact patch phenomenon by using finite element analysis (FEA) method or testing. But there is little published data on the correlations between the footprint geometry and the tread wear performance of tires. In this paper, an experiment on tire-ground performance of TBR tires is carried out by using Tekscan. The real-time changes of contact-area pressure distribution that occurred during the process of continuous load and unload are recorded. Three types of tires that act differently in behavior under normal usage are analyzed. A new method of researching in tire tread wear, which focuses on the geometrical characters of the footprint, is put forward. The experimental results of the three tires are described by using footprint geometrical characters. On the basis of studying the changing laws of footprint geometrical characters during the loading process and considering consumer survey and factory feedback information, the correlations between the geometrical character of footprints and tread destruction form are built. The analyzed results show that a greater contact area coefficient and a steady coefficient of contact result in a better wear performance for TBR tires. The footprint-shape coefficient changing laws in the process of loading are found to have a very good coincidence with the tread wear of the three types of tires. Tires with a smaller footprint-shape coefficient are likely to have an average tread wear while avoiding the shoulder wear first. The proposed research provides a new solution to predict tire-ground performance at the point of footprint and several useful references for improving tire design.

  11. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  12. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  13. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  14. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety...

  15. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  16. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  17. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  18. Trucks tires resource controlling by control of process of their wearing-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KRAVCHENKO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensity and form of wear of tire′s tread depends on the technical state of assemblies of car suspension. The database according to the information of control of the height of the protector picture is forming. On its basis on the developed system of maintenance of tires setting of norms, prognostication and optimization of resource of tires is made, necessary repair influences of tires and assemblies of suspension are appointed.

  19. Arithmetic of automatically forming meridian tire tread pattern on basis of unigraphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuting WEI; Ping ZHANG; Xiaoning SU

    2009-01-01

    Tire tread pattern affects the performance of motor vehicles and traffic safety; therefore, designing it accurately is very important. This paper mainly discusses the arithmetic that can form tire tread patterns automati-cally and rapidly. The algorithm flow is given. Then, the principle of planar picture creating three-dimensional patterns concretely is analyzed. The experimental results of the meridian tire pattern based on the UG API function prove the feasibility and excellence of the proposed method.

  20. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vehicle Ride Height Change Due To Radial Expansion Of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavoj Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, tire deformations caused by wheel rotation are not taken into account when developing vehicle aerodynamics. On the road the tires radially expand as speed increases, which affects the actual ride height of a vehicle. In turn this often increases the real aerodynamic drag compared to values obtained using CFD or a wind tunnel as the mass flow across the relatively rough underbody increases with ground clearance. In this study, on-road ride heights were measured while running a vehicle in a straight line with fixed velocity whilst the aerodynamic lift of the vehicle was determined in a wind tunnel. Subsequently, the relationships between ride height and axle load were obtained by loading the vehicle at standstill with ballast. By comparing the ride heights at high and very low velocities with expected vertical displacement caused purely by aerodynamic lift force as computed according to the ride height - axle load equations, the ride height change due to tire radial expansion was determined.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  3. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  4. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  5. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  6. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi- cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin’s and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  7. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  8. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation on Short Wave Irregular Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Kristensen, Lars B; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    joints, spring-damper elements and the welded structures it is crucial to have information on the time history of the loads. For trucks carrying payloads the most important load contribution is undoubtedly the reaction forces between terrain and tires. By use of virtual prototypes it is possible...... the tire ground interaction for big off-road tires on short wave irregular terrain. In this paper a simple tire model combining the well known slip theory and a displaced volume approach is presented. A non-gradient optimization routine is applied for parameter identification by minimizing the difference...

  9. Vein-style air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Robert Leon; Gobinath, Thulasiram; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung; Lamgaday, Robin; Losey, Robert Allen; Griffoin, Jean-Claude Patrice Philippe

    2017-01-03

    An air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembling is provided in which a tire groove is formed to extend into a flexing region of a tire sidewall and a complementary air pumping tube inserts into the tire groove. In the green, uncured air pumping tube condition, one or more check valves are assembled into the air pumping tube through access shafts and align with an internal air passageway of the air pumping tube. Plug components of the system enclose the check valves in the air pumping tube and the check valve-containing green air pumping tube is then cured.

  10. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  11. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ShaoPu; LI ShaoHua; LU YongJie

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi-cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin's and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  12. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  13. Recycling, Canadian update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V. I. [Process Research ORTECH Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Shaw, L. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An update on the recycling industry in Canada is provided by way of selected examples involving the recovery of gallium from electronic scrap, magnesium recovery from mine tailings and energy recovery from metal industry processes. These examples have been selected to illustrate the synergy between major mining, metallurgical and utility industries with end users in the building materials, automotive and electronic industries. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  14. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  15. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  16. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, S. M; Wang, D. F; Zan, J. M

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the interior noise of the automobile in the low and middle frequency band in the design and development stage, the hybrid FE-SEA model of an automobile was created using hybrid FE-SEA method...

  17. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  18. STATICAL EXPERIMENTS OF TIRE AS COMPLEX LONG-FIBRE COMPOSITE FOR OBTAINING MATERIAL PARAMETERS AND DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  19. Statical Experiments of Tire as Complex Long-Fibre Composite for Obtaining Material Parameters and Deformation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  20. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  1. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  2. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  3. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  5. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review by... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel...

  6. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  7. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  8. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  9. OAO Sibur-Russian Tires Taking New Measures to Be Listed in Top 15 En- terprises in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently, OAO Sibur-Russian Tires formally renamed to JSC "Cordiant". The new company takes some new key measures to further expand the market shares and occupy the top place in Russian tire enterprises.

  10. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  11. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on

  12. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  13. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak curr...

  14. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low...

  15. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  16. Vehicles motors and environment; Moteurs automobiles et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionnet, F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the problem of the pollutants emission by the motors of automobiles. The european regulations lead the automotive industry to develop research programs to decrease the emission level more and more difficult to raise. He discusses the new catalysts, the diesel engines, the direct injection and the natural gas fuels. (A.L.B.)

  17. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  18. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  19. Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-gao; BAI Shi-qiang; CAI Jing-bo; XU Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd)showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT)being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

  20. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  1. ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON THE MARKET AUTOMOBILE GASOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Safina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the statistical analysis based on results of selective investigation of customers in the market of automobile gasoline is offered. The analysis makes the possibility for finding preferences of respondents in choices of gasoline brand depending of social and economics status of customers.

  2. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... seaters. A car line shall be classed as “Two Seater” if the majority of the vehicles in that car line have...

  3. Laboratory Study on the Use of Tire Shreds and Rubber-Sand in Backfilled and Reinforced Soil Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Andres; Lovell, C. W.; Salgado, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01

    Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rats and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling examines the feasibility of incorporating tire s...

  4. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  5. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  6. A Bibliographic Survey of Automobile and Aircraft Wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-12-01

    advantage. Many tire mechanics questions continue to require clarificationand work of this character should lead to the establishment, of superior anti-shimmy...Italian) (1945-1946) American Aviation Annali di Matematica (Italian) (1930-1948) Arts et Metiers Association Technique Maritime et Aeronautiquep...tudinal direction of the airplane. Thus, the pendulum-suspended dual-wheel offers a favorable arrangement which may be superior with respect to weight in

  7. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  8. Evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy T; Whelan, Peter I; Shortus, Matthew S; Jacups, Susan P

    2009-03-01

    The efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. Colonization and survival of Ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (P = 0.002). Bifenthrin applications in shaded tires only prevented early instar survival for approximately 2.6 wk. Aedes notoscriptus late instars did not appear in the treated unshaded tires. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized treated tires from the 2nd wk in both shaded and unshaded treatments. In the bioassay, water from bifenthrin-treated tires, through extrapolation, was found to kill approximately 100% of late instar Ae. notoscriptus for only approximately 2.0-2.2 wk in shaded and unshaded tires. Under conditions optimal for Aedes breeding, such as shaded locations, high ambient temperatures, high relative humidity, and high amounts of leaf/organic matter accumulations, bifenthrin may not be effective as a larval control measure in tires for greater than 2.0-2.6 wk.

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  10. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  11. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... endurance and low inflation pressure performance; and (c) A third tire for physical dimensions, resistance... evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, belt or bead separation, chunking, open splices..., belt or bead separation, chunking, open splices, cracking or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure,...

  12. 75 FR 7586 - Baled Natural Rubber in Tires; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Agency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... AGENCY Baled Natural Rubber in Tires; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Agency Response AGENCY: Environmental... prohibiting the use and distribution in commerce of Hevea brasiliensis baled natural-rubber for the... tire ] manufacturers to use Hevea brasiliensis baled natural-rubber that satisfies ASTM...

  13. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope. This standard specifies performance, labeling, and certification requirements for retreaded pneumatic...

  14. Improving of ecological characteristics of technology on pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Vovk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of looking for new alternative energy sources. Mutually beneficial integration of alternative energy searches with utilization of scrap tire is considered. Concerned processing line on scrap tires treatment is environment  friendly and economically sound.

  15. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  16. Towards using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available pavement design. Four different tire models were used to represent a single tire type in order to demonstrate its effect on road pavement response of a typical South African pavement structure. Only applied vertical stress was used for the analyses...

  17. Bridgestone to Establish Pas-senger Car Tire Plant in Viet- nam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    On November 11, Japan Bridge- stone Corporation announced that it de- cided to establish a tire plant in Haiphong Industrial Zone, Vietnam to adapt to the steadily increasing global demand of the passenger car radial tire, upon comprehensive demonstration on all aspects such as the infrastructure, lay- out, labor force and cost.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE BY utilization OF WORN OUT TIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Statilko, M.; Voronova, E.; Pozdnyakova, E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of accumulation of the worn out tires is considered. The experience of plant operation for high-temperature pyrolysis has been analysed. The economic efficiency of tires processing without metal cord was viewed. The conclusion about prospects of pyrolysed liquid usage in Ukraine has been made.

  19. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Nero M+S and Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 2, 2007, and... approximately 30,881 Pirelli Pzero Nero M+S and Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between... Load, Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico 295/30ZR22 103W Extra Load, Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico 305/35ZR23...

  20. Seismic behavior of tire waste-sand mixtures for transportation infrastructure in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aye Edinliler; Ozgur Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Tire wastes have many properties that are valuable from a geotechnical engineering perspective, such as low density, high strength, thermal insulation, energy absorption capacity, permeability, durability, compressibility, resilience, and high frictional strength. Thus, tire wastes offer good thermal characteristics in resisting frost penetration and have good drainage characteristics, being as permeable as coarse granular soil for fill materials. The many advantages of tire wastes make the material suitable for transportation infrastructure construction in cold regions. Also, tire wastes with high damping prop-erty make them a preferable admixture with sand for transportation infrastructures in seismic regions. This study aimed to determine the seismic performance of certain tire waste-sand mixtures in cold regions. A 70% sand-30% tire crumb mixture by weight (TC30) with a very high damping property was selected for analysis as an engineering material for transportation infrastructure. Small-scale shake-table tests were conducted on this material as well as on a sand-only sample under two different temperatures, 0 °C and 20 °C, to simulate cold-region and moderate-temperature performance, respectively. The 1999İzmit Earthquake Excitation (EW) (Mw=7.4) was taken as the input motion. Test results showed that the tire waste-sand mixture at 0 °C showed better seismic performance than that at room temperature, suggesting that a tire waste-sand mixture in cold regions may reduce seismic hazards to infrastructure.