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Sample records for rectus femoris muscle

  1. Rectus femoris muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization to cover a groin infected vascular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Luís; Pedro, Luís Mendes; Fernandes e Fernandes, Ruy; Silva, Emanuel; Fernandes e Fernandes, José

    2015-10-01

    The rectus femoris (RF) muscle flap, which is widely used to cover groin infected vascular grafts, is usually harvested through distal tendon division and an extensive muscle elevation and transposition into the groin wound defect. A case of a vascular prosthetic graft infection in the groin was successfully controlled after coverage with an RF flap that was harvested based on proximal portion mobilization instead of the conventional distal one. This case suggests that the RF muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization is a feasible, effective, technically simpler, and less invasive alternative to cover infected vascular grafts in the groin. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of onabotulinum toxin A injection into rectus femoris muscle in hemiplegic stroke patients with stiff-knee gait: a placebo-controlled, nonrandomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Fatih; Balaban, Birol; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of onabotulinum toxin A (onabot) injection into the rectus femoris muscle with that of placebo in the treatment of hemiplegic stroke patients presenting with stiff-knee gait. Twenty-five chronic hemiparetic stroke patients presenting with a stiff-knee gait were included in this study. Fifteen patients received 100-125 U of onabot, and 10 patients received placebo into the rectus femoris muscle. Three-dimensional gait analysis, energy expenditure, 10-m and 6-min walk tests, and spasticity level of the rectus femoris were evaluated at baseline and 2 mos posttreatment. The mean age of patients who received onabot was 53.86 ± 14.74 yrs and of those who received placebo was 59.00 ± 8.11 yrs. At study onset, groups were similar with respect to all parameters (P > 0.05). We observed significant improvement in knee flexion (7 degrees average) during swing and a reduction in energy cost of 0.8-J/kg per meter response to injection of 100-125 U of onabot into the rectus femoris muscle. Onabot treatment significantly reduced muscle tone and improved knee kinematics, energy expenditure during walking, and functional assessments at 2 mos (P application of onabot into the rectus femoris muscle in stroke patients who presented with stiff-knee gait may be a treatment option to provide independent, safe, and less tiring ambulation.

  3. Reliability and validity of the ultrasound technique to measure the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaes Tom

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing age of coronary artery disease (CAD patients and the occurrence of sarcopenia in the elderly population accompanied by 'fear of moving' and hospitalization in these patients often results in a substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength. Cardiac rehabilitation can improve exercise tolerance and muscle strength in CAD patients but less data describe eventual morphological muscular changes possibly by more difficult access to imaging techniques. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess and quantify the reliability and validity of an easy applicable method, the ultrasound (US technique, to measure the diameter of rectus femoris muscle in comparison to the muscle dimensions measured with CT scans. Methods 45 older CAD patients without cardiac event during the last 9 months were included in this study. 25 patients were tested twice with ultrasound with a two day interval to assess test-retest reliability and 20 patients were tested twice (once with US and once with CT on the same day to assess the validity of the US technique compared to CT as the gold standard. Isometric and isokinetic muscle testing was performed to test potential zero-order correlations between muscle diameter, muscle volume and muscle force. Results An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 ((95%CL: 0.92 - 0.99 was found for the test-retest reliability of US and the ICC computed between US and CT was 0.92 (95%CL: 0.81 - 0.97. The absolute difference between both techniques was 0.01 ± 0.12 cm (p = 0.66 resulting in a typical percentage error of 4.4%. Significant zero-order correlations were found between local muscle volume and muscle diameter assessed with CT (r = 0.67, p = 0.001 and assessed with US (r = 0.49, p Conclusions Ultrasound imaging can be used as a valid and reliable measurement tool to assess the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD patients.

  4. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  6. Lower abdominal wall reconstructions with pedicled rectus femoris flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu; Ishida, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, seven pedicled rectus femoris muscle or musculocutaneous flaps were used to repair lower abdominal defects; three recalcitrant incisional hernias with previous radiotherapy, two long-standing wound infections after synthetic mesh reconstruction, one posttraumatic wall defect and one metastatic tumor. There were two flap complications, one skin paddle necrosis and one wound infection. There was no significant disability of the donor limb encountered. During the two-year and seven month average follow-up, there was no recurrence of the problems except for one minor fascial dehiscence in the patient with metastatic abdominal wall tumor. Easy approach, rapid harvest, relatively large and reliable overlying fascia lata, a single dominant neurovascular pedicle, easy primary closure of the donor site, and minimal donor site morbidity all make the rectus femoris flap a good alternative flap for lower abdominal wall reconstruction. It is especially useful in a condition where synthetic mesh would be unsuitable for defects with infection or recurrent incisional hernia after radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Collagen XII myopathy with rectus femoris atrophy and collagen XII retention in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Krag, Thomas; Werlauff, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mutation in the collagen XII gene (COL12A1) was recently reported to induce Bethlem myopathy. We describe a family affected by collagen XII-related myopathy in 3 generations. METHODS: Systematic interview, clinical examination, skin biopsies, and MRI of muscle were used. RESULTS...... affection and abnormal collagen XII retention in fibroblasts. MRI disclosed a selective wasting of the rectus femoris muscle. DISCUSSION: COL12A1 mutations should be considered in patients with a mild Bethlem phenotype who present with selective wasting of the rectus femoris, absence of the outside......-in phenomenon on MRI, and abnormal collagen XII retention in fibroblasts. Muscle Nerve, 2018....

  8. MR imaging of rectus femoris origin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Nelson, Erik; Torriani, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging findings of acute and chronic rectus femoris origin (RFO) injuries. A retrospective review of pelvic and hip MR imaging procedures was performed over a 4-year period for detection of cases with injuries to the RFO. Subjects were classified as having either acute or chronic symptoms. MR imaging studies, radiographs, CT scans, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis was directed to assess injuries affecting the direct and indirect heads of the RFO. Concurrent osseous, cartilaginous and musculotendinous injuries were tabulated. The incidence of RFO injuries on MR imaging was 0.5% (17/3160). With the exception of one case of anterior inferior iliac spine apophysis avulsion and partial tear of the direct head of RFO, all subjects had indirect head of RFO injuries (acute injury 8/9, chronic injury 8/8). Partial tear of the direct head of RFO was less frequently seen (acute injury 3/9, chronic injury 2/8). Partial tears of the conjoint tendon were least frequent (acute 1/9, chronic 2/8). No full-thickness tears of the RFO were noted. Associated labral tears were seen in only one case, with no other concomitant abnormality of the articular cartilage or surrounding soft tissues. All RFO injuries were treated non-operatively. Injuries of the RFO are uncommon on MR examinations of pelvis/hips and may occur in a sequence progressing from indirect head injury to involvement of direct head and conjoint tendon in more severe cases. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Garry E.; Asakawa, Deanna S.; Blemker, Silvia S.; Delp, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery. (orig.)

  10. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  11. Surgical treatment of rectus femoris injury in soccer playing athletes: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Latorre, Gabriel Carmona; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Astur, Diego Costa; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Muscle injury is the most common injury during sport practice. It represents 31% of all lesions in soccer, 16% in track and field, 10.4% in rugby, 17.7% in basketball, and between 22% and 46% in American football. The cicatrization with the formation of fibrotic tissue can compromise the muscle function, resulting in a challenging problem for orthopedics. Although conservative treatment presents adequate functional results in the majority of the athletes who have muscle injury, the consequences of treatment failure can be dramatic, possibly compromising the return to sport practice. The biarticular muscles with prevalence of type II muscle fibers, which are submitted to excentric contraction, present higher lesion risk. The quadriceps femoris is one example. The femoris rectus is the quadriceps femoris muscle most frequently involved in stretching injuries. The rupture occurs in the acceleration phase of running, jump, ball kicking, or in contraction against resistance. Although the conservative treatment shows good results, it is common that the patient has lower muscle strength, difficulty in return to sports, and a permanent and visible gap. Surgical treatment can be an option for a more efficient return to sports.

  12. Surgical treatment of rectus femoris injury in soccer playing athletes: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Girardi Shimba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Muscle injury is the most common injury during sport practice. It represents 31% of all lesions in soccer, 16% in track and field, 10.4% in rugby, 17.7% in basketball, and between 22% and 46% in American football. The cicatrization with the formation of fibrotic tissue can compromise the muscle function, resulting in a challenging problem for orthopedics. Although conservative treatment presents adequate functional results in the majority of the athletes who have muscle injury, the consequences of treatment failure can be dramatic, possibly compromising the return to sport practice. The biarticular muscles with prevalence of type II muscle fibers, which are submitted to excentric contraction, present higher lesion risk. The quadriceps femoris is one example. The femoris rectus is the quadriceps femoris muscle most frequently involved in stretching injuries. The rupture occurs in the acceleration phase of running, jump, ball kicking, or in contraction against resistance. Although the conservative treatment shows good results, it is common that the patient has lower muscle strength, difficulty in return to sports, and a permanent and visible gap. Surgical treatment can be an option for a more efficient return to sports.

  13. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  14. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassarjian, A.; Rodrigo, R.M.; Santisteban, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  15. Effects of Acupuncture Therapy on the EMG Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior during Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction in College Students

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    Se In Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been increasingly used in the treatment of muscle damage associated with sports activities. However, studies on the immediate effects of one-time acupuncture on the muscles of athletes are clearly lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture therapy on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC electromyography (EMG of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. This study was conducted among 20 healthy male college students who had no musculoskeletal disease. The participants were subjected to 3 different experimental conditions and subsequently grouped based on these conditions: real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and control. A 7-day washout period was implemented to avoid any transient effects on the physiological and psychological conditions of the participants. Subsequently, an electromyogram patch was attached on the most developed area in the middle of the origin and insertion of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. The percent MVIC, which was used to standardize the signal from the electromyogram, was determined, and the maximal value from the MVIC of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles was measured. The MVIC EMG activities of both femoris (F = 6.633, p = 0.003 and tibialis anterior (F = 5.216, p = 0.008 muscles were significantly different among all groups. Accordingly, the results of a posthoc test showed that the real acupuncture group had higher MVIC EMG activities in the femoris (p = 0.002 and tibialis anterior (p = 0.006 muscles compared with the control group. These results suggest that treatment with real acupuncture resulted in significantly higher MVIC EMG activities of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles than the other treatments. Hence, acupuncture may be helpful in the improvement of muscle strength among athletes in the physical fitness field.

  16. Cortical motor representation of the rectus femoris does not differ between the left and right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sarah; Bryant, Adam L; Pietrosimone, Brian; Bennell, Kim L; Clark, Ross; Pearce, Alan J

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) involves non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the brain, and can be used to explore the corticomotor excitability and motor representations of skeletal muscles. However there is a lack of motor mapping studies in the lower limb and few conducted in healthy cohorts. The cortical motor representations of muscles can vary between individuals in terms of center position and area despite having a general localized region within the motor cortex. It is important to characterize the normal range for these variables in healthy cohorts to be able to evaluate changes in clinical populations. TMS was used in this cross-sectional study to assess the active motor threshold (AMT) and cortical representation area for rectus femoris in 15 healthy individuals (11M/4F 27.3±5.9years). No differences were found between hemispheres (Left vs. Right P=0.130) for AMT. In terms of y-axis center position no differences were found between hemispheres (Left vs. Right P=0.539), or for the x-axis center position (Left vs. Right P=0.076). Similarly, no differences in calculated area of the motor representation were found (Left vs. Right P=0.699) indicating symmetry between hemispheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Linear correlation between fractal dimension of surface EMG signal from Rectus Femoris and height of vertical jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancillao, Andrea; Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimension was demonstrated to be able to characterize the complexity of biological signals. The EMG time series are well known to have a complex behavior and some other studies already tried to characterize these signals by their fractal dimension. This paper is aimed at studying the correlation between the fractal dimension of surface EMG signal recorded over Rectus Femoris muscles during a vertical jump and the height reached in that jump. Healthy subjects performed vertical jumps at different heights. Surface EMG from Rectus Femoris was recorded and the height of each jump was measured by an optoelectronic motion capture system. Fractal dimension of sEMG was computed and the correlation between fractal dimension and eight of the jump was studied. Linear regression analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient between the fractal dimension and the height of the jump for all the subjects. The results of this study show that the fractal dimension is able to characterize the EMG signal and it can be related to the performance of the jump. Fractal dimension is therefore an useful tool for EMG interpretation

  18. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  19. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  20. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  1. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  2. Unstable gait due to spasticity of the rectus femoris: gait analysis and motor nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Leboeuf, F; Rémy-Néris, O; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2012-12-01

    We present the case of a 54 year-old man presenting with a right Brown-Séquard plus syndrome (BSPS) after a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. After being operated on with selective tibial neurotomy and triceps surae lengthening because of a right spastic equinus foot, he developed a gait disorder at high speed. The patient complained about an instability of the right knee. Observational gait analysis exhibited an oscillating, flexion/extension motion of the right knee during stance, which was confirmed by gait analysis. Dynamic electromyographic recordings exhibited a clonus of the right rectus femoris (RF) during stance. The spastic activity of the RF and the abnormal knee motion totally reversed after a motor nerve block of the RF, as well as after botulinum toxin type A injection into the RF. We emphasize that complex, spastic gait disorders can benefit from a comprehensive assessment including gait analysis and nerve blocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of estimation system of knee extension strength using image features in ultrasound images of rectus femoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Terabayashi, Nobuo; Hara, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The word "Locomotive syndrome" has been proposed to describe the state of requiring care by musculoskeletal disorders and its high-risk condition. Reduction of the knee extension strength is cited as one of the risk factors, and the accurate measurement of the strength is needed for the evaluation. The measurement of knee extension strength using a dynamometer is one of the most direct and quantitative methods. This study aims to develop a system for measuring the knee extension strength using the ultrasound images of the rectus femoris muscles obtained with non-invasive ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. First, we extract the muscle area from the ultrasound images and determine the image features, such as the thickness of the muscle. We combine these features and physical features, such as the patient's height, and build a regression model of the knee extension strength from training data. We have developed a system for estimating the knee extension strength by applying the regression model to the features obtained from test data. Using the test data of 168 cases, correlation coefficient value between the measured values and estimated values was 0.82. This result suggests that this system can estimate knee extension strength with high accuracy.

  4. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  5. Myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Na, Jae Boem

    2004-01-01

    Myositis ossificans is an ossifying inflammatory lesion occurring within skeletal muscle. Myositis ossificans usually arises in the large muscles of the extremities and this lesion is characterized by progression of mineralization from periphery to center. In the early phase, myositis ossificans simulates malignant soft tissue tumor without dense mineralization. Traumatic myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle has been reported worldwide. The radiologic findings of early active myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle are ill defined heterogenous hypoechoic mass on US, hemorrhage, early strong enhancement and early peripheral mineralization on CT and MR

  6. Myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Na, Jae Boem [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    Myositis ossificans is an ossifying inflammatory lesion occurring within skeletal muscle. Myositis ossificans usually arises in the large muscles of the extremities and this lesion is characterized by progression of mineralization from periphery to center. In the early phase, myositis ossificans simulates malignant soft tissue tumor without dense mineralization. Traumatic myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle has been reported worldwide. The radiologic findings of early active myositis ossificans in rectus abdominis muscle are ill defined heterogenous hypoechoic mass on US, hemorrhage, early strong enhancement and early peripheral mineralization on CT and MR.

  7. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy.

  8. Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present investigation has been designed to study the incidence of the rectus stern muscle in German human cadavers dissected in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, trying to find a postulation for the development of such muscle when present. Design: Gross dissection of 130 cadavers, of both sexes, was ...

  9. Inter- and intramuscular differences in training-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris: association with muscle activation during the first training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on the rectus muscles in mice

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    Chyong Jy eNien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Structural details of vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs have shown an anatomically and functionally distinct laminar organization into an outer orbital (OL and an inner global layer (GL. Since hyperthyroidism alters tissue oxidative metabolism through mitochondrial enzymes, it is expected that structural/mitochondrial changes may be seen in hyperthyroid EOMs. We investigated the alterations in the laminar organization and mitochondrial changes in hyperthyroid mouse EOMs. Methods: Hyperthyroidism was induced in C57BL/6 mice and fresh rectus muscles were obtained to identify functional mitochondria using MitoTracker® Green and confocal microscopy; frozen sections from rectus muscles were stained with anti-rabbit Troponin T (selectively present in the OL to demonstrate changes in the OL and GL of the EOMs. Ultrastructural features of EOMs were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM.Results: Of all 4 rectus EOMs studied, the maximum change was seen in the inferior rectus muscle (IR followed by medial rectus (MR. Myofiber cross sectional area measurements and Troponin T staining in the control IR EOMs demonstrated a smaller OL (113.2 ± 3.66 μm2 and higher density staining with Troponin T (90% and a larger GL (411 ± 13.84 μm2 with low intensity staining (10%, while hyperthyroidism resulted in an increased OL (205.9 ± 5.3 μm2 and decreased GL (271.7 ± 7.5 μm2 p=0.001. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an intense staining especially in the outer rims in the hyperthyroid IR which was confirmed by TEM showing structural alterations in the mitochondria and a subsarcolemmal migration. Conclusions: The outer, thinner, orbital layer (OL of the mouse EOM contains smaller diameter myofibers and fewer mitochondria while the inner, larger global layer (GL contains larger diameter myofibers and larger density of mitochondria. Hyperthyroidism results in a significant alteration in the laminar organization and mitochondria of

  11. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

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    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test.Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated.Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61; z(22 = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72 was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75; t(22 = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29 or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003; t(22 = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16 were not due to chance alone.Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  12. Correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measurement time and different expansibility of the elastic tape on the rectus femoris and body sway index with plyometric exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 24 healthy men. C90 area, C90 angle, trace length, sway average velocity for body sway index were measured using a force plate by BT4. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] All of body sway index on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape were significantly decreased than before and right after plyometric exercise. No significant correlations were found between body sway index and different expansibility of the elastic tape. [Conclusion] It appears that different expansibility of the elastic tape does not affect the ability to body sway index. Carry over effect of taping was verified on measuring follow up 24 hours after removing tape through the decreasing body sway index.

  13. Reliability of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle architecture measurements obtained with ultrasonography

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    Viviane Bastos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Currently, little attention is given to the muscle architecture reliability studies of the hamstring using a robust statistical. Our purpose was to determine the reliability of ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness, fascicle length and pennation angle of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, including heteroskedasticity and internal consistency analyses. Methods Two images of biceps femoris and semitendinosus at 50% of the thigh length were acquired from 21 volunteers, in two visits. The parameters were measured three times in each image, and for each muscle. The reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha (αCronbach. The relative standard error of the measurements (%SEM were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were generated. Results All parameters presented excellent ICC for the three repeated measurements (ICC from 0.93 ‒ 0.99 and moderate to excellent reliability intraday (ICC from 0.70 ‒ 0.95 for both muscles. The present study indicates that ultrasound is a reliable tool to estimate the biceps femoris fascicle length (ICC = 0.97, αCronbach = 0.98, %SEM = 7.86 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.90, αCronbach = 0.95, %SEM = 7.55, as well as the biceps femoris muscle thickness (ICC = 0.89, αCronbach = 0.94, %SEM = 10.23 and semitendinosus muscle thickness (ICC = 0.87, αCronbach = 0.93, %SEM = 1.35. At last, biceps femoris pennation angle (ICC = 0.93, αCronbach = 0.96 and %SEM = 4.36 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.96, αCronbach = 0.98 and %SEM = 4.25 also had good repeatability. Conclusion Ultrasonography show good repeatability in estimating of muscle architecture parameters.

  14. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with both profunda femoris artery perforator flaps and muscle flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  15. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F

    2014-04-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in dissociated strabismus complex demonstrates generalized hypertrophy of rectus extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Ghada Z; Suh, Soh Youn; Demer, Joseph L

    2017-06-01

    Dissociated strabismus complex (DSC) is an enigmatic form of strabismus that includes dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD). We employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the extraocular muscles in DSC. We studied 5 patients with DSC and mean age of 25 years (range, 12-42 years), and 15 age-matched, orthotropic control subjects. All patients had DVD; 4 also had DHD. We employed high-resolution, surface coil MRI with thin, 2 mm slices and central target fixation. Volumes of the rectus and superior oblique muscles in the region 12 mm posterior to 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were measured in quasi-coronal planes in central gaze. Patients with DSC had no structural abnormalities of rectus muscles or rectus pulleys or the superior oblique muscle but exhibited modest, statistically significant increased volume of all rectus muscles ranging from 20% for medial rectus to 9% for lateral rectus (P muscles. DSC is associated with generalized rectus extraocular muscle hypertrophy in the absence of other orbital abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rectus abdominis muscle flap for repair of prepubic tendon rupture in 8 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archipow, Wendy; Lanz, Otto I

    2011-11-01

    The clinical use and outcome of the rectus abdominis muscle flap to repair prepubic hernias were evaluated retrospectively. Medical records (2002-2007) of 8 dogs that had a rectus abdominis muscle flap to repair traumatic prepubic tendon rupture were reviewed. Only minor donor site complications were noted, including self-limiting ventral and hind-limb swelling. No long-term complications including recurrence of hernia were noted. The results of this study indicate that the rectus abdominis muscle flap is a clinically useful option for repairing prepubic tendon rupture in dogs.

  18. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50% had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months. In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%, wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%, but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6% recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  19. Diaphragmatic hernia repair using a rectus abdominis muscle pedicle flap in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawong, P; Komin, K; Banlunara, W; Kalpravidh, M

    2013-01-01

    To report the clinical use of a pedicle flap from the rectus abdominis muscle to repair extensive diaphragmatic tears in dogs with diaphragmatic hernia. Three dogs with a combination of radial and circumferential diaphragmatic tears were studied. The circumferential tear was repaired by suturing the wound edge with the edge at the abdominal wall. A pedicle flap of the rectus abdominis muscle was used for repairing the radial tear. The dogs were examined radiographically for lung and diaphragm appearance and evidence of reherniation at 10 days, and at one, two, and four months after surgery, and fluoroscopically for paradoxical motion of the diaphragm at one and four months. The rectus abdominis muscle pedicle flap was successfully used in all three dogs. The animals recovered uneventfully without evidence of reherniation during the four follow-up months. Fluoroscopic examination revealed no paradoxical motion of the diaphragm. A rectus abdominis muscle pedicle flap can be used for repairing large diaphragmatic defects in dogs.

  20. Closed reduction, internal fixation with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in displaced femoral neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Sibaji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of femoral neck fracture is still considered as an unsolved problem. It is more evident in displaced fractures where this fracture is considered as some sort of vascular insult to the head of the femur. We have used closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in fresh displaced femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: From April 1996 to December 2004 we operated 73 consecutive patients of displaced femoral neck fracture in the age group of 24 to 81 years, mean age being 54.6 years. The patients were operated within one week of injury, the mean delay being 3.6 days. Closed reduction internal fixation along with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting was done in all cases. They were followed up for an average period of 5.6 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Results were assessed according to modified Harris Hip Scoring system and found to be excellent in 53, good in 12, fair in six and poor in two patients. Bony union occurred in 68 cases, no patient developed avascular necrosis (AVN till date. Conclusion: For fresh displaced femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting is a suitable option to secure union and prevent development of AVN.

  1. Frequency of the superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in unilateral fourth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Andrea; Ugrin, Maria Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Superior oblique palsy is accompanied in most cases by overaction of the muscle's ipsilateral antagonist, the inferior oblique muscle. Overaction and contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle in patients with unilateral fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy is seldom discussed in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. The records of 198 patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy examined by the authors between July 1987 and July 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent complete eye examination with measurement of the deviation in the 9 positions of gaze and with the head tilted to both sides in all cooperative patients. Selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in these patients were as follows: vertical deviation of 15(Delta) or larger in primary position, equal or larger hypertropia with the ipsilateral forced tilt test than with the eyes looking straight ahead, more than 5(Delta) hypertropia of the affected eye in horizontal gaze to the same side, hypertropia in all upgazes, and overaction of the contralateral superior oblique muscle. Of 198 patients, 33 (16.6%) met the selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome. Superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome frequently occurs in unilateral superior oblique palsy.

  2. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-07-01

    Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required.

  3. Persistent sciatica induced by quadratus femoris muscle tear and treated by surgical decompression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Quadratus femoris tear is an uncommon injury, which is only rarely reported in the literature. In the majority of cases the correct diagnosis is delayed due to non-specific symptoms and signs. A magnetic resonance imaging scan is crucial in the differential diagnosis since injuries to contiguous soft tissues may present with similar symptoms. Presentation with sciatica is not reported in the few cases existing in the English literature and the reported treatment has always been conservative. Case presentation We report here on a case of quadratus femoris tear in a 22-year-old Greek woman who presented with persistent sciatica. She was unresponsive to conservative measures and so was treated with surgical decompression. Conclusion The correct diagnosis of quadratus muscle tear is a challenge for physicians. The treatment is usually conservative, but in cases of persistent sciatica surgical decompression is an alternative option.

  4. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L

    2018-01-01

    acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries...

  5. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  6. Rectus muscle flap tear as an independent cause of restricted motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Edward L; Ackert, Jessica M; Ostrovsky, Ann

    2012-08-01

    Most published cases of rectus muscle flap tear have been associated with orbital trauma of various degrees of severity. When they accompany an orbital fracture, however, it is difficult to determine whether the flap tear is merely an incidental additional finding or a major contributing cause of the resulting restriction. How to treat the flap itself remains an open question. We report a 24-year-old man with an inferior rectus muscle flap tear caused by direct laceration of the muscle. The major finding was a "reverse leash" vertical restriction. Discarding the flap instead of reattaching it did not prevent a successful result. Our case supports the proposition that rectus muscle flap tear can be a restriction-producing entity. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Simultaneous Traumatic Rupture of Patellar Ligament and Contralateral Rupture of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladký, V; Havlas, V

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.

  8. Short-latency crossed responses in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew J T; Kamavuako, Ernest N; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Interlimb reflexes contribute to the central neural coordination between different limbs in both humans and animals. Although commissural interneurons have only been directly identified in animals, spinally mediated interlimb reflexes have been discovered in a number of human lower limb muscles......, indicating their existence in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short-latency crossed-spinal reflexes are present in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) muscle following ipsilateral knee (iKnee) joint rotations during a sitting task, where participants maintained a slight pre...... pathways (likely involving commissural interneurons) from ipsilateral afferents to common motoneurons in the contralateral leg can likely explain the perturbation direction-dependent reversal in the sign of the short-latency cBF reflex. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  10. [Foster Modification of Full Tendon Transposition of Vertical Rectus Muscles for Sixth Nerve Palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heede, Santa

    2018-04-11

    Since 1907 a variety of muscle transposition procedures for the treatment of abducens nerve palsy has been established internationally. Full tendon transposition of the vertical rectus muscle was initially described by O'Connor 1935 and then augmented by Foster 1997 with addition of posterior fixation sutures on the vertical rectus muscle. Full tendon transposition augmented by Foster belongs to the group of the most powerful surgical techniques to improve the abduction. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of full tendon vertical rectus transposition augmented with lateral fixation suture for patients with abducens nerve palsy. Full tendon transpositions of vertical rectus muscles augmented with posterior fixation suture was performed in 2014 on five patients with abducens nerve palsy. Two of the patients received Botox injections in the medial rectus muscle: one of them three months after the surgery and another during the surgery. One of the patients had a combined surgery of the horizontal muscles one year before. On three of the patients, who received a pure transposition surgery, the preoperative deviation at the distance (mean: + 56.6 pd; range: + 40 to + 80 pd) was reduced by a mean of 39.6 pd (range 34 to 50 pd), the abduction was improved by a mean of 3 mm (range 2 to 4 mm). The other two patients, who received besides the transposition procedure additional surgeries of the horizontal muscles, the preoperative deviation at the distance (+ 25 and + 126 pd respectively) was reduced by 20 and 81 pd respectively. The abduction was improved by 4 and 8 mm respectively. After surgery two patients developed a vertical deviation with a maximum of 4 pd. None of the patients had complications or signs of anterior segment ischemia. The elevation and/or depression was only marginally affected. There was no diplopia in up- or downgaze. Full tendon transposition of vertical rectus muscles, augmented with lateral posterior fixation suture is

  11. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE DURING LOW-INTENSITY AND FATIGUING TASKS

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    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle

  12. Reply to: Can we avoid rectus abdominis muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmermans (Lucas); E.B. Deerenberg (Eva); S.M. van Dijk (Sven); B. Lamme (Bas); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractWe read with interest the letter to the editor by Stephenson et al regarding our article “Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.” Any attempt to decrease the risk of parastomal herniation should be applauded, because its incidence of greater than

  13. Rectus extraocular muscle paths and decompression surgery for Graves orbitopathy: mechanism of motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kalmann, Rachel; de Graaf, Mieke E. L.; Stilma, Jan S.; Mourits, Maarten P.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study possible causes of motility disturbances that may result from orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves orbitopathy and especially the role of rectus extraocular muscle paths. METHODS: Sixteen patients with Graves orbitopathy were studied before and 3 to 6 months after

  14. Correlation between the Limbus-Insertion Distance of the Lateral Rectus Muscle and Lateral Rectus Recession Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia.

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    Ju-Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the limbus-insertion distance (LID of the lateral rectus (LR muscle can be a useful indicator for predicting the surgical effect of recession surgery in intermittent exotropia (IXT. Patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral LR recession for the basic type of IXT were included. The distance between the corneal limbus and the posterior edge of the insertion of LR muscle (limbus-insertion distance was measured intraoperatively using surgical calipers (graded with 0.25 mm precision. We calculated the actual dose-response effect as the difference between the angle of preoperative deviation and the angle of postoperative deviation, and then divided the figure by the total amount of recession at postoperative months 1, 3, and 6. The correlation between the limbus-insertion distance (LID of LR muscle and each dose-response effect was statistically analyzed. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in this study. The mean LID of LR muscle was 5.8±0.7 mm. The dose-response effect was 3.2±1.0 prism diopters (PD/mm at postoperative month 1, 3.4±1.0 PD/mm at postoperative month 3, and 3.4±1.1 PD/mm at postoperative month 6. The LID of the LR muscle was significantly correlated with dose-response effects in cases of unilateral and bilateral LR recession at postoperative months 3 and 6 (P = 0.01, <0.01, 0.04 and <0.01 respectively. As the LID of the LR muscle increased by 1 mm, the dose-response effect increased by 0.2PD/mm in unilateral LR recession, and by 0.4 PD/mm in bilateral LR recession at postoperative month 6. In conclusion, the LID of the LR muscle can be used as one predictor of the recession effect to assist in surgical planning for IXT. Moreover, undercorrection at the time of LR recession might be considered in patients with long LID of the LR muscle.

  15. A Case of Blunt Trauma of the Eyeball Associated With an Inferior Oblique Muscle and an Inferior Rectus Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keisuke; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Miura, Fumihide; Hiroe, Takashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the extraocular muscle in the absence of significant injury to the eyeball and adnexa is uncommon. The authors report a case of blunt trauma of the eyeball associated with an inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle rupture. A 55-year-old man slipped and fell down hitting his eye on an extended windshield wiper blade. Although he had treatment in the emergency room, he complained of diplopia in the primary position 1 day postoperatively. After noticing ruptures of the inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle during exploratory surgery, the authors carefully repaired it. Diplopia in the primary position had disappeared within 1 month after the operation and by 6 months postoperatively. The movement of the eye had almost completely recovered.

  16. Soccer Attenuates the Asymmetry of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Observed in Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoate, Fernando; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) in professional soccer players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (Psoccer players (P = 0.42) and in controls (P = 0.75) (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups). Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, Psoccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury. PMID:21541351

  17. Flap tear of rectus muscles: an underlying cause of strabismus after orbital trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Irene H; Brown, Mark S

    2002-11-01

    To present an avulsion injury of the rectus muscle after orbital trauma, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. Forty-three patients underwent repair of flap tears of 62 rectus muscles. During surgery, we found the muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. The causes of orbital trauma were as follows: orbital fractures (15 patients), blunt trauma with no fracture (11 patients), suspected trauma but did not undergo computerized tomographic scan (12 patients), and status after retinal detachment repair (5 patients). Of note, 15 of the 43 patients (35%) underwent repair of the flap tear alone, without any additional orbital or strabismus surgery. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 45 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap; these tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results after flap tear repair were seen in patients (1) who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, (2) who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and (3) who had the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of posttraumatic strabismus. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long

  18. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages.PATIENTS AND METHODS The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin.RESULTS Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (Pstronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood.

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

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    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  20. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  1. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  2. 99mTc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy to assess the response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation of normal quadriceps femoris muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekindil, Y.; Sarikaya, A.; Birtane, M.; Pekindil, G.; Salan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely used for improving muscle strength by simultaneous contraction in the prevention of muscle atrophy. Although there exist many clinical methods for evaluating the therapeutic response of muscles, 99m Tc-sestamibi which is a skeletal muscle perfusion and metabolism agent has not previously been used for this purpose. The aim of our work was to ascertain whether 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy is useful in the monitoring of therapeutic response to NMES in healthy women. The study included 16 women aged between 21 and 45, with a mean age of 32.7±6.4. Both quadriceps femoris muscles (QFM) of each patient were studied. After randomization to remove the effect of the dominant side, one QFM of each patient was subjected to the NMES procedure for a period of 20 days. NMES was performed with an alternating biphasic rectangular current, from a computed electrical stimulator daily for 23 minutes. After measurement of skinfold thickness over the thigh, pre- and post-NMES girth measurements were assessed in centimeters. Sixty minutes after injections of 555 MBq 99m Tc-sestamibi, static images of the thigh were obtained for 5 minutes. The thigh-to-knee uptake ratio was calculated by semiquantitative analysis and normalized to body surface area (NUR=normalized uptake ratio). The difference between the pre and post NMES NUR values was significant (1.76±0.31 versus 2.25±0.38, p=0.0000). The percentage (%) increase in NUR values also well correlated with the % increase in thigh girth measurements (r=0.89, p=0.0000). These results indicated that 99m Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy as a new tool may be useful in evaluating therapeutic response to NMES. (author)

  3. Soccer attenuates the asymmetry of rectus abdominis muscle observed in non-athletes.

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    Fernando Idoate

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.

  4. Rheological behavior of pork Biceps femoris muscle influenced by injection-tumbling process and brine type

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    Livia PĂTRAŞCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (1-9 h, injection rate (20, 30, 40, and 50 % and k-carrageenan addition (0, 0.25, and 0.5 % on the rheological characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle were assessed. The results of the creep-recovery tests were analyzed using Burger’s equation. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h along with injection rate also increased compliance values and decreased viscosity. K-carrageenan addition showed the occurrence of a more gel-like structure of the brine-meat system, causing further increase of the compliance and strain values. Samples injected with brine were more elastic compared to those containing k-carrageenan. A longer mechanical treatment provided a softer like matrix. Mathematical modeling of creep-compliance data showed a decreasing tendency for viscosity values with k-carrageenan addition. Discrete retarded elastic compliance values increased when adding k-carrageenan to meat-brine system. Addition of k-carrageenan did not affect the equilibrium compliance values.

  5. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  6. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

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    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA in professional tennis players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02 and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01 sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001. In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  7. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. 股直肌岛状肌皮瓣修复瘫痪患者股骨大转子压疮效果%Repair of bedsore over greater trochanter in paraplegic patients with rectus femoris island myocutaneous flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵遵江; 张保德; 刘勇; 章荣涛; 梁其国; 胡育栋; 徐良媛; 王修坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of rectus femoris island myocutaneous flap for repairing bedsores in Ⅲ and Ⅳphases at the femoral greater trochanter area as a result of paraplegia.Methods Thirteen paraplegic patients who suffered bedsores in Ⅲ and Ⅳ phases at the greater trochanter of femur area were hospitalized from July 2009 to June 2013.The bedsores ranged from 4.5 cm ×4.0 cm to 10.0 cm × 9.0 cm in area.After debridement,the size of soft tissue defect ranged from 5.0 cm ×4.5 cm to 10.5 cm × 10.0 cm.Rectus femoris island myocutaneous flaps were used to repair these defects,with flap area ranging from 5.0 cm×5.0 cm to 11.0 cm ×10.0 cm and muscular pedicle length ranging from8 to 12 cm.The donor sites of muscular pedicle were closed by direct suture,while those resulted from forming myocutaneous flap were closed by the transplantation of autologous skin obtained from thigh.Results Necrosis appeared at the edge of myocutaneous flap in one patient,and it was healed after dressing change.The other 12 myocutaneous flaps survived well.Patients were followed up for 2 to 30 months,and bedsore did not recur.Conclusions Rectus femoris island myocutaneous flap,with characteristics of reasonable design,large donor area,big rotation angle,and with wear-,tear-,and pressure-resistance,is suitable for repairing bedsores at Ⅲ and Ⅳ phases at the greater trochanter of femur area in paraplegic patients.%目的 观察用股直肌岛状肌皮瓣修复瘫痪患者股骨大转子Ⅲ~Ⅳ期压疮的效果.方法 2009年7月-2013年6月,笔者单位收治13例股骨大转子Ⅲ~Ⅳ期压疮瘫痪患者,压疮面积为4.5 cm ×4.0 cm~10.0 cm ×9.0 cm,扩创后缺损面积为5.0 cm ×4.5 cm~10.5 cm ×10.0 cm.采用股直肌岛状肌皮瓣修复创面,肌皮瓣面积为5.0 cm ×5.0 cm~11.0 cm×10.0 cm,肌蒂长8~12 cm.肌蒂切取区直接拉拢缝合固定,肌皮瓣切取区行自体大腿皮移植封闭. 结果 12例肌皮瓣全部成活;1例肌皮瓣的边

  9. Validating the Use of Rectus Muscle Fragment Welding to Control Presacral Bleeding During Rectal Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ayuste, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of presacral bleeding during rectal mobilization is low, but such bleeding may be massive and even fatal. Haemostasis can be difficult to achieve using conventional methods because of the complex interlacing of the venous network at the sacral periosteum. Historically, pelvic packing and metallic thumbtacks have been the more commonly used methods in our institution. However, the need for repeat surgery to remove the packs and the difficulties encountered in tack application have forced us to explore other methods. In 1994, the procedure termed muscle fragment welding, which uses electrocautery through a rectus muscle fragment, was introduced to control presacral bleeding. From January 1999 to February 2002, six of 416 patients undergoing pelvic surgery in our institution developed massive presacral haemorrhage and, therefore, this technique was used. Haemostasis was immediate and permanent. No major untoward postoperative events such as re-bleeding or infection were noted. One case developed a second-degree burn in the right elbow due to a misplaced ground conduction plate. Rectus muscle fragment welding is, in our experience, an effective and practical method of controlling presacral haemorrhage.

  10. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  11. Surgical results of the slipped medial rectus muscle after hang back recession surgery

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    Yasar Duranoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the surgical results of a slipped medial rectus muscle (MRM after hang back recession surgery for esotropia.METHODS:Twenty-one patients who underwent re-exploration for diagnosed slipped muscle after hang back recession surgery were included in this retrospective study. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify the location of the slipped muscle. Ocular motility was evaluated with assessment with prism and cover test in gaze at cardinal positions. The operations were performed by the same consultant. Intraoperative forced duction test was performed under general anesthesia. The empty sheath of the slipped MRM was resected and the muscle was advanced to the original insertion site in all patients.RESULTS:The average age of 21 patients who hadconsecutive exotropia with a slipped MRM at the time of presentation was 17.4±5.4y (5-50y. The average duration between the first operation and the diagnosis of the slipped muscle was 25mo (12 to 36mo. The mean follow up after the corrective surgery was 28mo. The mean preoperative adduction limitation in the field of action of the slipped muscle was -2.26 (ranging from -1 to -4. All patients had full adduction postoperatively.CONCLUSION:The diagnosis of the slipped muscle should be confirmed during the strabismus surgery. The slipped muscle may be caused due to insufficient suture and excessive rubbing of the eye. When divergent strabismus is observed after the recession of the MRM, a slipped muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  12. A functional-anatomical approach to the spine-pelvis mechanism: interaction between the biceps femoris muscle and the sacrotuberous ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, J P; Vleeming, A; Snijders, C J; Stoeckart, R

    1993-10-01

    Summary. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is often overlooked as a possible cause of low back pain. This is due to the use of reductionistic anatomical models. From a kinematic point of view, topographic anatomical models are generally inadequate since they categorize pelvis, lower vertebral column and legs as distinct entities. This functional-anatomical study focuses on the question whether anatomical connections between the biceps femoris muscle and the sacrotuberous ligament are kinematically useful. Forces applied to the tendon of the biceps femoris muscle, simulating biceps femoris muscle force, were shown to influence sacrotuberous ligament tension. Since sacrotuberous ligament tension influences sacroiliac joint kinematics, hamstring training could influence the sacroiliac joint and thus low back kinematics. The clinical implications with respect to 'short' hamstrings, pelvic instability and walking are discussed.

  13. Symptomatic endometriosis of rectus abdominis muscle in a patient with uterus didelphys

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    Yavuz Emre Şükür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis of the rectus abdominis muscle is a very rare event and it should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of women with abdominal wall mass. Case: 42 year-old G2 P2 patient with uterus didelphis was referred with a painful abdominal wall mass of approximately 4x5 cm size. The mass that has contrast matter enhancement on CT was excised with median laparotomy below the umbilicus. The mass which was thought as endometriosis was excised without remaining any pieces to prevent recurrence and primarily repaired. Discussion: Along with the increasing incidence due to increased cessarean rates the endometrial wall endometriosis is an important diagnosis that should not be omitted. The treatment is surgical resection and to we should take care not to leave any pieces to prevent recurrence especially when it is located atypically.

  14. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  15. Referred pain elicited by manual exploration of the lateral rectus muscle in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Gerwin, Robert D; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the presence of referred pain elicited by manual examination of the lateral rectus muscle in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control blinded study. It has been found previously that the manual examination of the superior oblique muscle can elicit referred pain to the head in some patients with migraine or tension-type headache. However, a referred pain from other extraocular muscles has not been investigated. Fifteen patients with CTTH and 15 healthy subjects without headache history were included. A blinded assessor performed a manual examination focused on the search for myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the right and left lateral rectus muscles. TrP diagnosis was made when there was referred pain evoked by maintained pressure on the lateral corner of the orbit (anatomical projection of the lateral rectus muscle) for 20 seconds, and increased referred pain while the subject maintained a medial gaze on the corresponding side (active stretching of the muscle) for 15 seconds. On each side, a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to assess the intensity of referred pain at both stages of the examination. Ten patients with CTTH (66.6%) had referred pain that satisfied TrPs diagnostic criteria, while only one healthy control (0.07%) reported referred pain upon the examination of the lateral rectus muscles (P < 0.001). The elicited referred pain was perceived as a deep ache located at the supraorbital region or the homolateral forehead. Pain was evoked on both sides in all subjects with TrPs, with no difference in pain intensity between the right and the left. The average pain intensity was significantly greater in the patient group (P < 0.001). All CTTH patients with referred pain recognized it as the frontal pain that they usually experienced during their headache attacks, which was consistent with active TrPs. In some patients with CTTH, the manual examination of lateral rectus muscle TrPs elicits a referred pain that

  16. Relationship between rectus abdominis muscle thickness and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.

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    Eun Sil Choi

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has been suggested as an important factor in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. During the aging process, muscle mass is lost in specific body parts. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between site-specific muscle loss assessed using computed tomography (CT and metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the umbilicus level (RAM, which reflects site-specific muscle loss of the abdomen using CT image.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 725 middle-aged Korean men. Anthropometric evaluation and biochemical tests were performed. The RAMs of the subjects were measured from CT images taken at the umbilicus level.The mean RAM (mean ±SD of subjects with metabolic syndrome was 2.46 ±0.01, which was thinner than that of subjects without metabolic syndrome (2.52 ±0.01, p<0.01. Moreover, RAM decreased as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased (p-value for trend<0.01. RAM was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.21, p<0.01, skeletal muscle index (r = 0.26, p<0.01, and creatinine (r = 0.12, p<0.01, while RAM was negatively correlated with age(r = -0.11, p<0.01, abdominal circumference(r = -0.22, p<0.01, fasting glucose (r = -0.10, p<0.01, and triglycerides(r = -0.15, p<0.01. Using a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that RAM was an independent factor associated with metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.861, 95%CI, 0.779-0.951, p<0.01. The result was not different in the statistical analysis including the components of MS (OR: 0.860, 95% CI, 0.767-0.965, p = 0.01.RAM was associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men. Moreover, site-specific muscle loss at the abdomen, as evaluated by RAM, also may be a predictor of metabolic syndrome like SMI.

  17. Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Shin, Kang-Jae; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. The distances from the muscle insertion to the point at which the abducens nerve enters the LR and to the terminal nerve plexus were also measured. The LR was 46.0 mm long. The abducens nerve enters the muscle on the posterior one-third of the LR and then typically divides into a few branches (average of 1.8). This supports a segregated abducens nerve selectively innervating compartments of the LR. The intramuscular nerve distribution showed a Y-shaped ramification with root-like arborization. The intramuscular nerve course finished around the middle of the LR (24.8 mm posterior to the insertion point) to form the terminal nerve plexus. This region should be considered the optimal target site for botulinum toxin injections. We have also identified the presence of an overlapping zone and communicating nerve branches between the neighboring LR compartments. Sihler's staining is a useful technique for visualizing the entire nerve network of the LR. Improving the knowledge of the nerve distribution patterns is important not only for researchers but also clinicians to understand the functions of the LR and the diverse pathophysiology of strabismus.

  18. Proteome Changes in biceps femoris Muscle of Iranian One-Humped Camel and Their Effect on Meat Quality Traits

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    Mohammad-Javad Varidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p<0.05. Anatomical location of the muscle influenced the meat properties except for drip loss (p<0.05. Also, except for cooking loss, ageing influenced the physicochemical and quality properties of meat; during 14 days of storage, proteolysis resulted in an increase of L* and b* values, drip loss and myofibrillar fragmentation index, and the decrease of a* value, expressed juice, shear force and sarcomere length. Proteome changes (myofi brillar proteins during storage were investigated. Gel analysis revealed that 19 protein spots were signifi cantly changed during 24, 72 and 168 h post-mortem. Fifteen spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of actin, troponin T, capping protein, heat shock proteins (HSP and desmin with physicochemical and quality properties of meat (p<0.05. Actin might be a potential protein marker for colour, tenderness and water-holding capacity, and HSP27 and desmin are good candidate markers for colour and tenderness, respectively.

  19. Detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yong Seok; Kim, In-Beom; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches. The single trunk of the abducens nerve divided into two branches 37 mm from insertion of the LRM, and 22 of 32 (68.8%) orbits showed only two superior and inferior branches with no subdivision. The superior branch entered the LRM more anteriorly (P = 0.037) and the superior branch was thinner than the inferior branch (P = 0.040). The most distally located intramuscular nerve ending was observed at 52.9 ± 3.5% of the length of each muscle. Non-overlap between the superior and inferior intramuscular arborization of the nerve was detected in 27 of 32 cases (84.4%). Five cases (15.6%) showed definite overlap of the superior and inferior zones. This study revealed the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the LRM and provides helpful information to understand abducens nerve palsy. Clin. Anat. 30:873-877, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fatigue-related changes in motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles within and across legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; van Ditshuizen, J.C.; van den Heuvel, M.R.C.; Hofman, C.; Willigenburg, N.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of muscle fatigue on motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) within and between legs. We expected muscle fatigue to result in an increased common drive to different motor units of

  1. Quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus and biceps femoris muscles in adult Royal Dutch sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Cunilleras, E; Wijnberg, I D

    2016-03-01

    Reference values for quantitative electromyography (QEMG) in shoulder and hindlimb muscles of horses are limited. To determine normative data on QEMG analysis of supraspinatus (SS), infraspinatus (IS), deltoideus (DT) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Experimental observational study and retrospective case series. Seven adult healthy Royal Dutch sport horses underwent quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of each muscle using commercial electromyography equipment. Measurements were made according to published methods. One-way ANOVA was used to compare quantitative motor unit action potential variables between muscles, with post hoc testing according to Bonferroni, with significance set at Paction potential were 8.7-10.4 ms, 651-867 μV, 3.2-3.7, 3.7-4.7, 1054-1457 μV·ms and 1.1-1.5 for SS, 9.6-11.0 ms, 779-1082 μV, 3.3-3.7, 3.8-4.7, 1349-2204 μV·ms and 1.4-1.9 for IS, 6.0-9.1 ms, 370-691 μV, 2.9-3.7, 2.8-4.5, 380-1374 μV·ms and 0.3-1.3 for DT and 5.7-7.8 ms, 265-385 μV, 2.7-3.2, 2.6-3.1, 296-484 μV·ms and 0.2-0.5 for BF, respectively. Mean duration, amplitude, number of phases and turns, area and size index were significantly (P15% polyphasic motor unit action potentials in SS and IS muscles. Differences between muscles should be taken into account when performing QEMG in order to be able to distinguish normal horses from horses with suspected neurogenic or myogenic disorders. These normal data provide the basis for objective QEMG assessment of shoulder and hindlimb muscles. Quantitative electromyography appears to be helpful in diagnosing neuropathies and discriminating these from myopathies. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Sports Mass Age Therapy on the Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness of the Quadriceps Femoris

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    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Massage therapy is one of most commonly applied treatments during athletic training. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sports massage therapy on reducing post-exercise quadriceps muscle soreness. Methods. A sample of 29 women aged 24-26 years was divided into an experimental group (n = 15 receiving classic sports massage therapy and a control group (n = 14 given no treatment. An exercise session consisting of five sets of deep squat jumps was administered after which lower limb power as assessed via the vertical jump test. Muscle soreness was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and exercise intensity with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale. Subsequent measurements of lower limb power and muscle soreness were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the exercise session. Differences between the measurements were assessed by the Friedman and least significant difference tests while between-group comparisons involved the Mann-Whitney U test. Results. The largest decrease in lower limb power was observed between the first measurement after the exercise session and 24 h later (p < 0.01. The smallest decrease in power was observed in the massage group. The highest levels of muscle soreness were noted 24 h post-exercise in the massage group and 48 h post-exercise in the control group. The experimental group showed a decrease in muscle soreness in each subsequent measurement, with the results close to zero on the VAS 96 h postexercise. Conclusions. Massage therapy quickened recovery and improved muscle efficiency post-exercise and may serve as an effective treatment of muscle soreness. The analgesic effect of massage suggests it should be widely applied in sport, physical therapy and rehabilitation.

  3. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique: pinternal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two horizontal rectus eye muscle surgery combined with botulinum toxin for the treatment of very large angle esotropia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed new protocol for the primary treatment for very large angle esotropia: two muscle horizontal rectus muscle surgery with simultaneous botulinum toxin A injection in a small pilot study. Eight patients who had esotropia at near (ET') greater than 60 prism diopters (in actuality 70 to 100 prism diopters ET') underwent 2 muscle horizontal rectus surgery with simultaneous botulinum toxin A injection of the medial rectus intraoperatively. This was the only surgical procedure for all patients included in this report. Seven patients underwent bilateral medial rectus recession and bilateral injection, and one patient underwent a unilateral medial rectus recession / lateral rectus resection procedure with unilateral medial rectus injection. Postoperatively, 6 of the 8 patients demonstrated residual esotropia at near of less than 10 prism diopters and were considered "successful" by the conventional criteria of binocular alignment within 8 prism diopters of orthotropia. Two undercorrections occurred in patients with 100 and 85 prism diopters of preop ET' respectively. But 3 other patients with such large deviations had satisfactory results. All patients and families were satisfied with postoperative binocular alignment, so no further surgery was undertaken. The patient who underwent unilateral surgery had the least surgical effect and was the largest undercorrection, probably because only one medial rectus received a Botox injection. Considering only the bilateral cases, results were "successful" in 6 of 7 cases. Most patients suffered an extended period of Botox induced exotropia in the postop' period before recovery from the paresis. One patient had a transient, successfully treated, postoperative strabismic amblyopia while exotropic. Bilateral medial rectus recession with simultaneous botulinum injection is a safe and effective primary surgical procedure for very large angle esotropia. A more extensive study is indicated to

  5. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus—teammates or competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. Methods 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 increase or the signal intensity shift between both scans was used to detect differences in metabolic activation characteristics (1) between the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) between the injury group and the control group. Results A more symmetrical muscle recruitment pattern corresponding to a less economic hamstring muscle activation was demonstrated in the formerly injured group (phamstring exercise. Conclusions These findings suggest that the vulnerability of the hamstring muscles to football-related injury is related to the complexity and close coherence in the synergistic muscle recruitment of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus. Discrete differences in neuromuscular coordination and activity distribution, with the biceps femoris partly having to compensate for the lack of endurance capacity of the semitendinosus, probably increase the hamstring injury risk. PMID:25388959

  6. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus--teammates or competitors? New insights into hamstring injury mechanisms in male football players: a muscle functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-12-01

    The hamstring injury mechanism was assessed by investigating the exercise-related metabolic activity characteristics of the hamstring muscles using a muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) protocol. 27 healthy male football players and 27 football players with a history of hamstring injuries (recovered and playing fully) underwent standardised mfMR Imaging. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 increase or the signal intensity shift between both scans was used to detect differences in metabolic activation characteristics (1) between the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) between the injury group and the control group. A more symmetrical muscle recruitment pattern corresponding to a less economic hamstring muscle activation was demonstrated in the formerly injured group (phamstring exercise. These findings suggest that the vulnerability of the hamstring muscles to football-related injury is related to the complexity and close coherence in the synergistic muscle recruitment of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus. Discrete differences in neuromuscular coordination and activity distribution, with the biceps femoris partly having to compensate for the lack of endurance capacity of the semitendinosus, probably increase the hamstring injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-01-01

    TKA. METHODS: We included 64 patients on the first postoperative day. Group A received an ACB with 30 mL ropivacaine 0.75% at t0 and with 30 mL saline 60 minutes later (t60). Group B received the treatment in the opposite order. The primary end point was the difference between groups in MVIC at t60......, expressed as a percentage of postoperative preblock values. In this manner, the effect of the ACB could be isolated from the detrimental effect on muscle strength caused by the surgery. Secondary end points were differences between groups in mobility and pain scores. We planned a subgroup analysis dividing...

  8. Karakteristik Kimia dan Mikrostruktur Otot Longissimus Dorsi dan Biceps Femoris dari Sapi Glonggong (Chemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Longissimus Dorsi and Biceps Femoris Muscle of Glonggong Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrih Prasetyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate chemical and microstructure characteristics of glonggong (excessive drink meat compared with the normal meat. The meat samples were taken from Boyolali Regency, came from five glonggong male Ongole grade cattle, and from five normal cattle with the average life weight of 250–300 kg. The chemical data were analyzed by using analysis of variance of 2x2 factorial patterns. The microstructure characteristics were also analyzed descriptively. The water content of glonggong meat was higher compared with that of normal meat on BF and LD muscle, average water content was 80.64% and 80.14% vs 78.60% and 74.57%, respectively. The protein contents of BF (15.98% and LD (16.17% was lower than the protein contents normal meat of BF (21.08% and LD (21.07%, respectively. The Result of statistical analyzed shows significant pengglonggongan of cattle before slaughtered (P<0.05 to meat fat value at every muscle. The meat lactic acid value of glonggong meat of LD muscle was lower than that of normal meat of LD muscle (2815.891 vs 6827.77 ppm. There was a damage of glonggong meat microstructure of LD, BF muscle and also of liver organ. In conclusion, glonggong meat had a lower chemical characteristics compared with the normal meat. (Key words: Chemical, Microstructure, Meat, Glonggong

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy to assess the response to neuromuscular electrical stimulation of normal quadriceps femoris muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekindil, Y.; Sarikaya, A.; Birtane, M.; Pekindil, G.; Salan, A. [Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey). Hospital

    2001-08-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely used for improving muscle strength by simultaneous contraction in the prevention of muscle atrophy. Although there exist many clinical methods for evaluating the therapeutic response of muscles, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi which is a skeletal muscle perfusion and metabolism agent has not previously been used for this purpose. The aim of our work was to ascertain whether {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy is useful in the monitoring of therapeutic response to NMES in healthy women. The study included 16 women aged between 21 and 45, with a mean age of 32.7{+-}6.4. Both quadriceps femoris muscles (QFM) of each patient were studied. After randomization to remove the effect of the dominant side, one QFM of each patient was subjected to the NMES procedure for a period of 20 days. NMES was performed with an alternating biphasic rectangular current, from a computed electrical stimulator daily for 23 minutes. After measurement of skinfold thickness over the thigh, pre- and post-NMES girth measurements were assessed in centimeters. Sixty minutes after injections of 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, static images of the thigh were obtained for 5 minutes. The thigh-to-knee uptake ratio was calculated by semiquantitative analysis and normalized to body surface area (NUR=normalized uptake ratio). The difference between the pre and post NMES NUR values was significant (1.76{+-}0.31 versus 2.25{+-}0.38, p=0.0000). The percentage (%) increase in NUR values also well correlated with the % increase in thigh girth measurements (r=0.89, p=0.0000). These results indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi muscle scintigraphy as a new tool may be useful in evaluating therapeutic response to NMES. (author)

  10. Effect of tumbling time, injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on processing, textural and color characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle

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    Livia PATRAŞCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (0-9 hours, injection rate (20-50% and k carrageenan addition (0.25 - 0.5% on quality characteristics of cooked pork Biceps femoris muscle have been studied. Properties of injected and tumbled meat samples were determined by measuring processing characteristics (tumbling yield, cooking yield and expressible moisture, color (L*, a*, b*, Hue angle and Chroma and texture (firmness, toughness, adhesiveness, work of adhesion and fracturability. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h led to better hydration properties and increased the cooking yield for all samples, both with 0.25% and 0.5% of k-carrageenan addition. It also decreased the firmness and toughness of the evaluated samples. Biceps femoris samples containing a higher level of k-carrageenan were tenderer than those containing less polysaccharide. Neither injection rate nor tumbling time affected the color components of the analyzed samples.

  11. The effect of whole-body vibration and resistance training on muscle strength in a 13-year-old boy with m. biceps femoris lesion and posttraumatic calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common adaptation after major muscle lesion of m. biceps femoris that results in numerous health-sport related complications. Resistance strength training and whole-body vibration (WBV have been recognized as an effective tool, which attenuates atrophy and evokes hypertrophy. Case report. We presented a 13-year-old boy with a lesion of m. biceps femoris and posttraumatic calcification sustained in soccer training session 6 month prior participation in this study. The patient underwent training 3 times a week for 7 weeks, including unilateral progressive WBV + resistance training (RT of the right hamstrings muscle group using WBV and weights. Hamstrings muscle strength was measured using a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. At the end of week 4, the patient peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 39% body weight (BW to 72% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -64% to -35%; at the end of week 7 the participant’s peak torque value of the involved leg increased from 72% BW to 98% BW and bilateral deficit decreased from -35% to -3%, respectively. Conclusion. Unilateral WBV + RT protocol evokes strength increase in the hamstrings muscle group. This case study suggests that adding WBV, as well as the RT program have to be considered in the total management of strength disbalance. Further studies are needed to verify the efficiency of WBV + RT protocol over the classic physical therapy exercise program.

  12. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Eung K; Ryu, Kyung N; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-04-01

    To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15-24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles.

  13. Pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence: report of ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue-Min; Zhang, Xin-Ru; Xie, Hong; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Fei, Xiao-Fang

    2014-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is relatively common complication of radical prostatectomy and of posterior urethroplasty following traumatic pelvic fracture. Here, we investigate the use of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling of the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence. Ten patients with acquired urinary incontinence were included in the study. Urinary incontinence was secondary to TURP in three patients and was secondary to posterior urethroplasty performed following traumatic pelvic fracture in seven patients. Pedicled rectus abdominalis muscle and fascial flaps, approximately 2.5 cm wide and 15 cm long, were isolated. The flaps were inserted into a perineal incision through a subcutaneous tunnel. The free end of the flap was sectioned to form two muscle strips, each 3 cm in length, and inserted into the space between bulbar urethra and corpus cavernosa. After adequate sling tension had been achieved, the two strips of muscle were anastomosed around the bulbar urethra using a 2-zero polyglactin suture. The patients were followed up for between 12 and 82 months (mean 42.8 months). Complete continence was achieved with good voiding in seven of the 10 patients. In other three patients achieved good voiding following catheter removal, but incontinence was only moderately improved. A pedicled rectus muscle fascial sling of the bulbar urethra is an effective and safe treatment for male patients with mild to moderate acquired urinary incontinence, but it may not be suitable for severe incontinence or for patients with weak rectus abdominalis muscles.

  14. The effect of dynamic knee-extension exercise on patellar tendon and quadriceps femoris muscle glucose uptake in humans studied by positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Langberg, Henning; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine

    2005-01-01

    Both tendon and peritendinous tissue show evidence of metabolic activity, but the effect of acute exercise on substrate turnover is unknown. We therefore examined the influence of acute exercise on glucose uptake in the patellar and quadriceps tendons during dynamic exercise in humans. Glucose...... that tendon glucose uptake is increased during exercise. However, the increase in tendon glucose uptake is less pronounced than in muscle and the increases are uncorrelated. Thus tendon glucose uptake is likely to be regulated by mechanisms independently of those regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake....... uptake was measured in five healthy men in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and the quadriceps femoris muscle at rest and during dynamic knee-extension exercise (25 W) using positron emission tomography and [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). Glucose uptake index was calculated by dividing...

  15. Association between leg strength and muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris with the physical activity level in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Arévalo-Arévalo, Juan Manuel; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-03

    Aging is a complex physiological process whose main feature is the progressive loss of functionality, which may be delayed or attenuated by improving physical fitness.  To determine the association between leg strength and the muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in relation to physical activity level in the elderly.  Thirty-two functionally autonomous people over 80 years (men: 82.80±2.09 years; women: 83.77±4.09 years) participated in this study. The Barthel Index, the Yale Physical Activity Survey and the Chair Stand Test were the instruments used.  There were significant differences between sexes in muscle area (pmen. The muscle area and the Chair Stand Test correlated significantly with the walk index (r=0.445, pactivity index (r=0.430, pactivity index, muscle area and the Chair Stand Test, only the latter behaved as a predictor variable.  Muscle strength and muscle mass of quadriceps showed a significant association with the physical activity level in older people. Leg muscle strength was useful to reveal muscle mass and physical activity level in older people, which is relevant as a clinical practice indicator.

  16. [Contralateral Recession of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Grave's Disease Patients with Mild M. rectus inferior fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, A; Raczynski, S; Dekowski, D; Esser, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose effect and the resulting binocular single vision for inferior oblique muscle recession in patients with Grave's orbitopathy. The evaluation covered all patients (n = 13) between 2010-2013 treated with recession of the inferior oblique muscle for vertical deviation caused by inferior fibrosis of the contralateral eye. The inclusion criterion was a small vertical squint angle with excyclotorsion. The corrected vertical squint angle was 3.75° [7 pdpt] (median, min 1.5° [3 pdpt], max 8° [16 pdpt]) in primary position and 5.5° in adduction [11pdpt] (median, min 3°[6 pdpt], max 9°[18pdpt]). Excyclotorsion was 4° [8 pdpt] (median, min 1° [2 pdpt], max 9° [18 pdpt]). Elevation was only slightly impaired and the side difference was 5° (median). The recession distance was preoperatively determined: 0.5° squint angle reduction per mm recession distance (calculation from patients who received surgery before 2010). Inferior oblique recession generated a good field of binocular single vision (BSV) for all patients. All patients reached BSV in the central area (20°) and within 30° of downgaze. Sixty nine percent of the patients were completely diplopia free in downgaze. Diplopia persisted in more than half of the patients in up gaze outside 15°. Squint reduction was 0.5° [1 pdpt] [0.45-0.67]/per mm recession distance in primary position and 0.65° [1.3 pdpt] [0.55-0.76]/per mm for the vertical deviation in adduction. Excyclotorsion was reduced to ≤ 2° in 77 % of the patients. Inferior oblique muscle recession can be very successfully performed on the contralateral eye in patients with mild inferior rectus muscle fibrosis. Surgery at the contralateral yoke muscle prevents the risk of overeffect with resulting diplopia in downgaze, which could occur if small distance recession had been performed at the inferior rectus muscle. An overeffect in relation to inferior oblique recession will only

  17. [Repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity with long head of biceps femoris muscle flap combined with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Heng-lin; Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Hua-tao

    2012-02-01

    To explore the clinical effect of transplantation of the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap in combination with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap for repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity. Eight patients with 10 deep pressure sores over ischial tuberosity were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital to the PLA General Hospital and the 98th Hospital of PLA from April 2004 to June 2010. The wounds measured from 2 cm × 2 cm to 6 cm × 4 cm were covered with the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap and semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap (ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm to 13 cm × 8 cm). The condition of flaps was observed and followed up for a long time. All flaps survived. Nine wounds healed by first intention. Subcutaneous accumulation of fluids occurred in one wound with formation of a sinus at drainage site, and it healed after dressing change for 25 days. Patients were followed up for 7 to 34 months. Sore recurred in one patient 9 months after surgery, and it was successfully repaired with the same flap for the second time. Flaps in the other 7 patients appeared satisfactory with soft texture and without ulceration. This combined flap is easy in formation and transfer, and it causes little side injury with good resistance against pressure. It is a new method for repair of pressure sore over sacral region.

  18. Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of the Ferret Lateral Rectus Muscle and Abducena Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    from the ferret LR Slow Resistant group is larger than the typically powerful Fast Fatigable motor units in the cat. Whole Muscle Contractile...623-632, 1990. 21. HESS A and PILAR G. SLOW FIBRES IN THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE CAT. J Physiol 169: 780-798, 1963. 22. Jacoby J, Chiarandini DJ...were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch

  19. Instrumental evaluation of colour changes in broiler breast and thigh muscles after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabielski, J.; Jaworska-Piasecka, A.; Stangierski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Colour changes in Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris and Pectoralis major broiler chicken muscles were determined with a reflectance colorimeter after irradiation with gamma 60Co rays. The muscles were irradiated with doses of 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were measured after 2, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage of muscles at 1 deg C using a MINOLTA CR-200b reflectance colorimeter. The saturation of colour C* was also calculated and the significance of redness and yellowness effect on saturation was estimated by a linear regression analysis. Only in the Biceps femoris muscle were all the examined colour parameters found to be dependent both on storage time and irradiation treatment, however, the relationship between the dose and the measured effect demonstrated no linear characteristics. It was noted that the difference between the irradiated and control Biceps femoris muscles resulted from different trends of L*, b* and C* changes during storage

  20. Ultrasound diagnosis of rectus sheath hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. S.; Chang, J. C.; Rhee, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    6 cases of rectus sheath hematoma were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound. 2 cases had bilateral rectus sheath hematoma and 4 cases were unilateral. On ultrasound finding, relatively well defined oval or spindle like cystic mass situated in the area of rectus muscle on all cases. Ultrasound examination may give more definite diagnosis and extension rectus sheath hematoma and also helpful to follow up study of hematoma

  1. Evaluation of rectus extraocular muscles using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy for assessment of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qinghua; Ai, Likun

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is important to assess the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) for planning optimal treatment strategy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is a technique for assessment of microcirculation status. The correlation between disease activity and the microcirculation characteristics of extraocular muscles (EOMs) has been demonstrated in GO. Purpose. To investigate the changes of rectus EOMs in patients with active vs. inactive GO using DCE-MRI, and to evaluate the value of DCE-MRI in assessing the activity of GO. Material and Methods. Rectus EOMs of 20 healthy controls, 18 patients with active GO, and 16 patients with inactive GO were studied. The signal intensity (SI) of rectus EOMs on T 2 W images was evaluated. Regions of interest were placed on each rectus on DCE-MRI images. The DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak enhancement (T peak ), enhancement ratio (ER), and wash-out ratio (WR) were calculated. Results. There were significant differences in SI and T peak , ER and WR values among the three groups (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference in SI between the active and inactive groups (P = 0.07). Tpeak values of each rectus were significantly increased in inactive group compared with the active group (P peak ), maximum ER (maxER) and maximum WR (maxWR) (P peak , maxER and maxWR were 156.98s, 1.31 and 13.50% respectively, giving positive predictive values of 68.00%, 88.90%, and 94.44% for the assessment of disease activity. Conclusion. DCE-MRI could demonstrate the micro circulatory changes of rectus EOMs in both active and inactive GO, and this MRI method is a useful tool in differentiating active from inactive GO

  2. Comparison of results of medial rectus muscle recession using augmentation, Faden procedure, and slanted recession in the treatment of high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Davoud; Zanjani, Leila Kazemi

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature, accommodative esotropia has an unpredictable course when nonsurgical treatment is considered, especially in cases with a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio (AC/A). The aim of this study was to compare the results of augmented recession, slanted recession, and recession with posterior fixation suture of the medial rectus muscles in the treatment of high AC/A esotropia. Twenty-eight children (4 to 14 years old) with high AC/A esotropia with a near-distance disparity greater than 10 PD were included in a prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Nine children underwent recession of both medial rectus muscles and posterior fixation suture (Faden procedure), 9 children underwent augmented recession of the medial rectus muscles, and 10 children underwent slanted recession of both medial rectus muscles. The amount of esodeviation was measured before strabismus surgery and at least 6 months postoperatively. In the augmented recession group, the mean near-distance disparity was reduced from 16.33 +/- 2.17 PD preoperatively to 7.55 +/- 3.87 PD postoperatively (54.21%; P = .056). In the Faden procedure group, it was reduced from 15.22 +/- 4.08 PD to 2.55 +/- 4.03 PD (80.7%; P = .056). In the slanted recession group, it was reduced from 15.50 +/- 4.30 PD to 4.10 +/- 4.80 PD (67.55%; P = .056). The Faden procedure had the best outcome, but slanted recession also was successful. Because of our good results and an easy, non-invasive approach without any additional complications, we recommend slanted recession to treat high AC/A esotropia.

  3. Group Ia afferents likely contribute to short-latency interlimb reflexes in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2017-01-01

    amplitudes (4 vs. 8°) at the same 150°/s velocity (p’s > 0.08). Conclusion: Because fast conducting group Ia muscle spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in muscle stretch velocity, while group II spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in amplitude (Grey et al., JPhysiol., 2001; Matthews, Trends...... Neurosci., 1991), group Ia velocity sensitive muscle spindle afferents likely contribute to the short-latency crossed spinal reflexes in the cBF muscle following iKnee joint rotations. This supports the findings for the short-latency crossed responses in the human soleus muscle (Stubbs & Mrachacz...... neurons in humans, with primary contributions from group Ia muscle spindle afferents....

  4. Muscle electrical activity during exercises with and without load executed on dry land and in an aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Nayra Paz Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Muscle activity in the aquatic environment was investigated using electromyographic analyses. The physical properties of water and the resistance used may influence the response of the muscle during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrical activity in water and on the floor during flexion and knee extension exercises with and without load and aimed at understanding the muscular response while performing resistance exercises in water. Methods The sample consisted of 14 volunteers between 18 and 35 years old who were subjected to active exercises involving knee flexion and extension with and without load on the floor and in water. Electromyography was performed during the movement. Results A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle during exercises on the floor. The biceps femoris muscle showed increased electromyographic activity when resistance was used. A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle compared with exercises with and without load and the moment of rest in immersion. The electrical activity of the rectus and biceps femoris muscles was reduced in exercises with load and without load in a therapy pool compared with on the floor. Conclusion There was a reduction of the electromyographic activity in the aquatic environment compared with that on the ground, which could be attributed to the effects from hot water. Therefore, it is believed that resistance exercises can be performed early in a therapy pool, which will facilitate the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  5. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  6. Limb muscle quality and quantity in elderly adults with dynapenia but not sarcopenia: An ultrasound imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Jan, Wei Han; Han, Der-Sheng

    2018-03-28

    Dynapenia is prevalent in people with reduced skeletal muscle mass, i.e. sarcopenia, but a certain population develops muscle strength loss despite having normal skeletal muscle volume. To date, studies investigating muscle quality and quantity in groups with dynapenia but not sarcopenia are limited. Echogenicity and thickness of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography in 140 community-dwelling elderly adults. Participants with decreased handgrip strength but normal muscular volume were diagnosed as having dynapenia without sarcopenia. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between dynapenia and ultrasound indicators of the sampled muscle expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 140 participants were recruited for the study, 12.6% (n = 18) of whom had dynapenia. The dynapenia group had a higher mean age, higher proportion of women, slower fast gait speed, reduced handgrip strength, and decreased thicknesses of the biceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, dynapenia was associated with older age (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.33), higher body mass index (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.24) and medial gastrocnemius muscles (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.61). Dynapenia without sarcopenia is associated with decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscles, an association that remains significant after adjustment for demographics, body composition, and physical performance. Ultrasound measurements of lower-limb muscle thickness can be considered an auxiliary criterion for evaluating dynapenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  8. Rectus sheath abscess after laparoscopic appendicectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golash Vishwanath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Port site wound infection, abdominal wall hematoma and intraabdominal abscess formation has been reported after laparoscopic appendicectomy. We describe here a rectus sheath abscess which occurred three weeks after the laparoscopic appendicectomy. It was most likely the result of secondary infection of the rectus sheath hematoma due to bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the inferior epigastric arteries or a direct tear of the rectus muscle. As far as we are aware this complication has not been reported after laparoscopic appendicectomy.

  9. Activity of Lower Limb Muscles During Squat With and Without Abdominal Drawing-in and Pilates Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre C; Martins, Fábio M; Silva, Angélica F; Coelho, Ana C; Intelangelo, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-11-01

    Barbosa, AC, Martins, FM, Silva, AF, Coelho, AC, Intelangelo, L, and Vieira, ER. Activity of lower limb muscles during squat with and without abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3018-3023, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing on the activity of lower limb muscles during squats. Adults (n = 13, 22 ± 3 years old) with some Pilates experience performed three 60° squats under each of the following conditions in a random order: (I) normal breathing, (II) drawing-in maneuver with normal breathing, and (III) drawing-in maneuver with Pilates breathing. Peak-normalized surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the knee flexion and extension phases of squat exercises was analyzed. There were significant differences among the conditions during the knee flexion phase for the rectus femoris (p = 0.001), biceps femoris (p = 0.038), and tibialis anterior (p = 0.001), with increasing activation from conditions I to III. For the gastrocnemius medialis, there were significant differences among the conditions during the knee extension phase (p = 0.023), with increased activity under condition I. The rectus and biceps femoris activity was higher during the extension vs. flexion phase under conditions I and II. The tibialis anterior activity was higher during the flexion compared with the extension phase under all conditions, and the medial gastrocnemius activity was higher during the extension phase under condition I. Doing squats with abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing resulted in increased rectus, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior activity during the flexion phase, increasing movement stability during squat exercises.

  10. Combined resection–recession versus combined recession–retroequatorial myopexy of medial rectus muscles for treatment of near-distance disparity Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghali MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manar A Ghali Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Purpose: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of two different surgical techniques for the treatment of near-distance disparity esotropia; combined resection–recession and recession–retroequatorial myopexy of medial rectus muscles. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 28 patients diagnosed with convergence excess esotropia who had worn their full cycloplegic refraction and/or bifocal glasses for at least 6 months and still had near-distance disparity esotropia. The patients were divided into 2 groups; Group I underwent combined bimedial rectus muscles resection 2.5 mm from the insertion end with recession based on near-angle esotropia according to current surgical tables with 1 mm add of recession for each muscle, while Group II underwent bimedial recession based on far angle combined with retroequatorial myopexy at 13–14 mm from insertion. A satisfactory result was defined as orthophoria or esotropia <10 prism diopters (∆ at near and distance with reduction of the near-distance disparity to <10 ∆. The patients were followed up for at least 2 years for stability of correction and late onset consecutive exotropia. Results: In Group I, all the patients had satisfactory alignments at near and far with residual near–far disparity ≤10 ∆, no cases of overcorrection at far was reported; while in Group II, all cases had orthophoria at far, but 4 cases (28.6% showed near–far disparity >10 ∆. Conclusion: The technique of combined resection–recession is safe, easy and more effective in the treatment of near-distance disparity esotropia regardless of the level of accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio, with stability of results though longer follow-up period is still needed. Keywords: near-distance disparity, esotropia, Ac/A ratio, retroequatorial myopexy, slanted recession

  11. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (-7%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (-19%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (-24%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads.

  12. Retroperitoneal and rectus sheath hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasotakis, George

    2014-02-01

    The retroperitoneum is rich in vascular structures and can harbor large hematomas, traumatic or spontaneous. The management of retroperitoneal hematomas depends on the mechanism of injury and whether they are pulsatile/expanding. Rectus sheath hematomas are uncommon abdominal wall hematomas secondary to trauma to the epigastric arteries of the rectus muscle. The common risk factors include anticoagulation, strenuous exercise, coughing, coagulation disorders, and invasive procedures on/through the abdominal wall. The management is largely supportive, with the reversal of anticoagulation and transfusions; angioembolization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones.

  14. The neuromechanical functional contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using tensiomyography in male athletes and non-athletes

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    Toskić Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary neuromechanical muscle contractile properties, especially of the extensor muscles and knee joint flexors as the largest muscle groups of the caudal part of the body, play an important role in both everyday movement and sport. Based on these data we can obtain important information on the functional properties of muscles. The basic means of evaluation of the functional involuntary neuromechanical muscles contractile properties is the non-invasive tensiomyographic method (TMG. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between the involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using the TMG method on a sample of male athletes and non-athletes. The sample of participants was made up of 17 athletes and 10 non-athletes. By applying the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and the t-test, we achieved results which indicate that of the overall 30 variables, a difference was determined among 13 of them. Most of the differences were determined for the extensor muscles of the right knee, especially of the rectus femoris muscle. It was also shown that in addition to the main knee joint extensor muscle (rectus femoris the main knee joint flexor muscle (biceps femoris also takes part in the definition of the difference between athletes and non-athletes. The results have shown that the following variables: contraction time (Tc and delay contraction time (Td are the functional parameters for which the highest difference between athletes and non-athletes were determined (from t = -2.284, p < 0.05 for the vastus lateralis of the right leg to t = -4.018, p < 0.01 for the rectus femoris of the left leg. These results have shown that it is possible to determine the differences in the functional involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles among trained and untrained individuals using the tensiomyographic method, but at the same time indicated that these differences were very

  15. Electrically induced contraction levels of the quadriceps femoris muscles in healthy men: the effects of three patterns of burst-modulated alternating current and volitional muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael G; Broughton, Alex J; Larsen, Ben R; Dinius, Josh W; Cimbura, Mac J; Davis, Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare electrically induced contraction levels produced by three patterns of alternating current in fatigued and nonfatigued skeletal muscles. Eighteen male volunteers without health conditions, with a mean (SD) age of 24.9 (3.4) yrs were randomly exposed to a fatiguing volitional isometric quadriceps contraction and one of three patterns of 2.5-KHz alternating current; two were modulated at 50 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with five cycles per burst and 90% burst duty cycle with 45 cycles per burst), and one pattern was modulated at 100 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with 2.5 cycles per burst). The electrically induced contraction levels produced by the three patterns of electrical stimulation were compared before and after the fatiguing contraction. The 10% burst duty cycles produced 42.9% (95% confidence interval, 29.1%-56.7%) and 32.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.2%-45.9%) more muscle force (P stronger muscle contractions. Furthermore, the stimulation patterns had no influence on the difference in muscle force before and after the fatiguing quadriceps contraction. Consequently, for clinical applications in which high forces are desired, the patterns using the 10% burst duty cycle may be helpful.

  16. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Katja; Mänttäri, Satu; Järvilehto, Matti

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca 2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA

  17. Timing of muscle response to a sudden leg perturbation: comparison between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome.

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    Maria Stella Valle

    Full Text Available Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test. In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability.

  18. MUSCLE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL MOMENT DURING SINGLE-LEG DROP LANDING IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF BICEPS FEMORIS IN REDUCING INTERNAL ROTATION OF KNEE DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguru Fujii

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes

  19. Muscle sonography in six patients with hereditary inclusion body myopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Ronald S.; Garolfalo, Giovanna; Paget, Stephen; Kagen, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the morphological changes of muscle with sonography in six patients affected by hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM). We studied a group of six Persian Jews diagnosed with HIBM. All were homozygous for the GNE mutation M712T. Ultrasonographic examinations of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscle groups were performed. A follow-up ultrasound examination was performed, after an interval of 3 years, in four of these patients. Muscles were assessed subjectively as to echogenicity, determined by gray-scale assessment, and loss of normal muscle morphology. Power Doppler sonography (PDS) was used to assess vascularity. A sonographic finding of central atrophy and peripheral sparing resulting in a target-like appearance was noted in the hamstring compartment of all six patients. The quadriceps compartment also showed involvement of the rectus femoris of all patients, which, in some cases, was the only muscle involved in the quadriceps. Vascularity was markedly reduced in the affected areas, with blood flow demonstrated in the peripherally spared areas. The severity of atrophy increased with disease duration. In this case series, we describe a new sonographic finding as well as document progression of HIBM disease, which has generally been described as quadriceps sparing. The myopathic target lesion, as well as isolated rectus femoris atrophy, may provide a useful adjunct to disease diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud, Sebastien Borreani, Juan C. Colado, Fernando F Martín, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29 performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001. Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation.

  1. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

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    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  2. CT, Magnetic Resonance, and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Imaging Features of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Involving Medial Rectus Muscle: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Choe, Mi Sun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the medial rectus muscle in a 47-year-old man along with CT, MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/CT ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and pathologic features. The lesion was manifested as a fusiform enlargement isolated to the right medial rectus muscle with involvement of its tendinous insertion. The lesion was isoattenuating to the brain on non-enhanced CT images, showing as isointense to gray matter on fast spin echo T1- and T2-weighted images with fat saturation, and showed homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MR images. The maximum stan- dardized uptake value on 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 4.9 g/mL. The results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the specimen obtained by biopsy of the right medial rectus muscle were consistent with MALT lymphoma. It should be noted that the extraocular muscle (EOM) is a rare location for the involvement of MALT lympho- ma, and MALT lymphoma of the EOM may mimic thyroid orbitopathy.

  3. Rectus sheath hematoma: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapan Selin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. It could occur spontaneously or after trauma. They are usually located infraumblically and often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen, inflammatory diseases or tumours of the abdomen. Case presentation We reported three cases of rectus sheath hematoma presenting with a mass in the abdomen and diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patients recovered uneventfully after bed rest, intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion and analgesic treatment. Conclusion Rectus sheath hematoma is a rarely seen pathology often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen that may lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Computerized tomography must be chosen for definitive diagnosis since ultrasonography is subject to error due to misinterpretation of the images. Main therapy is conservative management.

  4. Combined lateral rectus augmented transposition and inferior rectus recession for monocular elevation deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Manjula; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar

    2018-04-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who presented with a drooping right upper eyelid and smaller-appearing right eye, evident since birth. Her visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. In primary gaze she had a hypotropia of 25 Δ , with a marked elevation limitation and associated true upper lid ptosis of 3 mm. Under local anesthesia, the lateral rectus muscle was transposed to the superior rectus muscle and was augmented by a nonabsorbable suture attaching the superior rectus muscle and lateral rectus muscle 8 mm posterior to the insertion, accompanied by an inferior rectus recession. One year after surgery she was orthophoric in primary position and showed improvement in elevation. The surgical procedure can be performed at the same time as the inferior rectus recession and reduces the risk of anterior segment ischemia. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in hip joint muscle-tendon lengths with mode of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Patrick O; Franz, Jason; Dicharry, Jay; Kerrigan, D Casey

    2010-02-01

    We have reported that peak hip extension is nearly identical in walking and running, suggesting that anatomical constraints, such as flexor muscle tightness may limit the range of hip extension. To obtain a more mechanistic insight into mobility at the hip and pelvis we examined the lengths of the muscle-tendons units crossing the hip joint. Data defining the three-dimensional kinematics of 26 healthy runners at self-selected walking and running speeds were obtained. These data were used to scale and drive musculoskeletal models using OpenSIM. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths were calculated for the trailing limb illiacus, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris long head and the advancing limb biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. The magnitude and timing of MTU length peaks were each compared between walking and running. The peak length of the right (trailing limb) illiacus MTU, a pure hip flexor, was nearly identical between walking and running, while the maximum length of the rectus femoris MTU, a hip flexor and knee extensor, increased during running. The maximum length of the left (leading limb) biceps femoris was also unchanged between walking and running. Further, the timing of peak illiacus MTU length and peak contralateral biceps femoris MTU length occurred essentially simultaneously during running, at a time during gait when the hamstrings are most vulnerable to stretch injury. This latter finding suggests exploring the role for hip flexor stretching in combination with hamstring stretching to treat and/or prevent running related hamstring injury. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscle MRI in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yawen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Yun

    2015-06-01

    We describe the clinical and muscle MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Both siblings had similar fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Compared with previous reports in NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term Outcomes After Same Amount of Bilateral Rectus Muscle Recession for Intermittent Exotropia With the Same Angle of Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Seong-Joon; Yu, Young Suk

    2018-06-18

    To evaluate long-term outcomes of homogenous bilateral rectus recession in patients with the same preoperative angle of deviation in intermittent exotropia and investigate factors associated with surgical outcomes. In this retrospective review, patients with the same preoperative angle of deviation who underwent bilateral 6-mm lateral rectus recession between January 2008 and January 2014 were observed for 2 or more years. Patients were classified into two groups based on deviation angle: success (orthophoria or exodeviation XXXX.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Debilitamiento bilateral de los músculos rectos medios en esotropías parcialmente acomodativas Bilateral attenuation of medial rectus muscles in partially accommodative esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Emilia Fernández González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, transversal y prospectiva de 13 pacientes con isotropía parcialmente acomodativa, después de una corrección total de la hipermetropía, tratados en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Policlínico Pediátrico Sur de Santiago de Cuba desde mayo del 2006 hasta septiembre del 2008. La ejecución de este estudio se justificó por el insuficiente conocimiento existente sobre el alineamiento ocular en las endotropías parcialmente acomodativas, luego de aplicar la técnica de debilitamiento bilateral de los músculos rectos medios. En la serie estudiada, la edad media fue de 6,3 años y el alineamiento ocular logrado en el período posoperatorio resultó exitoso, además de que no estuvo relacionado con la ametropía. La ambliopía encontrada contribuyó al pronóstico de la afección.A descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective investigation of 13 patients with partially accommodative esotropia was carried out, after a total correction of the hypermetropy, treated in the Ophthalmology Service of the Southern Pediatric Polyclinic of Santiago de Cuba from May, 2006 to September, 2008. The implementation of this study was justified for the insufficient existent knowledge on the ocular alignment in the partially accommodative endotropia, after applying the technique of bilateral attenuation of medial rectus muscles. In the studied series, the mean age was of 6,3 years and the ocular alignment achieved in the posoperative period was successful besides that was not related with the ametropia. The amblyopia found contributed to the prognosis of the disorder.

  9. Measurement methods to assess diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM): A systematic review of their measurement properties and meta-analytic reliability generalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, A T M; Benjamin, D R

    2016-02-01

    Systematic literature review. Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) has been linked with low back pain, abdominal and pelvic dysfunction. Measurement is used to either screen or to monitor DRAM width. Determining which methods are suitable for screening and monitoring DRAM is of clinical value. To identify the best methods to screen for DRAM presence and monitor DRAM width. AMED, Embase, Medline, PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for measurement property studies of DRAM measurement methods. Population characteristics, measurement methods/procedures and measurement information were extracted from included studies. Quality of all studies was evaluated using 'quality rating criteria'. When possible, reliability generalisation was conducted to provide combined reliability estimations. Thirteen studies evaluated measurement properties of the 'finger width'-method, tape measure, calipers, ultrasound, CT and MRI. Ultrasound was most evaluated. Methodological quality of these studies varied widely. Pearson's correlations of r = 0.66-0.79 were found between calipers and ultrasound measurements. Calipers and ultrasound had Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of 0.78-0.97 for test-retest, inter- and intra-rater reliability. The 'finger width'-method had weighted Kappa's of 0.73-0.77 for test-retest reliability, but moderate agreement (63%; weighted Kappa = 0.53) between raters. Comparing calipers and ultrasound, low measurement error was found (above the umbilicus), and the methods had good agreement (83%; weighted Kappa = 0.66) for discriminative purposes. The available information support ultrasound and calipers as adequate methods to assess DRAM. For other methods limited measurement information of low to moderate quality is available and further evaluation of their measurement properties is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D false color computed tomography for diagnosis and follow-up of permanent denervated human muscles submitted to home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the use of a customized false-color 3D computed tomography (CT protocol for the imaging of the rectus femoris of spinal cord injury (SCI patients suffering from complete and permanent denervation, as characterized by complete Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome. This muscle imaging method elicits the progression of the syndrome from initial atrophy to eventual degeneration, as well as the extent to which patients' quadriceps could be recovered during four years of home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES. Patients were pre-selected from several European hospitals and functionally tested by, and enrolled in the EU Commission Shared Cost Project RISE (Contract n. QLG5-CT-2001-02191 at the Department of Physical Medicine, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated using a custom-designed stimulator, large surface electrodes, and customized progressive stimulation settings. Spiral CT images and specialized computational tools were used to isolate the rectus femoris muscle and produce 3D and 2D reconstructions of the denervated muscles. The cross sections of the muscles were determined by 2D Color CT, while muscle volumes were reconstructed by 3D Color CT. Shape, volume, and density changes were measured over the entirety of each rectus femoris muscle. Changes in tissue composition within the muscle were visualized by associating different colors to specified Hounsfield unit (HU values for fat, (yellow: [-200; -10], loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, (cyan: [-9; 40], and normal muscle, fascia and tendons included, (red: [41; 200]. The results from this analysis are presented as the average HU values within the rectus femoris muscle reconstruction, as well as the percentage of these tissues with respect to the total muscle volume. Results from this study demonstrate that h-b FES induces a compliance-dependent recovery of muscle volume and size of muscle fibers, as

  11. 3D False Color Computed Tomography for Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Permanent Denervated Human Muscles Submitted to Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Ugo; Edmunds, Kyle J; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2015-03-11

    This report outlines the use of a customized false-color 3D computed tomography (CT) protocol for the imaging of the rectus femoris of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients suffering from complete and permanent denervation, as characterized by complete Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome. This muscle imaging method elicits the progression of the syndrome from initial atrophy to eventual degeneration, as well as the extent to which patients' quadriceps could be recovered during four years of home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES). Patients were pre-selected from several European hospitals and functionally tested by, and enrolled in the EU Commission Shared Cost Project RISE (Contract n. QLG5-CT-2001-02191) at the Department of Physical Medicine, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated using a custom-designed stimulator, large surface electrodes, and customized progressive stimulation settings. Spiral CT images and specialized computational tools were used to isolate the rectus femoris muscle and produce 3D and 2D reconstructions of the denervated muscles. The cross sections of the muscles were determined by 2D Color CT, while muscle volumes were reconstructed by 3D Color CT. Shape, volume, and density changes were measured over the entirety of each rectus femoris muscle. Changes in tissue composition within the muscle were visualized by associating different colors to specified Hounsfield unit (HU) values for fat, (yellow: [-200; -10]), loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, (cyan: [-9; 40]), and normal muscle, fascia and tendons included, (red: [41; 200]). The results from this analysis are presented as the average HU values within the rectus femoris muscle reconstruction, as well as the percentage of these tissues with respect to the total muscle volume. Results from this study demonstrate that h-b FES induces a compliance-dependent recovery of muscle volume and size of muscle fibers, as evidenced by the

  12. Effect of pre-rigor stretch and various constant temperatures on the rate of post-mortem pH fall, rigor mortis and some quality traits of excised porcine biceps femoris muscle strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vada-Kovács, M

    1996-01-01

    Porcine biceps femoris strips of 10 cm original length were stretched by 50% and fixed within 1 hr post mortem then subjected to temperatures of 4 °, 15 ° or 36 °C until they attained their ultimate pH. Unrestrained control muscle strips, which were left to shorten freely, were similarly treated. Post-mortem metabolism (pH, R-value) and shortening were recorded; thereafter ultimate meat quality traits (pH, lightness, extraction and swelling of myofibrils) were determined. The rate of pH fall at 36 °C, as well as ATP breakdown at 36 and 4 °C, were significantly reduced by pre-rigor stretch. The relationship between R-value and pH indicated cold shortening at 4 °C. Myofibrils isolated from pre-rigor stretched muscle strips kept at 36 °C showed the most severe reduction of hydration capacity, while paleness remained below extreme values. However, pre-rigor stretched myofibrils - when stored at 4 °C - proved to be superior to shortened ones in their extractability and swelling.

  13. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  14. Rectus Abdominis Endometrioma after Caesarean Section

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    Igor Mishin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis is very uncommon with less than 20 case reports being published to date since its first description in 1984 by Amato and Levitt. We report another case of isolated rectus abdominis endometriosis in a 37-year-old patient with a previous caesarian section. We also discuss the diagnostic and treatment particularities in these patients. In our case, the treatment was only surgical and currently the patient is disease-free during the 24-month follow-up.

  15. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Roldán-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand (STS tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG, biceps femoris (BF, vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM, the abdominal rectus (AR, erector spinae (ES, rectus femoris (RF, soleus (SO and the tibialis anterior (TA. Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  16. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  17. Impact-induced soft-tissue vibrations associate with muscle activation in human landing movements: An accelerometry and EMG evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weijie; Wang, Xi; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have not used neurophysiological methodology to explore the damping effects on induced soft-tissue vibrations and muscle responses. This study aimed to investigate the changes in activation of the musculoskeletal system in response to soft-tissue vibrations with different applied compression conditions in a drop-jump landing task. Twelve trained male participants were instructed to perform drop-jump landings in compression shorts (CS) and regular shorts without compression (control condition, CC). Soft-tissue vibrations and EMG amplitudes of the leg within 50 ms before and after touchdown were collected synchronously. Peak acceleration of the thigh muscles was significantly lower in CS than in CC during landings from 45 or 60 cm and 30 cm heights (p soft-tissue vibration damping was associated with a decrease in muscular activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles during drop-jump landings from different heights.

  18. Effect of knee joint angle on neuromuscular activation of the vastus intermedius muscle during isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Akima, H

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between surface electromyography (EMG) and knee joint angle of the vastus intermedius muscle (VI) with the synergistic muscles in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle group. Fourteen healthy men performed maximal voluntary contractions during isometric knee extension at four knee joint angles from 90°, 115°, 140°, and 165° (180° being full extension). During the contractions, surface EMG was recorded at four muscle components of the QF muscle group: the VI, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The root mean square of the surface EMG at each knee joint angle was calculated and normalized by that at a knee joint angle of 90° for individual muscles. The normalized RMS of the VI muscle was significantly lower than those of the VL and RF muscles at the knee joint angles of 115° and 165° and those of the VL, VM, and RF muscles at the knee joint angle of 140° (Pneuromuscular activation of the VI muscle is regulated in a manner different from the alteration of the knee joint angle compared with other muscle components of the QF muscle group. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years. Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks.

  20. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Kim, Jung-Yong

    2018-04-18

    This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF) of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years). Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper) and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA) was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks.

  1. Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (Pplanes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (Pplane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, D B

    2002-01-01

    over the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris caput longum, and semitendinosus muscles. The stimuli consisted of four pulses delivered at 200 Hz; the stimulus amplitude was two to three times the sensory threshold. The electrical stimulation of the PCL inhibited the ongoing......We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...... steel wires were inserted into the PCL guided by sonography and in four subjects also into the fat pad of the knee. The PCL was electrically stimulated during gait on a treadmill at heel strike and 100 ms after heel strike. Electromyographic signals were recorded with bipolar surface electrodes placed...

  3. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D G E; Wilson, Jean-Marie J; St Pierre, Taunya A

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles about their associated joints during full (deep-knee) squats. Muscle function was determined from joint kinematics, inverse dynamics, electromyography, and muscle length changes. The subjects were six experienced, male weight lifters. Analyses revealed that the prime movers during ascent were the monoarticular gluteus maximus and vasti muscles (as exemplified by vastus lateralis) and to a lesser extent the soleus muscles. The biarticular muscles functioned mainly as stabilizers of the ankle, knee, and hip joints by working eccentrically to control descent or transferring energy among the segments during scent. During the ascent phase, the hip extensor moments of force produced the largest powers followed by the ankle plantar flexors and then the knee extensors. The hip and knee extensors provided the initial bursts of power during ascent with the ankle extensors and especially a second burst from the hip extensors adding power during the latter half of the ascent.

  5. Effect of Constraint Loading on the Lower Limb Muscle Forces in Weightless Treadmill Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long exposure to the microgravity will lead to muscle atrophy and bone loss. Treadmill exercise could mitigate the musculoskeletal decline. But muscle atrophy remains inevitable. The constraint loading applied on astronauts could affect the muscle force and its atrophy severity. However, the quantitative correlation between constraint loading mode and muscle forces remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize the influence of constraint loading mode on the lower limb muscle forces in weightless treadmill exercise. The muscle forces in the full gait cycle were calculated with the inverse dynamic model of human musculoskeletal system. The calculated muscle forces at gravity were validated with the EMG data. Muscle forces increased at weightlessness compared with those at the earth’s gravity. The increasing percentage from high to low is as follows: biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, vastus, and rectus femoris, which was in agreement with the muscle atrophy observed in astronauts. The constraint loading mode had an impact on the muscle forces in treadmill exercise and thus could be manipulated to enhance the effect of the muscle training in spaceflight. The findings could provide biomechanical basis for the optimization of treadmill constraint system and training program and improve the countermeasure efficiency in spaceflight.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E. [University of Crete, Radiology Department, Heraklion (Greece); Allen, Gina M. [Green Templeton College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Allen, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  8. The influence of different footwear on 3-D kinematics and muscle activation during the barbell back squat in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; McCarthy, Derek; Bentley, Ian; Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The barbell back squat is commonly used by athletes participating in resistance training. The barbell squat is typically performed using standard athletic shoes, or specially designed weightlifting footwear, although there are now a large number of athletes who prefer to squat barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear. This study aimed to determine how these footwear influence 3-D kinematics and muscle activation potentials during the barbell back squat. Fourteen experienced male participants completed squats at 70% 1 rep max in each footwear condition. 3-D kinematics from the torso, hip, knee and ankle were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. In addition, electromyographical (EMG) measurements were obtained from the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, erector spinae and biceps femoris muscles. EMG parameters and joint kinematics were compared between footwear using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Participants were also asked to subjectively rate which footwear they preferred when performing their squat lifts; this was examined a chi-squared test. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison to barefoot the running shoe was associated with increased squat depth, knee flexion and rectus femoris activation. The chi-squared test was significant and showed that participants preferred to squat barefoot. This study supports anecdotal evidence of athletes who prefer to train barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear although no biomechanical evidence was found to support this notion.

  9. Adesivo biológico de fibrina na mioescleropexia posterior em coelhos: estudo experimental Fibrin biological adhesive for posterior mioscleral fixation of superior rectus muscles: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1. Verificar a capacidade de cola do adesivo biológico de fibrina quando utilizado para reduzir o arco de contato do músculo reto superior com a esclera de coelhos. 2. Comparar a redução da função do músculo reto superior tratado com a função do músculo reto superior contralateral, utilizado como controle. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 30 coelhos, 60 olhos. Em cada coelho, realizou-se mioescleropexia posterior com adesivo biológico em um dos olhos (30 olhos, enquanto o outro serviu como controle (30 olhos. Todos os animais foram sacrificados após 60 dias pós-operatórios. Avaliaram-se a hipofunção muscular e o tamanho da aderência mioescleral produzida imediatamente pela cirurgia e após 60 dias. RESULTADOS: O coágulo de fibrina formou-se imediatamente à sua aplicação no músculo, e as fibras musculares apresentaram-se aderidas em poucos segundos à esclera. Todos os olhos operados com adesivo bio-lógico de fibrina demonstraram hipofunção muscular após 60 dias, quando comparada ao músculo contralateral. O tamanho do coágulo formado inicialmente, relacionado às medidas obtidas após 60 dias, demonstrou uma porcentagem de redução de 28,48% e uma correlação ascendente e positiva (r=0,367204, porém fraca, elucidando a existência de múltiplas variáveis influenciando nessa redução. Não houve sinais de hiperemia, secreção conjuntival, ou qualquer outra complicação atribuída à cirurgia, ao final de 60 dias. CONCLUSÃO: O adesivo biológico de fibrina provoca adesão músculo-escleral, encurtando o arco de contato, ocasionando a hipofunção desejada. A aplicação do adesivo facilita a mioescleropexia posterior, evitando a possibilidade de perfuração ocular.PURPOSES: 1. To evaluate the adhesion capacity of the fibrin biological adhesive in surgery of posterior fixation of the superior rectus muscle, when it is used for the reduction of the arc of contact. 2. To compare the reduction of

  10. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kobayashi, Fumie.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings · adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT. (author)

  11. Comparison of Electromyographic Activity Pattern of Knee Two-Joint Muscles between Youngs and Olders in Gait Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Khodaveisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, it has been focused much attention on gait analysis. Factors such as speed, age and gender affect gait parameters. The purpose of the present study was to compare the electromyographic activity pattern of knee two-joint muscles between younger and older subjects in different gait speeds. Matterials & Methods: The method of current study was analytical cross-sectional method in which 15 healthy young men and 15 old men, were selected conveniently. Electromyographic activity of rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinus and gastrocenemius were recorded during walking with preferred (100%, slow (80% and fast (120% speeds in a 10 meter walkway. Normalized RMSs of muscles were compared using RM-ANOVA and Tokey’s tests by SPSS 18 software. Results: According to results, RMSs of rectus femoris in midstance (P<0.01 and gastrocenemius in loading response (P=0.02 phases in all walking speeds were higher in older subjects than in younger ones, and it increased with speed in both age groups (P<0.01. Biceps femoris RMS in terminal stance at 80% speed, was lower in older subjects than in younger ones (P=0.01 and it increased with walking speed (P=0.01. Semitendinus activity in loading and midstance phases at 120% speed was higher in older subjects than in younger ones (P<0.01, and it increased with speed in both age groups in swing phase (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, older subjects have more muscle co-contraction around knee at high speed in midstance phase than younger subjects. These age-related changes in muscle activity, leads to increase in joint stiffness and stability during single support, and probably play a role in reducing push off power at faster speeds.

  12. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  13. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  14. The Effects of Active Straight Leg Raising on Tonicity and Activity of Pelvic Stabilizer Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Shadmehr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Active straight leg raising (SLR test is advocated as a valid diagnostic method in diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction that can assess the quality of load transfer between trunk and lower limb. The aim of this study is Comparison of changes in tonicity and activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles during active SLR, between healthy individuals and patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Materials & Methods: A case – control study was designed in 26 women (19-50 years old. With use of simple sampling, surface electromyography from rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, adductor longus, erector spine, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris was recorded in 26 subjects (15 healthy females and 11 females with sacroiliac pain in resting position and during active SLR test. Resting muscle tonicity and rms during ramp time and hold time in active SLR test were assessed by non parametric-two independent sample test. Results: Biceps femoris activity in resting position was significantly larger in patients group (P<0.05. During the active SLR, the women with sacroiliac joint pain used much less activity in some pelvic stabilizer muscles compared to the healthy subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: The increased resting tonicity of biceps femoris and decreased activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain, suggests an alteration in the strategy for lumbopelvic stabilization that may disrupt load transference through the pelvis.

  15. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles. (author)

  16. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy. A clinical and computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kobayashi, Fumie

    1987-02-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings center dot adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT.

  17. Lower-limb and trunk muscle activation with back squats and weighted sled apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigan, Meaghan E; Button, Duane C; Behm, David G

    2014-12-01

    The back squat is a traditional resistance training exercise, whereas the resisted sled exercise is a relatively new resistance exercise. However, as there are no studies comparing muscle activation between the exercises, the objective of this study was to examine activity of leg and trunk muscles for both exercises. Ten healthy resistance-trained men participated in a randomized crossover design study consisting of 2 preparation sessions and 2 testing sessions. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, lower erector spinae, and the transversus abdominis/internal obliques (TrA/IO) were monitored during a 20-step maximum push with the weighted sled apparatus and a 10 repetition maximum with a bilateral back squat. There were nonsignificant trends for the rectus femoris (p = 0.092: 8.6-16.7%) and biceps femoris (p = 0.09: 10.5-32.8%) to demonstrate higher activity with the sled and squat exercises, respectively. There were main effects for condition with 61.2% greater gastrocnemius EMG with the sled exercise (p = 0.01) and 74.5% greater erector spinae EMG activity with the squat (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences between the exercises for the TrA/IO. In summary, the sled and squat exercises provided similar EMG activity for the quadriceps, hamstrings, and TrA/IO. The squat provided higher lower erector spinae activation, whereas the sled had superior gastrocnemius activation. Depending on the movement-training specificity of the sport, either exercise may be used in a training program while acknowledging the differences in gastrocnemius and erector spinae activity.

  18. Efficiency of Medial Rectus Advancement Surgery in Consecutive Exotropia

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    Kemal Yar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of medial rectus advancement surgery in consecutive exotropia. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 20 cases, 10 male, 10 female, who were diagnosed as consecutive exotropia and underwent surgery between 2008-2013 at Cukurova University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department. Records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. We evaluated best corrected visual acuity, existence of ambliopia, postoperative duration following the first surgery and applied surgical procedures. Postoperative deviation lower than 10 PD were assesed as successful. Mean follow up period was 29,8 +/- 21,36 (8-80 months, patients with inadequate follow up period were dismissed from the study group. Results: We only applied bilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 6 and unilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 5 patients and obtained intended surgical result in these 11 cases. The other patients underwent lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations inorder to reach projected deviation degrees. Deviation was found to be 46,4+/-9,24 (40-70 PD in cases who only underwent advancement surgery and was 65,56 +/- 18,78 (40-90 PD in cases who underwent additional surgical procedure. 16 (%80 of the cases had hypermetropi various dioptries and 7 (%35 had ambliopia. Discussion: Consecutive exotropia can appear years after surgery and is an important late period complication. In this study achievement of %55 success with medial rectus advancement surgery indicates that this is a preferable procedure. But in wide angle deviations additional lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations can be applied inorder to reach intended adjustment. Accurrate prediction of the propotion of advancement surgery and adjustment is not always possible because of intensive fybrosis in operated muscles and enviroment tissue. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 707-713

  19. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings.

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    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. The results of this study indicated that variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon were found when different transducer's pressure and region of interest (ROI's size were applied. No significant differences in elastic modulus of the rectus femoris muscle and patellar tendon were found with different acquisition times of the SWUE sonogram. The SWUE on the muscle and tendon should be performed with the lightest transducer's pressure, a shorter acquisition time for the SWUE sonogram, while measuring the mean elastic modulus regardless the ROI's size.

  20. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  1. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus.

  2. Assessment of muscle fatigue after an ultra-endurance triathlon using tensiomyography (TMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Rodríguez-Matoso, Dario; de Saa, Yves; Sarmiento, Samuel; Quiroga, Miriam

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we used tensiomyography (TMG) to assess muscle status immediately after an ultra-endurance triathlon. Maximal radial displacement or deformation of the muscle belly, contraction time, delay time, sustain time, and relaxation time were measured for both legs, and dependent t-tests were used to compare means between the beginning and end of the race. The 19 men assessed (age 37.9 ± 7.1 years; height 177.5 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 73.6 ± 6.5 kg) participated in the 2009 edition of the Lanzarote Ironman. Deterioration in the neural response was observed for contraction time (P = 0.008) and relaxation time (P = 0.011), with a moderate decrease in the response time (sustain time) and a loss in muscle stiffness (deformation of the muscle belly). The effect of muscle fatigue on the rectus femoris and biceps femoris was different. Barely any changes in contraction time, relaxation time, sustain time, and deformation of the muscle belly were observed, while only the contraction response time decreased to a significant extent (reduction in delay time; P = 0.003). The considerable loss in contractile capacity induced by a long-distance race was reflected in changes in the neuromuscular response and fluctuations in the contractile capacity of the muscle. These modifications, derived from a prolonged, exhausting effort, can be assessed in a simple, non-aggressive, non-invasive way using tensiomyography.

  3. Dengue fever with rectus sheath hematoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear.

  4. Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedali Sadeghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition. A custom implementation of Focused Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (F-CUSE method was used to evaluate shear modulus in runners before and after a race. Twenty-two healthy individuals (age: 23 ± 5 years were recruited using convenience sampling and split into three race categories: short distance (nine subjects, 3–5 miles, middle distance (10 subjects, 10–13 miles, and long distance (three subjects, 26+ miles. Shear Wave Elastography (SWE measurements were taken on both legs of each subject on the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, soleus, lateral gastrocnemius (LG, medial gastrocnemius (MG, biceps femoris (BF and semitendinosus (ST muscles. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Recovery time had a significant effect on the soleus (p = 0.05, while running distance had considerable effect on the biceps femoris (p = 0.02, vastus lateralis (p < 0.01 and semitendinosus muscles (p = 0.02. Sixty-seven percent of muscles exhibited a decreasing stiffness trend from before competition to immediately after competition. The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners.

  5. Effects of muscle composition and architecture on specific strength in obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, F; Capodaglio, P; Orgiu, S; Santovito, C; Caramenti, M; Cadioli, M; Falini, A; Rizzo, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do obesity-specific factors affect skeletal muscle performance in older individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Older obese women have a larger quadriceps femoris size but develop lower tension per unit of skeletal muscle than their normal-weight counterparts. Muscle impairment and excess body mass are very common among older people. Given that the effect of obesity on strength production has scarcely been studied in older individuals, we analysed functional and structural characteristics of quadriceps femoris (QF) in obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) older women with comparable habitual physical activity. In five OB (body mass index 36.8 ± 1.9 kg m(-2), age 72.4 ± 2.3 years) and six NW well-functioning older women (body mass index 24.3 ± 1.8 kg m(-2), age 72.7 ± 1.9 years), peak knee-extension torque (KET) was measured in isometric (90 deg knee flexion) and isokinetic conditions (240, 180, 120 and 60 deg s(-1)). Mid-thigh QF cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle tissue fat content (MF%) were determined with magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon sequence). Muscle fascicle length and pennation angle (PA) were assessed with ultrasonography for each muscle belly of the QF (vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius). Despite similar values of KET, CSA was 17.0% larger in OB than in NW women (P Muscle composition and architecture seem to be important determinants of KET/CSA in elderly women. In fact, owing to the effect of obesity overload, OB women have a larger QF size than NW women, but unfavourable muscle composition and architecture. The higher MF% and steeper PA observed in OB women are associated with reduced levels of muscle specific strength. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  6. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  7. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  8. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.

  9. A new approach to assess the spasticity in hamstrings muscles using mechanomyography antagonist muscular group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Eddy; Scheeren, Eduardo M; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme N; Button, Vera Lúcia da S N; Nohama, Percy

    2012-01-01

    Several pathologies can cause muscle spasticity. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS) can rank spasticity, however its results depend on the physician subjective evaluation. This study aims to show a new approach to spasticity assessment by means of MMG analysis of hamstrings antagonist muscle group (quadriceps muscle). Four subjects participated in the study, divided into two groups regarding MAS (MAS0 and MAS1). MMG sensors were positioned over the muscle belly of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. The range of movement was acquired with an electrogoniometer placed laterally to the knee. The system was based on a LabVIEW acquisition program and the MMG sensors were built with triaxial accelerometers. The subjects were submitted to stretching reflexes and the integral of the MMG (MMG(INT)) signal was calculated to analysis. The results showed that the MMG(INT) was greater to MAS1 than to MAS0 [muscle RF (p = 0.004), VL (p = 0.001) and VM (p = 0.007)]. The results showed that MMG was viable to detect a muscular tonus increase in antagonist muscular group (quadriceps femoris) of spinal cord injured volunteers.

  10. Treatment of subtotal medial rectus myectomy complicating functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, W L; Kaw, P; Meyer, D R; Simon, J W

    2000-08-01

    During the past 2 decades, the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has dramatically improved the treatment of sinus disorders. However, a variety of orbital complications have been reported, including optic nerve damage, hemorrhage, infection, compromise of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, and strabismus. At least 10 cases have reported damage to the medial rectus muscle. (1-8) Treatment options for such patients have been limited, especially because most are adults at risk for anterior segment ischemia after transposition of vertical rectus muscles. We describe 2 patients whose medial rectus myectomies were repaired by using nonabsorbable "hang-back" sutures in combination with a botulinum toxin (Botox) injection of the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Good primary position alignment was achieved in both patients, and one patient was able to regain binocular function. We recommend this surgical approach, especially in patients at increased risk for anterior segment ischemia.

  11. Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyedali; Newman, Cassidy; Cortes, Daniel H

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition. A custom implementation of Focused Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (F-CUSE) method was used to evaluate shear modulus in runners before and after a race. Twenty-two healthy individuals (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited using convenience sampling and split into three race categories: short distance (nine subjects, 3-5 miles), middle distance (10 subjects, 10-13 miles), and long distance (three subjects, 26+ miles). Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) measurements were taken on both legs of each subject on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), soleus, lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Recovery time had a significant effect on the soleus ( p  = 0.05), while running distance had considerable effect on the biceps femoris ( p  = 0.02), vastus lateralis ( p  trend from before competition to immediately after competition. The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners.

  12. Diffusion-Tensor Imaging of Thigh Muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy Values With Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui Dian; Liang, Ying Yin; Xu, Ping; Ling, Jian; Chen, Ying Ming

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values with fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one boys with DMD were recruited. The grade of fatty infiltration and the ADC and FA values of four thigh muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, sartorius, and gracilis) were measured, and the FA and ADC values were compared with the grade of fatty infiltration. Twenty age-matched healthy boys were enrolled as the control group. The differences in the ADC and FA values of the thigh muscles between patients with DMD and the control group were compared. The patients with DMD showed lower FA values and higher ADC values in all measured muscles when compared with the control group. The FA and ADC values were correlated with the grade of fatty infiltration. For the rectus femoris muscle, r = -0.753 and p = 0.007 for FA, and r = 0.685 and p = 0.001 for ADC. For the semitendinosus muscle, r = -0.621 and p = 0.041 for FA, and r = 0.705 and p = 0.021 for ADC. For the sartorius muscle, r = -0.662 and p = 0.027 for FA, and r = 0.701 and p = 0.017 for ADC. For the gracilis muscle, r = -0.618 and p = 0.043 for FA, and r = 0.695 and p = 0.022 for ADC. Damage to the thigh muscles in patients with DMD can be detected by ADC and FA values using DTI. DTI can be used to assess the severity of the disease.

  13. Pneumatic Muscles Actuated Lower-Limb Orthosis Model Verification with Actual Human Muscle Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb

  14. Distal muscle activity alterations during the stance phase of gait in restless leg syndrome (RLS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2018-05-01

    To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A circadian variation during the stance phase in only TA (PM > AM, p  Controls, p < 0.05) during early stance and decreased GL activity (RLS < Controls, p < 0.01) during terminal stance in comparison to control participants in the evening. No other significant differences were noted between RLS patients and control participants. Activation of GL during the swing phase was noted in 79% of RLS patients and in 23% of control participants in the morning compared to 71% and 38% in the evening, respectively. EMG muscle activity shows no circadian variation in RLS patients. Evening differences in gait muscle activation patterns between RLS patients and control participants are evident. These results extend our knowledge about alterations in spinal processing during gait in RLS. A possible explanation for these findings is central pattern generator sensitization caused by increased sensitivity in cutaneous afferents in RLS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

  16. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delanois Ronald E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees. Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98 at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy.

  17. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  18. Changes in contractile properties of muscles receiving repeat injections of botulinum toxin (Botox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Youssef, Aliaa Rehan; Longino, David; Herzog, Walter

    2011-01-04

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a frequently used therapeutic tool to denervate muscles in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Although considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration, BTX-A can produce adverse effects in target and non-target muscles. With an increased use of BTX-A for neuromuscular disorders, the effects of repeat injections of BTX-A on strength, muscle mass and structure need to be known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in strength, muscle mass and contractile material in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Twenty NZW rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control and 1, 3 and 6 months of unilateral, repeat injections of BTX-A into the quadriceps femoris. Outcome measures included knee extensor torque, muscle mass and the percentage of contractile material in the quadriceps muscles of the target and non-injected contralateral hindlimbs. Strength in the injected muscles was reduced by 88%, 89% and 95% in the 1, 3 and 6 months BTX-A injected hindlimbs compared to controls. Muscle mass was reduced by 50%, 42% and 31% for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM), respectively, at 1 month, by 68%, 51% and 50% at 3 months and by 76%, 44% and 13% at 6 months. The percentage of contractile material was reduced for the 3 and 6 months animals to 80-64%, respectively, and was replaced primarily by fat. Similar, but less pronounced results were also observed for the quadriceps muscles of the contralateral hindlimbs, suggesting that repeat BTX-A injections cause muscle atrophy and loss of contractile tissue in target muscles and also in non-target muscles that are far removed from the injection site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of muscle fatigue during biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaflitz, Marco; Molinari, Filippo

    2003-03-01

    The analysis of the surface myoelectric signal recorded while a muscle is performing a sustained contraction is a valuable tool for assessing the progression of localized fatigue. It is well known that the modifications of the spectral content of the myoelectric signal are mainly related to changes in the interstitial fluid pH, which, in turn, affect the membrane excitability of the active muscle fibers. This paper describes the effects of muscle fatigue on the surface myoelectric signal recorded from three thigh and leg muscles during biking, on a population consisting of 22 young healthy volunteers. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data relative to an exercise protocol mild enough to be applicable, in the future, to pathological subjects as well. Each subject was asked to exercise 30 min on a cycloergometer at a constant velocity and against a constant torque. While subjects were biking, the surface myoelectric signal was recorded from the rectus femoris, the biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius muscles. In this study, we considered two different aspects of muscle fatigue: first, the localized muscle fatigue as shown by the decrement of the instantaneous frequency of the myoelectric signal during the exercise; second, the modifications of the muscle ON-OFF timing, which could be explained as a strategy for increasing endurance by modifying the role of different muscles during the exercise. The first aspect was studied by obtaining the spectral characteristics of the signals by means of bilinear time-frequency transforms and by applying an original estimator of the instantaneous frequency of stochastic processes based on cross time-frequency transforms. Our results demonstrated that none of the subjects showed significant signs of localized muscle fatigue, since the decrement of the instantaneous frequency during the exercise was always lower than 5% of its initial value. Muscle ON-OFF timing was obtained by applying to the raw myoelectric signal

  20. Peak Muscle Activation, Joint Kinematics, and Kinetics during Elliptical and Stepping Movement Pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Greany, John F.; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = 0.01), 29% more knee extension (p = 0.003), 101% higher peak…

  1. Muscle ultrasound elastography and MRI in preschool children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiecchio, Anna; Alessandrino, Francesco; Bortolotto, Chandra; Cerica, Alessandra; Rosti, Cristina; Raciti, Maria Vittoria; Rossi, Marta; Berardinelli, Angela; Baranello, Giovanni; Bastianello, Stefano; Calliada, Fabrizio

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine muscle tissue elasticity, measured with shear-wave elastography, in selected lower limb muscles of patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the values obtained with those recorded in healthy children and with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the same DMD children, specifically the pattern on T1-weighted (w) and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Five preschool DMD children and five age-matched healthy children were studied with shear-wave elastography. In the DMD children, muscle stiffness was moderately higher compared with the muscle stiffness in HC, in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, adductor magnus and gluteus maximus muscles. On muscle MRI T1-w images showed fatty replacement in 3/5 patients at the level of the GM, while thigh and leg muscles were affected in 2/5; hyperintensity on STIR images was identified in 4/5 patients. No significant correlation was observed between stiffness values and MRI scoring. Our study demonstrated that lower limb muscles of preschool DMD patients show fatty replacement and patchy edema on muscle MRI and increased stiffness on shear-wave elastography. In conclusion, although further studies in larger cohorts are needed, shear-wave elastography could be considered a useful non-invasive tool to easily monitor muscle changes in early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.

  3. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system.

  4. Differences in muscle activation patterns during step recovery in elderly women with and without a history of falls.

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    Ochi, Akira; Yokoyama, Shinya; Abe, Tomokazu; Yamada, Kazumasa; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at comparing the patterns of muscle activation used in stepping to regain balance during a forward fall between subjects with and without a history of falling and at identifying the causes of functional deficits in recovery stepping. Elderly women with and without a history of falling (fallers: n = 12, mean age ± SD = 82.8 ± 4.5 years; non-fallers: n = 17, age = 81.4 ± 3.4 years) participated in the study. The subjects were suspended in a forward-leaning position by a lean-control cable with a load of 15 % of body weight and instructed to regain standing balance upon release by taking a single step forward. Electromyography (EMG) data were obtained from five lower extremity muscles on the stepping side, and the muscle activation patterns were compared between fallers and non-fallers. Fallers had a shorter step length and slower step velocity than non-fallers. The EMG time-to-peak for the gastrocnemius muscle, which provides push-off prior to foot lift-off, was slower for fallers than for non-fallers, whereas the EMG onset times of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscles were similar between the groups. The fallers exhibited significantly delayed muscle deactivation of the upper leg and increased co-contraction between the rectus femoris and biceps femoris during the stepping phase than did the non-fallers. These findings suggest that the muscle activation pattern during the regain balance may reflect an inability to step forward rapidly in elderly women with a history of falls.

  5. Different Muscle-Recruitment Strategies Among Elite Breaststrokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Brice; Olstad, Bjørn H; Simbaña Escobar, David; Lauer, Jessy; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Rouard, Annie H

    2015-11-01

    To investigate electromyographical (EMG) profiles characterizing the lower-limb flexion-extension in an aquatic environment in high-level breaststrokers. The 2-dimensional breaststroke kick of 1 international- and 2 national-level female swimmers was analyzed during 2 maximal 25-m swims. The activities of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were recorded. The breaststroke kick was divided in 3 phases, according to the movements performed in the sagittal plane: push phase (PP) covering 27% of the total kick duration, glide phase (GP) 41%, and recovery phase (RP) 32%. Intrasubject reproducibility of the EMG and kinematics was observed from 1 stroke cycle to another. In addition, important intersubject kinematic reproducibility was noted, whereas muscle activities discriminated the subjects: The explosive PP was characterized by important muscle-activation peaks. During the recovery, muscles were likewise solicited for swimmers 1 (S1) and 2 (S2), while the lowest activities were observed during GP for S2 and swimmer 3 (S3), but not for S1, who maintained major muscle solicitations. The main muscle activities were observed during PP to perform powerful lower-limb extension. The most-skilled swimmer (S1) was the only 1 to solicit her muscles during GP to actively reach better streamlining. Important activation peaks during RP correspond to the limbs acting against water drag. Such differences in EMG strategies among an elite group highlight the importance of considering the muscle parameters used to effectively control the intensity of activation among the phases for a more efficient breaststroke kick.

  6. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  7. Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.

  8. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Juliette; Lempereur, Mathieu; Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël; Brochard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.

  9. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ropars

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD. Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, medial hamstrings (HS, tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.

  10. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  11. Muscle reaction function of individuals with intellectual disabilities may be improved through therapeutic use of a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios; Liga, Maria; Karra, Chrisanthi; Amiridis, Ioannis

    2013-09-01

    Reaction time and muscle activation deficits might limit the individual's autonomy in activities of daily living and in participating in recreational activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 14-week hippotherapy exercise program on movement reaction time and muscle activation in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Nineteen adolescents with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=10) or a control group (n=9). The experimental group attended a hippotherapy exercise program, consisting of two 30-min sessions per week for 14 weeks. Reaction time, time of maximum muscle activity and electromyographic activity (EMG) of rectus femoris and biceps femoris when standing up from a chair under three conditions: in response to audio, visual and audio with closed eyes stimuli were measured. Analysis of variance designs showed that hippotherapy intervention program resulted in significant improvements in reaction time and a reduction in time to maximum muscle activity of the intervention group comparing to the control group in all 3 three conditions that were examined (phippotherapy training. Hippotherapy probably creates a changing environment with a variety of stimuli that enhance deep proprioception as well as other sensory inputs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that hippotherapy can improve functional task performance by enhancing reaction time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in muscle activation patterns in response to enhanced sensory input during treadmill stepping in infants born with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantall, Annette; Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2012-12-01

    Infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) increase step frequency in response to modifications to the treadmill surface. The aim was to investigate how these modifications impacted the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. We analyzed EMG from 19 infants aged 2-10 months, with MMC at the lumbosacral level. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 12 trials, each 30 seconds long. Modifications included visual flow, unloading, weights, Velcro and lcriction. Surface electrodes recorded EMG from tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. We determined muscle bursts for each stride cycle and from these calculated various parameters. Results indicated that each of the five sensory conditions generated different motor patterns. Visual flow and friction which we previously reported increased step frequency impacted lateral gastrocnemius most. Weights, which significantly decreased step frequency increased burst duration and co-activity of the proximal muscles. We also observed an age effect, with all conditions increasing muscle activity in younger infants whereas in older infants visual flow and unloading stimulated most activity. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that infants with myelomeningocele at levels which impact the myotomes of major locomotor muscles find ways to respond and adapt their motor output to changes in sensory input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6 ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: Ppush-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping.

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    Jeremy D Wong

    Full Text Available A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas-which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles-constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of

  15. Effect of Feedback Corrective Exercise on Knee Valgus and Electromyographic Activity of Lower Limb Muscles in Single Leg Squat

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    Negar Koorosh-fard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the effect of feedback correcting exercise in front of mirror during running on frontal plane knee and pelvic kinematic and electromyography activity of some lower extremity muscles in single leg squat (SLS. Materials & Methods: This study was quasi experimental. 23 active female subjects participated in two experimental and control groups with mean age (21.86± 2.43 years .experimental group contains subjects with knee valgus and pelvic drop angle more than a mean plus one standard deviation of the population in functional SLS. Muscular activity (RMS of gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and semitendinosus, angle of knee valgus and pelvic drop were register in end of SLS Pre and post of 8 training sessions. Comparing Variable has done with independent t statistical test between 2 groups and pair sample t test within each groups with significant level of 0.05. Results: Statistical analysis Before training showed no significant differences in pelvic drop between two groups (P&ge0.05, but knee valgus angle was significantly more than control group (P&le0.05. In spit that most muscle activities (% MVC except biceps femoris (P&le0.05, were greater in experimental group, no significant difference (P&ge0.05 has seen in two groups. Comparing pre and post test has showed no significant difference in knee valgus of experimental group, however it decreased around 2 degrees and although %MVC decreased in all muscles, just rectuse femoris has shown significant difference (P&le0.05. No significant difference has seen in control group in all variables (P&ge0.05. Conclusion: Findings showed poor neuromuscular control in experimental group which improved to some extent after training because lower muscle activity and energy consumption in specific movement with similar kinematic indicate improvement of motor control or cause learning. It seems that

  16. Hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with acetabular labral tears compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Hayes, David A; Watts, Mark C; Hides, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a source of hip pain and are considered to be a precursor to hip osteoarthritis. Hip flexor muscles contribute to hip joint stability and function but it is unknown if their size and function is altered in the presence of labral pathology. This study aimed to investigate hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with hip labral pathology compared to control subjects. 12 subjects diagnosed with an unilateral acetabular labral tear were compared to 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbo-pelvic region. Average muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles were measured. Hip flexion strength was measured by an externally fixed dynamometer. Individual muscle recruitment pattern during a resisted hip flexion exercise task was measured by muscle functional MRI. Hip flexor muscle strength was found to be decreased in patients with labral pathology compared to control subjects (p muscle size (all p > 0.17) and recruitment pattern (all p > 0.53). Decreased hip flexor muscle strength may affect physical function in patients with hip labral pathology by contributing to altered gait patterns and functional tasks. Clinical rehabilitation of these patients may need to include strengthening exercises for the hip flexor muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah V Wilson

    Full Text Available The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG has not been published.To investigate the; (1 reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm, (2 effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude and contraction time (Tc, (3 the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc.Within subject, repeated measures.10 participants for each objective.Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG.The coefficient of variance (CV and the intra-class correlation (ICC of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively.Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles.

  18. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I.; Francis, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Context The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG) has not been published. Objective To investigate the; (1) reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm), (2) effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude) and contraction time (Tc), (3) the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc. Design Within subject, repeated measures. Participants 10 participants for each objective. Main outcome measures Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG. Results The coefficient of variance (CV) and the intra-class correlation (ICC) of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles. PMID:29451885

  19. Total and regional blood flows in vascularized skeletal muscle grafts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, H.W.; Stevenson, T.R.; Dysko, R.C.; Gallagher, K.P.; Faulkner, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The transplantation of whole skeletal muscles is a common clinical procedure. Although atypical blood flows have been reported in small free muscle grafts, the blood flow of large neurovascular-intact (NVI) and neurovascular-anastomosed (NVA) grafts have not been measured. Because the maximum specific force (N/cm 2 ) of NVI and NVA grafts is 65% that of control muscles, we hypothesized that total and regional blood flows of NVI and NVA grafts at rest and during twitch contractions are significantly lower than lower flows of control muscles. In rabbits, blood flows of control rectus femoris (RFM) muscles and NVI and NVA grafts of RFM muscles were measured by the radioactive-microsphere technique. Total blood flows in grafts were not different from the control RFM muscle values, except for a higher resting flow in NVA grafts and a lower flow at 3 Hz in NVI grafts. Minor variations in regional flows were observed. We conclude that the operative procedures of grating and repair of blood vessels affect the vascular bed of muscles minimally, and the deficits observed in grafts do not arise from inadequate perfusion

  20. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women's Overhand Lacrosse Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Brianna M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, tibialis anterior (TA, and medial gastrocnemius (GA. Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow and a game speed shot (Fast. Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration. Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase x 2 (Speed ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p0.05. RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05 with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05 but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076 for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements.

  1. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy D.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Soest, Arthur J.; Gribble, Paul L.; Kistemaker, Dinant A.

    2016-01-01

    A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas—which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles—constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of the skeletal

  2. Rectus sheath haematoma or leaking aortic aneurysm - a diagnostic challenge: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Aidan G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A rectus sheath haematoma is a rare condition that arises from the accumulation of blood within the rectus sheath from either muscular tear or rupture of the epigastric vessels. It is a known complication of either blunt abdominal trauma, anticoagulation therapy or the repetitive contraction of the rectus muscle such as paroxysms of coughing. It remains an uncommon and elusive entity and is often clinically misdiagnosed. Case presentation An 80-year-old British man with a known aortic aneurysm was admitted with sudden onset of right iliac fossa pain. The patient was hemodynamically stable and underwent a computed tomography scan which revealed an intact aorta and an acute rectus sheath hematoma. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, no case has previously been reported involving the diagnostic challenge of a rectus sheath hematoma in a patient with a known aortic aneurysm. Here we discuss the symptoms and signs of a rectus sheath hematoma, as well as the radiological modalities that could be utilized to reach the diagnosis.

  3. Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography during passive stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1 to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO, rectus femoris (RF, and vastus lateralis (VL muscles; (2 to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods: Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–knee angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results: The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p  0.05. The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626. Conclusion: This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols. Keywords: Muscle tension, Optimal length, Shear modulus, Slack angle, Stretch, Ultrasonography, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis

  4. CHANGES IN QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING SUSTAINED RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

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    Josef Kröll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs

  5. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

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    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of

  6. The Effect of Pedaling and Fatigue on Changes of Knee Muscles Co-contraction During Running in Triathletes

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    Mehrdad Anbarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cycling fatigue on co-activation of knee muscles during running in novice triathletes. Methods: Twelve novice male triathletes aged 23.7±2.1 years participated in this quasi experimental study. Surface electromyographic activity from gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and semitendinosus were recorded during support and non-support phases of running before and after cycling fatigue protocol. General and directed co-activation of the knee muscles were calculated. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data(p<0.05. Results: General co-activation was significantly reduced in propulsion sub-phase, total support and non-support phases after fatigue (p=0.001, but there were not any differences in heel contact and midstance sub-phases. Fatigue only altered directed co-activation of medial and lateral knee muscles during heel contact sub-phase (p=0.034. Extensor and flexor directed co-activation during non-support phase of running significantly decreased after fatigue (p=0.011. Conclusion: Changes in the co-activation during running after cycling fatigue can alter running pattern and reduce the knee function consequently, causing injuries to the lower limbs in novice triathletes.

  7. Changes of pedaling technique and muscle coordination during an exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Sylvain; Drouet, Jean-Marc; Couturier, Antoine; Champoux, Yvan; Hug, François

    2009-06-01

    Alterations of the mechanical patterns during an exhaustive pedaling exercise have been previously shown. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that these alterations in the biomechanics of pedaling, which occur during exhaustive exercise, are linked to changes in the activity patterns of lower limb muscles. Ten well-trained cyclists were tested during a limited time to exhaustion, performing 80% of maximal power tolerated. Pedal force components were measured continuously using instrumented pedals and were synchronized with surface EMG signals measured in 10 lower limb muscles. The results confirmed most of the alterations of the mechanical patterns previously described in the literature. The magnitude of the root mean squared of the EMG during the complete cycle (RMScycle) for tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 85% and 75% of Tlim, respectively. A higher RMScycle was obtained for gluteus maximus (P < 0.01) and biceps femoris (P < 0.05) from 75% of Tlim. The k values that resulted from the cross-correlation technique indicated that the activities of six muscles (gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris) were shifted forward in the cycle at the end of the exercise. The large increases in activity for gluteus maximus and biceps femoris, which are in accordance with the increase in force production during the propulsive phase, could be considered as instinctive coordination strategies that compensate for potential fatigue and loss of force of the knee extensors (i.e., vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) by a higher moment of the hip extensors.

  8. Detection and characterization of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) via thermography and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas; Kappatos, Vassilios; Georgoulas, George

    2017-01-01

    of commonly measurement tools and methods. Thermography has been used successfully as a research detection tool in medicine for the last 6 decades but very limited work has been reported on EIMD area. The main purpose of this research is to assess and characterize EIMD, using thermography and image processing...... techniques. The first step towards that goal is to develop a reliable segmentation technique to isolate the region of interest (ROI). A semi-automatic image processing software was designed and regions of the left and right leg based on superpixels were segmented. The image is segmented into a number...... of regions and the user is able to intervene providing the regions which belong to each of the two legs. In order to validate the image processing software, an extensive experimental investigation was carried out, acquiring thermographic images of the rectus femoris muscle before, immediately post and 24, 48...

  9. Mechanical response of knee muscles in high level bodyboarders during performance

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    Dario Rodríguez-Matoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: bodyboarding is a kind of surfing that has been growing very rapidly over the last decade and has now developed into one of the fastest growing water sports in the world. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the effects of fatigue on rectus femoris RF, vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis VM and biceps femoris BF and semitendinosus ST during a high-level bodyboard competition using tensiomyography TMG. METHODS: subjects were 11 highly experienced years of practice: 15, SD=4.65 male bodyboarders age: 28.17, SD=2.89, body weight: 74.83, SD=6.13kg; height: 179.25, SD=3.93cm; BMI: 23.29, SD=1.81 participating in the final of the 2010 Spanish championship. RESULTS: the fatigue is especially evident due to a decrease in the values of relaxation time Tr and sustain time Ts caused by the specific characteristics of waves, how the waves evolve and the type of manoeuvre executed in competition due to the wave characteristics. The maximum radial displacement Dm value increased slightly in all muscles analysed and normalised response speed Vrn was stable, with a tendency to improve as athletes adapted to the type of physical effort and the environmental conditions of the competition. CONCLUSIONS: the study shows that the fatigue in the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee occurs in response to the demands of competition.

  10. Nondestructive Estimation of Muscle Contributions to STS Training with Different Loadings Based on Wearable Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yan, Jianchao; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-25

    Partial body weight support or loading sit-to-stand (STS) rehabilitation can be useful for persons with lower limb dysfunction to achieve movement again based on the internal residual muscle force and external assistance. To explicate how the muscles contribute to the kinetics and kinematics of STS performance by non-invasive in vitro detection and to nondestructively estimate the muscle contributions to STS training with different loadings, a wearable sensor system was developed with ground reaction force (GRF) platforms, motion capture inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) sensors. To estimate the internal moments of hip, knee and ankle joints and quantify the contributions of individual muscle and gravity to STS movement, the inverse dynamics analysis on a simplified STS biomechanical model with external loading is proposed. The functional roles of the lower limb individual muscles (rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GAST)) during STS motion and the mechanism of the muscles' synergies to perform STS-specific subtasks were analyzed. The muscle contributions to the biomechanical STS subtasks of vertical propulsion, anteroposterior (AP) braking and propulsion for body balance in the sagittal plane were quantified by experimental studies with EMG, kinematic and kinetic data.

  11. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (pulsed LASER 904 nm) on muscle oxygenation and performance in exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in young women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Murilo X.; Toma, Renata L.; Jones, Brett J. L.; Cyprien, Thomas P.; Tier, Matthew R.; Wallace, Cameron A.; Renno, Ana C. M.; Sabapathy, Surendran; Laakso, E.-Liisa

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMt) has been used to increase muscle performance and improve recovery when applied before exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PBMt using LASER on muscle oxygenation and performance. The study was a randomized, participant and assessor-blinded, within-subject crossover trial with placebo control to test the viability of the methods. Five physically active young women were randomly assigned to either placebo, or active PBMt (12 diode cluster probe; 904 nm; 60 mW; 250 Hz; 43.2 J per site, 129.6 J total) in contact over rectus femoris (RF) muscle of the dominant limb immediately before an isokinetic fatigue protocol. A one-week wash-out period preceded cross-over. Electromyography and isokinetic performance measures were evaluated. Absolute concentrations of deoxygenated haemoglobin and myoglobin (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) of the RF, an index of local microvascular fractional O2 extraction, was monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Total haemoglobin concentration as an indicator of microvascular haematocrit was calculated as the sum of the deoxy[Hb + Mb] and oxy[Hb + Mb] signals. PBMt pre-conditioning reduced time to peak torque when compared to placebo (P0.05). PBMt before exercise improves indicators of muscle performance, potentially by increasing local matching of bulk and microvascular O2 delivery relative to skeletal muscle O2 utilisation. Further work is required to understand the effect of PBMt on haemodynamic and metabolic characteristics of muscle.

  12. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

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    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIf a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.MethodsFrom 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.ResultsUpon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.ConclusionsUsing a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  13. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Muscle activity during backward and forward running with body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kenji; Soucy, Michael T; Bailey, Joshua P; Mercer, John A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF, and PS were not influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P>0.05). BF, TA, and GA were not different between directions (P>0.05) but were different between BWS conditions (P<0.01). RF was influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P<0.01). RF, BF, TA, and GA during BR were lower with increasing BWS. RF during BR was 59-86% higher than that of FR within BWS condition. RPE was lower with increasing BWS (P<0.001), regardless of direction of locomotion. PSF was lower and PS was higher during BR and FR with increasing BWS (both P<0.001). PSF during BR was 6-9% higher than that of FR. PS during BR was 24-31% lower than that of FR. These observations demonstrate that a change in BWS influences magnitude of muscle activity, PS, PSF, and RPE for both BR and FR. However, a change in direction of locomotion may not influence magnitude of muscle activity or RPE during running for a given BWS, even though muscle activity pattern, PS, and PSF were different between BR and FR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lateral rectus myositis mimicking an abducens nerve palsy in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, Abd-Rahim; Shatriah, Ismail; Azhany, Yaakub; Nik-Ahmad-Zuky, Nik-Lah; Yunus, Rohaizan

    2014-01-01

    Myositis is a rare unknown inflammatory disorder of the skeletal muscle tissue. Generalized inflammatory myopathies, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis have been reported during pregnancy. Isolated orbital myositis in pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. The authors report a case of left isolated orbital myositis in a primigravida at 38 weeks gestation affecting the patient's left lateral rectus muscle. MRI of the orbit was consistent with the diagnosis. She showed remarkable clinical improvement with oral corticosteroids therapy.

  16. Feasibility and reliability of using an exoskeleton to emulate muscle contractures during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, M; Bonnefoy-Mazure, A; De Coulon, G; Cheze, L; Armand, S

    2016-10-01

    Contracture is a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon-ligament complex that limits joint mobility. Contracture is involved in many diseases (cerebral palsy, stroke, etc.) and can impair walking and other activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of an exoskeleton designed to emulate lower limb muscle contractures unilaterally and bilaterally during walking. An exoskeleton was built according to the following design criteria: adjustable to different morphologies; respect of the principal lines of muscular actions; placement of reflective markers on anatomical landmarks; and the ability to replicate the contractures of eight muscles of the lower limb unilaterally and bilaterally (psoas, rectus femoris, hamstring, hip adductors, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, and peroneus). Sixteen combinations of contractures were emulated on the unilateral and bilateral muscles of nine healthy participants. Two sessions of gait analysis were performed at weekly intervals to assess the reliability of the emulated contractures. Discrete variables were extracted from the kinematics to analyse the reliability. The exoskeleton did not affect normal walking when contractures were not emulated. Kinematic reliability varied from poor to excellent depending on the targeted muscle. Reliability was good for the bilateral and unilateral gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis posterior as well as the bilateral hamstring and unilateral hip adductors. The exoskeleton can be used to replicate contracture on healthy participants. The exoskeleton will allow us to differentiate primary and compensatory effects of muscle contractures on gait kinematics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  18. Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Saito

    Full Text Available Although activity of the rectus femoris (RF differs from that of the other synergists in quadriceps femoris muscle group during physical activities in humans, it has been suggested that the activation pattern of the vastus intermedius (VI is similar to that of the RF. The purpose of present study was to examine activation of the VI during isometric hip flexion. Ten healthy men performed isometric hip flexion contractions at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 90°, 110° and 130°. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record activity of the four quadriceps femoris muscles and EMG signals were root mean square processed and normalized to EMG amplitude during an isometric knee extension with maximal voluntary contraction. The normalized EMG was significantly higher for the VI than for the vastus medialis during hip flexion at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 110° and 130° (P < 0.05. The onset of VI activation was 230-240 ms later than the onset of RF activation during hip flexion at each hip joint angle, which was significantly later than during knee extension at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (P < 0.05. These results suggest that the VI is activated later than the RF during hip flexion. Activity of the VI during hip flexion might contribute to stabilize the knee joint as an antagonist and might help to smooth knee joint motion, such as in the transition from hip flexion to knee extension during walking, running and pedaling.

  19. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  20. Perforator based rectus free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction: New reconstructive advantages from an old friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Stephen Y; Spector, Matthew E; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2017-11-01

    To demonstrate three reconstructive advantages of the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer: long pedicle, customizable adipose tissue, and volume reconstruction without muscle atrophy within a contained space. Thirty patients with defects of the head and neck were reconstructed with the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer. Transplant success was 93%. Mean pedicle length was 13.4cm. Eleven patients (37%) had vessel-poor necks and the long pedicle provided by this transplant avoided the need for vein grafts in these patients. Adipose tissue was molded in 17 patients (57%). Twenty-five patients (83%) had defects within a contained space, such as the orbit, where it was critical to have a transplant that avoided muscle atrophy. The perforator based rectus free tissue transfer provides a long pedicle, moldable fat for flap customization, and is useful in reconstruction of defects within a contained space where volume loss due to muscle atrophy is prevented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

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    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Lower-Limb Muscle Activities’ Model Characterization at Different Speeds

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    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, medical rehabilitation system has become a requirement due to increment in national rehabilitation centres and medical hospitals. An assistive rehabilitation orthosis becomes essential and was used for rehabilitation therapy, condition monitoring, and physical strengthening. This study focused on the lower limb assistive rehabilitation orthosis development using pneumatic artificial muscle. To successfully control this orthosis system which consists of antagonistic mono- and biarticular muscle actuators, it is necessary to construct a reliable control algorithm. The suitable control scheme and strategy to manoeuvre this orthosis system similar to human musculoskeletal system have yet to be fully developed and established. Based on the review study, it is said that the co-contraction controls of anterior-posterior pneumatic muscles was able to improve the joint stiffness and stability of the orthosis as well as good manoeuvrability. Therefore, a characterization model of an antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles activities of human's lowerlimb during walking motion will be necessary. A healthy young male subject was used as test subject to obtain the sEMG muscle activities for antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles (i.e., Vastus Medialis-VM, Vastus Lateralis-VL, Rectus Femoris-RF, and Bicep Femoris-BF. The tests were carried out at different speeds of 2km/h, 3km/h, and 4km/h for one minute walking motion on a treadmill. Then, the patterns of the sEMG muscle activities were modelled and characterised using fifth order polynomial equation. Based on the results, it is shown that the anterior and posterior muscles were exhibited a muscle synergy in-between multiple anterior or posterior muscles and muscle co-contraction between anteriorposterior muscles in order to control the movements at the joints during walking motion. As conclusion, it is proven that the sEMG muscle activities of the antagonistic mono- and bi

  3. Effect of squatting velocity on hip muscle latency in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

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    Orozco-Chavez, Ignacio; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.

  4. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

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    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

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    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s-1 (± 5%. Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman’s ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions.

  6. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

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    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  7. Effects of dietary extra-virgin olive oil on oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle: a morphological study.

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    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Maria Trovato, Francesca; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress through production of reactive oxygen species and can cause damage to muscle tissue. Oxidative stress, resulting from exhaustive exercise is high and improvement of antioxidant defenses of the body may ameliorate damage caused by free radicals. Extra-virgin olive oil is widely considered to possess anti-oxidative properties. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-virgin olive oil improved the adaptive responses in conditions of oxidative stress. Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in three groups: (1) rats fed with standard chow and not subjected to physical exercise; (2) rats fed with standard chow and subjected to exhaustive exercise; (3) rats fed with a diet rich in oleic acid, the major component of extra-virgin olive oil, and subjected to exhaustive exercise. Exhaustive exercise consisted of forced running in a five-lane 10° inclined treadmill at a speed of 30 m/min for 70-75 min. We studied some biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidant defenses, histology and ultrastructure of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (Rectus femoris). We observed that, in rats of group 3, parameters indicating oxidative stress such as hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased, parameters indicating antioxidant defenses of the body such as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and Hsp70 expression increased, and R. femoris muscle did not show histological and ultrastructural alterations. Results of this study support the view that extra-virgin olive oil can improve the adaptive response of the body in conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Blanca Romero-Moraleda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM treatment or foam roller (FR treatment after DOMS. Design Double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Participants Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16 or the FR group (n = 16. Main Outcome Measures The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0–10, isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and muscle peak activation (MPA upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Results Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05. The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05 at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01 in strength compared to pre-treatment. Conclusion Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  9. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

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    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  10. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

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    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  11. Bilateral differences in muscle architecture and increased rate of injury in national basketball association players.

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    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P; Wells, Adam J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Cross-sectional study. Setting : Human Performance Laboratory. Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W), these differences were not statistically significant (P = .20). In the present

  12. Analysis of muscle activity in various performance levels of Ollie jumps in skateboarding: A pilot study

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    Michal Vorlíček

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correct mastering of a basic Ollie jump is essential for development of other jumps in skateboarding. In scientific literature we can find a lack of scientifically proved knowledge that describes the difference in muscular activity on various levels of this jump performance. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize muscular activity in the basic skateboard Ollie jump and to compare this activity with a more difficult modification of the switchstance Ollie jump (the same jump but changed position of limbs. Methods: Ten men experienced in skateboarding for several years, aged 20.0 ± 4.6 years participated in the study (height 1.79 ± 0.05 m, body mass 71.5 ± 4.1 kg. All subjects performed 3 measured Ollie jumps and after that 3 switchstance Ollie jumps. In case of the last-mentioned front and back lower limbs are switched. The observation of muscular activity was carried out by the Delsys Trigno electromyography system. The jump was divided (after video records into four phases: preparatory, take-off, flight-up and landing. Mean amplitude of muscle activity was measured in following muscles: tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus and gluteus medius. Comparison of muscle activity during Ollie and switchstance Ollie was performed by the Wilcoxon test in Statistica. Results: Significantly greater activity (p < .05 was shown by gastrocnemius medialis and rectus femoris on the lower back limb during the preparatory phase of switchstance Ollie and by tibialis anterior and semitendinosus on lower front limb during the landing phase of Ollie. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that in switchstance Ollie is increased muscle activity during preparation period on the back limb and movement control during landing. The skaters in this type of jump should move his/her centre of gravity from the tail to the centre of the skateboard and also he/she would produce adequate muscle

  13. Bilateral Differences in Muscle Architecture and Increased Rate of Injury in National Basketball Association Players

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    Mangine, Gerald T.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Context Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. Objective To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Main Outcome Measure(s) Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. Results The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W

  14. Influence of Nordic Walking Training on Muscle Strength and the Electromyographic Activity of the Lower Body in Women With Low Bone Mass

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    Ossowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are related to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contribute to a decreased level of muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Nordic walking training on muscle strength and the electromyographic (EMG activity of the lower body in women with low bone mass. Material and methods. The participants of the study were 27 women with low bone mass. The sample was randomly divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. Women from the experimental group participated in 12 weeks of regular Nordic walking training. Functional strength was assessed with a 30-second chair stand test. The EMG activities of the gluteus maximus (GMax, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, soleus (SOL, and lumbar (LB muscles were measured using a surface electromyogram. Results. Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in the functional strength (p = 0.006 of the lower body and activity of GMax (p = 0.013 and a decrease in body mass (p = 0.006 in women with reduced bone mass. There was no statistically significant increase in the EMG activities of the RF, BF, SOL, or LB muscles. The study did not indicate any significant changes in functional muscle strength, the EMG activity of the lower body, or anthropometry in women from the control group. Conclusions. Nordic walking training induces positive changes in lower body strength and the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus as well as a decrease in body mass in women with low bone mass.

  15. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

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    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  16. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

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    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate of perceived exertion (RPE is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR, and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  17. Improvements in Vertebral-Column Angles and Psychological Metrics After Abdominoplasty With Rectus Plication.

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    Temel, Metin; Türkmen, Arif; Berberoğlu, Ömer

    2016-05-01

    Substantial fluctuations in body weight can result in diastasis recti and weakening of the connections between the lateral abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath. The authors sought to determine the postural and psychological effects of abdominoplasty with vertical rectus plication. Forty women with substantial back and lumbar pain owing to abdominal lipodystrophy were evaluated in a prospective study. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, patients underwent bidirectional radiography of the thoracic and lumbar regions. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were applied to assess physical, psychological, and quality-of-life changes following surgery. Significant improvements in posture, assessed in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and the lumbosacral angle, were observed 6 months after abdominoplasty with rectus plication. Results of the VAS and BDI indicated significant improvements in pain and quality of life, respectively. Results of the NHP indicated significant postoperative improvements in fatigue, pain, and sleep. Abdominoplasty with rectus plication improves posture by tightening the thoracolumbar fascia. In selected patients, abdominoplasty can reduce back and lumbar pain, thereby improving quality of life. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Between-day reliability of MyotonPRO for the non-invasive measurement of muscle material properties in the lower extremities of patients with a chronic spinal cord injury.

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    Ko, Chang-Yong; Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Ryu, Jeicheong; Kim, Gyoosuk

    2018-05-17

    Measuring the muscle properties of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) is important to better understand their biomechanical features. In this study, we sought to evaluate the between-day reliability of MyotonPRO, a handheld device that can measure muscle mechanical properties, and assess whether it is reliable to measure muscle properties over time in patients with SCI. Thirteen men with complete SCIs (age 53.9 ± 6.3 years, height 171.0 ± 5.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 5.8 kg), and injury levels ranging from L1 to T12, were enrolled. Oscillation frequency; logarithmic decrement; dynamic stiffness; mechanical stress relaxation time; and creep of the biceps femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and Achilles tendon were measured on consecutive days using MyotonPRO. The intraclass coefficient for most muscles and the Achilles tendon ranged from 0.53 to 0.99 for all parameters. The percentage standard error of the measurement for many parameters in most muscles and the Achilles tendon was less than 10%. Bland-Altman analysis showed a high agreement for all mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed in any muscle or Achilles tendon properties between days (all p > 0.05). These results indicate that the MyotonPRO is reliable for between-day measurements of the mechanical properties of lower limb muscles and Achilles tendon in patients with SCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in Quadriceps Muscle Activity During Sustained Recreational Alpine Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich; Seifert, John G.; Wakeling, James M.

    2011-01-01

    During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing) and the last two (POSTskiing) runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination) within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs. Key points The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF. General muscular fatigue, where additional specific fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers, did not occur. A modified skiing style towards a less functional and hence more uncontrolled skiing technique seems to be a key

  20. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J; Ferrero, Cristina M; Menéndez, Héctor; Martín, Juan; Herrero, Azael J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of whole-body vibration on lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients during a period of 3 mos. The inclusion criteria were having had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke at least 6 mos before the study and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of greater than 1 and less than 20. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 11, six men and five women; age, 62.4 ± 10.7 yrs; height, 1.64 ± 0.07 m; mass, 69.4 ± 12.9 kg) and a sham group (n = 9, five men and four women; age, 64.4 ± 7.6 yrs; height, 1.62 ± 0.07 m; mass, 75.0 ± 15.8 kg). The experimental group received a whole-body vibration treatment, with an increase in frequency, sets, and time per set during 17 sessions. The sham group performed the same exercises as that of the experimental group but was not exposed to vibration. Outcome variables included the muscle architecture (the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the medial gastrocnemius), the maximal isometric voluntary contraction of the knee extensors, and the Berg Balance Scale. There were no significant differences between the groups on the primary outcomes of lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance. It seems that whole-body vibration exercise does not augment the increase in neuromuscular performance and lower limb muscle architecture induced by isometric exercise alone in stroke patients.

  1. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; van der Krogt, M M; Koopman, H F J M; Verdonschot, N

    2016-06-14

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle-tendon (MT) model parameters for each of the 56 MT parts contained in a state-of-the-art MS model. We used two metrics, namely a Local Sensitivity Index (LSI) and an Overall Sensitivity Index (OSI), to distinguish the effect of the perturbation on the predicted force produced by the perturbed MT parts and by all the remaining MT parts, respectively, during a simulated gait cycle. Results indicated that sensitivity of the model depended on the specific role of each MT part during gait, and not merely on its size and length. Tendon slack length was the most sensitive parameter, followed by maximal isometric muscle force and optimal muscle fiber length, while nominal pennation angle showed very low sensitivity. The highest sensitivity values were found for the MT parts that act as prime movers of gait (Soleus: average OSI=5.27%, Rectus Femoris: average OSI=4.47%, Gastrocnemius: average OSI=3.77%, Vastus Lateralis: average OSI=1.36%, Biceps Femoris Caput Longum: average OSI=1.06%) and hip stabilizers (Gluteus Medius: average OSI=3.10%, Obturator Internus: average OSI=1.96%, Gluteus Minimus: average OSI=1.40%, Piriformis: average OSI=0.98%), followed by the Peroneal muscles (average OSI=2.20%) and Tibialis Anterior (average OSI=1.78%) some of which were not included in previous sensitivity studies. Finally, the proposed priority list provides quantitative information to indicate which MT parts and which MT parameters should be estimated most accurately to create detailed and reliable subject-specific MS models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  3. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore.

  4. Use of Ultrasound to Monitor Biceps Femoris Mechanical Adaptations after Injury in a Professional Soccer Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Kellis, Nikiforos Galanis, Chrysanthos Chrysanthou, Nikolaos Kofotolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the use of ultrasound to monitor changes in the long head of the biceps femoris (BF architecture of aprofessional soccer player with acute first-time hamstring strain. The player followed a 14 session physiotherapy treatment until return to sport. The pennation angle and aponeurosis strain of the long head of the biceps femoris (BF were monitored at 6 occasions (up until 1 year after injury. The size of the scar / hematoma was reduced by 63.56% (length and 67.9% (width after the intervention and it was almost non-traceable one year after injury. The pennation angle of the fascicles underneath the scar showed a decline of 51.4% at the end of the intervention while an increase of 109.2% of the fascicles which were closer to deep aponeurosis was observed. In contrast, pennation angle of fascicles located away from the injury site were relatively unaffected. The treatment intervention resulted in a 57.9% to 77.3% decline of maximum strain per unit of MVC moment and remained similar one year after the intervention. This study provided an example of the potential use of ultrasound-based parameters to link the mechanical adaptations of the injured muscle to specific therapeutic intervention.

  5. The The Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Anaerobic Power, Dynamic Balance and Muscle Activation After a karate kumite fighting in Female Karateka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Afshar Nezhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many athletes are using specific techniques to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes. Cold water immersion (CWI is one of the most popular interventions used by athletes to potentially return to their pre-fatigue performance level. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI on anaerobic performance, balance and muscle activation of female karateka after a simulated match. 15 young female karateka (age: 18.7±1.7 years, body mass: 55.5±6.3 kg, height:165±5.1 cm with at least three years' experience in karate kumite fighting were included in the study. After three round 3-minute competition, participants were grouped into a CWI group (20 min at 12±1°C and a control group (CTL. Anaerobic power (30 s Wingate test, and dynamic balance (Star-Excursion test were measured before the competition and 24 h after intervention. Surface electromyography (EMG was sampled from quadriceps femoris muscles. Peak normalized muscle activation levels and force were identified during maximal isometric test. A significant decrease in the anaerobic performance after the competition was observed for both groups (p<0.05. CWI were effective in enhancing the anaerobic performance after competition compared with the CTL. Dynamic balance decreased for two groups, although CWI resulted in the smallest reduction in balance. There was a significant difference in peak and mean RMS values of the EMG in Rectus Femoris but not Vastus muscles after the CWI intervention when compared to CTL (p<0.05. CWI improve recovery related to dynamic balance and anaerobic performance of karate kumite fighter. It can be concluded that CWI appears to promote muscle activation and reduce fatigue that is related to better performance in 24 hours post intervention.

  6. The effectiveness of two novel techniques in establishing the mechanical and contractile responses of biceps femoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; De Vito, Giuseppe; Hunter, Angus M; Haslam, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Portable tensiomyography (TMG) and myotonometry (MMT) devices have been developed to measure mechanical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to explore the sensitivity of the aforementioned techniques in detecting a change in passive mechanical properties of the biceps femoris (BF) muscle as a result of change in knee joint angle (i.e. muscle length). BF responses were assessed in 16 young participants (23.4 ± 4.9 years), at three knee joint angles (0°, 45° and 90°), for maximal isometric torque (MIT) along with myo-electrical activity. Contractile and mechanical properties were measured in a relaxed state. Inter-day reliability of the TMG and MMT was also assessed. MIT changed significantly (p < 0.01) across the three angles, so did stiffness and other parameters measured with MMT (p < 0.01). Conversely, TMG could detect changes only at two knee angles (0° and 45°, p < 0.01), when there is enough tension in the muscle. Reliability was overall insufficient for TMG whilst absolute reliability was excellent (coefficient of variation < 5%) for MMT. The ability of MMT more than TMG to detect an inherent change in stiffness can be conceivably exploited in a number of clinical/therapeutic applications that have to do with unnatural changes in passive muscle stiffness

  7. Baseline Mechanical and Neuromuscular Profile of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscles in Professional Soccer Players at the Start of the Pre-Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Oscar; Serrano-Gómez, Virginia; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Morales-Sánchez, Verónica

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and neuromuscular profile of knee extensor and flexor muscles in professional soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and to calculate percentages for symmetry, as well as examine differences according to the player's positional role. The vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of 16 professional soccer players were evaluated by means of tensiomyography (TMG) on the first day of the pre-season. A paired-samples t test (p < .05) was used to compare the dominant and non-dominant lower limb. One-way ANOVA was applied, with the positional role as an independent factor. No differences were observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest degree of symmetry corresponded to the VM (92.5 ± 2.7%), and the lowest to the BF (80.7 ± 10.9%). The positional role was associated with significant differences in some of the variables for the BF, RF and VM, although only the half-relaxation time in the BF and the time to sustain force in the VM differed across all the playing positions considered. TMG was shown to be a useful way of evaluating the neuromuscular characteristics of soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and of establishing baseline values for individual players.

  8. Baseline Mechanical and Neuromuscular Profile of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscles in Professional Soccer Players at the Start of the Pre-Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-García Oscar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and neuromuscular profile of knee extensor and flexor muscles in professional soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and to calculate percentages for symmetry, as well as examine differences according to the player’s positional role. The vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, rectus femoris (RF and biceps femoris (BF of 16 professional soccer players were evaluated by means of tensiomyography (TMG on the first day of the pre-season. A paired-samples t test (p < .05 was used to compare the dominant and non-dominant lower limb. One-way ANOVA was applied, with the positional role as an independent factor. No differences were observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest degree of symmetry corresponded to the VM (92.5 ± 2.7%, and the lowest to the BF (80.7 ± 10.9%. The positional role was associated with significant differences in some of the variables for the BF, RF and VM, although only the half-relaxation time in the BF and the time to sustain force in the VM differed across all the playing positions considered. TMG was shown to be a useful way of evaluating the neuromuscular characteristics of soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and of establishing baseline values for individual players.

  9. Determination of muscle fatigue index for strength training in patients with Duchenne dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rodrigues Oliveira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Muscle weakness is the most prominent impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and often involves the loss of functional ability as well as other limitations related to daily living. Thus, there is a need to maintain muscle strength in large muscle groups, such as the femoral quadriceps, which is responsible for diverse functional abilities. However, the load and duration of training for such rehabilitation has proven to be a great unknown, mainly due to the undesired appearance of muscle fatigue, which is a severe factor for the injury of muscle fibers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine a fatigue index by means of surface electromyography (EMG for the parameterization of muscle strengthening physiotherapy training. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (case series was carried out involving four patients with DMD. Three pairs of surface electrodes were placed on the motor point of the Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis and Vastus medialis of the dominant limb, maintaining the knee at 60º of flexion. The participants were instructed to perform the extension movement of this joint at four strength levels (100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. RESULTS: The slope of the linear regression line was used for the determination of the fatigue index, performed by Pearson's test on the median frequency of each strength level. CONCLUSION: Electromyographic measurements of the strength index for muscle training proved to be a simple accessible assessment method, as well as an extremely valuable tool, allowing the design of a muscle strength training program with an individualized load threshold.

  10. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  11. The Effect of Local Anesthetic Volume Within the Adductor Canal on Quadriceps Femoris Function Evaluated by Electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Ulrik; Jæger, Pia; Kløvgaard, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle......, they received a femoral nerve block and a placebo ACB. The effect on the vastus medialis (primary endpoint) and the vastus lateralis was evaluated using noninvasive electromyography (EMG). Quadriceps femoris muscle strength was evaluated using a dynamometer. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant......L was used (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between volume and effect on the vastus lateralis (P = 0.81) or in muscle strength (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: For ACB, there is a positive correlation between local anesthetic volume and effect on the vastus medialis muscle. Despite...

  12. Effect of 4-Horizontal Rectus Muscle Tenotomy on Visual Function and Eye Movement Records in Patients with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome without Abnormal Head Posture and Strabismus: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ameri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tenotomy on visual function and eye movement records in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS without abnormal head posture (AHP and strabismusMethods: A prospective interventional case-series of patients with INS with no AHP or strabismus. Patients underwent 4-horizontal muscle tenotomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and eye movement recordings were compared pre and postoperatively.Results: Eight patients were recruited in this study with 3 to 15.5 months of follow-up. Patients showed significant improvement in their visual function. Overall nystagmus amplitude and velocity was decreased 30.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Improvements were more marked at right and left gazes. Conclusion: Tenotomy improves both visual function and eye movement records in INS with no strabismus and eccentric null point. The procedure has more effect on lateral gazes with worse waveforms, thus can broaden area with better visual function. We recommend this surgery in patients with INS but no associated AHP or strabismus.

  13. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Recruitment Order During a Vertical Jump: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Dabanch-Santis, Alexis; Diaz-Valenzuela, Francisco

    2018-06-22

    Kinesio taping is commonly used in sports and rehabilitation settings with the aim of prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effects of 24 and 72 hours of kinesio taping on trunk and lower limb neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a vertical jump. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of kinesio taping on height and ground reaction force during a vertical jump, in addition to trunk and lower limb muscle latency and recruitment order. Single-group pretest-posttest. University laboratory. Twelve male athletes from different sports (track and field, basketball, and soccer). They completed a single squat and countermovement jump at basal time (no kinesio taping), 24, and 72 hours of kinesio taping application on the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and longissimus. Muscle onset latencies were assessed by electromyography during a squat and countermovement jump, in addition to measurements of the jump height and normalized ground reaction force. The kinesio taping had no effect after 24 hours on either the countermovement or squat jump. However, at 72 hours, the kinesio taping increased the jump height (P = .02; d = 0.36) and normalized ground reaction force (P = .001; d = 0.45) during the countermovement jump. In addition, 72-hour kinesio taping reduced longissimus onset latency (P = .03; d = 1.34) and improved muscle recruitment order during a countermovement jump. These findings suggest that kinesio taping may improve neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a countermovement jump only after 72 hours of application on healthy and uninjured male athletes. However, no changes were observed on a squat jump. Future studies should incorporate a control group to verify kinesio taping's effects and its influence on injured athletes.

  14. Effects of the lower extremities muscle activation during muscular strength training on an unstable platform with magneto-rheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, YongJun; Choi, YounJung; Kim, JungJa; Kwan, TaeKyu; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2009-03-01

    Adequate postural balance depends on the spatial and temporal integration of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory information. Especially, the musculoskeletal function (range of joint, flexibility of spine, muscular strength) is essential in maintaining the postural balance. Muscular strength training methods include the use of commercialized devices and repeatable resistance training tools (rubber band, ball, etc). These training systems cost high price and can't control of intensity. Thus we suggest a new training system which can adjust training intensity and indicate the center of pressure of a subject while the training was passively controlled by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto- Rheological damper. And we performed experimental studies on the muscular activities in the lower extremities during maintaining, moving and pushing exercises on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers. A subject executed the maintaining, moving and pushing exercises which were displayed in a monitor. The electromyographic signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in the time and frequency domain: the muscles of interest were rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tensor fasciae latae, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and soleus. The experimental results showed the difference of muscular activities at the four moving exercises and the nine maintaining exercises. The rate of the increase in the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers for the maintaining and moving exercises. The experimental results suggested the choice of different maintaining and moving exercises could selectively train different muscles with varying intensity. Furthermore, the findings also suggested the training using this system can improve the ability of postural balance.

  15. Association Between Muscle Wasting and Muscle Strength in Patients WHO Developed Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rodrigo Cerqueira; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2018-05-11

    To evaluate the association between the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) and the muscular strength obtained at the bedside in patients forwarded to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe sepsis and septic shock. A prospective cohort study. RFCSA was assessed by ultrasound on the following day of the ICU admission and monitored during hospitalization. The patients performed clinical tests of muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and handgrip dynamometry), when they could understand the verbal commands of the examiners. In 37 patients hospitalized for sepsis there was a significant decline in RFCSA of 5.18 (4.49-5.96)cm on the 2nd day of ICU for 4.37 (3.71-5.02)cm at hospital discharge. Differently, the handgrip strength showed an increase from the awakening of 12.00 (7.00-20.00)Kgf to 19.00 (14.00-26.00)Kgf until hospital discharge. Patients in mechanical ventilation had a greater tendency to decline in the RFCSA compared to patients who did not receive mechanical ventilation, however without being significant (p = 0.08). There was a negative association between RFCSA delta (2nd day of ICU - ICU discharge) and handgrip strength (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), and a male and SOFA score positive association with the RFCSA delta. There was an association of RFCSA with clinical muscle strength tests. In addition, it has been shown that sepsis can lead to short-term muscle degradation, regardless of whether they are submitted to mechanical ventilation or not.

  16. Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Krause

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIndividuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP.Methods44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16–25 Hz, 1.5–3 mm. Assessment included (1 recordings of stretch reflex (SR activity of the triceps surae, (2 electromyography (EMG measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3 neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM. We recorded EMG of m. soleus (SOL, m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM, m. tibialis anterior, m. vastus medialis, m. rectus femoris, and m. biceps femoris. Angular excursion was recorded by goniometry of the ankle and knee joint.ResultsAfter WBV, (1 SOL SRs were decreased (p < 0.01 while (2 maximal voluntary activation (p < 0.05 and (3 angular excursion in the knee joint (p < 0.01 were significantly increased. No changes could be observed for GM SR amplitudes or ankle joint excursion. Neuromuscular coordination expressed by greater agonist–antagonist ratios during aROM was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05.DiscussionThe findings point toward acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects following one bout of WBV. Protocols demonstrate that pathological reflex responses are reduced (spinal level, while the execution of voluntary movement (supraspinal level is improved in regards to kinematic and neuromuscular control. This facilitation of muscle and joint control is probably due to a reduction of spasticity-associated spinal excitability in favor of giving access for greater supraspinal input during voluntary motor

  17. Muscle Contraction Velocity: A Suitable Approach to Analyze the Functional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C. Cal Abad, Fabio Y. Nakamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tensiomyography (TMG has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc, which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players’ neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m and change of direction (COD sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities. Magnitude-based inference was used to detect meaningful training effects. From pre- to post-tests, it was observed likely to almost certainly improvements in all modes of jumping tests. In addition, we could verify decrements in the 20-m and COD sprint performances, which were rated as very likely and almost certainly, respectively. Finally, both rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles presented a likely reduction in Vc. Therefore, chronic decreases in sprinting speed are possibly accompanied by a reduced TMG-derived Vc. From a practical standpoint, the TMG-derived Vc can be used to monitor negative specific-soccer training effects related to potential impairments in maximum speed.

  18. Training-specific muscle architecture adaptation after 5-wk training in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas D; Bronks, Roger; Newton, Robert U

    2003-12-01

    This study examined changes in the muscle size, muscle architecture, strength, and sprint/jump performances of concurrently training athletes during 5 wk of "altered" resistance training (RT). Eight female and 15 male athletes performed 4 wk of sprint, jump, and resistance training in addition to their sports training (standardization) before adopting one of three different programs for 5 wk: 1) squat lift training (SQ, N = 8) with sprint/jump training; 2) forward hack squat training (FHS, N = 7) with sprint/jump training; or 3) sprint/jump training only (SJ, N = 8). Muscle size, fascicle angle, and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles (using ultrasound procedures) as well as 20-m sprint run, vertical jump, and strength performance changes were examined. A small increase in VL fascicle angle in SQ and FHS was statistically different to the decrease in SJ subjects (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal). VL fascicle length increased for SJ only (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal) and increased in RF in SQ subjects (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness of VL and RF increased in all training groups (P < 0.05) but only at proximal sites. There were no between-group differences in squat, forward hack squat, or isokinetic strength performances, or in sprint or jump performances, despite improvements in some of the tests across the groups. Significant muscle size and architectural adaptations can occur in concurrently training athletes in response to a 5-wk training program. These adaptations were possibly associated with the force and velocity characteristics of the training exercises but not the movement patterns. Factors other than, or in addition to, muscle architecture must mediate changes in strength, sprint, and jump performance.

  19. Effect of ageing time in vacuum package on veal longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris physical and sensory traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study evaluated the effects of vacuum ageing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 days on veal loin (longissimus dorsi; LD and silverside (biceps femoris; BF physical and sensory characteristics. Ageing did not affect cooking loss, increased LD pH and L*, a* and b* in both muscles. Shear force (SF decreased until day 6 in LD and day 10 in BF. Aroma, flavor and taste were not affected, while texturetraits were improved. SF was negative correlated with tenderness and juiciness and positive correlated with BF fibrousness and stringy sensation. Ageing improved texture properties withoutaltering other sensory traits.

  20. Use of the Anterolateral Thigh and Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flaps as Utility Flaps in Reconstructing Large Groin Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jonathan Aslim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGroin dissections result in large wounds with exposed femoral vessels requiring soft tissue coverage, and the reconstructive options are diverse. In this study we reviewed our experience with the use of the pedicled anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of large groin wounds.MethodsGroin reconstructions performed over a period of 10 years were evaluated, with a mean follow up of two years. We included all cases with large or complex (involving perineum defects, which were reconstructed with the pedicled anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous or the vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM flaps. Smaller wounds which were covered with skin grafts, locally based flaps and pedicled muscle flaps were excluded.ResultsTwenty-three reconstructions were performed for large or complex groin defects, utilising the anterolateral thigh (n=10 and the vertical rectus abdominis (n=13 pedicled musculocutaneous flaps. Femoral vein reconstruction with a prosthetic graft was required in one patient, and a combination flap (VRAM and gracilis muscle flap was performed in another. Satisfactory coverage was achieved in all cases without major complications. No free flaps were used in our series.ConclusionsThe anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis pedicled musculocutaneous flaps yielded consistent results with little morbidity in the reconstruction of large and complex groin defects. A combination of flaps can be used in cases requiring extensive cover.

  1. Traumatic 6th Nerve Palsy Managed with Medial Rectus Recession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in left eye in primary gaze [Figure 1]. All movements of left eye were restricted in all directions of gaze except ... improvement of abduction, and larger field of binocular ... and inferior rectus lateral 2/3 near lateral rectus tendon insertion.

  2. Sonomyography Analysis on Thickness of Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Contraction Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuang; Feng, Jing; Xu, Jiapeng; Xu, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that stimulates skeletal muscles to induce contractions has been widely applied to restore functions of paralyzed muscles. However, the architectural changes of stimulated muscles induced by NMES are still not well understood. The present study applies sonomyography (SMG) to evaluate muscle architecture under NMES-induced and voluntary movements. The quadriceps muscles of seven healthy subjects were tested for eight cycles during an extension exercise of the knee joint with/without NMES, and SMG and the knee joint angle were recorded during the process of knee extension. A least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) LS-SVM model was developed and trained using the data sets of six cycles collected under NMES, while the remaining data was used to test. Muscle thickness changes were extracted from ultrasound images and compared between NMES-induced and voluntary contractions, and LS-SVM was used to model a relationship between dynamical knee joint angles and SMG signals. Muscle thickness showed to be significantly correlated with joint angle in NMES-induced contractions, and a significant negative correlation was observed between Vastus intermedius (VI) thickness and rectus femoris (RF) thickness. In addition, there was a significant difference between voluntary and NMES-induced contractions . The LS-SVM model based on RF thickness and knee joint angle provided superior performance compared with the model based on VI thickness and knee joint angle or total thickness and knee joint angle. This suggests that a strong relation exists between the RF thickness and knee joint angle. These results provided direct evidence for the potential application of RF thickness in optimizing NMES system as well as measuring muscle state under NMES.

  3. The effect of age and knee osteoarthritis on muscle activation patterns and knee joint biomechanics during dual belt treadmill gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Derek; Baker, Matthew; Wong, Ivan; Stanish, William

    2017-06-01

    To compare a group of individuals with moderate medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) to both an age-matched asymptomatic group of older adults and younger adults to determine whether differences in knee joint muscle activation patterns and joint biomechanics exist during gait between these three groups. 20 young adults, 20 older adults, and 40 individuals with moderate knee OA were recruited. Using standardized procedures, surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis, rectus femoris and the medial and lateral hamstrings. All individuals walked on a dual belt instrumented treadmill while segment motions and ground reaction forces were recorded. Sagittal plane motion and net external sagittal and frontal plane moments were calculated. Discrete measures and principal component analyses extracted amplitude and temporal waveform features. Analysis of Variance models using Bonferroni corrections determined between and within group differences in these gait features (α=0.05). Individuals with knee OA have distinct biomechanics and muscle activation patterns when compared to age-matched asymptomatic adults and younger adults whereas differences between the young and older adults were few and included only measures of muscle activation amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Net joint moments and muscle activation in barbell squats without and with restricted anterior leg rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; vonGaza, Gabriella L; Jean, Liane M Y

    2017-01-01

    Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P squat depth, ankle plantar flexor (P squats. Hip extensor NJM (P = 0.14) was not different between squat types at maximum squat depth. Vastus lateralis (P > 0.05), vastus medialis (P > 0.05) and rectus femoris (P > 0.05) EMG were not different between squat types. Unrestricted squats have higher ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM than previously reported from jumping and landing. However, ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM are lower in restricted squats than previous studies of jumping and landing. The high NJM in unrestricted squat exercise performed through a full range of motion suggests this squat type would be more effective to stimulate adaptations in the lower extremity musculature than restricted squats.

  5. Morphometry of extraocular muscles in Basedow disease by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We measured the thickness of extraocular muscles in 35 patients diagnosed as Basedow disease by physicians. We used the coronal images of computed tomography in measuring the thickness at four points for each muscle. The mean thickness was 3.2±1.0 mm for superior rectus, 3.4±0.8 mm for medial rectus and 4.1 mm±13 mm for inferior rectus. These values were significantly larger than in normal eyes (p<0.01). The value for inferior rectus was significantly larger than for the other two muscles (p<0.01). Thickness of inferior rectus at its posterior portion was significantly correlated with limitation of supraduction of the affected eye (r=0.7). (author)

  6. Validation of a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system for measurement of superficial and deep muscle deoxygenation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shunsaku; Barstow, Thomas J; Okushima, Dai; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Poole, David C

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared assessment of skeletal muscle is restricted to superficial tissues due to power limitations of spectroscopic systems. We reasoned that understanding of muscle deoxygenation may be improved by simultaneously interrogating deeper tissues. To achieve this, we modified a high-power (∼8 mW), time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system to increase depth penetration. Precision was first validated using a homogenous optical phantom over a range of inter-optode spacings (OS). Coefficients of variation from 10 measurements were minimal (0.5-1.9%) for absorption (μa), reduced scattering, simulated total hemoglobin, and simulated O2 saturation. Second, a dual-layer phantom was constructed to assess depth sensitivity, and the thickness of the superficial layer was varied. With a superficial layer thickness of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm (μa = 0.149 cm(-1)), the proportional contribution of the deep layer (μa = 0.250 cm(-1)) to total μa was 80.1, 26.9, 3.7, and 0.0%, respectively (at 6-cm OS), validating penetration to ∼3 cm. Implementation of an additional superficial phantom to simulate adipose tissue further reduced depth sensitivity. Finally, superficial and deep muscle spectroscopy was performed in six participants during heavy-intensity cycle exercise. Compared with the superficial rectus femoris, peak deoxygenation of the deep rectus femoris (including the superficial intermedius in some) was not significantly different (deoxyhemoglobin and deoxymyoglobin concentration: 81.3 ± 20.8 vs. 78.3 ± 13.6 μM, P > 0.05), but deoxygenation kinetics were significantly slower (mean response time: 37 ± 10 vs. 65 ± 9 s, P ≤ 0.05). These data validate a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system with large OS for measuring the deoxygenation of deep tissues and reveal temporal and spatial disparities in muscle deoxygenation responses to exercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Dynamic Rectus Abdominis Muscle Sphincter for Stomal Continence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, J.W.J.M. (Janou)

    2002-01-01

    Some life-saving surgeries result in the necessity to establish permanent intestinal stomas; this outcome has an undeniable physical and emotional effect on the patient's life. Although patients with permanent stomas reasonably adjust, complications that include peristomal skin irritation, pouching

  8. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap for oral reconstruction in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, O I

    2001-12-01

    A five-month-old intact/male Boxer dog was presented 5-days following bite wound trauma to the maxillary region resulting in an oronasal fistula extending from the maxillary canine teeth to the soft palate. Multiple surgical procedures using local, buccal mucosal flaps failed to repair the oronasal fistula. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap using microvascular surgical techniques was successful in providing soft tissue reconstruction of the hard palate area. Complications of these surgical techniques included muscle contraction and subsequent muzzle distortion. Small, refractory oronasal fistulae at the perimeter of the myoperitoneal flap were repaired by primary wound closure.

  9. M. biceps femoris - A wolf in sheep's clothing: The downside of a lower limb injury prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertelt, Thomas; Gronwald, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are among the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the development and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities. The number of non-contact hamstring injuries has nevertheless been on the rise, particularly in sports like soccer and football. Therefore, the purpose of the following article is to introduce the hypothesis that the above-mentioned training interventions have a massive influence on the activation patterns on the targeted muscle group, and on the M. biceps femoris in particular. Muscle function and the resulting internal load are directly related to muscle architecture at the insertion. Training induced adaptations in hamstring activation patterns can thus lead to an increased injury susceptibility. In this case, a simulation model that directly relates to an acute deceleration maneuver provides valuable insights into the function of the biceps femoris muscle, especially when the rate of activity and the muscle geometry at the insertion area are taken into consideration. We conclude that there needs to be a greater individualization of prevention programs, especially in regards to anatomical requirements, in order to further reduce injury rates in elite sports. Moreover, it would also seem reasonable to apply a similar approach to aspects of chronic pain such as chronic non-specific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolated Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Rare Presentation of Midbrain Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sofiani, Mohammed; Lee Kwen, Peterkin

    2015-10-08

    Diplopia is a common subjective complaint that can be the first manifestation of a serious pathology. Here, we report a rare case of midbrain infarction involving the lateral subnucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex presenting as diplopia, with no other stroke manifestations. An 83-year-old right-handed white man with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with diplopia and unsteadiness. Two days prior to admission, the patient woke up with constant horizontal diplopia and unsteadiness, which limited his daily activities and led to a fall at home. He denied any weakness, clumsiness, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, fever, or chills. Ocular exam showed a disconjugate gaze at rest, weakness of the left medial rectus muscle, impaired convergence test, and bilateral 3-mm reactive pupils. The diplopia resolved by closing either eye. The remaining extraocular muscles and other cranial nerves were normal. There was no nystagmus, ptosis, or visual field deficit. Sensation, muscle tone, and strength were normal in all extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tiny focus of restricted diffusion in the left posterior lateral midbrain. A thorough history and physical examination is essential to diagnose and manage diplopia. Isolated extraocular palsy is usually thought to be caused by orbital lesions or muscular diseases. Here, we report a case of midbrain infarction manifested as isolated medial rectus palsy.

  11. Frequency analysis of ultrasonic echo intensities of the skeletal muscle in elderly and young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishihara K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ken Nishihara,1 Hisashi Kawai,2 Hiroyuki Hayashi,3 Hideo Naruse,4 Akihito Kimura,4 Toshiaki Gomi,5 Fumihiko Hoshi1 1Department of Physical Therapy, Saitama Prefectural University, Saitama, Japan; 2Health Promotion Management Office, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan; 3Center for University-wide Education, Saitama Prefectural University, Saitama, Japan; 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 5Faculty of Nursing, Tokyo Ariake University of Medical and Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan Background: The skeletal muscle echo intensity (EI during ultrasound imaging has been investigated to evaluate the muscle quality. However, EI fluctuates according to the scanning conditions.Methods: The motor functions and ultrasound images of 19 elderly (73±3.2 years and 19 young (22±1.5 years individuals were investigated and an EI frequency component was assessed for more reliable evaluations. Healthy elderly and young subjects participated in this study. The motor functions were assessed during walking and according to the knee extension muscle strength. The muscle thicknesses of rectus femoris (RF, vastus intermedius (VI, and quadriceps femoris (QF were investigated. EIs were calculated and the mean frequencies of the regions of interest (MFROIs for RF and VI were analyzed. Results: EIs and MFROIs were greater in elderly subjects than in young subjects (P<0.01 for RF, and P<0.001 for VI, in EIs; and P<0.01 for RF, and P<0.05 for VI, in MFROIs. In young subjects, EI of RF was greater than that of VI; however, there was no difference between the RF and VI MFROIs in both elderly and young subjects. EIs of VI exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the QF thickness in both elderly and young subjects. RF MFROIs negatively correlated with the QF thickness and positively correlated with EI of VI in elderly subjects alone. Conclusion: These findings

  12. Herniated gyrus rectus causing idiopathic compression of the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob; Jack, Megan M; Peterson, Jeremy C; Chamoun, Roukoz B

    2017-02-01

    Anomalies in the frontal lobe can interfere with visual function by compression of the optic chiasm and nerve. The gyrus rectus is located at the anterior cranial fossa floor superior to the intracranial optic nerves and chiasm. Compression of these structures by the gyrus rectus is often caused by neoplastic or dysplastic growth in the area. We report a rare case of a herniated gyrus rectus impinged on the optic chiasm and nerve without a clear pathological cause for the herniation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Análise histológica e histoquímica das fibras dos músculos reto do abdome e intercostal paraesternal de ratos submetidos ao exercício da natação Histologic and histochemical analysis of fibers of rectus of abdomen and paraesternal intercostal muscles of Wistar rats after swimming exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Bálade Saad

    2002-08-01

    ção aeróbica, com conseqüente aumento do percentual de fibras oxidativas, induzindo maior resistência à fadiga.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on metabolic and contractile abilities of rectus of abdomen and the paraesternal intercostal muscle fibers. Adult Wistar rats were initially submitted to an adaptation period and then divided into control and exercise groups. Exercised animals were submitted to swimming for 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, 1 hr/day, 5days/week. At the end of each period, the animals were killed. Small segments of the above muscles were frozen in N-hexane at -70ºC, pre-cooled with liquid nitrogen for two minutes. Histological transverse sections (7 µm were obtained in a cryostat microtome at -20ºC. Some serial sections were stained with HE. Subsequent sections were reacted for NADH-TR to evaluate the oxidizing capacity, and for m-ATPase, after acid and alkaline pre-incubations mediums. Under microscopic examination, the frequencies of fiber types were sampled. Muscle fibers revealed to be grouped in different fascicles, presenting polygonal outlines, with different diameters. Three kind of fibers were detected: SO (slow oxidative, FOG (fast oxidative glycolytic and FG (fast glycolytic, presenting a mosaic pattern distribution. The analysis of the results demonstrated that after 60 days of exercise, the abdominal muscles showed a significant increase in the frequency of SO fibers. After 15 days, a significant decrease in frequency of intermediate FOG fibers and an increase of FG fibers. The paraesternal intercostal muscles revealed a significant increase in the percentage of SO fibers in the 60 day-exercised animals, a percentage increase of FOG fibers in the animals of 45 and 60 days, and a percentage decrease of FG fibers in those of 30, 45 and 60 days. So, due to hydrostatic pressure in swimming exercise, the degree of work was greater in the inspiration muscles. This increase was parallel with

  14. Lower limb muscle activity during forefoot and rearfoot strike running techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreneau, Lindsey L; Watts, Kayla; Heitzman, Jill E; Childers, W Lee

    2014-12-01

    Distance running offers a method to improve fitness but also has a risk of lower limb overuse injuries. Foot strike technique has been suggested as a method to alter loading of the lower limb and possibly minimize injury risk. However, there is a dearth of information regarding neuromuscular response to variations in running techniques. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the EMG activity that occurs during FFS running and RFS running, focusing on the biceps femoris, semitendenosis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior (TA), medial head of gastrocnemeus (MGas), lateral head of gastrocnemius (LGas), and soleus. healthy adults (6 male, 8 female; age, 24.2 ± 0.8 years, height 170.1 ± 7.8 cm; mass 69.8 ±10.9 kg; Body Mass Index 24.1 ± 3.0 kg·m2) participated in the study. All participants performed a RFS and FFS running trial at 8.85 kph. A 3D motion capture system was used to collect kinematic data and electromyography was used to define muscle activity. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to examine differences in outcomes between RFS and FFS conditions. The ankle was significantly more plantarflexed during FFS running (p = .0001) but there were no significant differences in knee and hip angles (p = .618 & .200, respectively). There was significantly less activity in tibialis anterior (TA) (p < .0001) and greater activity in the MGas (p= .020) during FFS running. The LGas and soleus did not change activity (p = .437 & .490, respectively). FFS running demonstrated lower muscular activity in the TA and increased activation in the MGas. FFS and RFS running have the potential to off-load injury prone tissues by changing between techniques. However, future studies will be necessary to establish more direct mechanistic connections between running technique and injury.

  15. Bursitis with severe tendom and muscle necrosis on the lateral stifle area in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuss, K.; Muggli, E.; Hässig, M.; Räber, M.; Sydler, T.; Guscetti, F.

    2011-01-01

    In 21 animals, chronic swelling on the lateral aspect of the stifle also known as perigonitis, stable-syndrome or bursitis bicipitalis femoris were evaluated. Ultrasonography showed increased fluid in the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle and structural changes in the tendons, muscles, subcutis and fasciae. Soft tissue swelling and an irregular contour of the lateral tibial condyle were typical signs on radiographs. Macroscopic changes were found at the insertion of the biceps femoris muscle, the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle, the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, the origin of muscles on the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial condyle. They mainly consisted of tendon and muscle tissue necrosis with granulation tissue. Histology revealed areas of coagulation necrosis in tendons and ligaments, in which occasionally Onchocerca spp. were seen. The severity of lesions correlated well with the clinical signs, which were associated with a poor prognosis in advanced cases

  16. Applied force and elongation in the medial rectus in esotropic patients with and without movement restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda; Cvintal, Tadeu; Bicas, Harley

    2004-12-01

    To study the different ways of expressing the force-elongation relationship in medial rectus muscles in esotropia with and without muscular restriction. Twenty-nine passive force-elongation curves were obtained without restriction (group I, n = 13) and with restriction (group II, n = 10) by means of a manual pachymeter and a digital dynamometer. In group I, the mean age was 14 years and 7 days and the mean esotropia was 53.88(Delta) while in group II the mean age was 35 years and 5 days and the mean esotropia was 60.5(Delta). Comparisons of structural muscular parameters between groups I and II were made for length (38.69 +/- 0.75 vs. 32.48 +/- 1.84 mm, p elongation relationship, whether normalized or not, followed an exponential curve. The constant c, which represents force when the elongation is zero, remained the same in all curves. In contrast, the constant b, which represents the slope of the curve, showed a significant difference between the two groups only for the curves of force-absolute elongation and tension-absolute elongation. The results imply that the constant b is better for characterizing the difference between the behavior of the medial rectus in esotropia with and without restriction. In addition, the elongation normalization showed that the contractile component is similar between the two groups and, therefore, the classical way of analysis, which does not employ normalization, is appropriate to correlate muscle properties with clinical findings.

  17. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  18. Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter rectus in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2003-03-01

    A species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus in primary root canal infections. Samples were collected from 57 single-rooted teeth with carious lesions, necrotic pulps and radiographic evidence of periradicular disease. Twenty-eight cases were diagnosed as chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions, 12 cases as acute apical periodontitis, and 17 cases as acute periradicular abscess. DNA was extracted from the samples and initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification using the first PCR products was performed to specifically detect C. gracilis or C. rectus in the samples. Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus were, respectively, detected in 21.4 (6 of 28) and 30% (6 of 20) of the root canals associated with chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions. Campylobacter gracilis was found in 16.7% (2 of 12) of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, whilst C. rectus was found in 33.3% (two of six cases). In the abscessed cases, C. gracilis and C. rectus were detected in 23.5 (4 of 17) and 11.8% (2 of 17) of the cases, respectively. No association of these species with clinical symptoms was observed (P > 0.01) In general, species-specific nPCR allowed the detection of C. gracilis in 21.1% (12 of 57) and C. rectus in 23.3% (10 of 43)of the samples taken from primary endodontic infections. Findings confirmed the assertion that both C. gracilis and C. rectus participate in infections of endodontic origin and suggest a pathogenetic role with regard to periradicular diseases.

  19. Quantifying the Elastic Property of Nine Thigh Muscles Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of the muscles can manifest different physiological and functional changes. To adapt treatment, it is necessary to characterize the elastic property (shear modulus) of single muscles. Previous studies have used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique based on MRI technology, to analyze the mechanical behavior of healthy and pathological muscles. The purpose of this study was to develop protocols using MRE to determine the shear modulus of nine thigh muscles at rest. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (mean age = 26 ± 3.41 years) with no muscle abnormalities underwent MRE tests (1.5 T MRI). Five MRE protocols were developed to quantify the shear moduli of the nine following thigh muscles at rest: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), sartorius (Sr), gracilis (Gr), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps (BC). In addition, the shear modulus of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed. The gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles revealed a significantly higher shear modulus (μ_Gr = 6.15 ± 0.45 kPa, μ_ Sr = 5.15 ± 0.19 kPa, and μ_ ST = 5.32 ± 0.10 kPa, respectively) compared to other tissues (from μ_ RF = 3.91 ± 0.16 kPa to μ_VI = 4.23 ± 0.25 kPa). Subcutaneous adipose tissue had the lowest value (μ_adipose tissue = 3.04 ± 0.12 kPa) of all the tissues tested. The different elasticities measured between the tissues may be due to variations in the muscles' physiological and architectural compositions. Thus, the present protocol could be applied to injured muscles to identify their behavior of elastic property. Previous studies on muscle pathology found that quantification of the shear modulus could be used as a clinical protocol to identify pathological muscles and to follow-up effects of treatments and therapies. These data could also be used for modelling purposes.

  20. Influence of Lower Extremity Muscle Size and Quality on Stair-Climb Performance in Career Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Craig R; Ryan, Eric D; Tweedell, Andrew J; Barnette, Timothy J; Wagoner, Chad W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of lower extremity muscular size and quality on stair-climb performance (SCP) in career firefighters. Forty-six male career firefighters (age = 37.0 ± 7.2 years; stature = 180.2 ± 6.9 cm; body mass = 108.0 ± 19.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Panoramic ultrasound images of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were obtained to determine cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of each muscle. The CSA of each muscle was then summed together and normalized to body mass (CSA/BM [QCSA]). Additionally, EI was averaged across both muscles (QEI). Participants then performed a timed and weighted SCP assessment where they ascended and descended 26 stairs 4 times as quickly as possible while wearing a weighted vest (22.73 kg) to simulate the weight of their self-contained breathing apparatus and turnout gear. Bivariate correlations and stepwise regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of QCSA and QEI to SCP. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between QCSA and SCP and QEI and SCP while controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). The results indicated that QCSA and QEI were significantly related to SCP before (r = -0.492, p = 0.001; r = 0.363, p = 0.013, respectively) and after accounting for age and BMI (r = -0.324, p = 0.032; r = 0.413, p = 0.005, respectively). Both QCSA and QEI contributed significantly to the prediction of SCP (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that lower extremity muscle size and quality are important contributors to critical firefighting tasks, which have been shown to be improved with resistance training.

  1. Sprinting performance on the Woodway Curve 3.0 is related to muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Fukuda, David H; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Bohner, Jonathan D; LaMonica, Michael; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To determine if unilateral measures of muscle architecture in the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were related to (and predictive of) sprinting speed and unilateral (and bilateral) force (FRC) and power (POW) during a 30 s maximal sprint on the Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorized treadmill. Twenty-eight healthy, physically active men (n = 14) and women (n = 14) (age = 22.9 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 77.1 ± 16.2 kg; height = 171.6 ± 11.2 cm; body-fa t = 19.4 ± 8.1%) completed one familiarization and one 30-s maximal sprint on the TM to obtain maximal sprinting speed, POW and FRC. Muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (ECHO) of the RF and VL in the dominant (DOM; determined by unilateral sprinting power) and non-dominant (ND) legs were measured via ultrasound. Pearson correlations indicated several significant (p architecture. Stepwise regression indicated that POW(DOM) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA and ECHO), while POW(ND) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA); sprinting power/force asymmetry was not predictive of architecture asymmetry. Sprinting time was best predicted by peak power and peak force, though muscle quality (ECHO) and the bilateral percent difference in VL (CSA) were strong architectural predictors. Muscle architecture is related to (and predictive of) TM sprinting performance, while unilateral POW is predictive of ipsilateral architecture. However, the extent to which architecture and other factors (i.e. neuromuscular control and sprinting technique) affect TM performance remains unknown.

  2. Towards evidence based strength training: a comparison of muscle forces during deadlifts, goodmornings and split squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Florian; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an efficient and targeted adaptation with low injury risk during strength exercises, knowledge of the participant specific internal loading conditions is essential. The goal of this study was to calculate the lower limb muscles forces during the strength exercises deadlifts, goodmornings and splits squats by means of musculoskeletal simulation. 11 participants were assessed performing 10 different variations of split squats by varying the step length as well as the maximal frontal tibia angle, and 13 participants were measured performing deadlift and goodmorning exercises. Using individualised musculoskeletal models, forces of the Quadriceps ( four parts), Hamstrings (four parts) and m. gluteus maximus (three parts) were computed. Deadlifts resulted highest loading for the Quadriceps, especially for the vasti (18-34 N/kg), but not for the rectus femoris (8-10 N/kg), which exhibited its greatest loading during split squats (13-27 N/kg) in the rear limb. Hamstrings were loaded isometrically during goodmornings but dynamically during deadlifts. For the m. gluteus maximus , the highest loading was observed during split squats in the front limb (up to 25 N/kg), while deadlifts produced increasingly, large loading over large ranges of motion in hip and knee. Acting muscle forces vary between exercises, execution form and joint angle. For all examined muscles, deadlifts produced considerable loading over large ranges of motion, while split squats seem to be highly dependent upon exercise variation. This study provides key information to design strength-training programs with respect to loading conditions and ranges of motion of lower extremity muscles.

  3. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-12-01

    While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (ptubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.

  4. Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L H; Kautz, S A; Brown, D A; Zajac, F E

    1999-02-01

    Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to

  5. Relative and Absolute Interrater Reliabilities of a Hand-Held Myotonometer to Quantify Mechanical Muscle Properties in Patients with Acute Stroke in an Inpatient Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Leung Ambrose Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The reliability of using MyotonPRO to quantify muscles mechanical properties in a ward setting for the acute stroke population remains unknown. Aims. To investigate the within-session relative and absolute interrater reliability of MyotonPRO. Methods. Mechanical properties of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior were recorded at bedside. Participants were within 1 month of the first occurrence of stroke. Relative reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Absolute reliability was assessed by standard error of measurement (SEM, SEM%, smallest real difference (SRD, SRD%, and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Results. ICCs of all studied muscles ranged between 0.63 and 0.97. The SEM of all muscles ranged within 0.30–0.88 Hz for tone, 0.07–0.19 for decrement, 6.42–20.20 N/m for stiffness, and 0.04–0.07 for creep. The SRD of all muscles ranged within 0.70–2.05 Hz for tone, 0.16–0.45 for decrement, 14.98–47.15 N/m for stiffness, and 0.09–0.17 for creep. Conclusions. MyotonPRO demonstrated acceptable relative and absolute reliability in a ward setting for patients with acute stroke. However, results must be interpreted with caution, due to the varying level of consistency between different muscles, as well as between different parameters within a muscle.

  6. The influence of stimulus phase duration on discomfort and electrically induced torque of quadriceps femoris

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    Richard E. Liebano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have compared the influence of different electrical pulse parameters on maximum electrically induced torque (MEIT and discomfort, the role of phase duration has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the variation in muscle torque and discomfort produced when electrically stimulating quadriceps femoris using pulsed current with three different phase durations in order to establish whether there are any advantages or disadvantages in varying the phase duration over the range examined. METHOD: This is a two repeated-measures, within-subject study conducted in a research laboratory. The study was divided into 2 parts with 19 healthy young adults in each part.In part 1, MEIT was determined for each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs, using a biphasic pulsed current at a frequency of 50 Hz. In part 2, stimulus amplitude was increased until the contractions reached 40% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and the associated discomfort produced by each phase duration was measured. RESULTS: In part 1 of the study, we found that the average MEITs generated with each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs were 55.0, 56.3, and 58.0% of MVIC respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant (p=.45. In part 2, we found a statistically significant increase in discomfort over the same range of phase durations. The results indicate that, for a given level of torque production, discomfort increases with increasing phase duration (p=.008. CONCLUSIONS: Greater muscle torque cannot be produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration over the range examined. Greater discomfort is produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration.

  7. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma: The utility of CT angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pierro, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the utility of computed tomography (CT angiography in detection of bleeding vessels for a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. A 70-year-old woman comes to our attention with acute abdominal pain and a low hemoglobin level. An unenhanced CT was performed demonstrating a large rectus sheath hematoma. A conservative management was initially established. Despite this therapy, the abdominal pain increased together with a further decrease of hemoglobin values. A CT angiography was then performed, demonstrating an active bleeding within the hematoma and addressing the patient to a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization. Keywords: Rectus sheath hematoma, Acute abdomen, Arterial embolization, CT angiography, Active bleeding

  8. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  10. Investigation of the Relationship Between Electrical Stimulation Frequency and Muscle Frequency Response Under Submaximal Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papcke, Caluê; Krueger, Eddy; Olandoski, Marcia; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme Nunes; Nohama, Percy; Scheeren, Eduardo Mendonça

    2018-03-25

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common tool that is used in clinical and laboratory experiments and can be combined with mechanomyography (MMG) for biofeedback in neuroprostheses. However, it is not clear if the electrical current applied to neuromuscular tissues influences the MMG signal in submaximal contractions. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the electrical stimulation frequency influences the mechanomyographic frequency response of the rectus femoris muscle during submaximal contractions. Thirteen male participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) recorded in isometric conditions to determine the maximal force of knee extensors. This was followed by the application of nine modulated NMES frequencies (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 75, and 100 Hz) to evoke 5% MVIC. Muscle behavior was monitored by the analysis of MMG signals, which were decomposed into frequency bands by using a Cauchy wavelet transform. For each applied electrical stimulus frequency, the mean MMG spectral/frequency response was estimated for each axis (X, Y, and Z axes) of the MMG sensor with the values of the frequency bands used as weights (weighted mean). Only with respect to the Z (perpendicular) axis of the MMG signal, the stimulus frequency of 20 Hz did not exhibit any difference with the weighted mean (P = 0.666). For the frequencies of 20 and 25 Hz, the MMG signal displayed the bands between 12 and 16 Hz in the three axes (P frequencies from 30 to 100 Hz, the muscle presented a higher concentration of the MMG signal between the 22 and 29 Hz bands for the X and Z axes, and between 16 and 34 Hz bands for the Y axis (P frequency, because their frequency contents tend to mainly remain between the 20- and 25-Hz bands. Hence, NMES does not interfere with the use of MMG in neuroprosthesis. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Thigh muscle activity, knee motion, and impact force during side-step pivoting in agility-trained female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Sports medicine research laboratory. Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age = 21.07 +/- 2.82 years, height = 171.27 +/- 4.66 cm, mass = 66.36 +/- 7.41 kg). Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots.

  12. Comparison of Abdominal Muscles Thickness Changes Different Postures beween Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Males by Ultrasonography

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    Omid Rasouli

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal muscles respond to postural changes and these muscles are automatically targeted by decreasing the seated stability. In non–specific chronic low back pain patients, activity of Transvers Abdominis was decreased and activity of Rectus Abdominis was increased.

  13. Rectus Fascia Sling for the Treatment of Total Urethral Incontinence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Urinary incontinence in patients with neurological disease is a major health problem. A modified rectus fascial sling has been assessed in incontinent male patients. Patients and Methods: Fourteen adult male patients with total incontinence due to neurogenic or post-traumatic and etiology were included in this ...

  14. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthrosis (KOA is commonly associated with a dysfunction of the quadriceps muscle which contributes to alterations in motor performance. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of muscle dysfunction are not fully understood. The main objective of this study was to analyze how KOA affects neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during different contraction intensities.The following parameters were assessed in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls: (i joint position sense, i.e. position control (mean absolute error, MAE at 30° and 50° of knee flexion, (ii simple reaction time task performance, (iii isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT and root mean square of the EMG signal (RMS-EMG, (iv torque control, i.e. accuracy (MAE, absolute fluctuation (standard deviation, SD, relative fluctuation (coefficient of variation, CV and periodicity (mean frequency, MNF of the torque signal at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT, (v EMG-torque relationship at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT and (vi performance fatigability, i.e. time to task failure (TTF at 40% IMVT.Compared to the control group, the KOA group displayed: (i significantly higher MAE of the angle signal at 30° (99.3%; P = 0.027 and 50° (147.9%; P < 0.001, (ii no significant differences in reaction time, (iii significantly lower IMVT (-41.6%; P = 0.001 and tendentially lower RMS-EMG of the rectus femoris (-33.7%; P = 0.054, (iv tendentially higher MAE of the torque signal at 20% IMVT (65.9%; P = 0.068, significantly lower SD of the torque signal at all three torque levels and greater MNF at 60% IMVT (44.8%; P = 0.018, (v significantly increased RMS-EMG of the vastus lateralis at 20% (70.8%; P = 0.003 and 40% IMVT (33.3%; P = 0.034, significantly lower RMS-EMG of the biceps femoris at 20% (-63.6%; P = 0.044 and 40% IMVT (-41.3%; P = 0.028 and tendentially lower at 60% IMVT (-24.3%; P = 0.075 and (vi significantly shorter TTF (-51.1%; P = 0.049.KOA is not only associated with a deterioration of IMVT

  16. Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the decline and recovery of muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkezanian, Vanesa; Newton, Robert U; Trajano, Gabriel S; Vieira, Amilton; Pulverenti, Timothy S; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-05-02

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used to activate skeletal muscles and reverse muscle atrophy in clinical populations. Clinical recommendations for NMES suggest the use of short pulse widths (100-200 μs) and low-to-moderate pulse frequencies (30-50 Hz). However, this type of NMES causes rapid muscle fatigue due to the (non-physiological) high stimulation intensities and non-orderly recruitment of motor units. The use of both wide pulse widths (1000 μs) and tendon vibration might optimize motor unit activation through spinal reflex pathways and thus delay the onset of muscle fatigue, increasing muscle force and mass. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of patellar tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width (1000 μs) knee extensor electrical stimulation (NMES, 30 Hz) on peak muscle force, total impulse before "muscle fatigue", and the post-exercise recovery of muscle function. Tendon vibration (Vib), NMES (STIM) or NMES superimposed onto vibration (STIM + Vib) were applied in separate sessions to 16 healthy adults. Total torque-time integral (TTI), maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVIC) and indirect measures of muscle damage were tested before, immediately after, 1 h and 48 h after each stimulus. TTI increased (145.0 ± 127.7%) in STIM only for "positive responders" to the tendon vibration (8/16 subjects), but decreased in "negative responders" (-43.5 ± 25.7%). MVIC (-8.7%) and rectus femoris electromyography (RF EMG) (-16.7%) decreased after STIM (group effect) for at least 1 h, but not after STIM + Vib. No changes were detected in indirect markers of muscle damage in any condition. Tendon vibration superimposed onto wide-pulse width NMES increased TTI only in 8 of 16 subjects, but reduced voluntary force loss (fatigue) ubiquitously. Negative responders to tendon vibration may derive greater benefit from wide-pulse width NMES alone.

  17. VARIATIONAL ANATOMY OF PROFUNDA FEMORIS ARTERY AND ITS BRANCHES: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Tapan Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate knowledge of anatomical variations regarding origins of the profunda femoris, medial and lateral femoral circumflex femoral arteries are important for clinicians in the present modern era of interventional radiology. Our aim of this study was to observe and identify the variations in origin of the Profunda femoris artery and its circumflex br anches. MATERIALS & METHODS: 66 femoral triangles were dissected on 33 cadavers (Both sides. The profunda femoris vessel and its medial and lateral circumflex arteries were dissected and identified. The distance of the site of origin of Profunda Femoris A rtery was measured from mid - inguinal point (MIP in centimetres with scale, thread, and digital callipers. The sites of origin of Medial Circumflex Femoral Artery and Lateral Circumflex Femoral Artery were also studied and the distances of origin of each of them were measured from the origin of the Profunda Femoris Artery and from the mid - inguinal point. All the data were interpreted in tables. RESULTS : The data from the study was analyzed using statistical methods and analyzed by using the statistical pa ckage SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 for windows in present study for analyzing the data contingency table were created first and then analyzed by using the Pearson’s chi - square test. The present study encountered that, in appr oximately 50% cases the profunda femoris artery originated from the lateral aspect of the common femoral artery. The lateral and medial circumflex femoral artery commonly originated from the profunda femoris nearly close to its origin from common femoral a rtery. CONCLUSION: This knowledge of variation and position would be very useful in preventing the iatrogenic injury to these vessels during surgical procedures of the femoral triangle. So, this study would be useful for the clinician for surgical and therapeutic interventi on.

  18. Influence of an unstable shoe on compensatory postural adjustments: An experimental evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia S. P. Sousa; Rui Macedo; Rubim Santos; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the influence of using an unstable shoe in muscle re-cruitment strategies and center of pressure (CoP) displacement after the application of an external perturba-tion. Fourteen healthy female subjects participated in this study. The electromyographic activity of medial ga-strocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscles and the kinetic values to calculate the CoP were collected and analyzed after the a...

  19. MRI estimation of extraocular muscle swelling in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Asanagi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    The thickness and width of superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles were measured via T1-weighted coronal images using a 0.5 T superconducting MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system in 10 patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy and 27 normal orbits. Lateral rectus muscles were not measured because the partial volume effect obscured their contours. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of ophthalmopathy. Group A had no ophthalmopathy, group B had corneal involvement or restricted eye movement, group C had optic nerve involvement. Mean muscle thickness increased in the order A, B and C. Mean rectus muscle width was normal in group A, but dramatically increased in group C, results suggesting that swelling of the extraocular muscles is a characteristic pathologic change in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that MRI is a safe and useful method of evaluating the severity of and prognosing dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. (author)

  20. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  1. Do Changes in Muscle Architecture Affect Post-Activation Potentiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Reardon, Jay R. Hoffman, Gerald T. Mangine, Adam J. Wells, Adam M. Gonzalez, Adam R. Jajtner, Jeremy R. Townsend, William P. McCormack, Jeffrey R. Stout, Maren S. Fragala, David H. Fukuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized, cross-over design study was to examine the effect of three different muscle potentiation protocols on acute changes in muscle architecture and vertical jump performance. Eleven experienced, resistance trained men (25.2±3.6y completed three potentiation squat protocols using moderate intensity (MI; 75%, 3 sets x 10 repetitions, high intensity (HI; 90%, 3 sets x 3 repetitions and 100% (1RM; 1 set x 1repetition of their 1RM. In addition, all participants completed a control session (CTL in which no protocol was performed. During each testing session, muscle architecture and vertical jump testing were assessed at baseline (BL, 8min post (8P and 20min post (20P workout. Ultrasound measures included cross sectional area (CSA and pennation angle (PANG of both the rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL. Following each ultrasound measure, peak vertical jump power (PVJP and mean (MVJP power was assessed using an accelerometer. Magnitude based inferences were used to make comparisons between trials. The MI trial resulted in a likely greater increase from BL to 8P and 20P in RF-CSA and VL-CSA, while the HI trial resulted in a likely greater change from BL to 20P in both RF-CSA and VL-CSA. Meanwhile, changes in PVJP and MVJP for the MI trial was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P, while the HI trial was shown to result in a likely or possible decrease compared to CTL at BL-8P and BL–20P, respectively. A likely negative relationship was observed between changes in VL-PANG and MVJP (r = -0.35; p , 0.018 at BL-8P, and between changes in PVJP and RF-CSA (r = -0.37; p , 0.014 at BL–20P. Results of this study were unable to demonstrate any potentiation response from the trials employed, however these protocols did result in acute muscle architectural changes.

  2. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons. PMID:29491830

  3. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human-robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  4. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Grazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted. A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque, and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  5. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

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    Thomas L. Andre, Joshua J. Gann, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Joon J. Song, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT combined with phosphatidic acid (PA supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003, lean mass (p = 0.008, rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011], and lower-body strength (p 0.05. Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%, lean mass (71.3%, RF CSA (92.2%, and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial. When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  6. A comparison of muscle activation between back squats and belt squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas W; McLester, Cherilyn N; Howard, Jonathan H; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P

    2017-06-08

    A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation for the left and right vastus medialis (VMO), vastus lateralis (VLO), rectus femoris (RF), and gluteus maximus (GM). Comparison of muscle activation between the two exercises showed significant differences in the left GM (back squat: 0.84 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.69 ± 0.22, p=0.015) and right GM (back squat: 0.86 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.71 ± 0.29, p=0.004). Regression analysis computed significant prediction equations for belt squat load for general population, males, females, and advanced lifters. Overall, results indicate that belt squats may significantly differ in GM activation from back squats. Back squat load, as well as other variables, may be effective in accurately estimating appropriate belt squat load. These findings may help to more appropriately program for training with machine belt squats as a back squat alternative.

  7. Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs

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    J.D. Mande

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0, 1, 2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75 between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

  8. Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoartritic hip joints of adult dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mande, J.D.; Mbithi, P.M.F.; Mbugua, S.W.; Buoro, I.B.J.; Gathumbi, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0, 1, 2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis

  9. Mechanomyography-Based Wearable Monitor of Quasi-Isometric Muscle Fatigue for Motor Neural Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Eddy; Popović-Maneski, Lana; Nohama, Percy

    2018-02-01

    the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles. Data segments were decomposed into 11 frequency bands using a Cauchy wavelet transform. In the initial time interval (non-fatigued muscle), the power peak was concentrated in the 11.31 Hz frequency band. In the final interval (muscle fatigued) this peak shifted to lower frequencies (2 and 6 Hz frequency bands). The decreased frequency was most prominent during the last 4 s of the recordings. It was shown that MMG could be used as a real-time indicator of muscle fatigue during FES-induced isometric contraction of quadriceps; hence, MMG could be used in closed-loop control as a fatigue detector. Subsequent studies for non-isometric contractions could possibly lead to prediction of muscle fatigue before contractile failure during functional use of the muscle. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Are modular activations altered in lower limb muscles of persons with Multiple Sclerosis during walking? Evidence from muscle synergies and biomechanical analysis

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    Tiziana Lencioni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPersons with Multiple Sclerosis frequently have gait deficits that lead to diminished activities of daily living. Identification of motoneuron activity patterns may elucidate new insight into impaired locomotor coordination and underlying neural systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate muscle synergies, identified by motor modules and their activation profiles, in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS during walking compared to those of healthy subjects (HS, as well as, exploring relationship of muscle synergies with walking ability of PwMS.MethodsSeventeen PwMS walked at their natural speed while 12 HS walked at slower than their natural speeds in order to provide normative gait values at matched speeds (spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters and electromyography signals. Non-negative matrix factorization was used to identify muscle synergies from eight muscles. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the similarity of motor modules between PwMS and HS. To assess differences in module activations, each module's activation timing was integrated over 100% of gait cycle and the activation percentage was computed in six phases.ResultsFifty-nine% of PwMS and 58% of HS had 4 modules while the remaining of both populations had 3 modules. Module 2 (related to soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius primarily involved in mid and terminal stance and Module 3 (related to tibialis anterior and rectus femoris primarily involved in early stance, and early and late swing were comparable across all subjects regardless of synergies number. PwMS had shorter stride length, longer double support phase and push off deficit with respect to HS (p<0.05. The alterations of activation timing profiles of specific modules in PwMS were associated with their walking deficits (e.g. the reduction of Module 2 activation percentage index in terminal stance, PwMS 35.55±13.23 vs HS 50.51±9.13% p<0.05, and the push off deficit

  11. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomical study of the proximal origin of hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kengo; Nimura, Akimoto; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Akita, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    It is relatively well accepted that the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus both originate from the ischial tuberosity as a common tendon. However, it is also widely known that the biceps femoris is consistently injured more than the semitendinosus. The purpose of this study was to examine the origins of the hamstring muscles, to find an anatomic basis for diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the posterior thigh regions. Twenty-eight hips of fourteen adult Japanese cadavers were used in this study. In twenty hips of ten cadavers, the positional relationships among the origins on the ischial tuberosity were examined. In eight hips of four cadavers, histological examination of the origins of the hamstrings was also performed. The origin of the long head of the biceps femoris adjoined that of the semitendinosus. In the proximal regions of these muscles, the long head consisted of the tendinous part; however, the semitendinosus mainly consisted of the muscular part. Some of the fibers of the biceps tendon extended to fuse with the sacrotuberous ligament. The semimembranosus muscle broadly originated from the lateral surface of the ischial tuberosity. The origins of the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus are found to be almost independent, and the tendon of the long head is partly fused with the sacrotuberous ligament. The high incidence of injuries to the long head of the biceps femoris could be explained by these anatomical configurations.

  13. Influence of genotype on contractile protein differentiation in different bovine muscles during foetal life

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnière , Hélène; Ménissier , François; Geay , Yves; Picard , Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this work was to compare muscle fibre differentiation in two genetic types: "normal charolais" and double-muscled (DM) "INRA 95" cattles displaying muscle hypertrophy. Six muscles with different contractile and metabolic characteristics in adult animal: Masseter, Diaphragma (Di), Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus thoracis, Semitendinosus and Cutaneus trunci (CT) were excised from 60 to 260-day-old fœtuses of both genotypes. These muscles present different...

  14. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

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    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  15. Non-neural Muscle Weakness Has Limited Influence on Complexity of Motor Control during Gait

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    Marije Goudriaan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness. Weakness in CP has neural and non-neural components, whereas in DMD, weakness can be considered as a predominantly non-neural problem. Despite the different underlying causes, weakness is a constraint for the central nervous system when controlling gait. CP demonstrates decreased complexity of motor control during gait from muscle synergy analysis, which is reflected by a higher total variance accounted for by one synergy (tVAF1. However, it remains unclear if weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1 in CP, or whether altered tVAF1 reflects mainly neural impairments. If muscle weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1, then tVAF1 should also be increased in DMD. To examine the etiology of increased tVAF1, muscle activity data of gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were measured at self-selected walking speed, and strength data from knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsiflexors and plantar flexors, were analyzed in 15 children with CP [median (IQR age: 8.9 (2.2], 15 boys with DMD [8.7 (3.1], and 15 typical developing (TD children [8.6 (2.7]. We computed tVAF1 from 10 concatenated steps with non-negative matrix factorization, and compared tVAF1 between the three groups with a Mann-Whiney U-test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to determine if weakness in specific muscle groups contributed to altered tVAF1. No significant differences in tVAF1 were found between DMD [tVAF1: 0.60 (0.07] and TD children [0.65 (0.07], while tVAF1 was significantly higher in CP [(0.74 (0.09] than in the other groups (both p < 0.005. In CP, weakness in the plantar flexors was related to higher tVAF1 (r = −0.72. In DMD, knee extensor weakness related to increased tVAF1 (r = −0.50. These results suggest that the non-neural weakness in DMD had limited influence on

  16. Change in muscle thickness under contracting conditions following return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain injury—A pilot study

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    Yasuharu Nagano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the change in hamstring muscle thickness between contracting and relaxing conditions following a return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain and thereby evaluate muscle function. Six male track and field sprinters participated in this study. All had experienced a prior hamstring strain injury that required a minimum of 2 weeks away from sport participation. Transverse plane scans were performed at the following four points on the affected and unaffected sides under contracting and relaxing conditions: proximal biceps femoris long head, proximal semitendinosus, middle biceps femoris long head, and middle semitendinosus. The results demonstrated an increase in the thickness of the middle biceps femoris long head and middle semitendinosus regions on the unaffected side with contraction, whereas the affected side did not show a significant increase. The proximal semitendinosus muscle thickness was increased with contraction on both the unaffected and the affected sides. By contrast, the proximal biceps femoris muscle thickness did not show a significant increase on both sides. The results of this study show that evaluation of muscle thickness during contraction may be useful for assessing the change in muscle function after a hamstring muscle strain injury.

  17. VARIATIONS IN NEUROMUSCULAR ACTIVITY OF THIGH MUSCLES DURING WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION IN CONSIDERATION OF DIFFERENT BIOMECHANICAL VARIABLES

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    Dennis Perchthaler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical variables in terms of different vibration frequencies, amplitudes and knee angles on quadriceps femoris and hamstring activity during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV. 51 healthy men and women (age 55 ± 8 years voluntary participated in the study and were randomly allocated to five different vibration-frequency groups. Each subject performed 9 static squat positions (3 amplitudes x 3 knee angles on a side alternating vibration platform. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed prior to the measurements to normalize the EMG signals. A three-way mixed ANOVA was performed to analyze the different effects of the biomechanical variables on muscle activity. Depending on the biomechanical variables, EMG muscle activity ranged between 18.2 and 74.1 % MVC in the quadriceps femoris and between 5.2 and 27. 3 % MVC in the hamstrings during WBV. The highest levels of muscle activation were found at high frequencies and large amplitudes. Especially in the quadriceps femoris muscle, a WBV frequency of 30 Hz led to a significant increase in muscle activity compared to the other tested frequencies. However, it seems that knee angle is only relevant for the quadriceps femoris muscle. The results of this study should give more information for developing individual training protocols for WBV treatment in different practical applications

  18. Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Christian; Hole, Eirik; Iversen, Erik; Olsson, Monica Charlotte; Seynnes, Olivier; Solberg, Paul Andre; Paulsen, Gøran

    2017-04-01

    This efficacy study investigated the effects of 1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), 2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and 3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power. Thirty-nine young athletes (20 ± 3 yr; ice hockey, volleyball, and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in two to three sessions per week for 8 wk. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, whereas the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions × kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJ (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30-m sprint. Secondary variables were squat one-repetition maximum (1RM), body composition, quadriceps thickness, and architecture. OWL resulted in trivial improvements and inferior gains compared with FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, DJ, and 1RM. MSPT demonstrated small but robust effects on SJ, DJ, loaded CMJ, and 1RM (3%-13%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30-m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4%-7%). MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions.

  19. LBNP/ergometer effects on female cardiovascular and muscle deconditioning in 15d head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie

    2012-07-01

    Female has already been an important part of astronaut corps but gender characteristics in weightlessness and countermeasure effects still not clearly elucidated. In this study the LBNP/Ergometer effects on female cardiovascular deconditioning and muscle atrophy in 15d head-down bed rest were explored. 22 female university students were recruited as volunteers that participated in the 15d head-down bed rest. They were divided into control group (Con,n=8), LBNP exercise group (LBNP,n=7) and LBNP combined with ergometer exercise group (LBNP+Ergo, n=7). Grade negative pressures of -10,-20,-30,-40mmHg 20 or 55min were used in LBNP exercise. In ergometer exercises the subjects must maintain 60-80% VO2peak of pre-bed rest at pedal speed of about 70cycle/min for 15min and the entire exercise duration was 30min. LBNP were performed at 6th,8th,10th,12th,and 13th day and Ergometer were operated at 4th,5th,7th,9th,11th day during bed rest. Before and after bed rest, cardiovascular tilt test were performed to evaluate orthostatic intolerance, supine cycle ergometer were used to test the cardiopulmonary function, MRI tests were operated to examine the volume variations of leg muscle groups and isokinetic test were given to test the muscle strength and endurance of knee. 40% of female subjects did not pass the tilt table test after bed rest and exercises made no difference. Compared with pre-BR, VO2max and VO2max /body weight, VO2/HRmax, maximal power and duration significantly decreased in CON group and LBNP group. For the ERGO+LBNP group, there were no visible different in the parameters of cardiopulmonary function except that maximal power and duration decreased. Muscle maximal voluntary contraction and muscle (quadriceps, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius and soleus) volume decreasing in non-predominant leg was larger in Con group than in LBNP+Ergo group. It is suggested that LBNP combined with ergometer in some degrees can counteract the cardiovascular and muscle deconditioning

  20. Atividade muscular durante a marcha após acidente vascular encefálico Muscle activity during gait following stroke

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    Fernanda Ishida Corrêa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Buscar parâmetros da marcha de pacientes após ter sofrido acidente vascular encefálico (AVE com hemiparesia. MÉTODO: Comparados 15 voluntários pós-AVE e 15 voluntários saudáveis com a mesma idade, gênero e peso. A comparação foi feita por eletromiografia utilizando cinco pares de eletrodos de superfície do lado comprometido (espástico e um eletrogoniômetro sobre o eixo articular de rotação da articulação do tornozelo em estudo. RESULTADOS: O início da atividade eletromiográfica, a partir da fase de apoio, para os músculos glúteo medial, reto femoral, tibial anterior, sóleo, e porção medial dos isquiotibiais foi significantemente ativados anteriormente durante o ciclo da marcha nos voluntários pós-AVE. O final da atividade eletromiográfica para os músculos reto femoral, tibial anterior, sóleo, e porção medial dos isquiotibiais foi significantemente prolongado nos voluntários pós-AVE. Voluntários pós-AVE demonstraram também mais co-ativação dos músculos agonistas e antagonistas da articulação do tornozelo e joelho durante a fase de balanceio. CONCLUSÃO: Essas alterações e co-contrações musculares da marcha permitem que os voluntários pós-AVE adotem um padrão de marcha mais seguro e mais estável para compensar a diminuição da informação sensorial da articulação do tornozelo.OBJECTIVE: To compare muscle activity and joint moments in the lower extremities during walking between subjects with stroke and control subjects. METHOD: We compared fifteen healthy volunteers and fifteen stroke patients, with the same age gender and weight data had been compared by electromyography. The system of signals acquisition used consisted of five pairs of electrodes of surface, beyond one electrogoniometer on the axis articulate of rotation of the joint of the ankle in study. RESULTS: Onset times with respect to heel-strike for the medial gluteus, tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris and medial

  1. The effect of local skin cooling before a sustained, submaximal isometric contraction on fatigue and isometric quadriceps femoris performance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Cescon, Corrado; Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The central- and peripheral mechanisms by which heat strain limits physical performance are not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, pre-cooling is often used in an attempt to improve subsequent performance. This study compared the effects of pre-cooling vs. a pre-thermoneutral application on central- and peripheral fatigue during 60% of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Furthermore, the effects between a pre-cooling and a pre-thermoneutral application on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps femoris muscle and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated. In this randomized controlled trial, 18 healthy adults voluntarily participated. The participants received either a cold (experimental) application (+8°C) or a thermoneutral (control) application (+32°C) for 20min on their right thigh (one cuff). After the application, central (fractal dimension - FD) and peripheral (muscle fiber conduction velocity - CV) fatigue was estimated using sEMG parameters during 60% of isometric MVC. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus medialis and lateralis using bidimensional arrays. Immediately after the submaximal contraction, isometric MVC and RPE were assessed. Participants receiving the cold application were able to maintain a 60% isometric MVC significantly longer when compared to the thermoneutral group (mean time: 78 vs. 46s; p=0.04). The thermoneutral application had no significant impact on central fatigue (p>0.05) compared to the cold application (p=0.03). However, signs of peripheral fatigue were significantly higher in the cold group compared to the thermoneutral group (p=0.008). Pre-cooling had no effect on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps muscle and ratings of perceived exertion. Pre-cooling attenuated central fatigue and led to significantly longer submaximal contraction times compared to the pre-thermoneutral application. These findings support the use of pre-cooling procedures

  2. The effect of topical thiocolchicoside in preventing and reducing the increase of muscle tone, stiffness, and soreness: A real-life study on top-level road cyclists during stage competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Marco; Sisti, Davide; Benelli, Piero; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Rocchi, Marco B L; Lanata, Luigi; Bagnasco, Michela; Tonti, Andrea; Vilberto, Stocchi; Sestili, Piero

    2017-07-01

    In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations.Twenty-three professional cyclists competing in 3 international, cycling stage races were assessed. Athletes could receive, upon the approval of the medical staff, physical, dietary, and/or pharmacological management which could include treatments with topical over-the-counter myorelaxants to prevent and/or reduce muscle contractures. MyotonPro was used to daily measure tone, stiffness, and elasticity in RF and BF in relaxed and contracted state after every stage. In parallel, BF and RF soreness was also assessed with a Likert scale.All athletes received the same general massage management; none of them received dietary supplements; some of the athletes were treated with a topical myorelaxant thiocolchicoside (TCC 0.25%) foam 3 times daily. TCC was identified as the only variable able to affect these muscle parameters in the cyclists. Tone, stiffness (regardless of the state), and soreness significantly increased over time either in BF or RF in all athletes. In the group of athletes that used TCC (n = 11; TCC+) the increase in tone, stiffness, and soreness was significantly lower than in the group not receiving TCC (n = 12; No-TCC). Elasticity varied coherently with tone and stiffness.A very intense and protracted sport activity increases muscular tone, stiffness, and

  3. Effect of age and carcass weight on quality traits of m. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellies-Oury, M P; Dumont, R; Perrier, G; Roux, M; Micol, D; Picard, B

    2017-04-01

    In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer's meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer's cycles (age and/or carcass weight in

  4. EFFECTS OF WARM-UP ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY USING HALF-SQUATS AT LOW AND MODERATE INTENSITY

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    Konstantinos Sotiropoulos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a specific warm-up using half-squats at low and moderate intensity on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity of the thigh muscles. The subjects were 26 men who were divided into a low intensity group (LIG; n = 13 and a moderate intensity group (MIG; n = 13. The LIG performed a specific warm-up protocol that included the explosive execution of half-squats with loads 25 and 35% of the one repetition maximum (1RM and the MIG with loads 45 and 65% of the 1RM. The two groups performed a countermovement jump (CMJ before and three minutes after the specific warm-up protocols. During the concentric phase of the CMJ a linear encoder connected to an A/D converter interfaced to a PC with a software for data acquisition and analysis allowed the calculation of average mechanical power. The electromyographic (EMG activity of the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM and rectus femoris (RF were recorded during the concentric phase of the jumps. The average quadriceps (Qc activity (mean value of the VL, VM and RF was also calculated. A two way ANOVA (protocols X time with repeated measures on the second factor was used to analyze the data. Following the specific warm-up procedure both groups improved (p < 0.05 CMJ performance and mechanical power by 3.5% and 6.3%, respectively, with no differences observed between the two groups. EMG activity of the Qc and VL increased (p < 0.05 for both groups by 5.9% and 8.5%, respectively. It is concluded that the use of a specific warm-up that includes half-squats, performed explosively with low to moderate intensity, improves CMJ performance. This may be due to increased muscle activation as evaluated by the surface EMG

  5. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  6. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expression of schizophrenia biomarkers in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus: an explanation for the link between exotropia and schizophrenia?

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    Andrea B. Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated exotropia as a risk factor for schizophrenia. We determined whether schizophrenia biomarkers have abnormal levels of expression in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus and explored whether differences in gene expression between medial and lateral rectus muscles may explain the specific association of schizophrenia with exotropia but not esotropia. Samples from horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with age- and muscle type-matched normal muscles from organ donors. We used PCR arrays to identify differences in gene expression among 417 signaling molecules. We then focused on established schizophrenia-related growth factors, cytokines, and regulators of the extracellular matrix. Among 36 genes with significantly altered gene expression in dysfunctional horizontal rectus muscles, over one third were schizophrenia-related: CTGF, CXCR4, IL1B, IL10RA, MIF, MMP2, NPY1R, NRG1, NTRK2, SERPINA3, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TNF (adjusted p value ≤ 0.016667. By PCR array, expression of three of these genes was significantly different in medial rectus muscles, while eleven were significantly altered in lateral rectus muscles. Comparing baseline levels between muscle types, three schizophrenia-related genes (NPY1R, NTRK2, TIMP2 had lower levels of expression in medial rectus muscles. Despite the surprisingly large number of schizophrenia-related genes with altered gene expression levels in dysfunctional muscles, the lack of specificity for medial rectus muscles undermines a model of shared, region-specific gene expression abnormalities between exotropia and schizophrenia, but rather suggests consideration of the alternative model: that exotropia-induced aberrant early visual experiences may enable and/or contribute as a causative factor to the development of schizophrenia.

  8. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity

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    Michael O. Harris-Love

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT and the Free Hand Tool (FHT are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years. Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and the standard error of the measurement (SEM. Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R2. Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97–.99, p < .001. Mean differences between the echogenicity estimates obtained with the RMT and FHT methods was .87 grayscale levels (95% CI [.54–1.21], p < .0001 using data obtained with both programs. The SEM for Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection

  9. Endoscopic Rectus Abdominis and Prepubic Aponeurosis Repairs for Treatment of Athletic Pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya

    2017-02-01

    Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.

  10. Extraocular muscle proprioception and eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Draicchio, F; Errico, P; Santarelli, R; Manni, E

    1995-03-01

    In the lamb, acute unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch induced in the ipsilateral eye occasional oscillations of the resting position and misalignment of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) with respect to the stimulus. Additional electrolytic lesion of the cells innervating the proprioceptors of the medial rectus muscle, or of the lateral rectus muscle in the contralateral semilunar ganglion, provoked a 4 degrees-7 degrees consensual eye deviation towards and away from the lesioned side, respectively. The optokinetic beating field was similarly deviated. Under these experimental conditions, HVOR showed enhanced gain and marked misalignment in both eyes. Therefore, the selective suppression of muscular proprioceptive input deviated both eyes towards the direction opposite to the muscle whose gangliar proprioceptive representation has been destroyed.

  11. Successful repair of injury to the eyelid, lacrimal passage, and extraocular muscle

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    Shah, Shreya Mehul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injury is a known cause of monocular blindness. Ocular trauma may affect lacrimal canaliculi and the extraocular muscle. We report this case as it includes injury to lid, lacrimal canaliculi and inferior rectus. Case description: A 25-year-old male presented with an injury caused by a sharp object that resulted in a conjunctival tear, lid tear involving the lacrimal canal, and rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. All of the structures were repaired successfully during a single procedure. Conclusion: An extraocular injury involving the conjunctiva, lid, lacrimal passages, and extraocular muscles can be repaired successfully during a single procedure.

  12. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  13. Muscle area of knee O.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Onozawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Minoru; Yamasita, Izumi; Kitsunai, Isamu; Asano, Akira

    1983-01-01

    The cross sectional area of the thigh muscles were studied by means of C.T. scan. Twelve normal knees, twelve primary knee O.A. knees, and six R.A. knees were examined. The cross sectional area of the Quadriceps femoris decreased significantly in the patient of the knee O.A. although flexors did not decrease. We discussed the etiology of the knee O.A. from this result. (author)

  14. [Bursitis with severe tendon and muscle necrosis on the lateral stifle area in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Räber, M; Sydler, T; Muggli, E; Hässig, M; Guscetti, F

    2011-11-01

    In 21 animals, chronic swelling on the lateral aspect of the stifle also known as «perigonitis», «stable-syndrome» or «bursitis bicipitalis femoris» were evaluated. Ultrasonography showed increased fluid in the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle and structural changes in the tendons, muscles, subcutis and fasciae. Soft tissue swelling and an irregular contour of the lateral tibial condyle were typical signs on radiographs. Macroscopic changes were found at the insertion of the biceps femoris muscle, the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle, the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, the origin of muscles on the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial condyle. They mainly consisted of tendon and muscle tissue necrosis with granulation tissue. Histology revealed areas of coagulation necrosis in tendons and ligaments, in which occasionally Onchocerca spp. were seen. The severity of lesions correlated well with the clinical signs, which were associated with a poor prognosis in advanced cases.

  15. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  16. Partial rupture of the quadriceps muscle in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir Gokhan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quadriceps femoris muscle ruptures usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial rupture of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle rupture. Case Presentation A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father reported that she felt pain while jumping on sofa. There was no direct trauma to thigh or knee. We located a palpable soft tissue swelling at distal anterolateral side of thigh. The history revealed that 10 days ago the patient was treated for upper tract respiratory infection with intramuscular Clindamycin for 7 days. When we consulted the patient with her previous doctor and nurse, we learnt that multiple daily injections might be injected to same side of left thigh. MRI showed a partial tear of vastus lateralis muscle matching with the injection sites. The patient treated with long leg half-casting for three weeks. Clinical examination and knee flexion had good results with conservative treatment. Conclusions Multiple intramuscular injections may contribute to damage muscles and make prone to tears with muscle contractions. Doctors and nurses must be cautious to inject from different parts of both thighs.

  17. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouris, George; Connell, David [Department of Radiology, St Francis X Cabrini, Wattletree Rd, 3144, Malvern, Victoria (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of hamstring muscle complex (HMC) strain in 170 patients referred to our institution over a 3-year period. A total of 179 injuries to the HMC were demonstrated in 170 patients (154 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). MR imaging was performed in 97 cases and sonography in 102 cases (both modalities were performed in 20 examinations). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the muscle-tendon unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from muscle injury. Twenty-one patients had proximal tendon injury, with sixteen avulsions and five partial tears. Sixteen of these patients had surgical confirmation of hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps femoris alone) and all were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with sonography (7/12). Four distal tendon avulsions were also observed (three semitendinosus, one biceps femoris). With respect to muscle injury, the biceps femoris was most commonly injured (124/154). Semimembranosus was an uncommon muscle injury (21/154) and semitendinosus rare (9/154). Imaging can discriminate a hamstring tendon avulsion from musculotendinous strain and helps identify which patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  18. Anteriorization of the Normally Acting Inferior Oblique Muscles to Treat Dissociated Vertical Deviation Associated With Juvenile Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad

    2017-10-09

    A case of dissociated vertical deviation, ptosis, and juvenile glaucoma is described. J deformity anteriorization of the normally acting inferior oblique muscles was chosen to preserve the superior fornix for glaucoma surgeries by avoiding superior rectus recession and to prevent narrowing of the palpebral fissure by avoiding an inferior rectus tuck. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e63-e66.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Comparative anatomy of the extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays (Batoidea, Myliobatiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Carlo M; Oliveira, Luciano E; Kfoury, José R

    2016-05-01

    Extraocular muscles are classically grouped as four rectus and two oblique muscles. However, their description and potential associations with species behavior are limited. The objective was to characterize extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays from diverse habitats with divergent behaviors. Heads (10 per species) of Dasyatis hypostigma, Gymnura altavela, Mobula thurstoni and Pteroplatytrygon violacea were decalcified and dissected to characterize and describe extraocular muscles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate relationships between muscle length and species; for P. violacea, D. hypostigma and G. altavela, these were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the general pattern of extraocular muscles in vertebrates. In contrast, for M. thurstoni, the two oblique muscles were completely fused and there was a seventh extraocular muscle, named m. lateral rectus β (both were apparently novel findings in this species). There were also significant differences in eye disposition in the chondrocranium. The PCA axis 1 (rectus muscles) and PCA axis 2 (oblique muscles) accounted for 98.47% of data variability. Extraocular muscles had significant differences in length and important anatomical differences among sampled species that facilitated grouping species according to their life history. In conclusion, extraocular muscles are not uniform in all vertebrate species, thereby providing another basis for comparative studies. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  20. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Teixeira, Carla; Ismail, Catheeja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT) and the Free Hand Tool (FHT) are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI) within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years). Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM). Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R (2)). Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97-.99, p Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods, respectively. Comparatively, the SEM values were .72 and .81 grayscale levels, respectively, when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods in ImageJ. Uniform coefficients of determination (R (2) = .96

  1. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle. Methods Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidase (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I ( p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  2. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle.Methods: Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results: In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidise (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I (p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  3. Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy with Superior Oblique Muscle Involvement: A Case Report

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    Horng-Jiun Wu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old male with a 5-year-history of hyperthyroidism complained of diplopia and proptosis. After subtotal thyroidectomy, he still had diplopia in a certain gaze. Computerized tomography showed inferior rectus muscle enlargement in the right eye and inferior rectus, medial rectus, and superior oblique muscle enlargement in the left eye. Ocular examination with the cover and uncover test revealed hyperphoria and exophoria in the left eye. The upward gaze of the right eye was more limited than that of the left eye. Since superior oblique muscle involvement in patients with thyroid orbitopathy is quite rare, we discuss its effect on ocular motility in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

  4. The relationship between shear force, compression, collagen characteristics, desmin degradation and sarcomere length in lamb biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identity the relationships between known variants of tenderness (collagen content (total and soluble), desmin degradation and sarcomere length) and shear force and compression in the biceps femoris aged for 14days from 112 mixed sex lambs. Desmin degradation was related to compression (Pcompression decreased. Sarcomere length (SL) was related to shear force (Pcompression (Pcompression, sarcomere length and soluble collagen. The findings from this experiment indicate that the known variants (soluble collagen, sarcomere length and desmin degradation) are related to shear force and compression in ovine biceps femoris. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computed tomography in endocrine orbitopathy: Effects of different gantry tilt and patient positioning on measurements of eye muscle thickness, and possibilities for correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, A.; Hilbertz, T.; Mayr, B.; Lissner, J.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Thickening of eye muscles in endocrine orbitopathy can be demonstrated particularly impressively in coronary computed tomograms. However, when measuring the height and width of rectus eye muscles manifesting pathologic changes, the measurement is increased by a deviation from the coronary section plane; this is due to different tilting of the gantry. This often leads to an incorrect stage classification and makes objective observation of the course (e.g., under therapy) impossible. By converting the measured values into the actual extent of the muscles by means of the cosine set, appreciable changes in the pattern and frequency of affection of the rectus eye muscles were found in 121 patients examined. (orig.) [de

  6. Addition of rectus sheath relaxation incisions to emergency midline laparotomy for peritonitis to prevent fascial dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Sanjay; Marwah, Nisha; Singh, Mandeep; Kapoor, Ajay; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia after two methods for abdominal wound closure (rectus sheath relaxation incisions and conventional mass closure) was studied in a randomized prospective clinical trial in a consecutive series of 100 patients undergoing midline laparotomy for peritonitis. The two groups were well matched for etiologies of peritonitis, the surgical procedures performed, and the presence of known risk factors for fascial dehiscence. Fifty patients each were randomized either to the conventional continuous mass closure procedure or the rectus sheath relaxation incision technique (designed to increase wound elasticity and decrease tension in the suture line) using identical polypropylene sutures. The incidence of postoperative complications such as duration of ileus, chest infection, and wound infection were not statistically different between the two groups. The intensity of postoperative pain in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group was significantly less. The incidence of wound hematoma was significantly increased in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group. The incidences of fascial dehiscence (16% vs,28%; p cases of peritonitis using the rectus sheath relaxation technique is safe and less painful, provides increased wound elasticity and decreased tension on the suture line, and significantly decreases the incidence of wound dehiscence.

  7. Medial rectus Faden operations with or without recession for partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.

  8. A Case of Postsurgical Necrotizing Fasciitis Invading the Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Carbonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, soft tissue infection and an early diagnosis is needed to permit a prompt surgical and medical intervention. Due to the high fatal potential of the disease complications, the radiologist should distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from the most common soft tissue infections, in order to permit a prompt surgical and medical treatment. We present a case of a wide necrotizing fasciitis who presented at our emergency department and we also provide the basic tools, through a review of the literature, for the general radiologist to distinguish, with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, necrotizing fasciitis from the most common infections that could present during our routine practice.

  9. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during dynamic leg exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1995-01-01

    , a product of a contraction rate (1 Hz), force measured at the ankle, and distance of ankle movement from 90 degrees to 150 degrees of KE, was precisely controlled. Lack of rise in myoelectric activity in biceps femoris of the active leg during DKE and MVC was consistent with restriction of muscle action...

  10. Histopathological nerve and skeletal muscle changes in rats subjected to persistent insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Heydenreich, Annette

    2016-01-01

    femoris muscle tissue, as little is known about the response to persistent hypoglycemia in these tissues. Histopathologic changes in insulin-infused animals included axonal degeneration and myofibre degeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that persistent IIH provokes peripheral...

  11. Kettlebell swing targets semitendinosus and supine leg curl targets biceps femoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Skotte, Jørgen; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries.......The medial hamstring muscle has the potential to prevent excessive dynamic valgus and external rotation of the knee joint during sports. Thus, specific training targeting the medial hamstring muscle seems important to avoid knee injuries....

  12. Differences in muscle mechanical properties between elite power and endurance athletes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Gil, Saulo; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Roschel, Hamilton; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle mechanical properties (using tensiomyography-TMG) and jumping performance of endurance and power athletes and to quantify the associations between TMG parameters and jumping performance indices. Forty-one high-level track and field athletes from power (n = 22; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.2 ± 3.6 years; 180.2 ± 5.4 cm; and 79.4 ± 8.6 kg, respectively) and endurance (endurance runners and triathletes; n = 19; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.1 ± 6.9 years; 169.6 ± 9.8 cm; 62.2 ± 13.1 kg, respectively) specialties had the mechanical properties of their rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) assessed by TMG. Muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc), and delay time (Td) were retained for analyses. Furthermore, they performed squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and drop jumps to assess reactive strength index (RSI), using a contact platform. Comparisons between groups were performed using differences based on magnitudes, and associations were quantified by the Spearman's ρ correlation. Power athletes showed almost certain higher performance in all jumping performance indices when compared with endurance athletes (SJ = 44.9 ± 4.1 vs. 30.7 ± 6.8 cm; CMJ = 48.9 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 7.2 cm; RSI = 2.19 ± 0.58 vs. 0.84 ± 0.39, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05), along with better contractile indices reflected by lower Dm, Tc, and Td (Tc BF = 14.3 ± 2.3 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3 milliseconds; Dm BF = 1.67 ± 1.05 vs. 4.23 ± 1.75 mm; Td BF = 16.8 ± 1.6 vs. 19.6 ± 1.3 milliseconds; Tc RF = 18.3 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 4.0 milliseconds; Dm RF = 4.98 ± 3.71 vs. 8.88 ± 3.45 mm; Td RF = 17.5 ± 1.0 vs. 20.9 ± 1.6 milliseconds, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05). Moderate correlations (Spearman's ρ between -0.61 and -0.72) were found between TMG and jumping

  13. Estimation of tensile force in the hamstring muscles during overground sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T; Higashihara, A; Shinohara, J; Hirose, N; Fukubayashi, T

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the period of the gait cycle during which the hamstring muscles were likely injured by estimating the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle during overground sprinting. We conducted three-dimensional motion analysis of 12 male athletes performing overground sprinting at their maximal speed and calculated the hamstring muscle-tendon length and joint angles of the right limb throughout a gait cycle during which the ground reaction force was measured. Electromyographic activity during sprinting was recorded for the biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles of ipsilateral limb. We estimated the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle by using the length change occurred in the musculotendon and normalized electromyographic activity value. The study found a quick increase of estimated tensile force in the biceps femoris long head during the early stance phase of the gait cycle during which the increased hip flexion angle and ground reaction force occurred at the same time. This study provides quantitative data of tensile force in the hamstring muscles suggesting that the biceps femoris long head muscle is susceptible to a strain injury during the early stance phase of the sprinting gait cycle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Mid-term effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty with collum femoris preserving prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingqing; Hu, Yihe; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Qiande; Wen, Ting; Zhong, Da

    2012-08-01

    To discuss the clinical application of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with collum femoris preserving (CFP) prosthesis and to analyze the mid-term effectiveness. Between January 2004 and February 2007, 45 patients (48 hips) underwent THA with CFP prosthesis. There were 29 males (31 hips) and 16 females (17 hips) with an average age of 48.8 years (range, 38-60 years), including 20 left hips, 22 right hips, and 3 bilateral hips. The causes of hip replacement were osteoarthritis (20 cases), avascular necrosis of femoral head (13 cases), dysplasia (4 cases), rheumatoid arthritis (3 cases), posttraumatic osteoarthritis (2 cases), ankylosing spondylitis (2 cases), and Perths disease (1 case). The average disease duration was 6.1 years (range, 2-13 years). Harris scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and the hip range of motion (ROM) were recorded at pre- and post-operation. The X-ray films were taken at pre- and post-operation to observe the position, loosening of the prosthesis, and ectopic ossification. The gait of patients were also evaluated during follow-up. Short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) was used to evaluate the life quality of patients. All 45 patients were followed up 5-8 years with an average of 6.4 years. All the incisions healed by first intention. No infection, hip dislocation, nerve injury, or deep vein thrombosis occurred. Six cleavage fractures (13.3%) of the lateral femoral diaphysis at the distal prosthesis occurred during operation, which healed at 8 months postoperatively without any treatment. Mild ectopic ossification occurred in 4 patients (8.9%) who had no discomfort. Five patients (11.1%) had bone mineral density loss in the region of the proximal femur. The survival rates of the cups and stems were all 100% at last follow-up. The results of Harris score, VAS score, and ROM of the hip joint at 1 year postoperatively and last follow-up were significantly better than preoperative ones (P 0.05) except the Harris score (P fair in 6 hips

  15. Architectural differences between the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Galanis, Nikiforos; Kapetanos, George; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the detailed architectural properties of the human hamstring muscles. The long (BFlh) and short (BFsh) head of biceps femoris, semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were dissected and removed from their origins in eight cadaveric specimens (age 67.8±4.3 years). Mean fiber length, sarcomere length, physiological cross-section area and pennation angle were measured. These data were then used to calculate a similarity index (δ) between pairs of muscles. The results indicated moderate similarity between BFlh and BFsh (δ=0.54) and between BFlh and SM (δ=0.35). In contrast, similarity was low between SM and ST (δ=0.98) and between BFlh and SM (δ=1.17). The fascicle length/muscle length ratio was higher for the ST (0.58) and BFsh (0.50) compared with the BFlh (0.27) and SM (0.22). There were, however, high inter-correlations between individual muscle architecture values, especially for muscle thickness and fascicle length data sets. Prediction of the whole hamstring architecture was achieved by combining data from all four muscles. These data show different designs of the hamstring muscles, especially between the SM and ST (medial) and BFlh and BFsh (lateral) muscles. Modeling the hamstrings as one muscle group by assuming uniform inter-muscular architecture yields less accurate representation of human hamstring muscle function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Variation of muscle mass and weight in critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Matarín, J; del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Grané-Mascarell, N; Quintana, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantify the muscle mass and body weight variation in critically ill patients and to identify associated factors. A descriptive follow-up study. Data for demographic variables, body weight, fluid balance, daily kilocalories, the amount of sedation and muscle relaxants received and motor physiotherapy applied were collected. Three consecutive measurements were performed in the brachial biceps and quadriceps rectus by using ultrasound, upon admission and every 5 days until discharge. 68 patients were included. Average age was of 73.5 [57-78,5] years. The median length of stay was 9.5 [5.5 -15] days. The median 16 (SD=5.7) daily kilocalories per kg/weight, 91.2% received sedation, 44.1% received muscle relaxants and 20% received physiotherapy. The patients presented a muscle wasting of 4.9 (SD=3.9)mm, p <.001 in the brachial biceps and 5.6 (SD=4.8)mm, p <.001 in the quadriceps rectus. Regression analysis selected the length of stay and the muscle relaxants are the most influential variables in the brachial biceps muscle wasting (R2=0.4), and length of stay as the most influential in the quadriceps rectus muscle wasting (R2=0.3). Patient's mean body weight on admission was of 81.1 (SD=15)kg and 81.2 (SD=14.2)kg on discharge, p=.95. The critically ill patient presents a significant muscle waste related with the length of stay and the treatment received with muscle relaxants. Patients are being discharged with a similar body weight to which they were admitted but with a significant reduction of muscle mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical evaluation of fibrillar components of the extracellular matrix of transversalis fascia and anterior abdominal rectus sheath in men with inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério De Oliveira Gonçalves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the role of fibrillar extracellular matrix components in the pathogenesis of inguinal hernias. METHODS: samples of the transverse fascia and of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle were collected from 40 men aged between 20 and 60 years with type II and IIIA Nyhus inguinal hernia and from 10 fresh male cadavers (controls without hernia in the same age range. The staining technique was immunohistochemistry for collagen I, collagen III and elastic fibers; quantification of fibrillar components was performed with an image analysis processing software. RESULTS: no statistically significant differences were found in the amount of elastic fibers, collagen I and collagen III, and the ratio of collagen I / III among patients with inguinal hernia when compared with subjects without hernia. CONCLUSION: the amount of fibrillar extracellular matrix components did not change in patients with and without inguinal hernia.

  18. Effects of warm-up on vertical jump performance and muscle electrical activity using half-squats at low and moderate intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Smilios, Ilias; Christou, Marios; Barzouka, Karolina; Spaias, Angelos; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a specific warm-up using half-squats at low and moderate intensity on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity of the thigh muscles. The subjects were 26 men who were divided into a low intensity group (LIG; n = 13) and a moderate intensity group (MIG; n = 13). The LIG performed a specific warm-up protocol that included the explosive execution of half-squats with loads 25 and 35% of the one repetition maximum (1RM) and the MIG with loads 45 and 65% of the 1RM. The two groups performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) before and three minutes after the specific warm-up protocols. During the concentric phase of the CMJ a linear encoder connected to an A/D converter interfaced to a PC with a software for data acquisition and analysis allowed the calculation of average mechanical power. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded during the concentric phase of the jumps. The average quadriceps (Qc) activity (mean value of the VL, VM and RF) was also calculated. A two way ANOVA (protocols X time) with repeated measures on the second factor was used to analyze the data. Following the specific warm-up procedure both groups improved (p ≤ 0.05) CMJ performance and mechanical power by 3.5% and 6.3%, respectively, with no differences observed between the two groups. EMG activity of the Qc and VL increased (p ≤ 0.05) for both groups by 5.9% and 8.5%, respectively. It is concluded that the use of a specific warm-up that includes half-squats, performed explosively with low to moderate intensity, improves CMJ performance. This may be due to increased muscle activation as evaluated by the surface EMG. Key pointsThe inclusion of two sets of explosively performed half squats with low to moderate loads in the warm up procedure elicited an acute performance en-hancement.The performance was enhanced regardless of the load used in

  19. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  1. MALDI-TOF MS contribution to the diagnosis of Campylobacter rectus multiple skull base and brain abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter rectus is rarely associated with invasive infection. Both the isolation and the identification requirements of C. rectus are fastidious, probably contributing to an underestimation of its burden. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who developed several skull base and intracerebral abscesses after dental intervention. Campylobacter rectus was isolated from the brain biopsy. Within 45 minutes of reading the bacterial plate, the strain was accurately identified by MALDI-TOF MS. This rapid identification avoided the extra costs and delays present with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and allowed for a rapid confirmation of the adequacy of the empirical antibiotic treatment.

  2. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity depends on cardiac output during exercise with a large muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ide, K.; Pott, F.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Secher, N. H.

    1998-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that pharmacological reduction of the increase in cardiac output during dynamic exercise with a large muscle mass would influence the cerebral blood velocity/perfusion. We studied the relationship between changes in cerebral blood velocity (transcranial Doppler), rectus

  3. Decreased torque and electromyographic activity in the extensor thigh muscles in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Airaksinen, O; Jaroma, H; Kiviranta, I

    1995-01-01

    The alterations in thigh muscle properties of chondromalacia patellae patients during isometric and dynamic endurance tests were studied using a variokinetic knee testing system linked to surface EMG. A total of 41 patients (chondromalacia group) with arthroscopically certified chondromalacia of the patella were studied. The control group consisted of 31 healthy adult volunteers with no history of knee pain or trauma. Peak torque values were 21% (p chondromalacia group than in the control group. The decrease in the ratio between integrated EMG (IEMG) and measured force were found in all parts of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with chondromalacia of the patella in isometric extension. No change in the normalized IEMG levels of the thigh muscles were found between chondromalacia patients and controls in dynamic endurance test. The severity of the chondromalacia of the patella did not affect the level of electromyographic activation in thigh muscles. The ratio of normalized EMG levels of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis did not differ between the groups. The present study showed that chondromalacia patellae patients have reduced force and electromyographic activation levels of quadriceps femoris muscle. Especially, the explosive strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle is reduced.

  4. Results of Infrageniculate Bypasses Using the Profunda Femoris Artery as Inflow Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Frezzotti, Francesca; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    When the common femoral artery is not accessible for infrainguinal bypass grafting, the profunda femoris artery (PFA) can be a valuable alternative inflow source for distal arterial revascularization. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of infrageniculate bypass grafting via the PFA as inflow source for critical limb ischemia. Between 1994 and 2016, 68 patients, 51 men of a mean age of 74 years, underwent an infrageniculate arterial bypass grafting for critical limb ischemia, using the PFA as inflow site. PFA was exposed at the Scarpa's triangle in 38 patients (56%) and at its medio-crural segment in 30 patients (44%). The distal anastomosis was performed on the infragenicular popliteal artery in 33 patients (48%), the peroneal artery in 14 patients (20%), the tibioperoneal trunk in 8 patients (12%), the posterior tibial artery in 8 patients (12%), and the dorsalis pedis artery in 5 patients (8%). The graft material consisted of a reversed great saphenous vein (GSV) in 62 patients (91%) and a 6-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 6 patients (9%). The median duration of follow-up was 51 months (range, 6-72 months). As main results, postoperative mortality and morbidity, overall late patients' survival, primary grafts' patency, and limb salvage rate were considered. Operative mortality and morbidity were 3% and 4%, respectively. Overall patients' survival, primary patency and limb salvage rate, at 36 and 60 months were, respectively, 62% and 53%, 66% and 59%, and 92% and 77%. The PFA, both exposed at the Scarpa's triangle and at mid-thigh, is an excellent inflow source for infrageniculate revascularizations. It should remain an important part of the technical armamentarium of vascular surgeons, even in the endovascular era. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Završnik, Jernej; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles' contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children's development.

  6. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  7. Analysis of the Hamstring Muscle Activation During two Injury Prevention Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to perform an electromyographic and kinetic comparison of two commonly used hamstring eccentric strengthening exercises: Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. After determining the maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the knee flexors, ten female athletes performed 3 repetitions of both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl, while knee angular displacement and electromyografic activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus were monitored. No significant differences were found between biceps femoris and semitendinosus activation in both the Nordic Curl and Ball Leg Curl. However, comparisons between exercises revealed higher activation of both the biceps femoris (74.8 ± 20 vs 50.3 ± 25.7%, p = 0.03 d = 0.53) and semitendinosus (78.3 ± 27.5 vs 44.3 ± 26.6%, p = 0.012, d = 0.63) at the closest knee angles in the Nordic Curl vs Ball Leg Curl, respectively. Hamstring muscles activation during the Nordic Curl increased, remained high (>70%) between 60 to 40° of the knee angle and then decreased to 27% of the maximal isometric voluntary contraction at the end of movement. Overall, the biceps femoris and semitendinosus showed similar patterns of activation. In conclusion, even though the hamstring muscle activation at open knee positions was similar between exercises, the Nordic Curl elicited a higher hamstring activity compared to the Ball Leg Curl. PMID:29339983

  8. Muscle activity of leg muscles during unipedal stance on therapy devices with different stability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolburg, Thomas; Rapp, Walter; Rieger, Jochen; Horstmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that less stable therapy devices require greater muscle activity and that lower leg muscles will have greater increases in muscle activity with less stable therapy devices than upper leg muscles. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory setting. Twenty-five healthy subjects. Electromyographic activity of four lower (gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus) and four upper leg muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) during unipedal quiet barefoot stance on the dominant leg on a flat rigid surface and on five therapy devices with varying stability properties. Muscle activity during unipedal stance differed significantly between therapy devices (P < 0.001). The order from lowest to highest relative muscle activity matched the order from most to least stable therapy device. There was no significant interaction between muscle location (lower versus upper leg) and therapy device (P = 0.985). Magnitudes of additional relative muscle activity for the respective therapy devices differed substantially among lower extremity muscles. The therapy devices offer a progressive increase in training intensity, and thus may be useful for incremental training programs in physiotherapeutic practice and sports training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  10. Tensiomyographic Markers Are Not Sensitive for Monitoring Muscle Fatigue in Elite Youth Athletes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tensiomyography (TMG is an indirect measure of a muscle's contractile properties and has the potential as a technique for detecting exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of tensiomyographic markers to identify reduced muscular performance in elite youth athletes.Methods: Fourteen male junior tennis players (age: 14.9 ± 1.2 years with an international (International Tennis Federation ranking position participated in this pre-post single group trial. They completed a 4-day high-intensity interval training (HIT microcycle, which was composed of seven training sessions. TMG markers; countermovement jump (CMJ performance (criterion measure of fatigue; delayed onset muscle soreness; and perceived recovery and stress were measured 24 h before and after the training program. The TMG measures included maximal radial deformation of the rectus femoris muscle belly (Dm, contraction time between 10 and 90% Dm (Tc and the rate of deformation until 10% (V10 and 90% Dm (V90, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics were assessed with a receiver-operating curve (ROC analysis and a contingency table, in which the area under the curve (AUC, Youden's index, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic effectiveness (DE of TMG measures were reported. A minimum AUC of 0.70 and a lower confidence interval (CI >0.50 classified “good” diagnostic markers to assess performance changes.Results: Twenty-four hours after the microcycle, CMJ performance was observed to be significantly (p < 0.001 reduced (Effect Size [ES] = −0.68, and DOMS (ES = 3.62 as well as perceived stress were significantly (p < 0.001 increased. In contrast, Dm (ES = −0.35, Tc (ES = 0.04, V10 (ES = −0.32, and V90 (ES = −0.33 remained unchanged (p > 0.05 throughout the study. ROC analysis and the data derived from the contingency table revealed that none of the tensiomyographic markers were effective diagnostic

  11. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP. However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D or five dosages (5D into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Differences in mitochondrial gene expression profiles, enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain types in yak versus bovine skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Q; Xu, Y O; Yue, Y; Jin, S Y; Qu, Y; Dong, F; Li, Y P; Zheng, Y C

    2012-08-29

    Hypoxia can affect energy metabolism. We examined gene expression and enzyme activity related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, as well as myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in yaks (Bos grunniens) living at high altitudes. Real-time quantitative PCR assays indicated that the yak has significantly lower levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) mRNA in the biceps femoris and lower levels of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) mRNA in both biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi than in Yellow cattle. No significant differences between yak and Yellow cattle were observed in the activities of mitochondrial β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in the same muscles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the MyHC 1 mRNA levels in yak biceps femoris was lower than in Yellow cattle. We conclude that the yak has significantly lower mRNA levels of CPT, UCP3, and MyHC 1 in biceps femoris than in Yellow cattle, suggesting that the yak biceps femoris has lower fatty acid oxidation capacity and greater glycolytic metabolic potential.

  13. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  14. Experimental quadriceps muscle pain impairs knee joint control during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a cardinal symptom in musculoskeletal diseases involving the knee joint, and aberrant movement patterns and motor control strategies are often present in these patients. However, the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms linking pain to movement and motor control are unclear. To investigate...... the functional significance of muscle pain on knee joint control during walking, three-dimensional gait analyses were performed before, during, and after experimentally induced muscle pain by means of intramuscular injections of hypertonic saline (5.8%) into vastus medialis (VM) muscle of 20 healthy subjects....... Isotonic saline (0.9%) was used as control. Surface electromyography (EMG) recordings of VM, vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, and semitendinosus muscles were synchronized with the gait analyses. During experimental muscle pain, the loading response phase peak knee extensor moments were attenuated...

  15. Comparative analysis of the pressure profilometry of vesicocutaneous continent catheterizable conduits between patients with and without rectus abdominis neosphincter (Yachia principle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Atila; Leslie, Bruno; Arcuri, Leonardo Javier; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether crossing rectus abdominis muscle strips, as proposed by Yachia, would change urinary catheterizable conduit's pressure profilometry, in static and dynamic conditions. Non-randomized selection of 20 continent patients that underwent Macedo's ileum-based reservoir, 10 including Yachia's technique (Study Group) and 10 without this mechanism of continence (Control Group). Demographics and cystometric data were assessed. Conduit's pressure profilometry was obtained by infusing saline through a multichannel catheter, at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. We assessed the pressure: (a) in the bladder; (b) in conduit's proximal segment; and (c) in conduit's distal segment, which is presumably the abdominal wall and crossed muscle strips site. Mean age at surgery was 6.1 years in the Control Group and 7.7 years in the Study Group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding maximum cystometric bladder capacity and leakage point pressure. At rest, the pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in all segments analyzed. During Valsalva maneuver, pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in bladder and conduit's proximal segment pressure. In this condition, conduit's distal segment pressure in the Study Group (Mean = 72.9 and Peak = 128.7 cmH2 O) was significantly greater (P continence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Respostas neuromusculares dos membros inferiores durante protocolo intermitente de saltos verticais em voleibolistas Neuromuscular responses of the lower limb muscles during vertical jumping in volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tosini Felicissimo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos. Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos, seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s - um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s. O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years. Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps, followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s - one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a

  17. Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon

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    Takeshi Oshima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN, which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury.

  18. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  19. ROLE OF HAMSTRING MUSCLES IN KNEE JOINT STABILITY PROVIDING AND INJURY PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Pontaga, Inese

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to determine the ratio of maximal torque values and the torques in the certain positions of range of movements (ROM) between hamstring (H) and quadriceps femoris (Q) muscles at medium and high velocity of movement in concentric (CC) and eccentric (ECC) action of hamstring muscles. The knee muscles of 15 amateur female short and middle distance runners were tested by the dynamometer system in the isokinetic movements with the angular velocity of 90º/s and 240º...

  20. Effect of Seat Tube Angle and Exercise Intensity on Muscle Activity Patterns in Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUGGAN, WILL; DONNE, BERNARD; FLEMING, NEIL

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported improved efficiency at steeper seat tube angle (STA) during ergometer cycling; however, neuromuscular mechanisms have yet to be fully determined. The current study investigated effects of STA on lower limb EMG activity at varying exercise intensities. Cyclists (n=11) were tested at 2 workloads; 160W and an individualised workload (IWL) equivalent to lactate threshold (TLac) minus 10%δ (derived from maximal incremental data), using 3 STA (70, 75 and 80°). Electromyographic data from Vastus Medialis (VM), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Biceps Femoris (BF) were assessed. The timing and magnitude of activation were quantified and analysed using a two-way ANOVA. STA had significant (P pedal stroke is generated during the mid-section of the down-stroke, movement of the activation range of knee extensors into the predominantly power phase of the pedal stroke would potentially account for increased efficiency and decreased cardio-respiratory costs. Greater activity of bi-articular RF, in the first 108º of the crank cycle at IWL (80 vs. 70º) may more closely resemble the pelvic stabilising activity of RF in running biomechanics; and potentially explain the more effective transition from cycling to running reported in triathletes using steeper STA. PMID:29399245

  1. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1997-08-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of the callipyge phenotype on the tenderness of several major lamb muscles and to determine the effect of method of cookery on the tenderness of callipyge lamb at 7 d postmortem. In Exp. 1, chops from normal (n = 23) and callipyge (n = 16) carcasses were open-hearth-broiled. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of longissimus, gluteus medius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor, and quadriceps femoris were 123, 44, 28, 26, 19, 16, and 13% greater, respectively, for callipyge (P lamb carcasses (n = 60). Callipyge chops were less tender than normal chops (P cooking method, callipyge samples were less juicy than normal samples (P < .05). These data demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype will likely reduce consumer satisfaction due to reduced tenderness and juiciness; however, reduced tenderness in callipyge leg muscles could be prevented by ovenroasting.

  2. Comparative anatomy and muscle architecture of selected hind limb muscles in the Quarter Horse and Arab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wakeling, J M; Wilson, A M; Payne, R C

    2008-02-01

    The Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance) are situated at either end of the equine athletic spectrum. Studies into the form and function of the leg muscles in human sprint and endurance runners have demonstrated that differences exist in their muscle architecture. It is not known whether similar differences exist in the horse. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab fresh hind limb cadavers were dissected to gain information on the muscle mass and architecture of the following muscles: gluteus medius; biceps femoris; semitendinosus; vastus lateralis; gastrocnemius; tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus. Specifically, muscle mass, fascicle length and pennation angle were quantified and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were estimated. The hind limb muscles of the Quarter Horse were of a significantly greater mass, but had similar fascicle lengths and pennation angles when compared with those of the Arab; this resulted in the Quarter Horse hind limb muscles having greater PCSAs and hence greater isometric force potential. This study suggests that Quarter Horses as a breed inherently possess large strong hind limb muscles, with the potential to accelerate their body mass more rapidly than those of the Arab.

  3. The positions effect of biarticular muscles on the walking fatigue of bipedal robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim FERNINI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to model a bipedal robot with springs like biarticular muscles and to study the positions effect of biarticular muscles on the walking fatigue of bipedal robots through the analysis of the works of the ground reaction force (GRF accumulated at joints and the analysis of the works done by biarticular muscles. We can define the walking fatigue in this paper by the fatigue of joints and muscles caused by the increment of the works accumulated at joints and the increment of the works done by biarticular muscles during the walk period of bipedal robots. It’s found from this study that the position of the muscle biceps femoris (BF has a strong impact on the fatigue of leg joints and the fatigue of the muscle itself during the walk period of bipedal robots.

  4. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Galyfos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient’s obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated.

  5. Flap Lymphedema after Successful Reconstruction of the Chronic Inguinal Wound with a Vertical Rectus Abdominis Flap (VRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of extensive and complex wounds represents a challenging problem for reconstructive surgeon. The reconstructive options to provide cover-age following debridment of these complicated wounds are local, distant flaps, or freetissue transfer. Vertical rectus abdominis flaps have been used succes-sully to repair defects in the groin, hip, perineal, trunk, and breast regions. We encountered flap lymphedema after successful reconstruction of the chronic in-guinal wound with a vertical rectus abdominis (VRAM flap. As far as were able to ascertain, there is no report in the literature related to flap lymphedema.

  6. Segond fracture: involvement of the iliotibial band, anterolateral ligament, and anterior arm of the biceps femoris in knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Boulet, Cedric; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest University, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Cattrysse, Erik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 x 10 x 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved. (orig.)

  7. Segond fracture: involvement of the iliotibial band, anterolateral ligament, and anterior arm of the biceps femoris in knee trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Boulet, Cedric; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de; Shahabpour, Maryam; Lenchik, Leon; Cattrysse, Erik

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 x 10 x 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved. (orig.)

  8. Combined effect of electrical stimulation and blade tenderization on some bovine muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccach, M.; Henrickson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical stimulation (ES) period was a very important factor determining the tenderness of three bovine muscles: Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Semimembranosus (SM). Tenderness (shear force values) increased in most cases with increasing the ES period. An ES period of 15 min was optimal for obtaining a tenderness equal to that obtained by conventional processing of beef. The shortest ES period used (1 min) was adequate in most cases to set the muscles in rigor mortis and in preventing cold shortening. The tenderness of blade tenderized muscles was in most cases independent from the ES period. Blade tenderization was very effective to tenderize the BF muscle followed in decreasing order of efficacy by the LD and SM muscles. The cooking times and cooking losses of the three muscles were not affected by either the ES period or by blade tenderization.

  9. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    receptor blockade. BF heterogeneity within muscles was calculated from 16-mm(3) voxels in BF images and heterogeneity among the muscles from the mean values of the four QF compartments. Mean BF in the whole QF and its four parts increased, and heterogeneity decreased with workload both without......Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF...... and with theophylline (P heterogeneity among the QF muscles, yet blockade increased within-muscle BF heterogeneity in all four QF muscles (P = 0.03). Taken together, these results show that BF becomes less heterogeneous with increasing...

  10. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  11. Sudden shrinkage of free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 15 years after maxilla reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mochizuki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male displayed sudden shrinkage of a left free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, which had been grafted to his left maxilla 15 years previously. No post-reconstructive irradiation had been performed, and no late occlusion of the vascular anastomosis, local infection, recurrence of the maxillary cancer, or body weight loss was observed. However, the shrinkage amounted to approximately 50%. This is considerably more than previously reported cases of shrinkage of various free flaps, which ranged between 10% and 25%. The resultant depression was successfully augmented with a right free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. The residual fat volume of the previously grafted shrunken flap was revealed to be compatible with that of the newly harvested contralateral perforator flap. Thus, the volume of the previously grafted flap may reflect the status of the intact contralateral donor site, although the mechanism of sudden flap shrinkage is unclear.

  12. Muscle area and muscle density of osteoarthritis of the knee joint studied by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Onosawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Minoru; Yamashita, Izumi; Yoshimura, Shinichiro; Muraoka, Shunichi; Asano, Akira

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the etiology and pathology of osteoarthritis of the knee joints (OA), the areas and density of the muscle 10 cm above the knee were compared using computerized tomography (CT) in 26 knees from 19 normal persons, 30 knees from 17 patients with OA, and 14 knees from 7 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The areas of the quadriceps musculi of thigh were remarkably decreased and the areas of the flexor musculi were comparatively maintained in the patients with OA. Muscle density was markedly lowered in the musculi semimembranosus and biceps femoris long head. Fatty tissues were seen in the whole area of the venter on CT in some of the patients with OA. These findings are considered to be of major importance when studying the etiology of OA. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature.

  14. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  15. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  16. Characterization of French and Spanish dry-cured hams: influence of the volatiles from the muscles and the subcutaneous fat quantified by SPME-GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Carolina M; Luna, Guadalupe; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón

    2005-04-01

    The influence of the volatile compounds on the characterization of Spanish and French dry-cured hams was studied. Thirty volatiles were quantified in each one of four locations (biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles and subcutaneous fat) of 29 dry-cured hams by solid-phase microextraction gas-chromatography (SPME-GC). The Brown-Forsythe univariate test allowed determination of the volatiles that individually could characterize (p0.95), then selected the most remarkable volatile compounds. Four compounds from the subcutaneous fat (methyl benzene and octanol) and the semitendinosus muscle (2-butanone and 2-octanone) allowed 100% correct classifications by geographic origin. On the other hand, only two compounds from the subcutaneous fat (octanol) and the biceps femoris muscle (3-methyl 1-butanol) correctly classified all the samples by the breed type. The ability of these variables to classify the samples was checked by the unsupervised procedure of principal components.

  17. Effect of Forefoot Strike on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Knee Joint Angle During Cutting in Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.

  18. Comparing electro- and mechano-myographic muscle activation patterns in self-paced pediatric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Katherine; Samadani, Ali; Chau, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is the standard modality for measuring muscle activity. However, the convenience and availability of low-cost accelerometer-based wearables makes mechanomyography (MMG) an increasingly attractive alternative modality for clinical applications. Literature to date has demonstrated a strong association between EMG and MMG temporal alignment in isometric and isokinetic contractions. However, the EMG-MMG relationship has not been studied in gait. In this study, the concurrence of EMG- and MMG-detected contractions in the tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles were investigated in children during self-paced gait. Furthermore, the distribution of signal power over the gait cycle was statistically compared between EMG-MMG modalities. With EMG as the reference, muscular contractions were detected based on MMG with balanced accuracies between 88 and 94% for all muscles except the gastrocnemius. MMG signal power differed from that of EMG during certain phases of the gait cycle in all muscles except the biceps femoris. These timing and power distribution differences between the two modalities may in part be related to muscle fascicle length changes that are unique to muscle motion during gait. Our findings suggest that the relationship between EMG and MMG appears to be more complex during gait than in isometric and isokinetic contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  1. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  2. Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth; Behm, David G

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), abdominal stabilizers (AS), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles while performing squats of varied stability and resistance. Stability was altered by doing the squat movement on a Smith machine, a free squat, and while standing on two balance discs. Fourteen male subjects performed the movements. Activities of the SOL, AS, ULES, and LSES were highest during the unstable squat and lowest with the Smith machine protocol (p squats on unstable surfaces may permit a training adaptation of the trunk muscles responsible for supporting the spinal column (i.e., erector spinae) as well as the muscles most responsible for maintaining posture (i.e., SOL).

  3. Ultrasound assessment of hamstring muscle size using posterior thigh muscle thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MT) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume (MV) in extremity and trunk muscles; however, the hamstring muscle has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between posterior thigh MT by ultrasound and the muscle CSA and MV of the hamstring obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten young women aged 20-31 had MT measured by ultrasound at three sites on the medial anterior (50% of thigh length; TL) and posterior (50% and 70% of TL) aspects of the thigh. On the same day, a series of continuous muscle CSA along the thigh was measured by MRI. In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus) and quadriceps muscle was analysed, and the CSAs at 50% and 70% of TL and maximal CSA of the hamstring (CSAmax ) were determined. MV was calculated by multiplying CSA by slice thickness. A significant correlation was observed between posterior 50% MT and 50% hamstring CSA (r = 0·848, P = 0·002) and between posterior 70% MT and 70% hamstring CSA (r = 0·679, P = 0·031). Posterior 50% MT (r = 0·732, P = 0·016) and 50% MTxTL (r = 0·873, P = 0·001) were also correlated to hamstring MV. Anterior:posterior 50% thigh MT ratio was correlated to MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles (r = 0·803, P = 0·005). Our results suggest that posterior thigh MT reflects hamstring muscle CSA and MV. The anterior:posterior MT ratio may serve as a surrogate for MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Electromyographic assessment of trunk and shoulder muscles during a Pilates pull-up exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C.N. Sacco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares surface electromyographic activity of the internal oblique, rectus abdominis, multifidus, iliocostalis, anterior deltoids during the pull-up on a lower and on a higher difficulty level. We assessed nine adults with previous experience in Pilates. The root mean square (RMS values were normalized by maximum isometric contraction for each participant. During the ascent phase, the low spring position showed a significantly higher RMS than the high spring position of 8.9% for deltoid, 17.2% for internal oblique, 22.3% for rectus abdominis, 4.1% for iliocostalis, and 5.6% for multifidus, and in the descent phase, the RMS in the lower spring exceeded significantly the high spring position in 1.6% for the deltoid, 10% for internal oblique, 31.4% for rectus abdominis and 11.4% for iliocostalis. There was no predominance of abdominal muscles over the shoulder muscle in any spring position. The pull-up exercise can be a useful choice for the core and anterior deltoid muscles strengthening.

  5. Influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids in muscles of calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Hansen, R.J.; Black, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids into the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles of calves after 48 h administration of isotope through jugular vein. 14 C or 3 H-labelled tyrosine and 14 C or 3 H-histidine were used as tracers. The results suggest that the incorporation into myofibrillar protein fraction of both the muscles was at least two fold greater on good diets as compared to all forage ration. Similar trend was also recorded with the plasma protein fraction at both 24 and 48 h after injection. (author)

  6. Influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids in muscles of calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P; Hansen, R J; Black, A L [California Univ., Davis (USA). Dept. of Physiological Sciences

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of diet on the incorporation of labeled amino acids into the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles of calves after 48 h administration of isotope through jugular vein. /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H-labelled tyrosine and /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H-histidine were used as tracers. The results suggest that the incorporation into myofibrillar protein fraction of both the muscles was at least two fold greater on good diets as compared to all forage ration. Similar trend was also recorded with the plasma protein fraction at both 24 and 48 h after injection.

  7. Estimation of thigh muscle mass with magnetic resonance imaging in older adults and people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Takai, Karen Pr; Macintyre, Donna L; Reid, Darlene

    2008-02-01

    Quantifying muscle mass is an essential part of physical therapy assessment, particularly in older adults and in people with chronic conditions associated with muscle atrophy. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare anthropometric estimations of midthigh CSA with measurements obtained from MRI. Twenty older adults who were healthy and 20 people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), matched for age, sex, and body mass index, underwent MRI to obtain measurements of thigh muscle CSA and volume. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thickness and thigh circumference) were used to estimate midthigh CSA. Muscle volumes were significantly lower in the people with COPD than in the older adults who were healthy. Moderate to high correlations were found between midthigh CSA and volume in both groups (r=.61-.94). Anthropometric measurements tended to overestimate midthigh CSA in both the people with COPD (estimated CSA=64.9+/-17.8; actual CSA=48.3+/-10.2 cm(2)) and the older adults who were healthy (estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSA=65.0+/-14.0; actual CSA=56.8+/-13.5 cm(2)). Furthermore, the estimated quadriceps femoris muscle CSAs were not sensitive enough to detect a difference in muscle size between people with COPD and controls. Thigh circumference alone was not different between groups and showed only low to moderate correlations with muscle volume (r=.19-.47). Muscle CSA measured from a single slice provides a good indication of volume, but the most representative slice should be chosen on the basis of the muscle group of interest. Thigh circumference is not correlated with muscle volume and, therefore, should not be used as an indicator of muscle size. The development of population-specific reference equations for estimating muscle CSA from anthropometric measurements is warranted.

  8. The muscle CT of thigh in chronic Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Konagaya, Masaaki; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Otsuji, Hideaki

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the muscle CT of thigh in chronic Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (chronic WH) was evaluated. The subjects were five cases of chronic WH (3 males and 2 females, ages ranging from 6 to 22 years) and four control males. All cases showed symmetrical muscular weakness. The proximal muscle were more affected than the distal in the upper limbs. But the muscle strength of hip adduction was relatively spared as compared with other strength of lower limbs. The CT scan was carried out at the upper quarter level between lesser trochanter and medial condyle of the femur. The muscle CT of cases aged 6 and 7 years showed the severely decreased cross-sectional area of muscle without significant decrease in density. The atrophic muscles were surrounded by a large amount of low density area. The hamstring muscles and the adductor muscles, especially adductor longus muscle (ALM), were less affected than the quadriceps femoris muscles. Spotty and moth-eaten low density areas were observed dominantly in the severely affected muscles. In the advanced cases, only ALM could be identified on the CT image. The other muscles were unable to be identified because of severe atrophy with extremely low density. These CT findings suggest the process of muscular wastings of chronic WH as follows; at first muscle fibers are atrophied due to denervation and sooner or later replaced with fat tissue. Moreover, the preservation of ALM suggests that loss of anterior horn cells does not always go on homogeneously. (author)

  9. Complex left profunda femoris vein to renal vein bypass for the management of progressive chronic iliofemoral occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Adams, Matthew K; Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Dresser, Kelly L; Ismail, Nyla; Peden, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Chronic occlusions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliofemoral veins are long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that can lead to postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Patients may present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from mild discomfort and swelling to severe venous hypertension and ulcerations. We report a 68-year-old man who had a history of left lower extremity DVT after a laminectomy and who developed PTS with nonhealing ulcers. The patient underwent a cross-pubic femorofemoral venous bypass that failed to improve his clinical status. After unsuccessful endovascular attempts for recanalization of the iliofemoral segment, a profunda femoris to IVC bypass was performed. The symptoms recurred 2 years later. Venography revealed restenosis at the caval anastomosis that did not resolve by endovascular means. A surgical revision was performed, and given the quality of the IVC, a jump bypass was created to the left renal vein. The swelling improved and the ulcers healed completely. Twenty-eight months after the complex reconstructions, he remains ulcer-free with mild edema controlled with stockings. Venous reconstructions remain a viable option for patients with symptomatic and recalcitrant nonmalignant obstruction of the large veins. Copyright © 2013 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in simulated precrash events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-02-28

    To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.

  11. Neuromuscular performance in the hip joint of elderly fallers and non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelli, Mary Hellen; LaRoche, Dain Patrick; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Rossi, Denise Martineli; Gonçalves, Mauro; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2016-06-01

    Low strength and neuromuscular activation of the lower limbs have been associated with falls making it an important predictor of functional status in the elderly. To compare the rate of neuromuscular activation, rate of torque development, peak torque and reaction time between young and elderly fallers and non-fallers for hip flexion and extension. We evaluated 44 elderly people who were divided into two groups: elderly fallers (n = 20) and elderly non-fallers (n = 24); and 18 young people. The subjects performed three isometric hip flexion and extension contractions. Electromyography data were collected for the rectus femoris, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles. The elderly had 49 % lower peak torque and 68 % lower rate of torque development for hip extension, 28 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for gluteus maximus and 38 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for biceps femoris than the young (p neuromuscular for rectus femoris than the young (p < 0.05). The elderly fallers showed consistent trend toward a lower rate of torque development than elderly non-fallers for hip extension at 50 ms (29 %, p = 0.298, d = 0.76) and 100 ms (26 %, p = 0.452, d = 0.68).The motor time was 30 % slower for gluteus maximus, 42 % slower for rectus femoris and 50 % slower for biceps femoris in the elderly than in the young. Impaired capacity of the elderly, especially fallers, may be explained by neural and morphological aspects of the muscles. The process of senescence affects the muscle function of the hip flexion and extension, and falls may be related to lower rate of torque development and slower motor time of biceps femoris.

  12. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line...... of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  13. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite......BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  14. Trunk Muscle EMG During Intermediate Pilates Mat Exercises in Beginner Healthy and Chronic Low Back Pain Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ivye L R; Queiroz, Bergson; Loss, Jefferson; Amorim, César; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic pattern of core muscles during intermediate Pilates mat exercises between healthy people and those with low back pain. We evaluated healthy participants (n = 19; mean ± standard deviation [SD]: age 28 ± 8 years, body mass 65 ± 10 kg, height 160.0 ± 9.1 cm) and a low back pain group (n = 13; mean ± SD: age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 67 ± 12 kg, height 170.0 ± 6.6 cm). Electromyographic analysis assessed the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles during classical Pilates exercises (single leg stretch, criss-cross, and dead bug). We calculated the root mean square normalized by maximum voluntary contraction, and the time of peak activation was provided by a linear envelope and normalized by the total movement cycle. The criss-cross exercise presented the highest values of root mean square for trunk flexors (rectus abdominis and oblique) compared with the other exercises, followed by the single leg stretch and the dead bug, which had similar muscle activation. The single leg stretch presented more activation of the rectus abdominis and oblique, whereas the criss-cross and dead bug created more activation of the oblique compared with the multifidus and rectus. The Pilates exercises presented different muscle recruitment patterns, and allowed the activation of the lumbopelvic stabilizing muscles even in the first session for healthy individuals and those with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B. Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35 exotropia for group A and −21.3 Δ (14-30 exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to −8 for group A and 8 Δ (−2 to −20 exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.

  17. Transperitoneal rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: A novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Nagata, Masato; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Tajima, Takehide; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Horishita, Reiko; Kida, Kentaro; Hamada, Kotaro; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-08-01

    A laparoscopic approach for inguinal hernia repair is now considered the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia cannot be used in patients with perioperative anticoagulant therapy because of complications such as epidural hematoma. As such, regional anesthetic techniques, such as ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block, have become increasingly popular. However, even these anesthetic techniques have potential complications, such as rectus sheath hematoma, if vessels are damaged. We report the use of a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach for rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block as a novel anesthetic procedure. An 81-year-old woman with direct inguinal hernia underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal repair. Epidural anesthesia was not performed because anticoagulant therapy was administered. A Peti-needle™ was delivered through the port, and levobupivacaine was injected though the peritoneum. Surgery was performed successfully, and the anesthetic technique did not affect completion of the operative procedure. The patient was discharged without any complications. This technique was feasible, and the procedure was performed safely. Our novel analgesia technique has potential use as a standard postoperative regimen in various laparoscopic surgeries. Additional prospective studies to compare it with other techniques are required. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  19. Evaluation of the hamstring muscles after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouris, G.; Connell, D.; Burke, F.; Young, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to describe the imaging findings following acute hamstring injury. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 224 examinations in 208 patients (192 male, 16 female, mean age 28.2 years). MR imaging was performed in 102 cases and sonography in 156 cases (both modalities were performed in 34 examinations). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.7 days (range 1-10 days). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle movement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit, the extent of the injury and discriminating avulsion from musculotendinous injury. Sixteen patients underwent surgery. The biceps femoris was the most common muscle injured (150/224). Sixteen patients with surgical confirmation of a hamstring avulsion from the ischial tuberosity (14 conjoint, 2 biceps alone) were reliably diagnosed with MR imaging (16/16), but less so with ultrasound (7/12). Eighty-six patients (86/150) had injuries of the musculotendinous junction of biceps, 51/150 myofascial injuries and 13/150 muscle belly alone. Proximal injuries of the biceps were more common that the distal. Sixty-eight patients had injuries of semitendinosus and eight patients semimebranosus.The semitendinosus muscle was more often injured in the distal half of the muscle (42/68) as was semimebranosus (7/8). Three patients had a distal rupture of semitendinosus muscle with retraction. Haematoma was a common finding (170/224) and often tracked around the myofascial layer.This was felt to be a reliable sign for hamstring injury. Discriminating a hamstring tendon avulsion from myotendinous strain is important as these patients necessitate surgical management as opposed to conservative treatment. MR imaging is the preferred modality in the investigation of hamstring muscle and tendon injury. Ultrasound has a complimentary role and may be used to monitor hamstring tendon injuries prior to return to competitive sport. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty

  20. Closure and augmentation of bladder exstrophy using rectus abdominis musculo-peritoneal flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the rectus abdominis myo-peritoneal flap (RAMP technique for the closure and augmentation of small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder exstrophies. Materials and Methods: The RAMP technique was used in three boys with bladder exstrophy who presented late with small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder. The clinical outcome, imaging, cystoscopy, biochemical and microbiological studies were assessed during a follow-up of 36 months. Results: Bladder closure and augmentation was achieved in all patients without any complications. There were no urinary tract infections, metabolic problems or electrolyte disturbances and the kidney function remained normal in all patients. Radiography confirmed intact function and anatomy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy showed complete coverage of the inner peritoneal layer of RAMP with uroepithelium. No stone formation or mucous production was detected. Conclusions: The RAMP technique is a good alternative for closing bladder exstrophies and achieves an increase in bladder capacity and compliance. The technique is indicated in the closure of large bladder defects, bladder exstrophies with small, inelastic, non-compliant bladder remnants and failed primary closures.

  1. Activation of Selected Core Muscles during Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Nesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two ground-based lifts: overhead press and push-press. Surface EMG was recorded from 4 muscles on the right side of the body (Rectus Abdominus (RA, External Oblique (EO, Transverse Abdominus (TA, and Erector Spinae (ES. Results: Paired sample T-tests identified significant muscle activation differences between the overhead press and the push-press included ES and EO. Average and peak EMG for ES was significantly greater in push-press (P<0.01. Anterior displacement of COP was significantly greater in push-press compared to overhead press during the eccentric phase. Conclusion: The push-press was identified as superior in core muscle activation when compared to the overhead pressing exercise. Keywords: torso, stability, weight lifting, resistance training

  2. A new MRI method for the quantitative evaluation of extraocular muscle size in thyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, K.; Gueven, K.; Sencer, S.; Minareci, O.; Cikim, A.; Guel, N.

    2003-01-01

    In cross section, extraocular muscles are more or less elliptical, with short and long diameters. We studied the ratio (R) of short to long diameter and investigated its use in quantitative assessment of the extraocular muscles in patients with Graves's disease. We measured the diameters on T1-weighted axial and coronal MRI and computed R for each extraocular muscle in 80 patients without and 40 with Graves's disease. We compared the measurements and R of the right and left orbits, and of men and women. The short diameter of all extraocular muscles apart from the superior oblique showed significant differences between men and women, and that of the inferior rectus varied significantly with age. R, however, was unrelated to sex or age. All patients with Graves's disease and an increased short diameter also had an increased R, but 6% of the muscles showed an increase in R, even though their short diameter was within the normal range. (orig.)

  3. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  4. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide.

    1992-01-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  5. Loop myopexy with true muscle transplantation for very large angle heavy eye syndrome patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presenting with complaints of squint for last 20 years. His visual acuity was 20/400 in right eye (RE and 20/30 in left eye (LE with glasses. His refraction was RE -16.75/-2.5 D cycl 180 and LE was -14.5/-1.5 D cycl 180. His axial length was 31.23 mm In RE and 29.72 mm in LE. On examination we found he had RE large esotropia with hypotropia measuring 130 pd base out and 40 pd base up in RE. A computerized tomography scan revealed that the superior rectus (SR was shifted nasally, and lateral rectus (LR was shifted inferiorly. A RE medial rectus (MR recession and LR resection with muscle transplantation on the MR was done. A loop myopexy was done to correct the path of the LR and SR. The patient had only 18 pd eso and 20 pd hypo on follow-up after 3 months. Loop myopexy in conjunction with muscle transplantation is a safe and effective procedure for large angle esotropia associated with heavy eye syndrome.

  6. Adaptation of slow myofibers: the effect of sustained BDNF treatment of extraocular muscles in infant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated promising new treatment options for strabismus. Neurotrophic factors have emerged as a potential treatment for oculomotor disorders because of diverse roles in signaling to muscles and motor neurons. Unilateral treatment with sustained release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to a single lateral rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop in correlation with extraocular muscle (EOM) changes during the critical period for development of binocularity. The lateral rectus muscles of one eye in two infant macaques were treated with sustained delivery of BDNF for 3 months. Eye alignment was assessed using standard photographic methods. Muscle specimens were analyzed to examine the effects of BDNF on the density, morphology, and size of neuromuscular junctions, as well as myofiber size. Counts were compared to age-matched controls. No change in eye alignment occurred with BDNF treatment. Compared to control muscle, neuromuscular junctions on myofibers expressing slow myosins had a larger area. Myofibers expressing slow myosin had larger diameters, and the percentage of myofibers expressing slow myosins increased in the proximal end of the muscle. Expression of BDNF was examined in control EOM, and observed to have strongest immunoreactivity outside the endplate zone. We hypothesize that the oculomotor system adapted to sustained BDNF treatment to preserve normal alignment. Our results suggest that BDNF treatment preferentially altered myofibers expressing slow myosins. This implicates BDNF signaling as influencing the slow twitch properties of EOM.

  7. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that

  8. Postnatal changes in electromyographic signals during piglet growth, and in relation to muscle fibre types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ninette Kieme; Ravn, L.S.; Guy, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses non-invasive evoked surface electromyography (SEMG) to investigate postnatal muscle development in pigs, and to assess any correlation between recorded signal parameters and muscle fibre types in two different skeletal muscles. Four litters (n=43) of Large White x Landrace pigs were...... used. Evoked SEMG mesurements were taken on days 2, 5, 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and on days 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Biceps femoris (BF). A third of each litter was slaughtered at days 27, 61 and 153 post partum. Biopsy samples for LD and BF were taken...... to categorize day 5 post partum, whilst for BF significant increases occurred from days 14 to 26 post partum. Fibre type development in both muscles showed a significant decrease in type IIA fibre number (Ptype IIB fibre number (P

  9. Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizid, Riadh; Margnes, Eric; François, Yrieix; Jully, Jean Louis; Gonzalez, Gerard; Dupui, Philippe; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute muscle fatigue of the ankle and knee musculature on postural control by immediate measures after performing fatiguing tasks (POST condition). One group of subjects (n = 8) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the triceps surae (group TRI) and the other (n = 9) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the quadriceps femoris (group QUA). Each muscle group was exercised until the loss of maximal voluntary contraction torque reached 50% (isokinetic dynamometer). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure (COP) with a force platform during a test of unipedal quiet standing posture with eyes closed. Initially (in PRE condition), the mean COP velocity was not significantly different between group TRI and group QUA. In POST condition, the mean COP velocity increased more in group QUA than in group TRI. The postural control was more impaired by knee muscle fatigue than by ankle muscle fatigue.

  10. Muscle fibre type composition of a number of limb muscles in different types of horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, D H; Guy, P S

    1980-03-01

    Skeletal muscle of the equine was differentiated into three fibre types according to myosin ATPase (pH 9.4) and succinic dehydrogenase activity. The percentage of these types was determined in the musculus deltoideus, m triceps brachii caput longum, m gluteus medius, m semitendinosis, m biceps femoris and m vastus lateralis of the thoroughbred, Shetland pony, pony, heavy hunter and donkey. In addition the m gluteus medius was examined in the arab and American racing quarterhorse. High myosin ATPase activity fibres varied from a mean of 93.2 per cent in the m gluteus medius of the quarterhorse to 58.2 per cent in the m vastus lateralis of the donkey. In the m gluteus medius it was found that the percentage of high mycosin ATPase (pH 9.4) fibres varied significantly among breeds and these differences were related to the sprinting speed of the breed.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  12. Predicting muscle forces of individuals with hemiparesis following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maladen Ryan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES has been used to improve function in individuals with hemiparesis following stroke. An ideal functional electrical stimulation (FES system needs an accurate mathematical model capable of designing subject and task-specific stimulation patterns. Such a model was previously developed in our laboratory and shown to predict the isometric forces produced by the quadriceps femoris muscles of able-bodied individuals and individuals with spinal cord injury in response to a wide range of clinically relevant stimulation frequencies and patterns. The aim of this study was to test our isometric muscle force model on the quadriceps femoris, ankle dorsiflexor, and ankle plantar-flexor muscles of individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Methods Subjects were seated on a force dynamometer and isometric forces were measured in response to a range of stimulation frequencies (10 to 80-Hz and 3 different patterns. Subject-specific model parameter values were obtained by fitting the measured force responses from 2 stimulation trains. The model parameters thus obtained were then used to obtain predicted forces for a range of frequencies and patterns. Predicted and measured forces were compared using intra-class correlation coefficients, r2 values, and model error relative to the physiological error (variability of measured forces. Results Results showed excellent agreement between measured and predicted force-time responses (r2 >0.80, peak forces (ICCs>0.84, and force-time integrals (ICCs>0.82 for the quadriceps, dorsiflexor, and plantar-fexor muscles. The model error was within or below the +95% confidence interval of the physiological error for >88% comparisons between measured and predicted forces. Conclusion Our results show that the model has potential to be incorporated as a feed-forward controller for predicting subject-specific stimulation patterns during FES.

  13. Sex differences in muscle morphology of the knee flexors and knee extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fearghal P Behan

    Full Text Available Females experience higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries; males experience higher risk of hamstring strain injuries. Differences in injury may be partially due to sex differences in knee flexor (KF to knee extensor (KE muscle size ratio and the proportional size of constituent muscles.To compare the absolute and proportional size, and mass distribution, of individual KE and KF muscles, as well as overall size and balance (size ratio of these muscle groups between the sexes.T1-weighted axial plane MR images (1.5T of healthy untrained young males and females (32 vs 34 were acquired to determine thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA. Maximal ACSA (ACSAmax of constituent muscles, summated for KF and KE muscle groups, and the KF:KE ratio were calculated.Females had 25.3% smaller KE ACSAmax (70.9±12.1 vs 93.6±10.3 cm2; P<0.001 and 29.6% smaller KF ACSAmax than males (38.8±7.3cm2 vs 55.1±7.3cm2; P<0.001. Consequently, females had lower KF:KE ACSA ratio (P = 0.031. There were sex differences in the proportional size of 2/4 KE and 5/6 KF. In females, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris long-head (BFlh and semimembranosus (SM were a greater proportion and sartorius (SA, gracilis (GR and biceps femoris short-head (BFsh a smaller proportion of their respective muscle groups compared to males (All P<0.05.Sex differences in KF:KE ACSAmax ratio may contribute to increased risk of ACL injury in females. Sex discrepancies in absolute and proportional size of SA, GR, VL and BFlh may contribute further anatomical explanations for sex differences in injury incidence.

  14. Dynamic factors and electromyographic activity in a sprint start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Čoh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the major dynamic parameters as well as the EMG activation of muscles in a sprint start as the first derivative of sprint velocity. The subject of the analysis was block velocity, the production of force in the front and rear starting blocks, the block acceleration in the first two steps and the electromyographic activity (EMG of the following muscles: the erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, vastus medialis muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. One international-class female sprinter participated in the experiment. She performed eight starts in constant laboratory conditions. The 3-D kinematic analysis was made using a system of nine Smart-e 600 cameras operating at a frame rate of 60 Hz. Dynamic parameters were established by means of two separate force platforms to which the starting blocks were fixed. A 16-channel electromyograph was used to analyse electromyographic activity (EMG. It was established that the block velocity depended on the absolute force produced in the front and rear starting blocks and that it was 2.84±0.21 m.s-1. The maximal force on the rear and front blocks was 628±34 N and 1023±30 N, respectively. In view of the total impulse (210±11 Ns the force production/time ratio in the rear and front blocks was 34%:66%. The erector spinae muscle, vastus lateralis muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle generate the efficiency of the start. The block acceleration in the first two steps primarily depends on the activation of the gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. A sprint start is a complex motor stereotype requiring a high degree of integration of the processes of central movement regulation and an optimal level of biomotor abilities.

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times of skeletal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I. (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Neurology); Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Tateno, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Clinical Research); Aoki, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.).

  16. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. The difference in passive tension applied to the muscles composing the hamstrings - Comparison among muscles using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Nishishita, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-08-01

    Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Therefore, to investigate the factors influencing hamstring strain, the differences in passive tension applied to the hamstring muscles at the same knee and hip positions as during terminal swing phase would be useful information. In addition, passive tension applied to the hamstrings could change with anterior or posterior tilt of the pelvis. The aims of this study were to investigate the difference in passive tension applied to the individual muscles composing the hamstrings during passive elongation, and to investigate the effect of pelvic position on passive tension. Fifteen healthy men volunteered for this study. The subject lay supine with the angle of the trunk axis to the femur of their dominant leg at 70° and the knee angle of the dominant leg fixed at 30° flexion. In three pelvic positions ("Non-Tilt", "Anterior-Tilt" and "Posterior-Tilt"), the shear elastic modulus of each muscle composing the hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) was measured using an ultrasound shear wave elastography. The shear elastic modulus of semimembranosus was significantly higher than the others. Shear elastic modulus of the hamstrings in Anterior-Tilt was significantly higher than in Posterior-Tilt. Passive tension applied to semimembranosus is higher than the other muscles when the hamstring muscle is passively elongated, and passive tension applied to the hamstrings increases with anterior tilt of the pelvis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency band analysis of muscle activation during cycling to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diefenthaeler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p243 Lower limb muscles activation was assessed during cycling to exhaustion using frequency band analysis. Nine cyclists were evaluated in two days. On the first day, cyclists performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise to measure peak power output, which was used on the second day to define the workload for a constant load time to exhaustion cycling exercise (maximal aerobic power output from day 1. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL, long head of biceps femoris (BF, lateral head of gastrocnemius (GL, and tibialis anterior (TA from the right lower limb was recorded during the time to exhaustion cycling exercise. A series of nine band-pass Butterworth digital filters was used to analyze muscle activity amplitude for each band. The overall amplitude of activation and the high and low frequency components were defined to assess the magnitude of fatigue effects on muscle activity via effect sizes. The profile of the overall muscle activation during the test was analyzed using a second order polynomial, and the variability of the overall bands was analyzed by the coefficient of variation for each muscle in each instant of the test. Substantial reduction in the high frequency components of VL and BF activation was observed. The overall and low frequency bands presented trivial to small changes for all muscles. High relationship between the second order polynomial fitting and muscle activity was found (R2 > 0.89 for all muscles. High variability (~25% was found for muscle activation at the four instants of the fatigue test. Changes in the spectral properties of the EMG signal were only substantial when extreme changes in fatigue state were induced.

  19. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  1. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis in the Groin: Wide Resection and Reconstruction with a Fascia Lata Tensor Muscle Skin Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from endometriosis in the groin in a 53-year-old woman. The findings of MRI and FDG/PET-CT indicated a malignant tumor, and surgical biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract. The tumor including a part of the abdominal rectus muscle and rectus sheath, subcutaneous fat, skin, and the right inguinal ligament was resected en bloc. The defect in the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a fascia lata tensor muscle skin flap. The tumor was composed of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from extrapelvic endometriosis. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin for 6 cycles and had no evidence of recurrence 7 months after the treatment. We herein described the diagnosis and surgical management of endometriosis-associated carcinoma in the groin.

  2. Asymmetry and Thigh Muscle Coactivity in Fatigued Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Elite Skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The acute effects of fatigue on functional interlimb asymmetry and quadriceps/hamstring muscle activity levels, including preparatory coactivation during squat jump takeoff and landing, were evaluated in elite alpine ski racers with/without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR......). METHODS: Twenty-two elite ski racers (ACLR, n = 11; control, n = 11) performed an 80-s repeated squat jump test (jump test) on a dual force plate system with simultaneous EMG recordings in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. Asymmetry index (AI) and jump height of body...

  3. Quantifying muscle patterns and spine load during various forms of the push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanie; Karpowicz, Amy; Gray, John; McGill, Stuart

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the normalized amplitudes of the abdominal wall and back extensor musculature during a variety of push-up styles. We also sought to quantify their impact on spinal loading by calculating spinal compression and torque generation in the L4-5 area. Ten university-age participants, nine males and one female, in good to excellent condition, volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were requested to perform a maximum of 12 different push-up exercises, three trials per exercise. Surface electromyographic data (EMG) were collected bilaterally on rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae muscles, and unilaterally (right side) on pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and anterior deltoid muscles. Spine kinetics were obtained using