WorldWideScience

Sample records for rectum volumes cibles

  1. Prostate cancer: Doses and volumes of radiotherapy; Cancer de prostate: doses et volumes cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, C.; Rivera, S.; Quero, L. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Latorzeff, I. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe Oncorad-Garonne, clinique Pasteur, -l' Atrium-, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2010-10-15

    Radiotherapy is nowadays a major therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Technological improvements allowed dose escalation without increasing late toxicity. Some randomized trials have shown that dose escalation decreases the biochemical failure rate, without any benefit in survival with the present follow-up. However, some studies indicate that the distant metastases rate is also decreased. Most of these studies have been done without hormonal treatment, and the role of dose escalation in case of long-term androgen deprivation is unknown. The target volume encompassed the whole gland: however, complete or partial focal treatment of the prostate can be done with sophisticated IMRT technique and must be evaluated. Proximal part of the seminal vesicles must be included in the target volumes. The role of nodal irradiation is another debate, but it could be logically proposed for the unfavourable group. (authors)

  2. Target volume for adjuvant radiotherapy after prostatectomy; Volume cible de la radiotherapie adjuvante apres prostatectomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, A. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2007-11-15

    Although radical prostatectomy is an effective treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer, it fails in up to 20 to 40% of the cases. Local failure represents one of the possible patterns of relapse and is announced by detectable serum P.S.A. levels. Patients at high risk for local relapse have extra prostatic disease, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles infiltration at pathology. Three recently published phase III randomized clinical trials have clearly shown that, for these patients, immediate adjuvant irradiation reduces the risk of progression. For patients undergoing postoperative irradiation the standardisation of the target volume definition and delineation is required because no general consensus exists on prostate bed definition. The Genito-Urinary Working Party of the Radiation Oncology Group of the European Organization for the Research and treatment of cancer (R.O.G. O.R.T.C.) has developed a set of Guidelines to assist radiotherapists in the contouring of target volumes for postoperative irradiation: a consensus has been reached on a set of recommendations that are proposed to the radiation oncologist community. Emphasis has been put on the optimal cooperation between the surgeon, the pathologist and the radiotherapist in the frame of a multidisciplinary approach. Data on the presence and on the localization of extra prostatic extension and on positive surgical margins must be used. Placement of metallic clips in the tumor bed is of great help in localizing fixed anatomical sites as the anastomosis. The goal of such a document is to reduce inter-observer variability in target delineation in the framework of future clinical trials. (author)

  3. Anatomo-clinical target volumes (GTV and CTV) in radiotherapy; Volumes cibles anatomocliniques (GTV et CTV) en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, Universite Victor-Segalen, Dept. de Radiotherapie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Halimi, P. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service de Radiologie, Faculte de Medecine Paris-5, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-06-15

    In this issue will be tackled the development of tools (multi modules scanner and images fusion) and the analysis of volumes for cerebral tumors (head and neck). It seemed necessary to update this theme because of the ever more widespread use of conformation radiotherapy and new constraints of volumes definitions brought by radiotherapy with intensity modulation. (N.C.)

  4. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  5. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Chiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Isono, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed

  6. Influence of volumes of prostate, rectum, and bladder on treatment planning CT on interfraction prostate shifts during ultrasound image-guided IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Sartin, William; Maiorano, Samuel; Modena, Jennifer; Mazur, Andrej; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brijmohan; Ravi, Akkamma; Sampath, Seshadri; Lange, Christopher S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 and Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 and Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between prostate, bladder, and rectum volumes on treatment planning CT day and prostate shifts in the XYZ directions on treatment days. Methods: Prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and rectum were contoured on CT images obtained in supine position. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans was prepared. Contours were exported to BAT-ultrasound imaging system. Patients were positioned on the couch using skin marks. An ultrasound probe was used to obtain ultrasound images of prostate, bladder, and rectum, which were aligned with CT images. Couch shifts in the XYZ directions as recommended by BAT system were made and recorded. 4698 couch shifts for 42 patients were analyzed to study the correlations between interfraction prostate shifts vs bladder, rectum, and prostate volumes on planning CT. Results: Mean and range of volumes (cc): Bladder: 179 (42-582), rectum: 108 (28-223), and prostate: 55 (21-154). Mean systematic prostate shifts were (cm, {+-}SD) right and left lateral: -0.047{+-}0.16 (-0.361-0.251), anterior and posterior: 0.14{+-}0.3 (-0.466-0.669), and superior and inferior: 0.19{+-}0.26 (-0.342-0.633). Bladder volume was not correlated with lateral, anterior/posterior, and superior/inferior prostate shifts (P>0.2). Rectal volume was correlated with anterior/posterior (P<0.001) but not with lateral and superior/inferior prostate shifts (P>0.2). The smaller the rectal volume or cross sectional area, the larger was the prostate shift anteriorly and vice versa (P<0.001). Prostate volume was correlated with superior/inferior (P<0.05) but not with lateral and anterior/posterior prostate shifts (P>0.2). The smaller the prostate volume, the larger was prostate shift superiorly and vice versa (P<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate and rectal volumes, but not bladder volumes, on treatment planning CT influenced prostate position on treatment fractions. Daily image-guided adoptive radiotherapy would be

  7. Gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) for radiation therapy of benign skull base tumours; Volume tumoral macroscopique (GTV) et volume-cible anatomoclinique (CTV) dans la radiotherapie des tumeurs benignes de la base du crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, J.P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Hopital Saint Andre, Service d' Oncologie Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Liguoro, D.; San Galli, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Neurochirurgie A, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2001-10-01

    Skull base tumours represent a out 35 to 40% of all intracranial tumours. There are now many reports in the literature confirming the fact that about 80 to 90% of such tumours are controlled with fractionated radiotherapy. Stereotactic and 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques increase local control and central nervous system tolerance. Definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV) is generally easy with currently available medical imaging systems and computers for 3-dimensional dosimetry. The definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) is more difficult to appreciate: it is defined from the CTV plus a margin, which depends on the histology and anterior therapeutic history of the tumour. It is important to take into account the visible tumour and its possible extension pathways (adjacent bone, holes at the base of skull) and/or an anatomic region (sella turcica + adjacent cavernous sinus). It is necessary to evaluate these volumes with CT Scan and MRI to appreciate tumor extension in a 3-dimensional approach, in order to reduce the risk of marginal recurrences. The aim of this paper is to discuss volume definition as a function of tumour site and tumour type to be irradiated. (authors)

  8. Clinical and anatomical guidelines in pelvic cancer contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning; Definition de regles simples anatomocliniques dans la determination du volume cible des tumeurs pelviennes pour le planning radiotherapeutique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portaluri, M.; Bambace, S.; Giuliano, G.; Pili, G.; Didonna, V. [General Hospital Di Summa-Perrino, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Medical Physics, Brindisi (Italy); Perez, C.; Angone, G.; Alloro, E. [General Hospital Di Summa-Perrino, Dept. of Radiology, Medical Physics, Brindisi (Italy); Scialpi, M. [General Hospital SS. Annunziata, Dept. of Radiology, Taranto (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    Background and purpose. Many observations on potential inadequate coverage of tumour volume at risk in advanced cervical cancer (CC) when conventional radiation fields are used, have further substantiated by investigators using MRI, CT or lymph-angiographic imaging. This work tries to obtain three dimensional margins by observing enlarged nodes in CT scans in order to improve pelvic nodal chains clinical target volumes (CTVs) drawing, and by looking for corroborative evidence in the literature for a better delineation of tumour CTV. Method. Eleven consecutive patients (seven males, four females, mean age 62 years, range 43 8) with CT diagnosis of nodal involvement caused by pathologically proved carcinoma of the cervix (n = 2), carcinoma of the rectum (n = 2), carcinoma of the prostate (n = 2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n 2), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1), carcinoma of the penis (n = 1) and carcinoma of the corpus uteri (n = 1) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty CT scans with 67 enlarged pelvic nodes were reviewed in order to record the more proximal structures (muscle, bone, vessels, cutis or sub-cutis and other organs) to each enlarged node or group of nodes according to the four surfaces (anterior, lateral, posterior and medial) in a clockwise direction. Results. summary of the observations of each nodal chain and the number of occurrences of every marginal structure on axial CT slices is presented. Finally, simple guidelines are proposed. Conclusions. Tumour CTV should be based on individual tumour anatomy mainly for lateral beams as it results from sagittal T2 weighted MRI images. Boundaries of pelvic nodes CTVs can be derived from observations of enlarged lymph nodes in CT scans. (author)

  9. Recommendations for the target volume definition on dosimetry scanning in the oropharynx cancers; Recommandations pour la definition d'un volume cible sur scanographie dosimetrique dans les cancers de l'oropharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Gregoire, V. [Hopital Universitaire Saint Luc, Dept. d' Oncologie Radiotherapie et Lab. de Radiologie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    The oropharynx includes the base of tongue, tonsil pillars, soft palate, lateral and posterior wall of the hypopharynx. Tumors involving each part of these areas are often treated by external beam radiation therapy. The development of conformal approaches and the implementation of intensity modulated radiation therapy, combined with accurate definition of target volumes, endorsed by the international community, allows to propose guidelines for definition of target volumes. First of all imaging acquisition for dosimetry is reminded. For tumors involving the base of tongue and vallecula, early superficial tumors should be distinguished from tumors involving the muscles, indicating an increased margin defining the clinical target volume around the tumor to 1.5 cm. Tumors developed in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx should include constrictor muscles of the pharynx inside of the CTV. Tonsil carcinomas should be treated with a 1.5 cm margin around the tumor in the three dimensions. In spite of modern imaging, external beam treatment of tumors developed in the soft palate and in palatine arch remains difficult. The high rate of nodal involvement of these tumors and significant rates of bilateral extension have to be taken into consideration. Accurate criteria have been available to integrate a probability of bilateral extension in oropharynx 1 tumors. It should be analyzed according to the size of the tumor and the rate of extension in the base of the tongue and in the palatine arch. (authors)

  10. Absolute volume of the rectum and AUC from rectal DVH between 25Gy and 50Gy predict acute gastrointestinal toxicity with IG-IMRT in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjolet, Céline; Walker, Paul M; Gauthier, Mélanie; Dalban, Cécile; Naudy, Suzanne; Mazoyer, Frédéric; Martin, Etienne; Maingon, Philippe; Créhange, Gilles

    2016-11-04

    To determine whether dose/volume specific endpoints (DVSE) or Area under the rectal DVH curve (rAUC) better predict acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT in the era of daily image guidance (IG-IMRT). A set of DVSE was recorded from V25 to V75 (increments of 5Gy) (both in % and in cc) for 180 men. The rAUC was calculated for doses ranging between 25Gy and 50Gy (rAUC25-50). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between DVSE or rAUC25-50 and the appearance of any acute GI toxicity. The rates of acute grade 1 (G1), G2 and G3 GI toxicities were 53.3 %, 10.6 % and 1.1 %, respectively. No G4+ toxicity was observed. Rectal V25 to V75 expressed in % were not predictive of G ≥ 1 GI toxicity (p ≥ 0.12) whereas rectal V25 to V50 expressed in cc did correlate with GI toxicity G ≥ 1 (p ≤ 0.04). rAUC25-50 expressed in cc. Gy correlated significantly with the occurrence of any acute GI toxicity G ≥ 1 (p = 0.027). The absolute volume of the rectum between 25Gy and 50Gy and rAUC25-50 could significantly predict any acute rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with daily IG-IMRT.

  11. SU-E-J-83: CBCT Based Rectum and Bladder Dose Tracking in the Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Wang, J; Yang, Z; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to monitor the volume changes of bladder and rectum and evaluate the dosimetric changes of bladder and rectum using daily cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy. Methods: The data of this study were obtained from 12 patients, totally 222 CBCTs. All the volume of the bladder and the rectum on the CBCT were normalized to the bladder and the rectum on their own original CT to monitory the volume changes. To evaluate dose delivered to the OARs, volumes that receive 70Gy (V70Gy), 60Gy, 50Gy, 40Gy and 30Gy are calculated for the bladder and the rectum, V20Gy and V10Gy for rectum additionally. And the deviation of the mean dose to the bladder and the rectum are also chosen as the evaluation parameter. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the mean dose change of the volume change using SPSS 19. Results: The results show that the variances of the normalize volume of the bladder and the rectum are 0.15–0.58 and 0.13–0.50. The variances of V70Gy, V60Gy, V50Gy, V40Gy and V30Gy of bladder are bigger than rectum for 11 patients. The linear regression analysis indicated a negative correlation between the volume and the mean dose of the bladder (p < 0.05). A 10% increase in bladder volume will cause 5.1% (±4.3%) reduction in mean dose. Conclusion: The bladder volume change is more significant than that for rectum for the prostate cancer patient. The volume changes of rectum are not significant except air gap in the rectum. Bladder volume varies will cause significant dose change. The bladder volume monitoring before fractional treatment delivery would be crucial for accuracy dose delivery.

  12. Definition of the planning target volume of organs at risk (planning organ at risk volume, PRV) in case of radiotherapy of the ORL sphere; Definition d'un volume cible previsionnel d'organe a risque (Planning organ at risk volume, PRV) en cas de radiotherapie de la sphere ORL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvel, G.; Le Prise, E.; Williaume, D.; De Crevoisier, R. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Cazoulat, G.; Lafond, C.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; De Crevoisier, R. [Universite de Rennes 1 LTSI, 35 - Rennes (France); Inserm U642, 35 - Rennes (France); Li, B.S. [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan (China); Boisselier, P. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at quantifying anatomic variations of organs at risk and their dosimetric impact, and at computing appropriate margins around organs at risk to generate planning target volumes of organs at risk, representative of the dose delivered to organs at risk. Nine patients have been treated for a locally advanced ORL cancer by a concomitant combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, with weekly scanographies during the radiotherapy. Registration has been successfully performed according to three bone references. Volume modifications and motions have been computed to define the margins around three organs at risk. Short communication

  13. A comparative study of set up variations and bowel volumes in supine versus prone positions of patients treated with external beam radiation for carcinoma rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The prone position using BB device was more effective in reducing irradiated SB volume in rectal cancer patients. There were no significant variations in the daily set up for patients treated in both supine and prone positions.

  14. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prompt Healthier Eating Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Health Highlights: March 23, 2017 Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK ALL NEWS > Resources ... doctor does a sigmoidoscopy (a flexible tube is inserted into the anus to view the lower portion of the large intestine, the rectum, and ...

  15. Integration of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectrometry to the irradiation treatment plan for glioblastomas: definition of new target volumes; Integration de la spectrometrie par resonance magnetique tridimensionnelle au plan de traitement par irradiation des glioblastomes: definition de nouveaux volumes cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken, S.; Vieillevigne, L.; Cohen-Jonathan, E.M.; Laprie, A. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Ken, S.; Franceries, X.; Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Catalaa, I.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.; Laprie, A. [Inserm UMR 825 Imagerie cerebrale et handicaps neurologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Berry, I. [Departement de biophysique, centre hospitalier universitaire de Rangueil, 31 - Toulouse (France); Catalaa, I. [Departement de radiologie, centre hospitalier universitaire de Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2010-10-15

    Based on a clinic trial, the authors report the definition of a new reliable and reproducible method to delimit and integrate targets to the treatment plan which are specific to magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery for the radiotherapy of glioblastomas, in order to perform a treatment by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT). A weighted conventional MRI has been performed before radiotherapy. The importation of anatomic-metabolic images into the dose planning system comprises two steps: normalization on the whole volume of magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery, and segmentation of target volumes specific to spectrometry anomalies. This integration of target volumes is thus facilitated. Short communication

  16. Comparison of target volumes in radiotherapy defined on scanner and on PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the frame of head and neck cancers; Comparaison des volumes cibles en radiotherapie definis sur scanner et sur TEP-TDM au 18F FDG dans le cadre des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques De Figueiredo, B.; Barret, O.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France); Demeaux, H.; Maire, J.P.; Lagarde, P. [service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, Bordeaux, (France); Kantor, G.; Richau, P. [departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, Bordeaux, (France); De Mones Del Pujol, E. [service d' ORL, hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to study in a prospective way, in the frame of head and neck cancers, the impact of the positron computed tomography with {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-F.D.G.) on the limitation of target volumes in radiotherapy. In conclusions, the gross tumor volume (G.T.V.) defined on PET is smaller than this one defined on scanner, that could be interesting in radiotherapy, in the perspective of a dose escalation. In addition, areas of discordance exist between the clinical target volumes (C.T.V.70 and C.T.V.50) defined on PET and on scanner. These discordances, synonyms of under or over estimation of target volumes, could have important clinical consequences in term of local control and toxicity. (N.C.)

  17. Comparison of target volume defined by CT scanning and {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET for the radiotherapy of head and neck cancers; Comparaison des volumes cibles definis par scanographie et TEP- au [18F]-FDG pour la radiotherapie des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Barret, O.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Galland, S.; Demeaux, H. [Hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Lagarde, P.; Dejean, C.; Buj, S.; Richaud, P. [Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2009-10-15

    In spite of lack of correlation with anatomo-pathological pieces for these inoperable cancers, it seems that the PET allows to better adjust the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.70 Gy) by orienting, especially on the supplementary extension risks. Then, the reduction of the macroscopic tumor volume noticed in PET could be interesting in the case of a dose escalation. (N.C.)

  18. The morpho-PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. improves the definition of the target volume for the radiotherapy of child Hodgkin disease; Le morpho-TEP au 18F-FDG ameliore la definition du volume cible pour la radiotherapie des maladies de Hodgkin de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.; Courbon, F.; David, I.; Blouet, A.; Izar, F.; Rives, M.; Filleron, T.; Vial, J.; Laprie, A. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, Toulouse, (France); Robert, A. [CHU Toulouse, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to study the impact of PET-T.D.M. images re-timing before chemotherapy with these ones of dosimetric scanner ( post chemotherapy) on the target volume determination and their inter observers variability among children receiving a closing radiotherapy for a Hodgkin disease. Conclusions: the inter observers variability for the clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition is significantly reduced by the re-timing of initial PET-T.D.M. images on the ballistic scanner. This study illustrates the interest of the multidisciplinary cooperation between nuclear doctor and radiotherapist for the radiotherapy optimization. (N.C.)

  19. Cancer of the upper rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondeven, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Rectal cancer constitutes one-third of all colorectal cancers, and the incidence in Denmark increasing. In 2012, 1.400 cases were registered, and of these 38% were located in the upper rectum. There have been several key advances in the optimal management of rectal cancer during the past decades, primarily by standardisation and improvement of the surgical procedure. There is now general agreement that the optimal surgical treatment involves the concept of total mesorectal excision and that a resection with tumour-free margins is crucial. Controversy exists as to whether total mesorectal excision (TME) is necessary for upper rectal cancers or if a partial mesorectal excision (PME) with mesorectal transection 5 cm below the tumour is adequate. Furthermore, there is no agreement as to whether surgery alone is sufficient or whether neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy should be administered for tumours of the upper rectum. This thesis aims to discuss aspects of the treatment of rectal cancer with regard to the adequacy of mesorectal excision and oncological outcome with a particular focus on cancer of the upper rectum. In study I, the extent and completeness of mesorectal excision was estimated by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis in patients with primary surgery for rectal cancer. In the 136 patients with post-operative MRI, inadvertent residual mesorectal tissue was evident in 40%, especially following PME, suggesting suboptimal surgery performed. Additionally in patients who had PME, the distal margin was found to be less than 3 cm in more than 50% of patients, suggesting a discrepancy between guidelines and the actual surgery performed. In study II, we estimated the risk of local recurrence in the previously audited cohort of patients, with a particular focus on patients with upper rectal cancer treated by PME and without neo-adjuvant therapy as standard. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the total three-year local recurrence rate was 7% with

  20. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Colon and Rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In colon and rectum, adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare. 6 patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of colon and rectum were identified by Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from Jan. 1967 to Dec. 1997. 2 male and 4 female had a median age of 48 (range, 40- 60) years. All patients were treated surgically.

  1. Estimation of the mediastinal involvement probability in non-small cell lung cancer: a statistical definition of the clinical target volume for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy?; Estimation de la propabilite d'envahissement tumoral mediastinal: une definition statistique du volume-cible anatomoclinique pour la radiotherapie conformationnelle des cancers bronchiques non a petites cellules?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Dauphinot, C.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Rycke, Y. de [Institut Curie, Dept. de Biostatistiques, 75 - Paris (France); Minet, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiotherapie, Liege (Belgium); Danhier, S. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-12-01

    Purpose. - Conformal irradiation of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is largely based on a precise definition of the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn). The reduction of the number of nodal stations to be irradiated would render tumor dose escalation more achievable. The aim of this work was to design an mathematical tool based on documented data, that would predict the risk of metastatic involvement for each nodal station. Methods and material. - From the large surgical series published in the literature we looked at the main pre-treatment parameters that modify the risk of nodal invasion. The probability of involvement for the 17 nodal stations described by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) was computed from all these publications and then weighted according to the French epidemiological data. Starting from the primitive location of the tumour as the main characteristic, we built a probabilistic tree for each nodal station representing the risk distribution as a function of each tumor feature. From the statistical point of view, we used the inversion of probability trees method described by Weinstein and Feinberg. Results. -Taking into account all the different parameters of I the pre-treatment staging relative to each level of the ATS map brings up to 20,000 different combinations. The first chosen parameters in the tree were, depending on the tumour location, the histological classification, the metastatic stage, the nodal stage weighted in function of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic examination used (PET scan, CAT scan) and the tumoral stage. A software is proposed to compute a predicted probability of involvement of each nodal station for any given clinical presentation.Conclusion. -To better define the CTVn in NSCLC 3DRT, we propose a software that evaluates the mediastinal nodal involvement risk from easily accessible individual pretreatment parameters. (authors)

  2. [Laser palliative destruction of rectum carcinoma--case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladík, P; Simkovic, D

    2004-08-01

    The palliative treatment of developed primary or recurrent rectum carcinoma is still an important issue in treatment of this disease. The aim of the surgery is in such case to remove the tumorous obstacle and to prevent the development of ileus, to reduce pain, to limit the volume of tumorous tissue, to prevent bleeding and possible incontinence or mucous secretion. The transanal laser thermodestruction of the tumor represents one of the possible ways of palliative treatment of rectum carcinoma. The method is very considerate even for the high risk patients. On the other hand it requires a short-term hospitalization. The method of transanal laser evaporisation of carcinoma is also important from the ethical point of view: in many cases it may prevent the creation of palliative derivative colostomy. This fact is very important especially in patients with the terminal stage of the malign carcinoma because they live the rest of their lives in acceptable conditions. The important benefits are described in three case histories. The method is presented as an urgent surgery in solution of ileus which is based on tumorous rectum stenosis.

  3. The Combined Operation The Cancer Of The Rectum With Germination In Genital Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bobokulov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available  The Purpose of the study: define the indications and contraindications to, combined operation in locally invasive tumor of the rectum.The Material and methods of the study: we have analysed results combined operation in cancer of the rectum with germination in genital organs, performed in department of coloproctology in National Oncological Scientific centre during 2005-2009 years.Under observation were 118 women at age from 21 to 68 years.      This before 45 years - 26 patients, from 46 to 59 years - 54 patients, 60 and above years.The Results and their discussion: Postoperative complications suppurative-inflammatory character appeared beside 36 patients (30,5%, most of all after abdomeno - perineal extirpation of rectum (35,5% and abdominoanal resection of the rectum (33,3%. In lesser extend after front resection of the rectum and after operation Hartman (28,5% and 22,7%.The General lethality has formed 3,4%, have died after combined operation 4 patients from 118 operated patients.The Conclusion: thereby, brought data evident that such important factors, as frequency of the origin relapse (28%, 5-year probability of survival (37,1%, under combined interference and operation of the standard volume in the cancer of the rectum practically the same.

  4. Squamous cell cancer of the rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tara Dyson; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy. It appears to be associated with chronic inflammatory conditions and infections. The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum. The presentation is nonspecific and patients tend to present with advanced stage disease. Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion. Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins. Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy. At present, surgery remains the main therapeutic option; however recent advances have made chemoradiation a valuable therapeutic addition. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease. Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach. This review will examine and summarize the available information regarding this disease from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist.

  5. Preoperative treatment of rectum cancers; Traitement preoperatoire des cancers du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineur, L.; Serin, D.; Chauvet, B.; Reboul, F. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Molinari, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 30 - Nimes (France); Guyot, T. [Laboratoire Chugai, 75 - Paris (France); Ciornea, D. [Universite de la Medecine et Pharmacie GR.T.POPA, IASI, Dept. de la Radiotherapie-oncologie (Romania); Leignel, D.L.; Chapet, L.C.; Garaud, P.G.; Calais, G.C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Calan, L.D.C. de [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Trousseau, 37 - Tours (France); Viguier, J.V. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Trousseau, Service de Gastroenterologie, 37 - Tours (France); Boukerche, A.; Bechekat, C.; Dali-Youcef, A.F. [Service de Radiotherapie, Oran (Algeria); Larbaoui, B.; Djellali, L. [Service d' Oncologie Medicale, Oran (Algeria); Safir, A. [Service de Gastroenterologie, Oran (Algeria); Albarghach, M.N.; Malhaire, J.P.; Bouchekoua, M.; Muller, M.; Metges, J.P.; Pradier, O. [Departement de Cancerologie, 29 - Brest (France); Robaszkiewicz, M. [Departement de Gastroenterologie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2007-11-15

    Five articles treat the question of rectum carcinoma through a combined therapy that associates radiotherapy ( pre or post operative), chemotherapy (concomitant before surgery) and surgery. The local control is also considered. (N.C.)

  6. Neurenteric Cyst Presenting with Bleeding Per Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Taruna; Parmar, Padam; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2016-01-01

    Neurenteric cyst in the thoracic cavity may produce a myriad of clinical features. We report a 7-month-old girl who presented with significant bleeding per rectum. On imaging, a mediastinal cystic structure with air-fluid levels was evident with cervico-thoracic vertebral anomalies. The cyst was excised and histopathology showed intestinal mucosal lining with heterotopic pancreatic tissue confirming the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst.

  7. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Gastric heterotopia of rectum: a rare entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jamira; Cabezuelo, Lourdes; Rodrigues, Adriano; Costa, Nascimento; Cipriano, Maria Augusta

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa is an extremely rare condition; in the anorectal region only a very few cases were described up to now. The authors report a case of a 46-year-old woman, asymptomatic, to whom a massive recess was discovered in the rectum, at 12 cm of the anal verge; a bottom flat lesion with 1.5 cm of diameter revealed a focus of normal appearing fundic-type gastric mucosa at histology.

  9. Bladder–Rectum Spacer Balloon in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Cervix Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Patel, Firuza D., E-mail: firuzapatel@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Chakraborty, Santam; Sharma, Suresh C.; Kapoor, Rakesh [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Aprem, Abi Santhosh [Corporate R and D Division, HLL Lifecare Limited, Karamana, Trivandrum (India)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To compare bladder and rectum doses with the use of a bladder–rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus standard gauze packing in the same patient receiving 2 high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy fractions. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized study to compare the reduction in bladder and rectum doses with the use of a BRSB compared with standard gauze packing in patients with carcinoma of the cervix being treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The patients were randomized between 2 arms. In arm A, vaginal packing was done with standard gauze packing in the first application, and BRSB was used in the second application. Arm B was the reverse of arm A. The International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses and doses to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, 2-cm{sup 3}, 5-cm{sup 3}, and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes of bladder and rectum were compared. The patients were also subjectively assessed for the ease of application and the time taken for application. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled; however, 3 patients had to be excluded because the BRSB could not be inserted owing to unfavorable local anatomy. Thus 40 patients (80 plans) were evaluated. The application was difficult in 3 patients with BRSB, and in 2 patients with BRSB the application time was prolonged. There was no significant difference in bladder doses to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, 5 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and ICRU bladder point. Statistically significant dose reductions to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, and 2-cm{sup 3} volumes for rectum were observed with the BRSB. No significant differences in 5-cm{sup 3} and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes and ICRU rectum point were observed. Conclusion: A statistically significant dose reduction was observed for small high-dose volumes in rectum with the BRSB. The doses to bladder were comparable for BRSB and gauze packing. Transparent balloons of

  10. Neuroendocrine Cancer of Rectum Metastasizing to Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sapna Vinit; Kumaran, Aswathy; Bharatnur, Sunanda; Vasudeva, Akhila; Udupa, Kartik; Venkateshiah, Dinesh Bangalore; Bhat, Shaila T.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare malignancies that originate from the hormone-producing cells of the body's neuroendocrine system. Rectal high grade NEC (HG-NEC) constituting less than 1% of colorectal cancers can cause large ovarian metastasis that may be the initial presenting complaint. Ovarian Krukenberg tumor from a primary rectal HG-NEC is a very unusual and exceedingly uncommon differential diagnosis for secondary ovarian malignancy. This case report describes one such extremely rare case of a woman who had presented to the gynecology department with features suggestive of ovarian malignancy and was ultimately diagnosed to have Krukenberg tumor originating from neuroendocrine cancer of rectum. We felt this is a good opportunity to spread more light on neuroendocrine neoplasms that are very rare in gynecological practice. PMID:27293931

  11. Dosimetric and volumetric changes in the rectum and bladder in patients receiving CBCT-guided prostate IMRT: analysis based on daily CBCT dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Gill, Sukhdeep K; Campbell, Nina; Reddy, Krishna

    2016-11-08

    Delivered dose can be calculated by transferring the planned treatment beams onto the daily CBCT. Bladder and rectum volumetric doses were calculated and cor-related to the daily bladder and rectum fullness. Patients for this study underwent hypofractionated prostate IMRT to 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Daily CBCT was utilized for image guidance. A clinically acceptable plan was created using a CTV-to-PTV uniform margin of 5 mm. Image fusion was performed to transfer the bladder and rectum contours onto each CBCT. Contours were then edited to match the anatomy of each CBCT. Using the daily treatment isocenter, the planned beams were transferred onto the CBCT and daily and cumulative DVHs calculated. For the results a total of 168 daily CBCTs were evaluated. The bladder was found to be smaller for 74.7% of the 168 daily CBCTs accessed in this study. This reduction in volume correlated to an increase in the cumulative bladder V70 Gy from 9.47% on the planning CT to 10.99% during treatment. V70Gy for the rectum was 7.27% on the planning CT, when all six patients were averaged, and increased to 11.56% on the average of all daily treatment CBCTs. Increases in volumetric rectum dose correlated with increases in rectal volume. For one patient, the rectum and blad-der absolute V70 Gy, averaged over the course of treatment, increased by 295% and 61%, respectively. Larger variations in the daily bladder and rectal volume were observed and these correlated to large deviations from the volumetric dose received by these structures. In summary, bladder and rectum volume changes during treatment have an effect on the cumulative dose received by these organs. It was observed that the volumetric dose received by the bladder decreases as the volume of the bladder increases. The inverse was true for the rectum.

  12. Etude de la structure interne du nucleon en diffusion profondement inelastique de muons sur cibles fixes.

    CERN Document Server

    Granier, Thierry

    Dans ce mémoire est présentée l'analyse, dans le but de l'extraction des fonctions de structure, d'une partie des données de diffusion profondément inélastique de muons sur cibles fixes d'hydrogène et de detérium obtenues dans l'expérience NMC (New Muon Collaboration) du CERN. Les fonctions de structure, à partir desquelles s'exprime la probabilité de diffusion à un certain angle et une certaine énergie, contiennent de l'information sur la structure interne du nucléon, plus précisément sur la distribution en énergie des quarks à l'intérieur de celui-ci. L'étude de la variation des fonctions de structure avec le degré d'inélasticité de la diffusion permet de tester la validité de la chromodynamique quantique, la théorie de jauge des interactions fortes

  13. Variation in target and rectum dose due to prostate deformation: an assessment by repeated MR imaging and treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E M; Put, R W van der; Raaymakers, B W; Heide, U A van der; Vulpen, M van; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: E.Kerkhof@umcutrecht.nl

    2008-10-21

    In daily clinical practice, implanted fiducial markers are used to correct for prostate motion, but not for prostate deformation. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in target and rectum dose due to the deformation of the prostate gland (without seminal vesicles). Therefore, we performed five to six MRI scans of eight healthy volunteers that exhibited large variation in rectal volume and thus prostate deformation. Prostate motion was corrected by a mask-based rigid registration which uses the delineation as well as the internal structures of the prostate gland. Per MRI scan, one IMRT plan with a PTV margin of 4 mm was created, resulting in 41 IMRT plans. The dose distribution of the IMRT plan based on the MRI scan with the minimum rectal volume was applied to the other rigidly registered MRI scans to evaluate the impact of prostate deformation. In conclusion, pre-treatment planning on the minimum rectal volume can cause a fraction dose increase (up to 15%) to the rectum due to prostate deformation. The impact on the total dose increase to the rectum depends on the intrapatient rectum variation during treatment, but is negligible with the currently used PTV margins in a fractionated treatment.

  14. Variation in target and rectum dose due to prostate deformation: an assessment by repeated MR imaging and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, E. M.; van der Put, R. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.; van der Heide, U. A.; van Vulpen, M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2008-10-01

    In daily clinical practice, implanted fiducial markers are used to correct for prostate motion, but not for prostate deformation. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in target and rectum dose due to the deformation of the prostate gland (without seminal vesicles). Therefore, we performed five to six MRI scans of eight healthy volunteers that exhibited large variation in rectal volume and thus prostate deformation. Prostate motion was corrected by a mask-based rigid registration which uses the delineation as well as the internal structures of the prostate gland. Per MRI scan, one IMRT plan with a PTV margin of 4 mm was created, resulting in 41 IMRT plans. The dose distribution of the IMRT plan based on the MRI scan with the minimum rectal volume was applied to the other rigidly registered MRI scans to evaluate the impact of prostate deformation. In conclusion, pre-treatment planning on the minimum rectal volume can cause a fraction dose increase (up to 15%) to the rectum due to prostate deformation. The impact on the total dose increase to the rectum depends on the intrapatient rectum variation during treatment, but is negligible with the currently used PTV margins in a fractionated treatment.

  15. Variation in target and rectum dose due to prostate deformation: an assessment by repeated MR imaging and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, E M; van der Put, R W; Raaymakers, B W; van der Heide, U A; van Vulpen, M; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-10-21

    In daily clinical practice, implanted fiducial markers are used to correct for prostate motion, but not for prostate deformation. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in target and rectum dose due to the deformation of the prostate gland (without seminal vesicles). Therefore, we performed five to six MRI scans of eight healthy volunteers that exhibited large variation in rectal volume and thus prostate deformation. Prostate motion was corrected by a mask-based rigid registration which uses the delineation as well as the internal structures of the prostate gland. Per MRI scan, one IMRT plan with a PTV margin of 4 mm was created, resulting in 41 IMRT plans. The dose distribution of the IMRT plan based on the MRI scan with the minimum rectal volume was applied to the other rigidly registered MRI scans to evaluate the impact of prostate deformation. In conclusion, pre-treatment planning on the minimum rectal volume can cause a fraction dose increase (up to 15%) to the rectum due to prostate deformation. The impact on the total dose increase to the rectum depends on the intrapatient rectum variation during treatment, but is negligible with the currently used PTV margins in a fractionated treatment.

  16. Interactive and scale invariant segmentation of the rectum/sigmoid via user-defined templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Tobias; Egger, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Among all types of cancer, gynecological malignancies belong to the 4th most frequent type of cancer among women. Besides chemotherapy and external beam radiation, brachytherapy is the standard procedure for the treatment of these malignancies. In the progress of treatment planning, localization of the tumor as the target volume and adjacent organs of risks by segmentation is crucial to accomplish an optimal radiation distribution to the tumor while simultaneously preserving healthy tissue. Segmentation is performed manually and represents a time-consuming task in clinical daily routine. This study focuses on the segmentation of the rectum/sigmoid colon as an Organ-At-Risk in gynecological brachytherapy. The proposed segmentation method uses an interactive, graph-based segmentation scheme with a user-defined template. The scheme creates a directed two dimensional graph, followed by the minimal cost closed set computation on the graph, resulting in an outlining of the rectum. The graphs outline is dynamically adapted to the last calculated cut. Evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentations of the rectum/sigmoid colon to results achieved with the proposed method. The comparison of the algorithmic to manual results yielded to a Dice Similarity Coefficient value of 83.85+/-4.08%, in comparison to 83.97+/-8.08% for the comparison of two manual segmentations of the same physician. Utilizing the proposed methodology resulted in a median time of 128 seconds per dataset, compared to 300 seconds needed for pure manual segmentation.

  17. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for the locally advanced rectum cancer; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante dans le cancer du rectum localement evolue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haoui, M.; Aksil, N.; Boualga, K.; Moussaoui, D.; Ladj, O. [Service de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre anti-cancer, Blida (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at assessing the use of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, its tolerance and its feasibility in the case of a locally advanced rectum cancer. Based on data obtained among 62 patients presenting a rectum cancer, they analyse the results in terms of tolerance (cases of leukopenia, anemia, diarrhea, radiodermatitis), of relapses, and survival. Toxicity is acceptable and the concomitant treatment renders the tumour operable in many cases. Short communication

  18. Distinct effects of rectum delineation methods in 3D-confromal vs. IMRT treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dose distribution to the rectum, delineated as solid organ, rectal wall and rectal surface, in 3D conformal (3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT planning for localized prostate cancer was evaluated. Materials and methods In a retrospective planning study 3-field, 4-field and IMRT treatment plans were analyzed for ten patients with localized prostate cancer. The dose to the rectum was evaluated based on dose-volume histograms of 1 the entire rectal volume (DVH 2 manually delineated rectal wall (DWH 3 rectal wall with 3 mm wall thickness (DWH3 4 and the rectal surface (DSH. The influence of the rectal filling and of the seminal vesicles' anatomy on these dose parameters was investigated. A literature review of the dose-volume relationship for late rectal toxicity was conducted. Results In 3D-CRT (3-field and 4-field the dose parameters differed most in the mid-dose region: the DWH showed significantly lower doses to the rectum (8.7% ± 4.2% compared to the DWH3 and the DSH. In IMRT the differences between dose parameters were larger in comparison with 3D-CRT. Differences were statistically significant between DVH and all other dose parameters and between DWH and DSH. Mean doses were increased by 23.6% ± 8.7% in the DSH compared to the DVH in the mid-dose region. Furthermore, both the rectal filling and the anatomy of the seminal vesicles influenced the relationship between the dose parameters: a significant correlation of the difference between DVH and DWH and the rectal volume was seen in IMRT treatment. Discussion The method of delineating the rectum significantly influenced the dose representation in the dose-volume histogram. This effect was pronounced in IMRT treatment planning compared to 3D-CRT. For integration of dose-volume parameters from the literature into clinical practice these results have to be considered.

  19. Is tissue harmonic ultrasound imaging (THI) of the prostatic urethra and rectum superior to brightness (B) mode imaging? An observer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet K; Angyalfi, Steve; Dunscombe, Peter B; Khan, Rao F

    2014-09-01

    Quality ultrasound images are an essential part of prostate brachytherapy procedure. The authors have previously reported that tissue harmonic ultrasound images (THI) are superior to brightness (B) mode for the prostate. The objective of the current study was to compare both imaging modes for visualization of the prostatic urethra and rectum. B and THI mode transrectal ultrasound images were acquired for ten patients. The prostatic urethra and rectal wall were contoured by a radiation oncologist (RO) and five observers on randomly presented images. The contours on one patient were repeated four additional times by four observers. All the images were qualitatively scored using a five-level Likert scale. The values of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients showed that the observers were in close agreement with the RO. Two sample paired student t-test showed that the rectum volumes with THI were significantly smaller than B-mode, but no significant difference for urethra. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant observer variability in defining the rectum and urethra in both imaging modes. Observer consistency of the rectum volumes, estimated by standard deviations as percentages of means was significantly improved for THI. The Likert scale based qualitative assessment supported quantitative observations. The significant improvement in image quality of the prostate (reported previously) and rectum with THI may offer better-quality treatment plans for prostate brachytherapy and potential improvement in local control. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. La cible d’inflation de la Fed : continuité ou rupture ?

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Le 25 janvier 2012 la Réserve fédérale des États-Unis présidée par Ben Bernanke a annoncé une cible d’inflation de 2 % pourtant écartée sous la présidence précédente d’Alan Greenspan. Comment et pourquoi la Fed a-t-elle changé ses préférences ? Comment la Fed justifie-t-elle sa décision ? Pour répondre à ces questions, l’approche de la littérature sur la communication des banques centrales est utilisée. À la façon de Meade (2010), Meade et Thornton (2012), les transcriptions des réunions du F...

  1. Crohn's Disease of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, William J

    2015-12-01

    There is no cure for Crohn disease. Newer treatments, such as biological therapy, have led to an improved quality of life. This article focuses on the surgical management of Crohn disease of the colon, rectum, and anus. Restorative and nonrestorative surgical options for colonic Crohn disease are discussed. Treatment options for perianal Crohn disease are also reviewed.

  2. Rectum perforation during transanal irrigation: a case story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bing, J; Berggreen, P;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: Report a case of rectum perforation during transanal irrigation (TAI). SETTING: Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, and Departments of Gastroenterological Surgery and Radiology. CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old woman with spinal cord lesion for 35 years emptied for y...

  3. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the sigmoid colon and rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkert, Willem; Dimcevski, Georg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    if dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the referred somatic skin area or in the large bowel, i.e., viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. We measured skin sensitivity in the referred area of the sigmoid colon as well as stimulus-response relationships in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The latter were...... measured using mechanical (balloon) distension applied via a Barostat in 11 dysmenorrhoea patients without gastro-intestinal complaints and 10 healthy and age matched women, again without gastrointestinal complaints. We found no skin hypersensitivity in the colonic referred area. In contrast, significantly...... lower distension volumes were seen at each threshold in dysmenorrhoea patients, particularly in the sigmoid colon. The mean reduction in colonic distension volume thresholds for dysmenorrhoea patients vs. controls was 57% at the detection threshold and 39% at the pain threshold. There were...

  4. Water enema CT examination of rectum cancer by reduced amount of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.; Gyulai, Cs.; Fedinecz, N. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Radiology; Balogh, A. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Surgery; Nagy, F. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Faculty of General Medicine

    2000-11-01

    To define whether volume of water, administered during water enema CT (WE-CT) for local staging of rectal cancer, may be reduced without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with rectum cancer underwent preoperative WE-CT. Contrast-enhanced CT (equilibrium phase) measurements were performed after i.v. injection of smooth muscle relaxant and rectal administration of 400 - 500 ml lukewarm tap water. Quality of the obtained scans was evaluated and the images were analyzed for depth of tumor invasion. Results of the CT examinations were compared to findings at surgery. Results: Despite reduced dose of water enema, 19/29 examinations were of excellent quality, 6/29 good, and 4/29 poor, but still diagnostic. We achieved sensitivity (90.1), specificity (70.1) and accuracy (86.2) in differentiating tumors confined to the bowel wall from those extending beyond it. Conclusion: Large volume of water enema administered during CT examination of the rectum may cause complaints and increases the risk of complications. Our results prove that using lower amount of water does not impair the quality of examination and accuracy of local staging of rectum carcinomas. (orig.) [German] Beurteilen, ob die in der Hydro-CT (H-CT) rektal applizierte Wassermenge reduziert werden kann, ohne den diagnostischen Wert der Untersuchung im lokal-Staging des Rektumkarzinoms zu mindern. Material und Methode: 29 Patienten mit Rektumkarzinom wurden praeoperativ mit H-CT untersucht. Nach i.v. Praemedikation zur Darmparalyse wurden rektal ca. 400 - 500 ml lauwarmes Wasser appliziert, und i.v. kontrastverstaerkte CT-Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Die Qualitaet der CT-Scans und die Tiefe der invasion des Tumors in die Darmwand wurden analysiert. Die computertomographischen Befunde wurden mit den Operationsbefunden verglichen. Ergebnisse: Trotz der reduzierten Menge des Einlaufswassers, 19/29 Untersuchungen hatten ausgezeichnete, 6/29 gute, und 4/29 schwache

  5. A multi-organ biomechanical model to analyze prostate deformation due to large deformation of the rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristy K.; Ménard, Cynthia; Hensel, Jennifer; Jaffray, David A.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal receiver coil (ERC) provides superior visualization of the prostate gland and its surrounding anatomy at the expense of large anatomical deformation. The ability to correct for this deformation is critical to integrate the MR images into the CT-based treatment planning for radiotherapy. The ability to quantify and understand the physiological motion due to large changes in rectal filling can also improve the precision of image-guided procedures. The purpose of this study was to understand the biomechanical relationship between the prostate, rectum, and bladder using a finite element-based multi-organ deformable image registration method, 'Morfeus' developed at our institution. Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Gold seed markers were implanted in the prostate and MR scans performed with the ERC in place and its surrounding balloon inflated to varying volumes (0-100cc). The prostate, bladder, and rectum were then delineated, converted into finite element models, and assigned appropriate material properties. Morfeus was used to assign surface interfaces between the adjacent organs and deform the bladder and rectum from one position to another, obtaining the position of the prostate through finite element analysis. This approach achieves sub-voxel accuracy of image co-registration in the context of a large ERC deformation, while providing a biomechanical understanding of the multi-organ physiological relationship between the prostate, bladder, and rectum. The development of a deformable registration strategy is essential to integrate the superior information offered in MR images into the treatment planning process.

  6. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlShalabi; Fadi Obaied Alahmar; Hazem Aljasem; Bayan Alsaid; Abdulghani AlShalabi

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal appr...

  7. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma. PMID:27429825

  8. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar AlShalabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17×12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  9. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the rectum: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Myung Jin; Noh, Kyung Hee; Jeon, Doo Sung; Lee, Kwang Min [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ectopic prostatic tissue (EPT) outside the male genitourinary tract is an unusual finding, and it is very rarely found in the rectum or around the peri-rectal region. In addition, the radiologic features of EPT are seldom reported. Also, it is difficult to differentiate EPT found in the rectal subepithelium from the other types of subepithelial tumors. We present here a unique case of EPT found in the retrorectal region, along with the radiologic findings of transrectal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with their pathologic correlations.

  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of rectum- a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.Kate

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is an uncommon neoplasm of GI tract with rectum being rare site. Biopsy of the lesion and immunohistochemistry (IHC confirms the diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is the principal curative procedure. Chemotherapy with Imatinib alone show cure in intermediate risk rectal GIST. We describe a case of a 45-year-old male with per rectal bleeding and generalized weakness. CT scan revealed rectal mass with metastasis in the right lobe of the liver. Rectal biopsy revealed intermediate grade tumor GIST which was confirmed on IHC (CD117 and CD34. Imatinib chemotherapy alone had good symptomatic improvement at 4 months of follow up.

  11. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellnast, Helmut [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Comparative Pathology (United States); Ezell, Paula C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Research Animal Resource Center (United States); Single, Gordon [AngioDynamics Inc. (United States); Maybody, Majid [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Weiser, Martin R.; Fong Yuman [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7-15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  12. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard of the management of rectal cancer in the middle and lower parts is low anterior resection with coloanal anastomosis. About 50% of the patients undergoing this procedure might experience some complications because of the low capacity of the neorectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate ileal J-pouch interposition as a neorectum between the anal canal and the remaining colon in comparison to coloanal anastomosis and transverse coloplasty. Methods: Twelve dogs, weighing 23-27 kg, were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, the volume of the primary rectum was measured so that it could be compared with that of the neorectum at the end of the study. After rectal resection in Group A, the colon was directly anastomosed to the anus. In Group B, a 5-cm longitudinal incision was made 2 cm proximal to the anastomosis and was sutured transversely (coloplasty. In Group C, a 5-cm ileal J-pouch was interposed between the colon and anus. After 8 weeks, the neorectum was evaluated for volume, radiology, and pathology. Results: All the samples were alive until the end of the study. The healing of the anastomotic lines was acceptable (pathologically in all. The mean volume expansion was 20.9% in Group A, 21.7% in Group B, and 118.2% in Group C, with the latter being significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.03. Colon J-pouch and coloplasty after proctectomy in some situations have not been performable. This study evaluated the performance of ileal J-pouch interposition. Conclusion: This study showed that ileal J-pouch interposition might produce an acceptable reservoir function and that it seems feasible and safe in selected cases. Please cite this article as: Ghahramani L, Yazdani S, Derakhshani S, Rezaianzadeh A, Jalli R, Geramizadeh B, Safarpour AR, Rahimikazerooni S, Hosseini SV. Interposition of Ileal J-Pouch for Rectum Reconstruction in Dog. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:117-122.

  13. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the rectum and prostate: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kadyrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the Russian and foreign literature on chronic inflammatory diseases of the rectum and chronic prostatitis. The universally known anatomic and vascular relationships of the prostate and rectum indicate that there is a correlation of the development of chronic prostatitis and rectal diseases.

  14. GIANT SPLENIC ARTERY PSEUDO ANEURYSM MASQUERADING AS BLEEDING PER RECTUM - A RARE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Splenic artery aneurysm are rare entity, we report a c ase of 40 year old male presenting with hypovolemic shock and massive bleeding per rectum secondary to spleenic artery aneurysm rupture into the colon. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and definitive procedure was done KEY WORDS: Splenic artery an eurysm 1: shock 2 : bleeding per rectum 3: chronic pancreatitis;

  15. SU-E-J-103: Propagation of Rectum and Bladder Contours for Tandem and Ring (T&R) HDR Treatment Using Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y; Chao, M; Sheu, R; Dumane, V; Gupta, V; Lo, Y [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using DIR to propagate the manually contoured rectum and bladder from the 1st insertion to the new CT images on subsequent insertions and evaluate the segmentation performance. Methods: Ten cervical cancer patients, who were treated by T&R brachytherapy in 3–4 insertions, were retrospectively collected. In each insertion, rectum and bladder were manually delineated on the planning CT by a physicist and verified by a radiation oncologist. Using VelocityAI (Velocity Medical Solutions, Atlanta, GA), a rigid registration was firstly employed to match the bony structures between the first insertion and each of the following insertions, then a multi-pass B-spine DIR was carried out to further map the sub volume that encompasses rectum and bladder. The resultant deformation fields propagated contours, and dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to quantitatively evaluate the agreement between the propagated contours and the manually-delineated organs. For the 3rd insertion, we also evaluated if the segmentation performance could be improved by propagating the contours from the most recent insertion, i.e., the 2nd insertion. Results: On average, the contour propagation took about 1 minute. The average and standard deviation of DSC over all insertions and patients was 0.67±0.10 (range: 0.44–0.81) for rectum, and 0.78±0.07 (range: 0.63–0.87) for bladder. For the 3rd insertion, propagating contours from the 2nd insertion could improve the segmentation performance in terms of DSC from 0.63±0.10 to 0.72±0.08 for rectum, and from 0.77±0.07 to 0.79±0.06 for bladder. A Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that the improvement was statistically significant for rectum (p = 0.004). Conclusion: The preliminary results demonstrate that deformable image registration could efficiently and accurately propagate rectum and bladder contours between CT images in different T&R brachytherapy fractions. We are incorporating the propagated

  16. Melanoma of the rectum:A rare entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PM van Schaik; MF Ernst; HA Meijer; K Bosscha

    2008-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with a 6-mo history of changed defecation and rectal bleeding.A 3-cm polypoid tumor of the lower rectum was found at rectosigmoidoscopy,which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma upon biopsy.Dissemination studies did not show any metastases.He was underwent to an abdomino-perineal resection(APR).Histopathology of the specimen showed a melanoma (S-100 stain positive).Two years after the resection,metastases in the abdomen and right lung were found.He died one and half years later.Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare and very aggressive disorder.According to current data,one should always perform a S-100 stain when anorectal sarcoma is suspected.A positive S-100 stain suggests the turnout to be most likely a melanoma.Subsequently,thorough dissemination studies need to be performed.Depending on the outcome of the dissemination studies,a surgical resection has to be performed.Nowadays,a sphincter-saving local excision combined with adjuvant loco-regional radiotherapy should be preferred in case of small tumors.The same loco-regional control is achieved with less "loss of function" compared to non-sphincter roving surgery.Only in the case of large and obstructing tumors an abdomino-perineal resection is the treatment of choice.

  17. Optimization of Radiation Therapy Techniques for Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Rectum Spacers: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Intégré de Cancérologie de Laval, Centre de Santé et de Services Sociaux de Laval, Laval, Québec (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radiation Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Benz, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Vallee, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Zilli@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-10-01

    Dose-escalated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer improves disease control but is also associated with worse rectal toxicity. A spacer placed between the prostate and rectum can be used to displace the anterior rectal wall outside of the high-dose radiation regions and potentially minimize radiation-induced rectal toxicity. This systematic review focuses on the published data regarding the different types of commercially available prostate-rectum spacers. Dosimetric results and preliminary clinical data using prostate-rectum spacers in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by curative radiation therapy are compared and discussed.

  18. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  19. Treatment of Prolapse of Rectum with Acupuncture Combined with TCM Drugs in 38 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景芳; 李铁成; 黄彦彬

    2003-01-01

    @@ Prolapse of rectum is usually seen in children and senior citizens. By means of acupuncture combined with TCM drugs, the authors have treated 38 cases of the disorder, and achieved good therapeutic effects. This is reported as follows.

  20. Recent advances in the management of carcinoma of the rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somprakas Basu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Somprakas Basu, Vivek Srivastava, Vijay K ShuklaDepartment of General Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, IndiaAbstract: In the last two decades rectal cancer has changed from a surgically managed disease into a multidisciplinary treatment model resulting in considerable improvements in the survival and outcome. This has been made possible by better understanding of the tumor biology and oncogenesis, advances in diagnostic and staging investigations, and the changing concepts in surgical excision; from the days of abdominoperineal resection to the concept of “zone of upward spread” and low anterior resection to the era of total mesorectal excision and transanal excision. Efforts are on the way to risk stratification and identification of predictors of nonoperative management. Impressive advances in the adjuvant therapies have seen a sea change in the form of postoperative radiotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. This multidisciplinary approach is the key to impressive local control rates, decreased metastatic rates, overall survival, and enhancement in quality of life. Newer ideas in the understanding of genetic differences in rectal cancers have stemmed from the observation that these cancers differ in their response to the adjuvant treatment. The present day research has focused these areas of biologic differences in cancers and aims to target the specific loci in malignant cells with monoclonal antibodies directed against various growth factors, key enzyme inhibition, and genetic manipulation. The future research lies in the study of gene expression, micro-array techniques, molecular markers, and better understanding of the predictors of tumor response to therapy.Keywords: carcinoma of the rectum, recent advances, neoadjuvant therapy, total mesorectal excision, chemoradiation

  1. Dose evaluation of organs at risk (OAR) cervical cancer using dose volume histogram (DVH) on brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Wibowo, R.; Haris, Bambang; Inganatul Islamiyah, dan

    2017-05-01

    Brachytherapy is one way to cure cervical cancer. It works by placing a radioactive source near the tumor. However, there are some healthy tissues or organs at risk (OAR) such as bladder and rectum which received radiation also. This study aims to evaluate the radiation dose of the bladder and rectum. There were 12 total radiation dose data of the bladder and rectum obtained from patients’ brachytherapy. The dose of cervix for all patients was 6 Gy. Two-dimensional calculation of the radiation dose was based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) points or called DICRU while the 3-dimensional calculation derived from Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) on a volume of 2 cc (D2cc). The radiation dose of bladder and rectum from both methods were analysed using independent t test. The mean DICRU of bladder was 4.33730 Gy and its D2cc was4.78090 Gy. DICRU and D2cc bladder did not differ significantly (p = 0.144). The mean DICRU of rectum was 3.57980 Gy and 4.58670 Gy for D2cc. The mean DICRU of rectum differed significantly from D2cc of rectum (p = 0.000). The three-dimensional method radiation dose of the bladder and rectum was higher than the two-dimensional method with ratios 1.10227 for bladder and 1.28127 for rectum. The radiation dose of the bladder and rectum was still below the tolerance dose. Two-dimensional calculation of the bladder and rectum dose was lower than three-dimension which was more accurate due to its calculation at the whole volume of the organs.

  2. Morpho-histochemistry of the distal intestines and rectum of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the farmed African catfish distal intestines and rectum was investigated. The samples were dissected out and the tissue slices were passed through graded ethanol, cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. Grossly, the intestine was subdivided into proximal, middle, distal and rectal regions based on palpable thickness and diameter of the regions. No intestino-rectal valve was observed; hence the rectum was not well defined. The histology revealed the presence of tunica mucosa of simple columnar cells, lamina propria of collagen fibres and muscularis mucosae of smooth muscle fibres; submucosa of loose connective tissues and blood vessels; tunica muscularis of smooth muscles in an inner circular and outer longitudinal arrangement; and a serosa in all regions except the rectum and anus that presented tunica adventitia. The mucosal folds were fingerlike to orange leaf shaped ingrowths into the lumen on a transverse section. They decreased in complexity and height but increased in width towards the rectum. The lining epithelium of the intestinal tract was comprised of the absorptive simple columnar cells containing goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Some rectal simple columnar epithelium contained supranuclear vacuoles while others contained non-vacuolated cytoplasm. The goblet cells contained neutral and acid mucins, and increased in number progressively towards the rectum. The anal tunica muscularis contained mostly skeletal muscles.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER FUNCTION AND LENGTH OF REMAINING RECTUM AFTER RESECTING RECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xiaowei

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between internal anal sphincter function and length of remaining rectum after resecting rectal carcinoma. Methods: Preoperatively,21 patients were evaluated via patients' clinical date,including anal resting pressure (resting pressure) assay.Six months postoperatively, repeated manometric studies and clinical evaluations were performed to assess the level of continence. The formula use for calculating postoperative resting pressure is as follows: postoperative resting pressure=0.42×preoperative resting pressure+1.56×length of remaining recturm+12.37 (R2=0.58; P<0.01).Degree of continence was graded based on severity of the dysfunction and grade of the continence score. Results:It was demonstrated the patients with low postoperative resting pressures (<4.0 Kpa) had incontinence, and those with high postoperative resting pressures (>4.7 Kpa) were continent. There were significant correlations between length of the remaining rectum and ratio of the decrease in maximum resting pressure (postoperative/preoperative maximum resting pressure; r=0.62; P<0.01). Conclusion:Continence of rectum is influenced by maximum resting pressure of function of the internal anal sphincter, length of remaining rectum is shorter, the more damage to the internal anal sphincter. It is able to foretell stool incontinence by using the postoperative resting pressure formula, and to determine the length of the remaining rectum.

  4. Gastric heterotopia in rectum: A literature review and its diagnostic pitfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Vareedayah, Ashley A.; Phillips, Nancy J; Hachem, Christine; Lai, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The term heterotopia, in pathology, refers to the presence of normal tissues at foreign sites. Gastric heterotopia has been reported anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of gastric heterotopia in the rectum is very rare. Methods: We, here, report a rare case of a localized 2-cm area of cratered mucosa with heaped-up borders in the rectum of a 51-year-old, asymptomatic woman who underwent screening colonoscopy. Results: Histologic examination of the biopsy from the lesional tissue in rectum demonstrated fragments of rectal mucosa co-mingling with oxyntic- and antral-type gastric mucosa. No intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori is identified. Conclusion: Patients with gastric heterotopia in rectum usually present with bleeding and/or abdominal pain. Definite treatment of choice is surgical or endoscopic resection, although the lesions also respond to histamine-2 receptor blockers. In this article, most recent literature about gastric heterotopia in rectum is reviewed, following a case presentation about it. PMID:28321304

  5. Gastric heterotopia in rectum: A literature review and its diagnostic pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Dinarvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The term heterotopia, in pathology, refers to the presence of normal tissues at foreign sites. Gastric heterotopia has been reported anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of gastric heterotopia in the rectum is very rare. Methods: We, here, report a rare case of a localized 2-cm area of cratered mucosa with heaped-up borders in the rectum of a 51-year-old, asymptomatic woman who underwent screening colonoscopy. Results: Histologic examination of the biopsy from the lesional tissue in rectum demonstrated fragments of rectal mucosa co-mingling with oxyntic- and antral-type gastric mucosa. No intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori is identified. Conclusion: Patients with gastric heterotopia in rectum usually present with bleeding and/or abdominal pain. Definite treatment of choice is surgical or endoscopic resection, although the lesions also respond to histamine-2 receptor blockers. In this article, most recent literature about gastric heterotopia in rectum is reviewed, following a case presentation about it.

  6. Dose Effect Relationship for Late Side Effects of the Rectum and Urinary Bladder in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, Petra, E-mail: petra.georg@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Doerr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To establish dose-response relationships for late side effects of the rectum and bladder in cervix cancer patients after magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 141 patients was treated with 45 to 50.4 Gy with or without cisplatin plus 4 fractions of 7 Gy IGABT. Doses for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1-cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 0.1cc}) volumes of the rectum and bladder were converted into the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2), using a linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed (using late effects in normal tissues subjective, objective, management and analytic [LENT SOMA]) scales. Dose-response relationships were determined by logit analyses. Results: Eleven patients developed rectal side effects, and 23 patients had urinary side effects. A significant dose effect was found for all rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for patients with side effect grades of 1 to 4 but was only significant for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} for grades {>=}2. The ED10 values for D{sub 2cc} were 73 Gy for grades 1 to 4 and 78 Gy for grades 2 to 4 rectal morbidity. For bladder side effects, a significant dose effect was shown for all DVH parameters for complication grades {>=}2; the respective ED10 was 101 Gy. Conclusions: Well-defined dose-response curves could be established for D{sub 2cc} in the rectum and the urinary bladder.

  7. An unconventional therapeutic approach to a migratory IUD causing perforation of the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace W; Yuen, Andrew; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; de Montbrun, Sandra

    2016-02-02

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are a commonly used form of contraception. The risk of perforation and migration of these devices have been reported to be 1 in 1000. Migration into the rectum is even more uncommon. The following case illustrates a previously healthy 37-year-old woman who experienced a perforation and migration of an IUD into the rectum necessitating endoscopic removal. To our knowledge, this complication of IUD and subsequent endoscopic removal has not been previously described and presents a viable first-line therapeutic option in a stable patient.

  8. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D [Cancer Care of Western New York, Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site.

  9. Endocavitary radiotherapy of rectal tumours; Endokavitaer straalebehandling ved distale rectum tumorers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanum, G.; Wiig, J. [Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Sentralsykehuset i Akershus, Loerenskog (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The authors describe their experience of endocavitary radiotherapy of adenomas and carcinomas of the lower rectum. The method is an alternative for patients who cannot undergo standard surgical procedure or do no want a permanent colostomy. This method is cheap, fast and causes little discomfort to the patients, gives reasonable long-term results and has low morbidity. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Primary CD56+ NK/T-cell lymphoma of the rectum accompanied with refractory ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kazuki; Inoue, Takuya; Nishikawa, Takashi; Ishida, Kumi; Kawakami, Ken; Kuramoto, Takanori; Abe, Yosuke; Morita, Eijiro; Murano, Naoko; Toshina, Ken; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Umegaki, Eiji; Egashira, Yutaro; Okuda, Junji; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Hirata, Ichiro; Katsu, Ken-Ichi; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2008-01-01

    A case of primary NK/T-cell lymphoma of the rectum accompanied with ulcerative colitis (UC) in a 73-year-old man is reported. He had a 6-year history of repeated admission to our hospital for UC. Total colonoscopy performed 4 months after resolution of refractory UC complicated by cytomegalovirus colitis showed a markedly submucosal tumor in the rectum, which was histologically diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. The findings of computed tomography of the chest and abdomen, gallium scintigraphy, abdominal ultrasonography, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed no abnormal lesions. Therefore, based on a diagnosis of localized rectal lymphoma with UC, proctocolectomy was performed. The resected specimen showed three submucosal tumors in the rectum with local nodal involvement. Histologically, the tumors were characterized by diffusely infiltrating sheets of large atypical lymphoid cells, which were negative for CD4, CD8, and CD20 but were positive for CD56, CD3, and granzyme B. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in neoplastic cells was shown by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded early small RNA1 (EBER-1). Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with primary CD56+ NK/T-cell lymphoma of the rectum (stage IIE). This is the first case report of primary rectal NK/T-cell lymphoma accompanied with UC.

  11. Primært planocellulært karcinom i rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matlub, Karam; Qvist, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum is rare. It presents clinically as other types of colorectal cancer and the treatment is primarily surgery. The pathogenesis is unclear, but several hypotheses have been suggested, including human papilloma virus infection. Gynaecological...

  12. [A Case of MALT Lymphoma of the Rectum Treated with Intersphincteric Resection (ISR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Tomohisa; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-11-01

    A 60-year-old woman visited a local hospital complaining of melena. On colonoscopy, she was found to have 2 tumors in the lower rectum, each of approximately 10 mm in diameter. A biopsy of the tumors indicated MALT lymphoma, and the patient was referred to our hospital. We performed intersphincteric resection (ISR) with lymph node dissection according to the guidelines for the treatment of rectal cancer for 2 reasons. One reason was that eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori was not effective in this case, and we needed to obtain an accurate histopathological diagnosis as to whether the patient had diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The other reason was that it was localized disease in the rectum, and that curative resection could be performed. MALT lymphoma of the rectum occurs frequently in the lower rectum and has a relatively good prognosis. It is important to consider the quality of life when selecting an operative method. ISR is thought to be a good option.

  13. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for advanced polyps and early cancers in the rectum-Long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Rancinger, Carl Philip; Larsen, Morten Kobaek;

    2016-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows for the resection of large adenomas and early stage cancers in the rectum. The rate of complications and recurrence for malignant tumors compared with benign tumors has been questioned.The objective of our study was to analyze the outcome after TEM p...

  14. SOLITARY VILLO ADENOMATOUS POLYP WITH CARCINOMATOUS CHANGES – RECTUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available olitary villo-adenomatous polyp in the rectum with focal dysplastic changes involving both adenomatous and villous component is very uncommon. This 60 year old male patient presented with intermittent hematochezia. Colonoscopy did not reveal any other polypoidal lesion in the colon.

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound for staging of colonic cancer proximal to the rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    proximal to the rectum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men and women with colonic adenocarcinomas were included in the study. EUS staging was compared to histopathology as the gold standard. Outcome measures were T- and N-staging accuracies. Articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library...

  16. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for advanced polyps and early cancers in the rectum-Long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Rancinger, Carl Philip; Larsen, Morten Kobaek

    2016-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows for the resection of large adenomas and early stage cancers in the rectum. The rate of complications and recurrence for malignant tumors compared with benign tumors has been questioned.The objective of our study was to analyze the outcome after TEM p...

  17. Conservative management of tumors of the rectum by radiotherapy and local excision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despretz, J.; Otmezguine, Y.; Grimard, L.; Calitchi, E.; Julien, M. (CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil (France))

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-five patients with invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum were treated by preoperative external irradiation (35 Gy), local excision, and peroperative placement of a plastic tube loop in the tumor bed for perioperative brachytherapy (20 or 25 Gy). Patients treated were too frail for radical resection (14 patients) or had refused a permanent colostomy (11 patients). With a mean follow-up of 40.5 months, there have been 5 patients with local relapse, 3 of whom had salvage abdominoperineal resections: 2 have no evidence of disease and 1 has developed distant metastatic disease. The 20 patients with local control have normally functioning sphincters; 1 has developed distant metastatic disease. This combined approach was designed to expand the curative role of local resection in carcinoma of the rectum. The surgical techniques are thoroughly described and the potential role and indications of this approach are discussed.

  18. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...... healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... the within-day reproducibility. CEPs were averaged, and to overcome latency variation related to jitter the spectral content of single sweeps was also computed. KEY RESULTS: Repeated stimulation of the anal canal generated CEPs with similar latencies but smaller amplitudes compared to those from the rectum...

  19. [Duplication of the anus and rectum in an adult. Report of 1 case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labastida Muñoz, H; Tamayo Pérez, R; Corichi Barceinas, R

    1978-01-01

    It is reported a case of duplication of the anus and rectum. A 48 year old man, had two functioning rectae, one ending in its normal anatomical topography and the functioning but nor functional supernumerary rectum exteriorized in the left gluteal region trough a rudimentary anus. Histological studys demonstrated a rudimentary sphincter in the ectopic anus, and focal carcinamotous transformation of one of the four adenomatous polyps, encountered protruding through the normally located anus. The anal anomaly was associated with partial agenesis of the sacrum, absence of coccyx, sacral anterior meningomyelocele and hypoplasia of the twelve right rib. The frequency of the anomaly, its histology and embriology, as well as its classification within the malformations of the terminal gut, were revised in the medical bibliography. It is concluded that this type of anomaly has not been classified or describe, before.

  20. Transverse colon perforation due to carcinoma rectum: an unusual presentation against Laplace's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Anil; Jaiswal, Sunil; C, Basavaraja

    2013-08-16

    We present a case of distal large bowel obstruction, in the setting of a competent ileocaecal valve, the caecum is the most common site of perforation (for Laplace's law). We describe a case of obstruction at the rectum due to constricting carcinomatous growth, presenting with perforation of transverse colon (against Laplace's law). A 60-year-old women presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. The pain was preceded by 3 days of intestinal obstruction. Clinically there was guarding and rigidity. Straight X-ray of the abdomen revealed free gas under diaphragm. Surgical exploration revealed transverse colon perforation with carcinoma of rectum. Loop transverse colostomy was performed as the patient was very sick. The patient improved slowly in the intensive care unit. To conclude, even though the caecum is the most common site for perforation in case of distal obstruction, perforation of transverse colon can occur otherwise as a unique presentation.

  1. Abdominoendorectal resection with peranal anastomosis in the treatment of radiation injuries of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, S.; Girona, J.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1974-1980 39 patients underwent operations at the Prosper Hospital in Recklinghausen for radiation injuries to the rectum or rectosigmoid. They comprised 22 patients with rectovaginal fistulas, 6 with ulcers, 3 suffering from severe hemorrhagic proctitis, 5 with rectal strictures, 1 with necrosis, and 2 with radiation ulcers and carcinoma. A sphincter-saving operative method of treating postirradiation damage of the rectum is presented. The technique involves the peranal anastomosis of healthy colon to the midanal canal using a sleeve anastomosis. Technical and functional results of resectional surgery for the rectal complications of radiation therapy are reported. Subjectively, total continence was present in 78%, only 1 patient was incontinent because of flatus and watery stools.

  2. Post-traumatic pelvic deformity with old injuries of rectum and urogenital tract: 18-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Runkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors described a case of management the severe combined pelvis trauma in female patient with 18 years follow-up. At the age of seven, the patient was injured: the open vertical unstable pelvis injury with severe damage of urogenital tract and rectum. Numerous operations on the pelvic organs without surgical treatment of pelvic ring fractures were accompanied by complications. At the age of 21 (14 years later the patient was subjected to the surgery according to the techniques designed in the Chaklin Ural Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics: percutaneous osteotomy of posterior and anterior pelvis, external pelvis fixation using circular device with a further gradual (within 1.5 months correction of the deformity with apparatus and subsequent internal fixation with screws. There were achieved partially elimination of shortening of the right lower limb, correction of the pelvic ring form, increasing the pelvic cavity volume, elimination of vaginal impingement, that allowed to correct urological problems with the possibility of further recovery of the vagina and hip replacement surgery. This case showed that the management of patients with complicated pelvis injuries required a multidisciplinary approach: emergency fixation of the unstable injuries and application of techniques to correct long-standing pelvis deformities to restore stability and shape of the pelvic ring, which created the more favorable conditions for reconstructive surgery of the pelvic organs.

  3. Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-03-14

    To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies.

  4. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Neil; Ahmad, Sumair; Bhuiyan, Khaled; Catalano, Carmine; Alkhawam, Hassan; Sogomonian, Robert; Nguyen, James; Walfish, Aaron; Aron, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is a rare occurrence with an incidence rate of 0.1-0.25% per 1,000 cases. Herein, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of diffuse lower abdominal pain and hematochezia. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 7-cm irregular rectal mass, and the biopsy showed SCC.

  5. Characterization of rectum-colon cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itengré Ouédraogo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the recent advances in the medicine field which permit a better diagnosis and to establish treatments in early stages of the diseases, the colon and rectum cancer have shown an ascendant curve line in terms of incidence and mortality worldwide. There is an incidence around 11 000 new cases per year in Cuba, and it constituted the third cause of death in Cienfuegos province from 1988 to 1997. Objectives: To characterize the colon and rectum cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study carried out at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city, Cuba in order to characterize these kinds of cancer from 1995 to 2000. 221 patients were under studied after being surgically treated in the General and Colon Proctology Service with a diagnosis of colon and rectum neoplasia during those years. Data were obtained from the clinical records and biopsy reports. This work is just the first parte of the investigation, that's the reason complications and mortality are not mentioned at all. Results: there is a higher frequency of occurrence in the female patients and in patients older than 60 years although a 5 % of the cases were 40 years old or younger. The most frequent site was the rectum and hemorrhage was the most predominant clinical manifestation. The adenocarcinoma was presented in 90.5% and the highest per cent of the cases were diagnosed in B and C Duke's stage. Surgery was applied with curative intention in the majority of the patients meanwhile palliative surgery was predominant in the cases with occlusive clinical form. There were patients in C Duke´s stage that did not received chemotherapy treatment.

  6. Diffuse Cavernous Hemangioma of the Penis, Scrotum, Perineum, and Rectum - A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body. Genital hemangioma involving the entire penis and scrotum are extremely rare. More rarely they can extend in to the pelvis making preoperative imaging imperative and decisive in treatment. Very few cases have been reported in the medical literature. Hereby, a rare cavernous hemangioma that involves the entire penis, scrotum and extends into perineum and rectum in an 18-year-old male is presented with review of literature.

  7. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Vyas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the rectum is a rare occurrence with an incidence rate of 0.1–0.25% per 1,000 cases. Herein, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of diffuse lower abdominal pain and hematochezia. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 7-cm irregular rectal mass, and the biopsy showed SCC.

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Neil; Ahmad, Sumair; Bhuiyan, Khaled; Catalano, Carmine; Alkhawam, Hassan; Sogomonian, Robert; Nguyen, James; Walfish, Aaron; Aron, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is a rare occurrence with an incidence rate of 0.1–0.25% per 1,000 cases. Herein, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of diffuse lower abdominal pain and hematochezia. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 7-cm irregular rectal mass, and the biopsy showed SCC. PMID:27406458

  9. Morphology of the epithelium of the lower rectum and the anal canal in the adult human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Kaoruko; Akashi, Yuichi; Kawahara, Katsunobu; Shimada, Tatsuo

    2012-06-01

    The anal canal is an important body part clinically. However, there is no agreement about the epithelium of the anal canal, the anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium in particular. The aim of this study is to clarify the structure of the epithelium of the human lower rectum and anal canal. Intact rectum and anus obtained from patients who underwent surgery for rectal carcinoma were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM). By LM, three types of epithelium were observed in the anal canal: simple columnar epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium. The lower rectum was composed of simple columnar epithelium. SEM findings showed stratified squamous epithelium that consisted of squamous cells with microridges, changing to simple columnar epithelium consisting of columnar cells with short microvilli at the anorectal line. LM and SEM observations in a one-to-one ratio revealed that the area of stratified columnar epithelium based on LM corresponded to the anal crypt and sinus. In conclusion, the epithelium of the human anal canal was fundamentally composed of simple columnar epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium. We found no evidence of the ATZ.

  10. [Intramural nervous apparatus of jejunum and rectum in experimental portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaĭvoronskiĭ, I V; Tikhonova, L P; Chepur, S V; Nichiporuk, G I

    2004-01-01

    Using histological and electron microscopical methods, the state of intramural nervous structures of jejunum and rectum was studied in 92 dogs with experimental portal hypertension. Three phases of changes of portal pressure were detected and its influence upon the intramural nervous apparatus was observed. In phase 1 (first 4-5 days after the surgery) the reactive changes of the nervous apparatus were shown that were more pronounced in jejunum. In phase 2 (day 5 to 2.5 months) the portal pressure was shown to drop; this was accompanied by some signs of regeneration in jejunum and by an aggravation of destructive processes in rectum. In phase 3 of the repeated rise of portal pressure (2.5 to 6.5 months after the surgery), destructive changes in the nervous apparatus were demonstrated that were similar to those found in phase 1. However, the differences in the reaction of nervous structures in different layers of intestinal tube and the heterogeneity of the changes of the nervous apparatus in jejunum and rectum were absent. The association of time of appearance and of severity of structural changes with the elevation of portal pressure suggests the significant role of vascular factor in the morphogenesis of alterations observed in phase 3 of hemodynamic changes.

  11. Stem cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Report of two cases and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvio, D H; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kløve-Mogensen, M

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of highly malignant tumors, one originating in the sigmoid colon and the other in the rectum, are presented. Both tumors showed light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical evidence of multidirectional differentiation. The tumors were composed mainly of undifferentia...

  12. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, D. R.; Mazique, J. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance.

  13. Kaposi’s Sarcoma of the Rectum in a Homosexual Male with HIV-AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautsch, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Visceral involvement in AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma is common, but it is rarely seen in the absence of cutaneous disease. Most patients with gastrointestinal tract Kaposi’s sarcoma remain asymptomatic and are often diagnosed on endoscopy or autopsy. We report a case of a 24-year-old homosexual man who presented with rectal pain and bleeding and was found to have skin-sparing, disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma with rectum, liver, lungs, and lymph node involvement. Despite treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, he developed multiorgan failure resulting in death. PMID:28119943

  14. Transmural Migration of a Retained Sponge Through the Rectum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Veli Özkan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge in the abdomen following abdominal and pelvic surgery is an uncommon condition. Here we present a case of retained surgical sponge with unusual presenting symptoms. A 27-year old female patient presented to our department with a foreign body localized in the anal region. She had a past history of a myomectomy 1 year earlier. Clinical examination and radiographic workout revealaed a sponge migrating towards the rectum. The sponge was removed under visual guidance of rectoscopy without laparotomy. The patient was discharged without complications.

  15. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K

    healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... showed reproducibility with ICCs for all bands >0.8 and corresponding CVs potentials evoked from the anal canal are challenged by latency jitter likely related to variability in muscle tone due to the distensions. Using single-sweep analysis, anal CEPs proved...

  16. Internal hemorrhoids - their typical radiological appearance and differential diagnosis to carcinoma of rectum and anus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Koester, R.

    1984-11-01

    The main indication for colon barium enema examination is occult bleeding or bleeding noticed by the patient himself. The radiologist has to take into account all clinical details that could lead to bleeding and to document them. The most frequent causes of rectal bleeding are hemorrhoids and diverticulosis/itis which in marked cases may have a tumor-like appearance. A good double-contrast examination of the colon must not only exclude tumors, polyps or inflammatary diseases but also demonstrate other causes of bleeding. The presented paper describes typical roentgen signs and gives criteria to differentiate hemorrhoids from deeply situated cancer of the rectum or anus.

  17. Fibroadenoma of the breast in a man associated with adenocarcinoma of the rectum and polyposis coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibelli, Z H; Yildirim, M; Ozan, E; Oztekin, O; Kucukzeybek, B

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenoma of the breast is an uncommon cause of breast lumps in men. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, the majority of which were prescribed estrogen. We present herein the first case of a fibroadenoma of the breast in a 68-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of the rectum and polyposis coli. In this case, there was neither estrogen treatment nor any other medications which have been discussed in the literature as inducing fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas in men without hormone treatment and with normal hormone levels are extremely rare and the developmental mechanism of the breast fibroadenoma in this man is under question.

  18. [Functional disorders of the rectum and pelvic floor. Ambulatory/conservative therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J U; Jongen, J

    1997-01-01

    Early diagnosed functional disorders of the ano-rectum or pelvic floor can be treated in the office by conservative treatment or out-patient surgery. The normal anatomy of the anal canal must be restituted by reducing enlarged haemorrhoids, removing a prolapse of the anterior rectal wall with rubber-band ligation, excision of chronic fissures and prolapsing tumours. The basic therapy then consists of normalisation of bowel habits and stool consistency. An anal stenosis must be dilated. Training of the sphincter, gymnastics of the pelvic floor, electrostimulation and biofeedback are the therapy for the sphincter and pelvic floor insufficiency.

  19. [Progress in the early diagnosis of cancer of the colon and rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, N; Roset, J; Boffi, A; Ferrara, J B; Galano, A; Albertengo, J C

    1978-09-01

    Our experience with the air contrast examination in the cancer of colon and rectum diagnoses is showed. The colaboration among radiologist, endoscopist, pathologist and surgeon is important. In the large bowel tumors diagnosis, the radiologic and endoscopic prodedures should be evaluated together. The double colonic contrast has showed in our experience, better results than with the barium enema. Over 31 patients with both studies, we obtained 13 false negatives (with barium enema, doing then the double colonic contrast became positive 12 (92.4%).

  20. Segmenting the prostate and rectum in CT imagery using anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Lovelock, D Michael; Radke, Richard J

    2011-02-01

    The automatic segmentation of the prostate and rectum from 3D computed tomography (CT) images is still a challenging problem, and is critical for image-guided therapy applications. We present a new, automatic segmentation algorithm based on deformable organ models built from previously segmented training data. The major contributions of this work are a new segmentation cost function based on a Bayesian framework that incorporates anatomical constraints from surrounding bones and a new appearance model that learns a nonparametric distribution of the intensity histograms inside and outside organ contours. We report segmentation results on 185 datasets of the prostate site, demonstrating improved performance over previous models.

  1. Preoperative combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil suppository and radiation for carcinoma of the rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizusawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Toshio (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1983-10-01

    Twelve cases of carcinoma of the rectum were treated preoperatively by combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository (100 mg twice a day consecutively, a total dose of more than 4,000 mg) and irradiation (300 rad x 3/week, a total dose of 3,000 rad). This group was compared with 34 cases given single preoperative 5-FU therapy and 24 control cases given no preoperative adjuvant modality. The group treated by preoperative combination therapy showed marked antitumor effects macroscopically and histologically. In addition, decrease in local recurrence was expected for this group, compared with the other two groups.

  2. Clinical Fusobacterium mortiferum Isolates Cluster with Undifferentiated Clostridium rectum Species Based on 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo

    2016-05-01

    The most commonly encountered clinical Fusobacterium species are F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum; other Fusobacteria, such as F. mortiferum and F. varium, have occasionally been isolated from human specimens. Clostridium rectum is a gram-positive species characterized as a straight bacillus with oval sub-terminal spores. The close 16S rRNA gene sequence relationship of C. rectum with the genus Fusobacterium is unexpected given their very different phenotypic characteristics. Between 2014 and 2015, a total of 19 Fusobacterium isolates were recovered from the colonic tissue of 10 patients at a university hospital. All isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic relationship among these isolates was estimated using the neighbor-joining method and the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA) version 6. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the F. mortiferum isolates clustered into two groups - F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) and F. mortiferum ATCC 25557 (group II) - even though they are of the same species. Furthermore, the F. mortiferum DSM 19809 (group I) showed a close phylogenetic relationship with C. rectum, even though C. rectum is classified as a gram-positive spore-producing bacillus. C. rectum is clearly unrelated to the genus Clostridium as it shows highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species from the genus Fusobacterium Therefore, additional methods such as Gram staining and other biochemical methods should be performed for Fusobacterium identification.

  3. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid-Tissue Lymphoma of the Cecum and Rectum: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung Jin; Park, Sung Chan; Hong, Chang Won; Han, Kyung Su; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    A colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue (MALT) lymphoma is relatively rare compared to lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. We present a case of a MALT lymphoma in the cecum and rectum found during screening colonoscopy. A 54-year-old female, who had undergone right-breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection due to an invasive ductal carcinoma and a left-breast excisional biopsy due to microcalcification following adjuvant chemoradiation therapy 3 years earlier, was found to have 3-mm-sized smooth elevated lesions in both the cecum and rectum. No pathologic lesion or lymphadenopathy was found at any other site, but chronic gastritis negative for Helicobacter pylori infection was found. The polyps were removed by using an endoscopic biopsy and revealed an extra nodal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma, showing positive for CD3 and CD20 by immunohistochemical staining. The patient underwent close observation without any additional treatment and has shown no evidence of recurrence as of her last visit. PMID:28289662

  4. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Rectum Presenting with Extensive Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Minocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rectal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC is a poorly differentiated neoplasm that is very rare and belongs within the poorest prognostic subgroup among primary colorectal neoplasms. Here, we describe a case of LCNEC of the rectum, which highlights the aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis associated with this disease. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 63-year-old male who presented to our hospital with a one-month history of lower abdominal pain, constipation, and weight loss. A computed tomography (CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis revealed a rectal mass as well as metastatic disease of the liver and lung. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a fungating, ulcerated and partially obstructing rectal mass located 6 cm from the anal verge. This mass was biopsied and pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed features consistent with a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Conclusion. Rectal large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and have a significantly worse prognosis than adenocarcinomas. At diagnosis, a higher stage and metastatic disease are likely to be found. It is important to differentiate large cell, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas from adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum pathologically because patients may benefit from alternative cytotoxic chemotherapeutic regimens.

  5. Scintillating fiber based in-vivo dose monitoring system to the rectum in proton therapy of prostate cancer: A Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniam Yohannes Tesfamicael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To construct a dose monitoring system based on an endorectal balloon coupled to thin scintillating fibers to study the dose to the rectum in proton therapy of prostate cancer.Method: A Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used to simulate the proton therapy of prostate cancer, with an endorectal balloon and a set of scintillating fibers for immobilization and dosimetry measurements, respectively.Results: A linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered was observed to within less than 2%. Results obtained show that fibers close to the prostate recorded higher dose, with the closest fiber recording about one-third of the dose to the target. A 1/r2 (r is defined as center-to-center distance between the prostate and the fibers decrease was observed as one goes toward the frontal and distal regions. A very low dose was recorded by the fibers beneath the balloon which is a clear indication that the overall volume of the rectal wall that is exposed to a higher dose is relatively minimized. Further analysis showed a relatively linear relationship between the dose to the target and the dose to the top fibers (total 17, with a slope of (-0.07 ± 0.07 at large number of events per degree of rotation of the modulator wheel (i.e., dose.Conclusion: Thin (1 mm × 1 mm, long (1 m scintillating fibers were found to be ideal for real time in-vivo dose measurement to the rectum during proton therapy of prostate cancer. The linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered makes them good candidates as dosimeters. With thorough calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the target and the dose to the fibers, such dosimeters can be used for real time dose verification to the target.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Tesfamicael BY, Avery S, Gueye P, Lyons D, Mahesh M. Scintillating fiber based in-vivo dose monitoring system to the rectum in proton therapy of prostate cancer: A Geant4 Monte Carlo

  6. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the anus and rectum: first case report of endoscopic submucosal dissection and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, Federico; Gotoda, Takuji; Elisei, Walter; Rigato, Patrizia; Montagnese, Fabrizio; Saito, Yutaka; Costamagna, Guido; Iacopini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) is the most reported epithelial heterotopia, but it is very rare in the rectum and anus. Methods: The first case of an asymptomatic adult male with a large nonpolypoid HGM in the low rectum underwent complete resection by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is reported. The systematic review was based on a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar. Studies on humans were identified with the term ‘heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum and /or anus.’ Results: The search identified 79 citations, and 72 cases were evaluated comprising the present report. Congenital malformations were observed in 17 (24%) patients; rectal duplication accounted for most of the cases. The HGM was located in the anus and perineal rectum in 25 cases (41%) and low, middle and proximal pelvic rectum in 20 (33%), five (8%) and 11 cases (18%), respectively. Morphology was nonpolypoid in 37 cases (51%), polypoid in 26 cases (36%) and ulcerated in nine cases (13%). Specific anorectal symptoms were reported by 50 (69%) patients of the whole study population, and by 33 (97%) of 34 patients ≤ 18 years. Complications were observed in 23 cases (32%). The HGM was excised in 50 cases (83%). Endoscopic resection was performed in 17 cases (34%); resection was piecemeal in five of 12 lesions ≥15 mm, required argon plasma coagulation in two cases and was associated with residual tissue in two (17%). Intestinal metaplasia and an adenoma with low-grade dysplasia were described in three adults (4%). Discussion: This systematic review shows that the HGM in the rectum and anus may be associated with specific rectal symptoms and serious complications, mainly in the pediatric population, and a risk of malignancy in adults. Its complete excision should be recommended, and the ESD can overcome the technical limits of conventional endoscopic snare resection and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27103738

  7. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  8. Culture-Independent Evaluation of the Appendix and Rectum Microbiomes in Children with and without Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Katherine P.; Fraser, Claire M.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samples. Methods We collected appendix and rectal swabs from 21 children undergoing appendectomy, six with normal appendices and fifteen with appendicitis (nine perforated). After DNA extraction, we amplified and sequenced 16S rRNA genes and analyzed sequences using CLoVR. We identified organisms differing in relative abundance using ANOVA (pappendicitis vs. normal), and disease severity (perforated vs. non-perforated). Results We identified 290 taxa in the study's samples. Three taxa were significantly increased in normal appendices vs. normal rectal samples: Fusibacter (p = 0.009), Selenomonas (p = 0.026), and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.049). Five taxa were increased in abundance in normal vs. diseased appendices: Paenibacillaceae (p = 0.005), Acidobacteriaceae GP4 (p = 0.019), Pseudonocardinae (p = 0.019), Bergeyella (p = 0.019) and Rhizobium (p = 0.045). Twelve taxa were increased in the appendices of appendicitis patients vs. normal appendix: Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.0003), Bilophila (p = 0.0004), Bulleidia (p = 0.012), Fusobacterium (p = 0.018), Parvimonas (p = 0.003), Mogibacterium (p = 0.012), Aminobacterium (p = 0.019), Proteus (p = 0.028), Actinomycineae (p = 0.028), Anaerovorax (p = 0.041), Anaerofilum (p = 0.045), Porphyromonas (p = 0.010). Five taxa were increased in appendices in patients with perforated vs. nonperforated appendicitis: Bulleidia (p = 0.004), Fusibacter (p = 0.005), Prevotella (p = 0.021), Porphyromonas (p = 0.030), Dialister (p = 0.035). Three taxa were increased in rectum samples of patients with

  9. [Comparative research of traumatic injury of open hand-assisted laparoscopic anterior resection of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitar'yan, A G; Glumov, E E; Veliev, K S

    2015-01-01

    The article made a comparative assessment of traumatic injury of open hand-assisted laparoscopic anterior resection of the rectum in lateral and spinal positions. The presented technique of hand-assisted laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery is simple. There are advantages in case of obesity presence (IMT more than 30 kg/m2), in significant shortening of the mesocolon and mesentery, high fixation of splenic flexure and intimate fixation of the spleen, in case of bad preparation of the bowels in partial intestinal obstruction or in case of emergency operation, big cancer size, expressed perifocal inflammation. A comparative analysis of dynamics of hormone stress content and metabolism (cortisol, adrenaline, thyrothrophic hormone) showed their expressed increase in blood during operation after traditional surgery. Less stressed reaction was noted after hand-assisted surgery, especially in overweight patients. An application of low invasive method allowed reduction of hemorrhage, pain syndrome, terms of patient's activation and restoration of intestinal motility after operation.

  10. Metastatic Deposits of Breast Lobular Carcinoma to Small Bowel and Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eljabu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women accounting for approximately 32% of all cancers, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 10. It causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, the survival rate has dramatically increased due to early detection of the disease and improvement in the treatment measures. However, more than 30% of the patients develop metastatic diseases following surgical treatment, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, or chemotherapy. Distant spread is usually found in bones, lungs, liver, brain and skin. Rarely, it spreads to bowel, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas, urinary bladder, and eyes. Breast cancer is the second commonest primary tumour responsible for gastrointestinal metastases after malignant melanoma. We report a case of a Caucasian female who developed an intestinal obstruction secondary to metastatic deposits to the small bowel and later to the rectum from breast lobular carcinoma 2 years after mastectomy, axillary clearance, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap for reconstruction.

  11. Dieulafoy's Lesions of the Rectum: A Rare Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieulafoy's lesions located outside of the stomach are rare occurrences. Lesions found within the colon typically present with painless, massive hematochezia (ie, greater than 5 U. If they can be accurately located, endoscopic therapy in the form of adrenaline injection, sclerotherapy or cauterization appears to have long term success. The present report details the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with massive hematochezia and who was discovered to have a Dieulafoy's lesion within the rectum. The lesion was located just distal to a previous surgical anastomosis, and was successfully treated with adrenaline and electrocautery. Colonic Dieulafoy's lesions are rare but should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of massive hematochezia, because endoscopic therapy appears to result in complete cessation of bleeding.

  12. Filiform serrated adenomatous polyposis arising in a diverted rectum of an inflammatory bowel disease patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Mogensen, Anne Mellon; Jespersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    during the adenoma carcinoma sequence included the acquisition of CK7 expression in the malignant portion. Gastric mucin may play a role in the initial step of the neoplastic evolution and CK7 may denote neoplastic progression. This case confirms the notion of a widely variegated morphology of precursor......Klarskov L, Mogensen AM, Jespersen N, Ingeholm P, Holck S. Filiform serrated adenomatous polyposis arising in a diverted rectum of an inflammatory bowel disease patient. APMIS 2011; 119: 393-8. A 54-year-old man, previously colectomized for inflammatory bowel disease, developed carcinoma...... of flat dysplasia. Although a combined gastric and intestinal (positivity for MUC5AC, MUC2, MUC6, CDX2) immunoprofile characterized the adenomatous component, a downregulation of the gastric mucin along with a loss of the serrated attribute accompanied the malignant transformation. An added dynamic shift...

  13. Atropine-sensitive, tetrodotoxin-resistant contraction induced by noradrenaline in isolated cat rectum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neya,Toshiaki

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of noradrenaline (NA on the isolated rectal circular muscle of the cats were studied in comparison with the effects on the internal anal sphincter (IAS. NA (10(-8-10(-7 g/ml caused tonic contraction in four of 15 strips of the rectum taken from 15 animals, and in all 15 strips of the IAS. Phenylephrine also induced rectal and IAS contraction. Rectal contraction induced by NA was resistant to phentolamine, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by atropine. IAS contraction induced by NA was resistant to propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by phentolamine and yohimbine. It is suggested that an atropine-sensitive excitatory adrenergic mechanism other than the excitatory alpha-adrenergic mechanism exists in the rectal circular muscle.

  14. Culture-independent evaluation of the appendix and rectum microbiomes in children with and without appendicitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope T Jackson

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samples. METHODS: We collected appendix and rectal swabs from 21 children undergoing appendectomy, six with normal appendices and fifteen with appendicitis (nine perforated. After DNA extraction, we amplified and sequenced 16S rRNA genes and analyzed sequences using CLoVR. We identified organisms differing in relative abundance using ANOVA (p<0.05 by location (appendix vs. rectum, disease (appendicitis vs. normal, and disease severity (perforated vs. non-perforated. RESULTS: We identified 290 taxa in the study's samples. Three taxa were significantly increased in normal appendices vs. normal rectal samples: Fusibacter (p = 0.009, Selenomonas (p = 0.026, and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.049. Five taxa were increased in abundance in normal vs. diseased appendices: Paenibacillaceae (p = 0.005, Acidobacteriaceae GP4 (p = 0.019, Pseudonocardinae (p = 0.019, Bergeyella (p = 0.019 and Rhizobium (p = 0.045. Twelve taxa were increased in the appendices of appendicitis patients vs. normal appendix: Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.0003, Bilophila (p = 0.0004, Bulleidia (p = 0.012, Fusobacterium (p = 0.018, Parvimonas (p = 0.003, Mogibacterium (p = 0.012, Aminobacterium (p = 0.019, Proteus (p = 0.028, Actinomycineae (p = 0.028, Anaerovorax (p = 0.041, Anaerofilum (p = 0.045, Porphyromonas (p = 0.010. Five taxa were increased in appendices in patients with perforated vs. nonperforated appendicitis: Bulleidia (p = 0.004, Fusibacter (p = 0.005, Prevotella (p = 0.021, Porphyromonas (p = 0.030, Dialister (p = 0.035. Three taxa were

  15. Electrical stimulation structurally affects the tissues of the rectum and anus of nulliparous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Hugo Alves; Silva, Maria da Glória da; Barbosa, Keyla de Paula; Vianna, Leonora Maciel de Souza; Pacheco, Yolanda Galindo; de Godoy, José Roberto Pimenta; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2017-09-01

    Considering that the muscles of the anus perform a critical role in maintaining continence, losses in their structure can negatively affect the physiological control of the intestinal contents. Anorectal electro-stimulation (ARES) has been reported to have a positive effect on the functionality of treated patients, but how ARES affects the structural tissues of the anorectal segment remains unknown. Because the study of how ARES structurally affects human tissues is not possible, this study aimed to clarify these effects in a murine model, which has a similar anorectal segment (structure and physiology) to humans. For the descriptive and comparative study, randomly selected nulliparous adult Wistar rats (n = 5) were submitted to 30 anorectal sessions of ARES with a biphasic current (700 μs, 50 Hz from 2 to 4 mA). After treatment, the animals were euthanized, and the anorectal segments were dissected and processed for histopathological analysis. Our results showed that ARES increased the widths of the mucosal, submucosal and muscle layers of the rectum, as well as the number of leukocytes in the mucosa. ARES also caused hyperplasia of the smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter and hypertrophy of the external anal sphincter muscle. In conclusion, our results showed that ARES had not only a positive effect on the structure (morphology) of all tissues associated with the rectum and anus but, more importantly, on the structural gain of the muscles (hyperplasia and hypertrophy), which could point to a functional gain of the anal sphincter, reinforcing the applicability of ARES as a non-invasive treatment for anal incontinence. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  16. Multimodal sensory testing of the rectum and rectosigmoid: development and reproducibility of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Nissen, T D; Gravesen, F H; Frøkjaer, J B; Omar, H; Gale, J; Gregersen, H; Svendsen, O; Drewes, A M

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation of rectal and rectosigmoid sensation is important in basic, clinical and pharmacological studies. New methods to evoke and assess multimodal (electrical, thermal and mechanical) experimental pain of the upper gut activate distinct pathways and mimics clinical pain. The aims of the current study were to characterize the sensory response and reproducibility to multimodal stimulation of rectum and the rectosigmoid. A multimodal rectal probe was developed. Mucosal electrostimulation was delivered at the recto-sigmoid junction. In Rectum, impedance planimetry was used for measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) during distension. Circulation of water within the bag at either 4 or 60 degrees C was applied for thermal stimulation. The method was tested in 12 healthy volunteers (six men mean age 32 years) on two subsequent days. Mechanical and sensory responses and referred pain areas were assessed. Stimulation with electrical, thermal and mechanical modalities resulted in different sensory perceptions. The relationship between stimulus intensity and sensory response was linear for all modalities. Sensory response to different modalities did not differ between investigation days (all P-values > 0.1). Approximately 75% of subjects felt referred pain in distinct skin locations. Between-days reproducibility was good for all modalities [intra-class correlation (ICC) > or = 0.6]. At sensory threshold, CSA showed best reproducibility (ICC > or = 0.9). At pain detection threshold stretch ratio, CSA and electrostimulation showed best reproducibility (ICC = 1.0; 0.9; 0.9). The present model was easily implemented, robust and showed good reproducibility. It can be used to study pathophysiology or pharmacological interventions in healthy controls and in patients with diseases involving the distal hindgut.

  17. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjernquist Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years, in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years. Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036. Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071. There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels.

  18. Definitions and general remarks on surgical pathology in the field of oncology; Volume tumoral macroscopique et volume-cible anatomoclinique en radiotherapie: generalites. Definitions et generalites en anatomie pathologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, L. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Service d' anatomie et de cytologie pathologiques, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2001-10-01

    In the field of oncology, surgical pathology analysis of biopsies or surgical specimens directly determines the care program of each patient. Without going into too much detail, we report here the description of different characteristics of neoplastic lesions, necessary or useful for the establishment of the care program of the patients. These macroscopic and microscopic analyses should result in the most precise possible diagnosis and should take into account a list of other factors which allow the development of an optimal strategy for therapy, and the establishment of prognosis of the tumor. These characteristics include properties of the tumor such as the size, shape, exact location, and the grade of the lesion, etc. They also concern the relationship of the tumor to certain structures like the basal membranes, the stroma reaction, the lymphatic vessels, the nerves, and so forth. The description of local and locoregional spreading, as well as the analysis of the surgical margins gives essential information as well. Finally, in certain cases, the description of modifications induced by neo-adjuvant therapy allows the evaluation of the treatment's efficacy. (author)

  19. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J. A.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  20. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, J. A., E-mail: yosimoon13@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XX1, La Uruca (Costa Rica); PROXTRONICS CR, Ltda, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  1. A predictive model to guide management of the overlap region between target volume and organs at risk in prostate cancer volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Einaiem, Sara; Guirguis, Adel; Ikoro, N. C.; Ashamalla Hani [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study is to determine whether the magnitude of overlap between planning target volume (PTV) and rectum (Rectum{sub overlap}) or PTV and bladder (Bladder{sub overlap}) in prostate cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is predictive of the dose-volume relationships achieved after optimization, and to identify predictive equations and cutoff values using these overlap volumes beyond which the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) dose-volume constraints are unlikely to be met. Fifty-seven patients with prostate cancer underwent VMAT planning using identical optimization conditions and normalization. The PTV (for the 50.4 Gy primary plan and 30.6 Gy boost plan) included 5 to 10 mm margins around the prostate and seminal vesicles. Pearson correlations, linear regression analyses, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to correlate the percentage overlap with dose-volume parameters. The percentage Rectum{sub overlap} and Bladder{sub overlap} correlated with sparing of that organ but minimally impacted other dose-volume parameters, predicted the primary plan rectum V{sub 45} and bladder V{sub 50} with R{sup 2} = 0.78 and R{sup 2} = 0.83, respectively, and predicted the boost plan rectum V{sub 30} and bladder V{sub 30} with R{sup 2} = 0.53 and R{sup 2} = 0.81, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of boost Rectumoverlap to predict rectum V75 >15% was 3.5% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%, p < 0.01), and the optimal cutoff value of boost Bladder{sub overlap} to predict bladder V{sub 80} >10% was 5.0% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%, p < 0.01). The degree of overlap between PTV and bladder or rectum can be used to accurately guide physicians on the use of interventions to limit the extent of the overlap region prior to optimization.

  2. Late radiation injury of the colon and rectum. Surgical management and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimose, H.H.; Fischer, L.; Spjeldnaes, N.; Wara, P. (Aarhus Municipal Hospital (Denmark))

    1989-08-01

    After a median latency of 2 years, the initial late colorectal radiation injuries in 182 patients were: stricture (37 percent), minor lesions (36 percent), rectovaginal fistula (22 percent), and gangrene or other fistulas (5 percent). Due to progression, new colorectal injuries, primarily stricture (55 percent) and fistula (42 percent), occurred in 68 patients (37 percent). Resection provided the best results. However, the resectability rate was low (46 percent) and resection was primarily performed in patients with a circumscript well-defined stricture of the proximal rectum or sigmoid colon with an anastomotic leakage rate of 5 percent. The prevailing management of 78 patients with fistula or stricture with synchronous fistula was defunctioning colostomy, primarily end-sigmoidostomy, providing fair results in half of the patients. Stomal complications occurred in 15 percent. The radiation-induced colorectal mortality was 8 percent. Colorectal fistula and associated radiation injuries of the urinary tract, and especially of the small bowel, were the major determinants of fatal outcome, yielding an overall radiation-induced mortality of 25 percent. After a median observation time of 13 years, half of the patients were alive at follow-up; 56 percent of these had a fair outcome whereas the remaining patients continued to have mild symptoms responding to conservative measures (34 percent) or disabling symptoms (10 percent).

  3. Simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy for synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian-Lin; Zheng, Min-Hua; Feng, Bo; Lu, Ai-Guo; Wang, Min-Liang; Li, Jian-Wen; Hu, Wei-Guo; Zang, Lu; Mao, Zhi-Hai; Dong, Feng; Ma, Jun-Jun; Zong, Ya-Ping

    2008-06-07

    Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer or gastric cancer has been advocated for the benefits of a reduced morbidity, a shorter treatment time, and similar outcomes. However, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy for synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach are rarely documented in literature. Endoscopic examination revealed a synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach in a 55-year-old male patient with rectal bleeding and epigastric discomfort. He underwent a simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy with regional lymph nodes dissected. The operation time was 270 min and the estimated blood loss was 120 mL. The patient required parenteral analgesia for less than 24 h. Flatus was passed on postoperative day 3, and a solid diet was resumed on postoperative day 7. He was discharged on postoperative day 13. With the advances in laparoscopic technology and experience, simultaneous resection is an attractive alternative to a synchronous gastrointestinal cancer.

  4. Enabling the Kaleidoscope : Blurring Sexual Aim and Destination in James Baldwin’s Another Country Donner corps au kaléidoscope: But et cible sexuels brouillés dans Another Country de James Baldwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kiely

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En grande partie fondé sur les théories « gender » et « queer », cet article aborde Another Country de Baldwin en tant que lieu signifiant d’une réimagination du but et de la cible sexuels. En effet, Baldwin libère ses personnages d’une sexualité unidimensionnelle, statique et concrète. En évitant de « fixer » les désirs de ses personnages, Baldwin met au jour le potentiel kaléidoscopique de l’identité et du désir sexuels. Cet article explore en sus les problèmes de la race et de l’angoisse liée à cette dernière. Quoique Another Country ait fait l’objet d’attaques pour son absence de contenu racial, le traitement par Baldwin de l’identité masculine blanche et du discours identitaire révèle par la même occasion l’incapacité de la société américaine à valider l’expérience du Noir.

  5. Inter-application displacement of brachytherapy dose received by the bladder and rectum of the patients with inoperable cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosevic, Goran; Ljuca, Dzenita; Osmic, Hasan; Fazlic, Semir; Arsovski, Oliver; Mileusnic, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine on the CT basis the inter-application displacement of the positions D0.1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the brachytherapy dose applied to the bladder and rectum of the patients with inoperable cervical cancer. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients with cervical cancer who were treated by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. HDR intracavitary brachytherapy was made by the applicators type Fletcher tandem and ovoids. For each brachytherapy application the position D0.1cc was determined of the bladder and rectum that receive a brachytherapty dose. Then, based on the X, Y, and Z axis displacement, inter-application mean X, Y, and Z axis displacements were calculated as well as their displacement vectors (R). It has been analyzed whether there is statistically significant difference in inter-application displacement of the position of the brachytherapy dose D0.1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the bladder and rectum. The ANOVA test and post-hoc analysis by Tukey method were used for testing statistical importance of differences among the groups analyzed. The difference among the groups analyzed was considered significant if p < 0.05. Results There are significant inter-application displacements of the position of the brachytherapy dose D0,1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the bladder and rectum. Conclusions When we calculate the cumulative brachytherapy dose by summing up D0,1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the organs at risk for all the applications, we must bear in mind their inter-application displacement, and the fact that it is less likely that the worst scenario would indeed happen. PMID:24991211

  6. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    OpenAIRE

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus...

  7. Abscess of the iliopsoas muscle associated external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Imazu, Hiroki; Matubara, Toshiki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Funabiki, Takahiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This paper deals with a case of abscess of the iliopsoas muscle, an intractable external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis in a 68-year-old man. There were previous histories of undergoing an A-C bypass operation for coronary stricture 10 years before; and undergoing aportial resection of the bladder with radiation therapy for urinary bladder cancer, followed by colostomy for hemorrhage and stricture of the rectum for radiation proctitis 2 years before admission. In April, 1997 when he had been treated at outpatient clinic, exhumation of pusfrom the sacurred that was diagnosed external fistula of the rectum on a fistulography and he was continuously treated on an ambulant basis. On November 17, 1997, the patient had a temperature 38.7deg C, the white blood cell count increased to 35 x 10{sup 4} /ml, inflammation reaction increased, and unconsciousness appeared. An emergency CT revealed retention of fluid in the retroperitoneum covering from the fistulation through the iliopsoas muscle to pelvis. An abscess of the iliopsoas muscle was diagnosed. It was determined that any operations under general anesthesia were impossible due to poor general condition, and an emergency incision drainage was performed under local anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient developed MRSA septicemia which demanded redrainage and strict general management, but he was successfully freed from the management. Although the intractable fistula in persistently present, he was discharged after a resection of sequestrum and is followed on an ambulant basis. (author)

  8. Differential roles of stretch-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents innervating mouse distal colon and rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Brumovsky, Pablo R; Gebhart, Gerald F

    2010-03-01

    Information about colorectal distension (i.e., colorectal dilation by increased intraluminal pressure) is primarily encoded by stretch-sensitive colorectal afferents in the pelvic nerve (PN). Despite anatomic differences between rectum and distal colon, little is known about the functional roles of colonic vs. rectal afferents in the PN pathway or the quantitative nature of mechanosensory encoding. We utilized an in vitro mouse colorectum-PN preparation to investigate pressure-encoding characteristics of colorectal afferents. The colorectum with PN attached was dissected, opened longitudinally, and pinned flat in a Sylgard-lined chamber. Action potentials of afferent fibers evoked by circumferential stretch (servo-controlled force actuator) were recorded from the PN. Stretch-sensitive fibers were categorized into the following four groups: colonic muscular, colonic muscular/mucosal, rectal muscular, and rectal muscular/mucosal. Seventy-nine stretch-sensitive PN afferents evenly distributed into the above four groups were studied. Rectal muscular afferents had significantly greater stretch-responses than the other three groups. Virtually all rectal afferents (98%) had low thresholds for response and encoded stimulus intensity into the noxious range without obvious saturation. Most colonic afferents (72%) also had low thresholds (18 mmHg) for response. These high-threshold colonic afferents were sensitized to stretch by inflammatory soup; response threshold was significantly reduced (from 23 to 12 mmHg), and response magnitude significantly increased. These results suggest that the encoding of mechanosensory information differs between colonic and rectal stretch-sensitive PN afferents. Rectal afferents have a wide response range to stretch, whereas high-threshold colonic afferents likely contribute to visceral nociception.

  9. SU-E-T-491: Influence of Applicator Dimensions On Doses to Bladder, Rectum and Sigmoid in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumane, V; Rhome, R; Yuan, Y; Gupta, V [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the influence of dimensions of the tandem and ring applicator on bladder D2cc, rectum D2cc and sigmoid D2cc in HDR treatment planning for cervical cancer. Methods: 53 plans from 13 patients treated at our institution with the tandem and ring applicator were retrospectively reviewed. Prescription doses were one of the following: 8 Gy x 3, 7 Gy x 4 and 5.5 Gy x 5. Doses to the D2ccs of the bladder, rectum and the sigmoid were recorded. These doses were normalized to their relative prescriptions doses. Correlations between the normalized bladder D2cc, rectum D2cc and sigmoid D2cc were investigated and linear regression models were developed to study the dependence of these doses on the ring diameter and the applicator angle. Results: Normalized doses to the D2cc of the bladder, rectum and sigmoid showed statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) to the applicator angle. Significant correlation was also noted for the normalized D2cc of the rectum and the sigmoid with the ring diameter. The normalized bladder D2cc was found to decrease with applicator angle on an average by 22.65% ± 4.43% while the same for the rectum and sigmoid were found to increase on an average by 14.43% ± 1.65% and 14.01% ± 1.42% respectively. Both the rectum and sigmoid D2cc reduced with increasing ring diameter by 12.93% ± 1.95% and 11.27% ± 1.79%. No correlation was observed between the normalized bladder D2cc and the ring diameter. Conclusion: Preliminary regression models developed in this study can potentially aid in the choice of the appropriate applicator angle and ring diameter for tandem and ring implant so as to optimize doses to the bladder, rectum and sigmoid.

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glen R Guerra; Cherng H Kong; Satish K Warrier; Andrew C Lynch; Alexander G Heriot; Samuel Y Ngan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma(SCC).METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert.RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-nodemetastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external siteof primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the optimal

  11. Urogenital and Rectal Multisystem Organ Injury After Detonation of an Explosive Substance in the Rectum of a Schizophrenic Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zumrutbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating injuries are caused by the injury of perineal area with gun or stab wounds, which may cause complex injuries or multiple organ injuries. Infections, bleeding, necrotizing fasciitis, ureterocutaneous fistulas, diverticulum, abscesses, narrowing, and incontinence may arise after urethral injuries. Although there are several case reports of urogenital system traumas in the literature, this case reports a schizophrenic patient who had a multisystem genitourinary and rectal trauma after self-detonation of an explosive in the rectum and managed with reconstructive surgery without any postoperative complications. Lower urinary tract anatomy was preserved and full continence was achieved after the surgical procedure.

  12. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach) in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract. PMID:28203138

  13. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract.

  14. Technical Note: System for evaluating local hypothermia as a radioprotector of the rectum in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycushko, Brian A; Bing, Chenchen; Futch, Cecil; Wodzak, Michelle; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Medin, Paul M; Chopra, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. This work describes the development of a system to evaluate local hypothermia for a radioprotective effect of the rat rectum during a large dose of radiation relevant to prostate SBRT. This includes the evaluation of a 3D-printed small animal rectal cooling device and the integration with a small animal irradiator. A 3-cm long, dual-lumen rectal temperature control apparatus (RTCA) was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The RTCA was capable of recirculating flow in a device small enough for insertion into the rat rectum, with a metal support rod for strength as well as visibility during radiation treatment planning. The outer walls of the RTCA comprised of thin heat shrink plastic, achieving efficient heat transfer into adjacent tissues. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within the rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. Integration with an image-guided small animal irradiator and associated treatment planning system included evaluation for imaging artifacts and effect of brass tubing on dose calculation. The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature to 15°C within 10-20 min from device insertion and was maintained at 15 ± 3°C during active cooling for the evaluated time of one hour. MR thermometry revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device with the desired

  15. Simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy for synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Lin Zhu; Feng Dong; Jun-Jun Ma; Ya-Ping Zong; Min-Hua Zheng; Bo Feng; Ai-Guo Lu; Min-Liang Wang; Jian-Wen Li; Wei-Guo Hu; Lu Zang; Zhi-Hai Mao

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer or gastric cancer has been advocated for the benefits of a reduced morbidity,a shorter treatment time,and similar outcomes.However,simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy for synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach are rarely documented in literature.Endoscopic examination revealed a synchronous carcinoma of rectum and stomach in a 55-year-old male patient with rectal bleeding and epigastric discomfort.He underwent a simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy with regional lymph nodes dissected.The operation time was 270min and the estimated blood loss was 120mL.The patient required parenteral analgesia for less than 24h.Flatus was passed on postoperative day 3,and a solid diet was resumed on postoperative day 7.He was discharged on postoperative day 13.With the advances in laparoscopic technology and experience,simultaneous resection is an attractive alternative to a synchronous gastrointestinal cancer.

  16. Major Anaerobic Bacteria Responsible for the Production of Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde from Ethanol in the Colon and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Atsuki; Kuwahara, Akika; Saito, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Tenma, Natsuki; Inai, Makoto; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Eri; Suwa, Yoshihide; Totsuka, Yukari; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ethanol oxidation by intestinal aerobes and facultative anaerobes under aerobic conditions in the pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer has been proposed. However, the role of obligate anaerobes therein remains to be established, and it is still unclear which bacterial species, if any, are most important in the production and/or elimination of carcinogenic acetaldehyde under such conditions. This study was undertaken to address these issues. More than 500 bacterial strains were isolated from the faeces of Japanese alcoholics and phylogenetically characterized, and their aerobic ethanol metabolism was studied in vitro to examine their ability to accumulate acetaldehyde beyond the minimum mutagenic concentration (MMC, 50 µM). Bacterial strains that were considered to potentially accumulate acetaldehyde beyond the MMC under aerobic conditions in the colon and rectum were identified and referred to as 'potential acetaldehyde accumulators' (PAAs). Ruminococcus, an obligate anaerobe, was identified as a genus that includes a large number of PAAs. Other obligate anaerobes were also found to include PAAs. The accumulation of acetaldehyde by PAAs colonizing the colorectal mucosal surface could be described, at least in part, as the response of PAAs to oxidative stress. Ethanol oxidation by intestinal obligate anaerobes under aerobic conditions in the colon and rectum could also play an important role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a consequence of immunosuppression resulting from inhibiting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Alexandra; Raad, Roy A; Katz, Leah; Downey, Andrea; Muggia, Franco M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may lead to enhanced susceptibility to certain malignancies. In particular, an association is seen emerging between TNF antagonists and development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin (in association with psoriasis), the oral cavity, and in the anogenital areas (possibly related to prior human papilloma virus infection). We present here a case of a 53-year old woman with a history of severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), most recently treated with the TNF antagonist etanercept plus methotrexate, presented to our service after several months of increasing left pelvis and buttock pain. Evaluation with a computerised tomography (CT)-directed biopsy of a pelvic side wall mass revealed a metastatic SCC. On a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) an additional area of uptake was identified in the left posterior rectum corresponding to a 1 cm nodule palpable on digital exam. Colonoscopic biopsy revealed a basaloid SCC of the rectum as the likely primary site. Immunosuppression following TNF antagonist therapy may have given arise to this unrestrained neoplastic growth. It thereby underscores the need for an initial baseline study of risk factors and identification of patients who are at higher risk for development of a malignancy, in order to achieve a diagnosis at an early stage.

  18. The CARTS study: Chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer in the distal rectum followed by organ-sparing transanal endoscopic microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bökkerink Guus MJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CARTS study is a multicenter feasibility study, investigating the role of rectum saving surgery for distal rectal cancer. Methods/Design Patients with a clinical T1-3 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma below 10 cm from the anal verge will receive neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (25 fractions of 2 Gy with concurrent capecitabine. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM will be performed 8 - 10 weeks after the end of the preoperative treatment depending on the clinical response. Primary objective is to determine the number of patients with a (near complete pathological response after chemoradiation therapy and TEM. Secondary objectives are the local recurrence rate and quality of life after this combined therapeutic modality. A three-step analysis will be performed after 20, 33 and 55 patients to ensure the feasibility of this treatment protocol. Discussion The CARTS-study is one of the first prospective multicentre trials to investigate the role of a rectum saving treatment modality using chemoradiation therapy and local excision. The CARTS study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01273051

  19. Abscess formation in vertebral canal and presacral area following penetrating injury of rectum and sacral vertebra by a steel rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Hao; GUO Qing-shan; ZHANG Lian-yang; SUN Shi-jin; YAO Yuan-zhang; HUANG Xiao-ying

    2012-01-01

    Penetrating injury to the rectum,vertebral body and spinal cord by a steel rod is a rare condition.Treatment of this kind of injury is very challenging.Rectal injury requires repair and fecal diversion,while debridement of the spine is difficult,especially when the injury site is very long.Here we report a case of penetrating injury of rectum and sacral vertebra by a steel rod after falling onto the ground from 1 m height.The abscess cavity was irrigated with 3% hydrogen peroxide and physiological saline repeatedly.The bony canal was carefully debrided,curetted and bony fragments were removed.Spinal irrigation and drainage lasted for 2 months and sensitive antibiotic (amikacin sulfate) was given 7 days after surgery,but abscess was still formed in the vertebral canal.At 6-month follow-up,the patient was paralyzed without any neurological improvement,and the pain in low back and lower limb still continued.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound for staging of colonic cancer proximal to the rectum: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Treatment of colonic cancer patients is highly dependent on the depth of tumor invasion (T-stage) as well as the extension of lymph node involvement (N-stage). We aimed to systematically review the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging of colonic cancer proximal to the rectum. Patients and Methods: Men and women with colonic adenocarcinomas were included in the study. EUS staging was compared to histopathology as the gold standard. Outcome measures were T- and N-staging accuracies. Articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. Results: Six studies were identified comparing EUS staging of colonic cancer to histopathology. The pooled-staging sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 and 0.98 for T1 tumors, 0.67 and 0.96 for T2 tumors, and 0.97 and 0.83 for T3/T4 tumors, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for N + disease were 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusions: EUS is a feasible method for T-staging of cancers of the colon proximal to the rectum. The accuracy of lymph node staging needs to be verified by prospective multicenter studies including larger patient populations.

  1. Evaluation of plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations following administration of diazepam intravenously or via suppository per rectum in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Curtis W; Thomas, William B; Moyers, Tamberlyn D; Martin, Tomas; Cox, Sherry

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes). 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1). On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.

  2. SU-E-T-289: Scintillating Fiber Based In-Vivo Dose Monitoring System to the Rectum in Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer: A Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamicael, B; Gueye, P; Lyons, D [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Mahesh, M [Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD (United States); Avery, S [University of Pennsylvania, Sicklerville, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To construct a dose monitoring system based on an endorectal balloon coupled to thin scintillating fibers to study the dose delivered to the rectum during prostate cancer proton therapy Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit version 9.6p02 was used to simulate prostate cancer proton therapy treatments of an endorectal balloon (for immobilization of a 2.9 cm diameter prostate gland) and a set of 34 scintillating fibers symmetrically placed around the balloon and perpendicular to the proton beam direction (for dosimetry measurements) Results: A linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered was observed within <2%, a property that makes them good candidates for real time dosimetry. Results obtained show that the closest fiber recorded about 1/3 of the dose to the target with a 1/r{sup 2} decrease in the dose distribution as one goes toward the frontal and distal top fibers. Very low dose was recorded by the bottom fibers (about 45 times comparatively), which is a clear indication that the overall volume of the rectal wall that is exposed to a higher dose is relatively minimized. Further analysis indicated a simple scaling relationship between the dose to the prostate and the dose to the top fibers (a linear fit gave a slope of −0.07±0.07 MeV per treatment Gy) Conclusion: Thin (1 mm × 1 mm × 100 cm) long scintillating fibers were found to be ideal for real time in-vivo dose measurement to the rectum for prostate cancer proton therapy. The linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered makes them good candidates of dosimeters. With thorough calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the target and the dose to the fibers, such dosimeters can be used for real time dose verification to the target.

  3. A new type of defecation disorder due to insufficient fixation of the rectum to the sacrum is improved by rectopexy: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sumida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is the most common clinical disorder in children. However, some cases of constipation do not meet the criteria defined by Rome III. We encountered such defecation disorders in three patients who presented with constipation as a chief complaint along with excessive strain and bleeding hemorrhoids during defecation despite normal stools. Contrast enema revealed that the rectum was separated from the sacrum in each patient, which may have been caused by insufficient fixation of the rectum. Conservative treatment with laxatives and suppositories failed to achieve improvement. Therefore, all underwent a laparoscopic rectopexy. After surgery, each patient was able to evacuate without strain and the hemorrhoids disappeared. Insufficient fixation of the rectum should be considered as a potential cause of defecation disorders. Rectopexy is effective for this type of defecation disorder.

  4. [Interposition of the small intestine between the colon and the rectum as a way of achieving a pelvic anastomosis without pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Navascues, Jose M; Rodríguez, Araceli; Placer, Carlos; Saralegui, Yolanda; Carrillo, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    There are some circumstances in which the descending colon does not reach the pelvis to complete a colorectal anastomosis without tension. Re-establishing intestinal continuity by interposing small bowel as a bridge between the colon and the rectum could be an acceptable surgical alternative. We describe the interposition of one or two segments of small bowel as a way of restoring continuity of the colon and rectum in three patients in whom it was not possible to perform a colorectal anastomosis without tension due to ischaemic colon, synchronous cancer or difficulty in accessing the supramesocolic space, respectively. Intestinal continuity was re-established in all patients with no significant morbidity and good intestinal function. The interposition of small bowel segments between the colon and the rectum should be considered a valid surgical option when it is not possible to achieve a well-perfused, tension-free pelvic colorectal anastomosis. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Masculinity and the Body: How African-American and White Men Experience Cancer Screening Exams Involving the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterich, Julie A.; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Clark, Peter E.; Miller, David P.; Acuña, Joshua; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Past research on prostate and colorectal cancer disparities finds that barriers to screening, such as embarrassment and offensiveness, are often reported. Yet none of this literature investigates why. This study uses masculinity and health theory to examine how men experience two common screenings, digital rectal exams (DREs) and colonoscopies. In-depth interviews were conducted with 64 African-American and white men from diverse backgrounds, aged 40–64, from North Carolina, USA. Regardless of race or education, men experienced DREs more negatively than colonoscopies because penetration with a finger was associated with a gay sexual act. Some men disliked colonoscopies, however, because they associated any penetration as an affront to their masculinity. Because beliefs did not differ by race, future research should focus on structural issues to examine why disparities persist with prostate and colorectal cancer. Recommendations are provided for educational programs and physicians to improve men’s experiences with exams that involve the rectum. PMID:19477742

  6. Wandering Fish Bone: a Case of Pelvic Abscess due to Rectum Perforation Resulting from an Accidental Fish Bone Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Abbasi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish bone is the most common foreign body that is ingested accidentally and can be caused gastrointestinal complications such as perforation, abstraction, and abscess. We describe a 75-year-old man who suffered from constipation, diarrhea, and fever and chills for 3 months. He had mild tenderness in hypogasteric region and also mild tenderness and swelling on anterior rectal wall and prostate upon clinical examination. The abdominal and pelvic sonography and CT scan findings suggested existence of abscess in the space of between bladder and rectum. The patient underwent laparotomy to drainage the pelvic abscess. The surgeon found a 6-cm fish bone which was embedded in the abscess. The presented case indicated the importance of accidental fish bone ingestion and its possible complications. In addition, the patients with abdominal pain, GI bleeding, and fever of unknown origin living in the seaside regions, the wandering fish bone as a differential diagnosis should be kept in mind.

  7. Late radiation effects to the rectum and anus after treatment for prostate cancer; validity of the LENT/SOMA score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jo-Å; Kaasa, Stein; Wibe, Arne; Widmark, Anders; Fransson, Per

    2013-05-01

    The Late Effects Normal Tissue/Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT/SOMA) system for grading of side effects after radiotherapy was proposed several years ago. Only a few studies have previously been performed on the validity of the LENT/SOMA. The aim of the present study was to validate the LENT/SOMA scoring system for recto-anal side effects after treatment for prostate cancer in a randomized trial. A total of 875 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to either hormonal treatment alone or hormonal treatment plus radiotherapy in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG-7) study. At least three years after treatment was started, the 178 patients that were randomized at St. Olavs Hospital were approached. One hundred and three patients of these accepted inclusion. The side effects according to LENT/SOMA were graded by oncologist and nurse. In addition, side effects were graded according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (EORTC/RTOG) toxicity scale and patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires. Content/face validity, sensitivity and inter-rater reliability of the LENT/SOMA tables for rectum were analyzed. Content/face analysis of LENT/SOMA revealed serious problems. Significant correlations (Spearman's rho > 0.4) were found between three of 15 LENT/SOMA items and similar HRQOL items. LENT/SOMA score made it possible to detect significant differences between the two groups of patients (p LENT/SOMA scoring system for recto-anal side effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer displays serious difficulties in the present study. Replacement of LENT/SOMA tables for rectum by a combination of patient-reported HRQOL questionnaires, clinical examination and objective physiological measurements might be called for.

  8. Pneumaturia signaling a fistula between the rectum anastomosis and seminal vesicle as a complication after transanal endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A method of repair

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy underwent an uneventful transanal endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease. Postoperatively he suffered from pneumaturia which prompted surgical evaluation. He was found to have a rectum to seminal vesicle fistula. He was re-operated closing the fistula through an anterior transperineal approach with a successful operative outcome.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with retrograde intralumen contrast enhancement of the rectum in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer. Experience of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usova, A.; Frolova, I.; Afanasev, S.; Tarasova, A.; Molchanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    Experiment of use of MRI in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer is shown on clinical examples. We used retrograde contrasting of a rectum with 150ml ultrasonic gel to make MRI more informative in case of low diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound, colonoscopy and gynecological examination.

  10. Changes in the plasma diazepam concentration and its anticonvulsant effect after the discharge of a diazepam suppository from the rectum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, N; Suemaru, K; Araki, H

    2007-01-01

    One of the clinical problems regarding the use of suppositories for patients is the discharge of the medication itself after the insertion of the suppository. The effects of the discharge of diazepam (DZP) suppositories from the rectum on the plasma DZP concentration and its anticonvulsant action were investigated in rats. The plasma DZP concentration reached a maximum at approx. 30 min after the rectal administration of a 5 mg/kg DZP suppository. The discharge of the DZP suppository from the rectum at 5 or 10 min after rectal administration significantly reduced the plasma DZP concentration and the anticonvulsant action of the DZP suppository against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. However, when the suppository was discharged from the rectum after 20 min, the plasma DZP concentration and the anticonvulsant action were only slightly but not significantly decreased. These results suggest that the discharge of the DZP suppository in the early phase, within 20 min, decreases the plasma concentration and the anticonvulsant action of the DZP suppository in rats. Therefore, when the suppository is discharged from the rectum immediately, sufficient observation and proper treatment are necessary.

  11. Pneumaturia signaling a fistula between the rectum anastomosis and seminal vesicle as a complication after transanal endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A method of repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Granéli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy underwent an uneventful transanal endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease. Postoperatively he suffered from pneumaturia which prompted surgical evaluation. He was found to have a rectum to seminal vesicle fistula. He was re-operated closing the fistula through an anterior transperineal approach with a successful operative outcome.

  12. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  13. SU-E-T-634: Analysis of Volume Based GYN HDR Brachytherapy Plans for Dose Calculation to Organs At Risk(OAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, M; Li, C; White, M; Davis, J [Joe Arrington Cancer Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have analyzed the dose volume histogram of 140 CT based HDR brachytherapy plans and evaluated the dose received to OAR ; rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon based on recommendations from ICRU and Image guided brachytherapy working group for cervical cancer . Methods: Our treatment protocol consist of XRT to whole pelvis with 45 Gy at 1.8Gy/fraction followed by 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction by HDR brachytherapy in 2 weeks . The CT compatible tandem and ovoid applicators were used and stabilized with radio opaque packing material. The patient was stabilized using special re-locatable implant table and stirrups for reproducibility of the geometry during treatment. The CT scan images were taken at 3mm slice thickness and exported to the treatment planning computer. The OAR structures, bladder, rectum and sigmoid colon were outlined on the images along with the applicators. The prescription dose was targeted to A left and A right as defined in Manchester system and optimized on geometry . The dosimetry was compared on all plans using the parameter Ci.sec.cGy-1 . Using the Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) obtained from the plans the doses to rectum, sigmoid colon and bladder for ICRU defined points and 2cc volume were analyzed and reported. The following criteria were used for limiting the tolerance dose by volume (D2cc) were calculated. The rectum and sigmoid colon doses were limited to <75Gy. The bladder dose was limited to < 90Gy from both XRT and HDR brachytherapy. Results: The average total (XRT+HDRBT) BED values to prescription volume was 120 Gy. Dose 2cc to rectum was 70Gy +/− 17Gy, dose to 2cc bladder was 82+/−32 Gy. The average Ci.sec.cGy-1 calculated for the HDR plans was 6.99 +/− 0.5 Conclusion: The image based treatment planning enabled to evaluati volume based dose to critical structures for clinical interpretation.

  14. The ab initio equation of state of hydrogen in the warm dense matter and its application to the implosion of targets for the inertial confinement fusion; Equation d'etat ab initio de l'hydrogene dans la matiere dense et tiede et application a l'implosion de cibles pour la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillabet, L.

    2011-03-25

    interactions a N corps dont les effets sont importants dans la WDM. Au contraire, les methodes de calcul ab initio s'affranchissent de ces approximations en resolvant de maniere exacte (ou presque) le probleme quantique a N corps et sont donc particulierement pertinentes dans ce domaine. Dans la premiere partie de cette these, nous decrivons comment nous avons construit une table d'EoS multi-phase de l'hydrogene, a partir de methodes de calcul ab initio dans le domaine de la WDM. Nous montrons notamment que cette EoS est en tres bon accord avec la plupart des donnees experimentales disponibles (Hugoniot principale, vitesse du son dans le fluide moleculaire, courbe de fusion a basse pression, mesures de chocs multiples). Dans la deuxieme partie, nous presentons une application directe de notre EoS en montrant son influence sur les criteres d'allumage et de combustion de deux types de cibles pour la FCI: une cible auto-allumante qui sera utilisee sur le Laser MegaJoule (LMJ), et une cible destinee a l'allumage par choc. Nous montrons notamment que l'optimisation de l'impulsion laser permettant de maximiser l'energie thermonucleaire degagee par les cibles est fortement dependante de la precision de l'EoS dans le domaine de couplage et de degenerescence forts. (auteur)

  15. Radiotherapy for pancreas and biliary tree cancers. Gross tumor volume (GeV) and clinical target volume (CTV); Radiotherapie des cancers du pancreas et des cancers des voies biliaires extra-hepatiques. Volume tumoral macroscopique (GTV). Volume-cible anatomoclinique (CTV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Mornex, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre Benite (France)

    2001-10-01

    Anatomical data of pancreas, biliary tree, regional lymph nodes is required to define GTV and CTV. In case of postoperative irradiation, CTV is designed in collaboration with radiation oncologist and surgeon oncologist. For exclusive radiotherapy, endo-digestive ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI could help radiation oncologist defining GTV. Although, accuracy of all the imaging techniques in past years remains poor. Currently, no available literature is published regarding security margins for the definition of CTV. Therefore, recommendations according to clinical experience are proposed. (authors)

  16. Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Itabashi, Michio; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Ito, Yoshinori; Ajioka, Yoichi; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Igarashi, Masahiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Ishiguro, Megumi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Kokudo, Norihiro; Muro, Kei; Ochiai, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohkura, Yasuo; Saito, Yutaka; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Ueno, Hideki; Yoshino, Takayuki; Boku, Narikazu; Fujimori, Takahiro; Koinuma, Nobuo; Morita, Takayuki; Nishimura, Genichi; Sakata, Yuh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Naohiko; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2015-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms among women and the third largest number among men. Many new methods of treatment have been developed during recent decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal cancer (JSCCR Guidelines 2014) have been prepared as standard treatment strategies for colorectal cancer, to eliminate treatment disparities among institutions, to eliminate unnecessary treatment and insufficient treatment, and to deepen mutual understanding among health-care professionals and patients by making these guidelines available to the general public. These guidelines have been prepared as a result of consensuses reached by the JSCCR Guideline Committee on the basis of careful review of evidence retrieved by literature searches and taking into consideration the medical health insurance system and actual clinical practice in Japan. They can, therefore, be used as a guide for treating colorectal cancer in clinical practice. More specifically, they can be used as a guide to obtaining informed consent from patients and choosing the method of treatment for each patient. As a result of the discussions of the Guideline Committee, controversial issues were selected as clinical questions, and recommendations were made. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of the evidence and a classification of recommendation categories, on the basis of consensus reached by Guideline Committee members. Here we present the English version of the JSCCR Guidelines 2014.

  17. Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guidelines 2010 for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Itabashi, Michio; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Ito, Yoshinori; Ajioka, Yoichi; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Igarashi, Masahiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Megumi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Kokudo, Norihiro; Muro, Kei; Ochiai, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohkura, Yasuo; Saito, Yutaka; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Ueno, Hideki; Yoshino, Takayuki; Fujimori, Takahiro; Koinuma, Nobuo; Morita, Takayuki; Nishimura, Genichi; Sakata, Yuh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tsuruta, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Naohiko; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms in women and the third largest number in men. Many new treatment methods have been developed over the last few decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guidelines 2010 for the treatment of colorectal cancer (JSCCR Guidelines 2010) have been prepared to show standard treatment strategies for colorectal cancer, to eliminate disparities among institutions in terms of treatment, to eliminate unnecessary treatment and insufficient treatment, and to deepen mutual understanding between health-care professionals and patients by making these Guidelines available to the general public. These Guidelines have been prepared by consensuses reached by the JSCCR Guideline Committee, based on a careful review of the evidence retrieved by literature searches and in view of the medical health insurance system and actual clinical practice settings in Japan. Therefore, these Guidelines can be used as a tool for treating colorectal cancer in actual clinical practice settings. More specifically, they can be used as a guide to obtaining informed consent from patients and choosing the method of treatment for each patient. As a result of the discussions held by the Guideline Committee, controversial issues were selected as Clinical Questions, and recommendations were made. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of the evidence and a classification of recommendation categories based on the consensus reached by the Guideline Committee members. Here we present the English version of the JSCCR Guidelines 2010.

  18. Long-term oncologic results in cancer of the rectum treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery: an analysis of 500 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Cienfuegos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The standard treatment for locally advanced cancer of the rectum (LACR and selective cases of stage IV disease is preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT followed by total mesorectal excision (TME. Despite reductions in local recurrence, disease-free survival (DSF has remained stable in recent years. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of recurrence, long-term survival and prognostic factors in a program of neoadjuvant CRT and surgery in LACR. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2011, 446 patients with LACR and 54 patients (with single metastases were treated with pre-operative long course CRT and surgery. Three hundred forty four (66.8% anterior resections of the rectum and 123 (24.6% abdomino-perineal resections were performed. Results: With a mean follow-up of 70.06 months, local recurrence was 4.8% and distant recurrence 25.5%. No differences were found in the histopathologic prognostic factors across the three groups studied depending on distance (cm from the anal margin. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM+ was significantly greater in tumors in the distal third of the rectum (8.5%; p = 0.04. 67 patients (13.4% showed a complete pathologic response. DSF at 5 and 10 years was significantly lower in patients with tumors affecting the distal third as compared to the middle third of the rectum (61.9% vs. 57.7%; p = 0.04. Tumors at this distal location resulted in a significantly higher incidence of lung metastases (p = 0.016.

  19. Behavioural and metabolic risk factors for mortality from colon and rectum cancer: analysis of data from the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David Stewart; Parr, Christine Louise; Lam, Tai Hing; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Jee, Sun Ha; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Giles, Graham; Fang, Xianghua; Barzi, Federica; Batty, George David; Huxley, Rachel Rita; Woodward, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has several modifiable behavioural risk factors but their relationship to the risk of colon and rectum cancer separately and between countries with high and low incidence is not clear. Data from participants in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) were used to estimate mortality from colon (International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 (ICD-9) 153, ICD-10 C18) and rectum (ICD-9 154, ICD-10 C19-20) cancers. Data on age, body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol, height, smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diabetes mellitus were entered into Cox proportional hazards models. 600,427 adults contributed 4,281,239 person-years follow-up. The mean ages (SD) for Asian and Australia/New Zealand cohorts were 44.0 (9.5) and 53.4 (14.5) years, respectively. 455 colon and 158 rectum cancer deaths were observed. Increasing age, BMI and attained adult height were associated with increased hazards of death from colorectal cancer, and physical activity was associated with a reduced hazard. After multiple adjustment, any physical activity was associated with a 28% lower hazard of colon cancer mortality (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.53-0.96) and lower rectum cancer mortality (HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.45-1.27). A 2cm increase in height increased colon and all colorectal cancer mortality by 7% and 6% respectively. Physical inactivity and greater BMI are modifiable risk factors for colon cancer in both Western and Asian populations. Further efforts are needed to promote physical activity and reduce obesity while biological research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which they act to cause cancer mortality.

  20. Neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy by 5-fluoro-uracil and oxaliplatine for the locally evolved rectum cancer: study of the toxicity and the histological response; Chimioradiotherapie neoadjuvante par 5-fluoro-uracile et oxaliplatine pour les cancers du rectum localement evolues: etude de la toxicite et de la reponse histologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scodan, R.; Miranda, O.; Henni, M.; Durdux, C.; Housset, M. [HEGP, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Landi, B. [HEGP, Dept. de Gastroenterologie, 75 - Paris (France); Berger, A. [HEGP, Dept. Chirurgie Viscerale, 75 - Paris (France); Dousset, B. [Hopital Cochin, Dept. de Chirurgie Viscerale, 75 - Paris (France); Brezault, C. [Hopital Cochin, Dept. Gastroenterologie, 75 - Paris (France); Cote, J.F. [HEGP, Dept. d' anatomopathologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    The neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy by 5-fluoro-uracil and oxaliplatine, for the locally evolved rectum cancers, has a certain efficiency in term of histological response with an acceptable acute toxicity. The study of prediction factors to the response to chemoradiotherapy is in progress. (N.C.)

  1. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  2. Comparison of the sulfur hexafluoride tracer and respiration chamber techniques for estimating methane emissions and correction for rectum methane output from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Yan, T; Wills, D A; Murray, S; Gordon, A W

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆) and respiration chamber techniques for measuring methane (CH₄) emissions from dairy cows and to determine the proportion of CH₄ that is released through the rectum. Data used were derived from 20 early lactation dairy cows in a 2 × 2 factorial design study for 4 periods with 6 wk/period. The 4 treatment diets consisted of grass silage and 2 levels of concentrate (30 and 60% dry matter basis), with or without yeast supplement. At the end of each period, CH₄ emissions were measured simultaneously using the SF₆ and respiration chamber techniques when cows were housed in chambers. The SF₆ technique was also used when cows were housed in digestibility units (barn location) before and after respiratory chamber measurements (chamber location). The simultaneous measurements in chamber location revealed that CH₄ emission estimates by the SF₆ technique were similar to those by the respiration chamber technique in the first 3 periods, although the SF₆ estimates were significantly higher in period 4. The regression of all data from the 4 periods demonstrated a linear relationship between the SF₆ and respiration chamber measurements for total CH₄ emissions (g/d, R² = 0.69) and for CH₄ emissions per unit of milk yield (g/kg, R² = 0.88), and a quadratic relationship for CH₄ emissions per unit of dry matter intake (g/kg, R² = 0.64). The CH₄ emissions from the rectum were calculated as the difference between CH₄ estimates from the SF₆ technique when cows were housed in respiratory chambers and barn locations, which was 3% of the total CH₄ emissions from the mouth, nostrils, and rectum. The SF₆ estimates in the chamber location accounted for all sources of emissions, whereas those in the barn location, like that in grazing conditions, did not include CH₄ emission from the rectum. Therefore, the SF₆ measurements for grazing cattle should be adjusted for CH

  3. Colon, rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970341 Serum concentration of hyaluronic acid in pa-tients with colorectal cancer. XU Hongwei(许洪卫), etal. Dept Surg, Changzheng Hosp, 2nd Milit Med Uniu,Shanghai, 200003. Chin J Dig 1996; 16(6): 329-331. Objective: To find Out the relationship of serumhyaluronic acid and colorectal cancer. Method: UsingELISA, serum concentration hyaluronic acid(HA)was

  4. Colon, rectum and anas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005221 The evaluation of diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. XU Xiao-xing(许小幸),et al. Center of Clin Epidemiol, Shanghai 2nd Med limy, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Dig, 2004;24(12): 720-723. Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of Manning’s criteria, Rome Ⅰcriteria and Rome Ⅱcriteria

  5. Prostate and seminal vesicle volume based consideration of prostate cancer patients for treatment with 3D-conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). Mean D95 to CDPTV was the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P<0.01). Mean dose to 30% rectum with 3D and IMRT plans was comparable (P>0.1). V30 was less (P<0.01), V50 was the same (P>0.2), and V70 was more (P<0.01) for rectum with 3D than IMRT plans. Mean dose to bladder was less with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). V30 for bladder with 3D plans was less than that of IMRT plans (P<0.01). V50 and V70 for 3D plans were the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). Mean dose to femurs

  6. SU-E-T-525: Dose Volume Histograms (DVH) Analysis and Comparison with ICRU Point Doses in MRI Guided HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; McClinton, C; Kumar, P; Mitchell, M [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy plays a crucial role in management of cervix cancer. MRI compatible applicators have made it possible to accurately delineate gross-target-volume(GTV) and organs-at-risk(OAR) volumes, as well as directly plan, optimize and adapt dose-distribution for each insertion. We sought to compare DVH of tumor-coverage and OARs to traditional Point-A, ICRU-38 bladder and rectum point-doses for four different planning-techniques. Methods: MRI based 3D-planning was performed on Nucletron-Oncentra-TPS for 3 selected patients with varying tumor-sizes and anatomy. GTV,high-risk-clinical-target-volume(HR-CTV), intermediate-risk-clinical-target-volume(IR-CTV) and OARs: rectum, bladder, sigmoid-colon, vaginal-mucosa were delineated. Three conventionally used techniques: mg-Radium-equivalent(RaEq),equal-dwell-weights(EDW), Medical-College-of-Wisconsin proposed points-optimization (MCWO) and a manual-graphical-optimization(MGO) volume-coverage based technique were applied for each patient. Prescription was 6Gy delivered to point-A in Conventional techniques (RaEq, EDW, MCWO). For MGO, goal was to achieve 90%-coverage (D90) to HR-CTV with prescription-dose. ICRU point doses for rectum and bladder, point-A doses, DVH-doses for HR-CTV-D90,0.1cc-volume(D0.1),1ccvolume( D1),2cc-volume(D2) were collected for all plans and analyzed . Results: Mean D90 for HR-CTV normalized to MGO were 0.89,0.84,0.9,1.0 for EDW, RaEq, MCWO, MGO respectively. Mean point-A doses were 21.7% higher for MGO. Conventional techniques with Point-A prescriptions under covered HR-CTV-D90 by average of 12% as compared to MGO. Rectum, bladder and sigmoid doses were highest in MGO-plans for ICRU points as well as D0.1,D1 and D2 doses. Among conventional-techniques, rectum and bladder ICRU and DVH doses(0.1,1,2cc) were not significantly different (within 7%).Rectum D0.1 provided good estimation of ICRU-rectum-point doses (within 3.9%),rectum D0.1 were higher from 0.8 to 3.9% while bladder D0

  7. Reduced dose to urethra and rectum with the use of variable needle spacing in prostate brachytherapy: a potential role for robotic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shilpa; Le, Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Armour, Woody; Song, Daniel Y

    2015-08-01

    Several robotic delivery systems for prostate brachytherapy are under development or in pre-clinical testing. One of the features of robotic brachytherapy is the ability to vary spacing of needles at non-fixed intervals. This feature may play an important role in prostate brachytherapy, which is traditionally template-based with fixed needle spacing of 0.5 cm. We sought to quantify potential reductions in the dose to urethra and rectum by utilizing variable needle spacing, as compared to fixed needle spacing. Transrectal ultrasound images from 10 patients were used by 3 experienced planners to create 120 treatment plans. Each planner created 4 plan variations per patient with respect to needle positions: (125)I fixed spacing, (125)I variable spacing, (103)Pd fixed spacing, and (103)Pd variable spacing. The primary planning objective was to achieve a prostate V100 of 100% while minimizing dose to urethra and rectum. All plans met the objective of achieving prostate V100 of 100%. Combined results for all plans show statistically significant improvements in all assessed dosimetric variables for urethra (Umax, Umean, D30, D5) and rectum (Rmax, Rmean, RV100) when using variable spacing. The dose reductions for mean and maximum urethra dose using variable spacing had p values of 0.011 and 0.024 with (103)Pd, and 0.007 and 0.029 with (125)I plans. Similarly dose reductions for mean and maximum rectal dose using variable spacing had p values of 0.007 and 0.052 with (103)Pd, and 0.012 and 0.037 with (125)I plans. The variable needle spacing achievable by the use of robotics in prostate brachytherapy allows for reductions in both urethral and rectal planned doses while maintaining prostate dose coverage. Such dosimetric advantages have the potential in translating to significant clinical benefits with the use of robotic brachytherapy.

  8. Clinical results after ten years of the Lyon R96-02 trial: improving rectum conservation by increasing irradiation dose; Resultats cliniques a dix ans de l'essai Lyon R96-02: ameliorer la conservation du rectum en augmentant la dose d'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.P. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ortholan, C. [Hopital Princesse-Grace, Monaco (Monaco); Chapet, O. [Centre hospitalier de Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Romestaing, P. [Hopital prive J.-Mermoz, Lyon (France)

    2011-10-15

    The author report and comments the results after ten years of a trial which aimed at testing the influence of a boost by pre-operative 50 kV contact radiotherapy on the sphincter or rectum conservation rate. Patient had been treated by external radiotherapy with or without this contact radiotherapy. Results are analysed in terms of complete or partial clinical response, global survival, local recurrence, and absence of colostomy. Short communication

  9. Effect of surgical stress on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from healthy sections of colon and rectum of patients with colorectal cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lucia Potenza; Cinzia Calcabrini; Roberta De Bellis; Umberto Mancini; Emanuela Polidori; Sabrina Zeppa; Rossana Alloni; Luigi Cucchiarini; Marina Dachà

    2011-06-01

    Surgical resection at any location in the body leads to stress response with cellular and subcellular change, leading to tissue damage. The intestine is extremely sensitive to surgical stress with consequent postoperative complications. It has been suggested that the increase of reactive oxygen species as subcellular changes plays an important role in this process. This article focuses on the effect of surgical stress on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from healthy sections of colon and rectum of patients with colorectal cancer. Mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial common deletion and nuclear and mitochondrial 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine content were measured. Both the colon and rectal tissue were significantly damaged either at the nuclear or mitochondrial level. In particular, mitochondrial DNA was more damaged in rectum than in colon. The present investigation found an association between surgical stress and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, suggesting that surgery may generate an increase in free radicals, which trigger a cascade of molecular changes, including alterations in DNA.

  10. Occupational physical activity and risk for cancer of the colon and rectum in Sweden among men and women by anatomic subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tahereh; Gridley, Gloria; Björk, Jan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Ji, Bu-Tian; Berkel, Hans J; Lemeshow, Stanley

    2008-06-01

    Inverse association between physical activity and colon cancer is well established, at least in men. We investigated the association of occupational physical activity with subsite-specific colorectal cancer risk. On the basis of occupational titles from the Swedish nationwide censuses in 1960 and 1970, we defined a cohort of women and men with the same work-related physical demands in 1960 and 1970. Incidence of colon and rectum cancer during 1971-1989 was ascertained through linkages to the Cancer Register. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated through Poisson regression. The risk for colon cancer increased with decreasing occupational physical activity. RR among sedentary women and men was 1.2 and 1.3 (P for trend=0.08 and colon cancer increased by 20 and 40% (P for trend=0.005 and colon cancer (RR =2.4, P for trendcolon; RR for cancer in the proximal and transverse colon among sedentary women was 1.4 and 2.0 (P for trend Cancer of the rectum was not associated with activity in either sex. We confirmed the well-known inverse relationship between activity and risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer in both sexes. Data suggest that the physical activity-related variation in risk among women is greatest in the proximal and middle parts of the colon, whereas the corresponding peak in men seems to be more distal. Sex-specific anatomic and motility differences of the colon might contribute to this subsite difference.

  11. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. A. Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  12. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  13. [Biochemical demonstration of HCO3--und Cl--dependent ATPase activities in the rectum of larval dragonflies and inhibition of rectal chloride uptake by thiocyanate (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnick, H; Schmitz, M; Hinssen, H

    1980-02-01

    Hydrogencarbonate and chloride activated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activities are demonstrated in the salt-absorbing rectum of larval dragonflies. Maximal activation is achieved at approx. 30 mM HCO3- and 20 mM Cl-, respectively. The stimulation of each anion obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics Km values are 4.65 mM for HCO3-- and 10.25 mM for Cl--activation. The activating anion of one type of ATPase simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect on the other. Cl--activation is also reduced by Mg.ATP in concentrations above 0.5 mM and by Tris-Hepes buffer exceeding 2.5 mM. Both anion-dependent ATPase activities are found enriched in subcellular membraneous fractions of the rectum. Thiocyanate inhibits both activities and causes a significant decrease in rectal uptake of radioactive chloride from hypo-osmotic external solution. In the case of HCO3- dependent ATPase a competitive inhibition as SCN- was found with an inhibitor constant of Ki=0.5 mM.

  14. Aggressive treatment of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum to the liver: a case report and a brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvounis Eleni E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a rare tumor. The incidence of this malignancy has been reported to be 0.25 to 1 per 1000 colorectal carcinomas. From a review of the English literature 55 cases of SCC of the rectum have been published. In this study we report a rectal metastatic SCC to the liver, discussing the efficacy of aggressive adjuvant and neo-adjuvant therapies on survival and prognosis. Case presentation A 39-year-old female patient with a pure SCC of the rectum diagnosed endoscopically is presented. The patient underwent initially neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and then abdominoperineal resection with concomitant bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy, followed by adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy. Five months after the initial operation liver metastasis was demonstrated and a liver resection was carried out, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Eighteen months after the initial operation the patient is alive. Conclusion Although prognosis of rectal SCC is worse than that of adenocarcinoma, an aggressive therapeutic approach with surgery as the primary treatment, followed by combined neo- and adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy, may be necessary in order to improve survival and prognosis.

  15. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum presenting with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum: successful management with early aggressive surgery and multimodal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luís; Alexandrino, Henrique; Soares Leite, Júlio; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2015-12-16

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant neoplasm and its treatment usually involves surgery associated, in some cases, depending on the staging, with chemoradiotherapy. Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum is a highly lethal infection of the perineum, perirectal tissues and genitals, requiring emergency surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and control of sepsis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum as the first clinical manifestation of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, in which successful management consisted of early and aggressive surgical debridement, followed by multimodal therapy with curative intent. 2 years and 6 months after surgery the patient is well, with no evidence of local or systemic relapse.

  16. Electronic device for measuring the polarization parameter in the {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange reaction on a polarized proton target; Un appareillage electronique destine a la mesure du parametre de polarisation dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n sur cible de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehin, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-15

    An electronic apparatus has been constructed to measure the polarization parameter P{sub 0}(t) in {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n charge exchange scattering at 5.9 GeV/c and 11,2 GeV/c on polarized proton target. This device insures triggering of a heavy plate spark chamber, allowing visualisation of {gamma} rays from the {pi}{sup 0} decays when the associated neutron offers suitable characteristics in direction and energy. The neutron is detected by an array of 32 counters and his energy is measured by a time of flight method. Electronic circuits of this apparatus are described as test and calibration methods used. (author) [French] Un appareillage electronique a ete realise pour mesurer le parametre de polarisation P{sub 0}(t) dans la reaction d'echange de charge {pi}{sup -}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}n a 5,9 GeV/c et 11,2 GeV/c sur une cible de protons polarises. Ce dispositif assure le declenchement d'une chambre a etincelles a plaques lourdes, permettant de visualiser les {gamma} de desitegration du {pi}{sup 0}, lorsque le neutron associe presente les caracteristiques convenables en direction et en energie. Le neutron est detecte par un ensemble de 32 compteurs et son energie est mesuree par une methode de temps de vol. Les circuits composant cet appareillage sont decrits ainsi que les methodes d'etalonnage et de verification utilisees. (auteur)

  17. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  18. Superoxide dismutase mimic, MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorates acute and chronic proctitis following focal proton irradiation of the rat rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Archambeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation proctitis, an inflammation and damage to the lower part of colon, is a common adverse event of the radiotherapy of tumors in the abdominal and pelvic region (colon, prostate, cervical. Several Mn(III porphyrin-based superoxide dismutase mimics have been synthesized and successfully evaluated in preclinical models as radioprotectants. Here we report for the first time the remarkable rectal radioprotection of frequently explored Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+. A batch prepared in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP, which has good safety/toxicity profile, was used for this study. MnTE-2-PyP5+ was given subcutaneously at 5 mg/kg, either 1 h before or 1 h after irradiation, with additional drug administered at weekly intervals thereafter. MnTE-2-PyP5+ ameliorated both acute and chronic radiation proctitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with 20–30 Gy protons delivered to 2.5 cm span of rectum using spread-out Bragg peak of a proton treatment beam. Focal irradiation of the rectum produced acute proctitis, which healed, followed by chronic rectal dilation and symptomatic proctitis. MnTE-2-PyP5+ protected rectal mucosa from radiation-induced crypt loss measured 10 days post-irradiation. Significant effects were observed with both pre- and post-treatment regimens. However, only MnTE-2-PyP5+ pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, prevented the development of rectal dilation, indicating that proper dosing regimen is critical for radioprotection. The pre-treatment also prevented or delayed the development of chronic proctitis depending on the radiation dose. Further work aimed at developing MnTE-2-PyP5+ and similar drugs as adjunctive agents for radiotherapy of pelvic tumors is warranted. The present study substantiates the prospects of employing this and similar analogs in preserving normal tissue during cancer radiation as well as any other radiation exposure.

  19. The Role of MRSI in Target Volume Definition for Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Robatjazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI, as a functional imaging method, has been used for clinical target volume definition. In this study, we used this method to define the target volume in prostate radiotherapy. Material and Method: In this study, we used images of 20 prostate cancer cases. MRSI and MRI images were fused with CT images. Then, treatment planning was preformed for each patient using three methods: CT, CT+MRI and CT+MRSI planning. Results: The volumes of MRICTV and MRIPTV were on average 12.83% and 8.97% lower than the corresponding CTCTV and CTPTV volumes, respectively. For MRSI, the CTV and PTV volumes were 21% and 27.41% greater than the corresponding CT-based volumes. Maximum dose to rectum showed a 0.58% increase in MRSI relative to CT, and 1.09% reduction in MRI relative to CT. Maximum dose variation in femoral heads showed a 5.4% increase in MRSI relative to CT and 0.67% reduction in MRI relative to CT. Discussion and Conclusion: Application of MRSI for target volume definition of prostate cancer leads to an increase in this volume in comparison to CT planning alone. In this imaging technique, protocol and resolution should be considered to determine the target volume exactly.

  20. A clinical study of 14 patients with radiation colitis; A case of radiation colitis treated by abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and lumbar plasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, Manabu; Tanaka, Sengai; Oshita, Hiroo; Nagao, Naritoshi (Gifu City Hospital (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Clinical study of 14 patients with radiation colitis who were treated surgically at our clinic in the past 16-year period and a patient whose treatment was very difficult are reported. Primary lesions included 13 cervical carcinomas and one ovarian cancer. Ten cases received surgery combined with radiation and 4 did radiation. Radiation dose was 6055 rad on average. Latent time ranged from 6 months to 25 years with the average of 8 years and 9 months. No significant correlation between radiation dose and latent time was noted. Symptoms included obstruction and stenosis in 56% (8/14), hematoemesis in 46% (5/14), and fistula in 46% (5/14). All lesions presented as remarkably adhesion and stenosis, and resection with anastomosis was performed in 9 (64%), colostomy in 5 (46%), and urostomy in 2 (14%). Lumbar plasty was added in one case. A 65-year-old female patient who had undergone radiation therapy 13 years before had a rectal perforation and pelvic fistula. Abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and closure of the fistula by transferring the major gluteal muscle pedicle were performed. The patient is followed on ambulant basis for more than one year, and no evidence of recurrence has been observed. (author).

  1. Morphometric sexual maturity and allometric growth of the crab Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 (Crustacea: Sesarmidae in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bezerra Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The size at sexual maturity and the allometric growth of the semi-terrestrial crab Sesarma rectum were studied in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil. Crabs were monthly collected during spring low-tide periods, from October 2009 through September 2010. A catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE technique was used to sample the crab population, with two-hour sampling periods, by two people. A total of 492 crabs were obtained, being 262 males and 230 females. The specimens were measured at carapace width (CW, the left and right propodus length and height (RPL, RPH, LPL and LPH, and the gonopod length of males (GL, and abdomen width (AW of females. In males, the inflection point was at 27.14 mm CW in the relationship between CW and the length of right propodus (LRP, considering the morphological size at the onset of maturity. Based on the relationship between CW and AW, the size at sexual maturity in females was 22.97 mm. In spite of living in an impacted area, this population attained the maturity onset at a bigger size than other localities.

  2. Characterization of rectum-colon cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Caracterización del cáncer colorrectal. Provincia Cienfuegos. (1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Domínguez Suárez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the recent advances in the medicine field which permit a better diagnosis and to establish treatments in early stages of the diseases, the colon and rectum cancer have shown an ascendant curve line in terms of incidence and mortality worldwide. There is an incidence around 11 000 new cases per year in Cuba, and it constituted the third cause of death in Cienfuegos province from 1988 to 1997. Objectives: To characterize the colon and rectum cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study carried out at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city, Cuba in order to characterize these kinds of cancer from 1995 to 2000. 221 patients were under studied after being surgically treated in the General and Colon Proctology Service with a diagnosis of colon and rectum neoplasia during those years. Data were obtained from the clinical records and biopsy reports. This work is just the first parte of the investigation, that's the reason complications and mortality are not mentioned at all. Results: there is a higher frequency of occurrence in the female patients and in patients older than 60 years although a 5 % of the cases were 40 years old or younger. The most frequent site was the rectum and hemorrhage was the most predominant clinical manifestation. The adenocarcinoma was presented in 90.5% and the highest per cent of the cases were diagnosed in B and C Duke's stage. Surgery was applied with curative intention in the majority of the patients meanwhile palliative surgery was predominant in the cases with occlusive clinical form. There were patients in C Duke´s stage that did not received chemotherapy treatment.

    Fundamento: El cáncer colorrectal, a pesar de los recientes avances en el campo de la medicina, que permiten mejorar el diagnóstico y establecer tratamiento en

  3. Massive myeloid sarcoma affecting the central nervous system, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and rectum associated with acute myeloblastic leukaemia: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best-Aguilera, C R; Vazquez-Del Mercado, M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Herrera-Zarate, L; Navarro-Hernandez, R E; Martin-Marquez, B T; Oregon-Romero, E; Ruiz-Quezada, S; Bonilla, G M; Lomeli-Guerrero, A

    2005-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary tumours with granulocytic precursors. When associated with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), these tumours usually affect no more than two different extramedullary regions. This report describes a myeloid sarcoma associated with AML with tumour formation at five anatomical sites. The patient was a 37 year old man admitted in September 1999 with a two month history of weight loss, symptoms of anaemia, rectal bleeding, and left facial nerve palsy. The anatomical sites affected were: the rectum, the right lobe of the liver, the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, and the central nervous system. A bone marrow smear was compatible with AML M2. Flow cytometry showed that the peripheral blood was positive for CD4, CD11, CD13, CD14, CD33, CD45, and HLA-DR. A karyotypic study of the bone marrow revealed an 8;21 translocation. The presence of multiple solid tumours in AML is a rare event. Enhanced expression of cell adhesion molecules may be the reason why some patients develop myeloid sarcomas. PMID:15735171

  4. Violence interpersonnelle au travail : typologie des acteurs, agresseurs et cibles Interpersonal Violence in the Workplace: Typology of the Actors - Aggressors and Targets Violencia interpersonal en el trabajo : tipología de los actores, agresores y víctimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vézina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le phénomène de violence interpersonnelle au travail a été largement étudié au cours des dix dernières années, mais rares sont les auteurs qui l’ont abordé dans une optique compréhensive, en prenant appui sur le témoignage des travailleurs. Le sens que revêt la violence pour les travailleurs demeure, lui, très peu exploré. Les auteurs présentent les résultats d’une étude compréhensive qui a permis de dégager une typologie des agresseurs et des cibles de la violence interpersonnelle et d’ouvrir la voie au développement d’un modèle compréhensif plus large ainsi qu’à une réflexion sur les interventions à développer pour agir sur ce phénomène.Interpersonal violence in the workplace is a phenomenon that has been widely studied over the last ten years. However, very few authors have examined it from a comprehensive perspective (based on the accounts of workers. Violence in terms of what it means for workers has hardly been explored. The authors present the results of a comprehensive study that has identified a typology of both the aggressors and the targets of interpersonal violence, and that has led to the development of a broader comprehensive model and the consideration of interventions that could be developed to deal with this phenomenon.El fenómeno de violencia interpersonal en el trabajo fue ampliamente estudiado en el curso de los últimos diez años, pero son raros los autores que lo abordaron dentro de una óptica comprensiva, apoyándose en el testimonio de los trabajadores. El sentido que reviste esta violencia para los trabajadores queda muy poco explorado. Los autores presentan los resultados de un estudio comprensivo que ha permitido extraer una tipología de los agresores y de las víctimas de la violencia interpersonal y abrir la vía al desarrollo de un modelo comprensivo más amplio, así como una reflexión sobre las intervenciones a desarrollar para actuar sobre este fenómeno.

  5. Results of the Accord 12/0405- prodige 2 randomized test in the rectum cancers of stage T(2) 3-4 NX M0; Resultat de l'essai randomise Accord 12/0405-prodige 2 dans les cancers du rectum de stade T(2) 3-4 NX M0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.P.; Benezery, K. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Azria, D.; Gourgou-Bourgade, S. [CRLCC Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Martel-Laffay, I. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Hennequin, C. [Hopital St-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Etienne, P.L. [Clinique Armoricaine de Radiologie, 22 - Saint-Brieuc (France); Vendrely, V. [CHU, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Montoto-Grillot, C. [FNCLCC-BECT, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    The Capox 50 protocol increase the early toxicity without reducing the possibilities of surgery. It does not increase neither the sphincter conservation rate nor the surgery complications. It improves noticeably the histological tumor response (ypT) and the negative circumferential margin rate. The Star Italian protocol randomized for similar patients exclusively oxaliplatin, without increasing the histological tumor response rate and with 25% of grade 3 or 4 early toxicity. In comparison between the tests Accord 12 and Star it is possible to propose as neoadjuvant treatment of these rectum cancers (stage T3-4 Mo) a Cape 50 protocol associating a 50 Gy radiotherapy in 25 fractions and five weeks and a concomitant chemotherapy (capecitabine: 1600 mg/M{sup 2}/d). The oxaliplatin can be proposed out of radiotherapy to eradicate the infra clinical metastases. (N.C.)

  6. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  7. High-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy applications and the difference in the bladder and rectum doses: A study from rural centre of Maharashatra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To report the difference in the bladder and rectum doses with different applications by the radiotherapists in the same patient of the carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by multiple fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. Materials and Methods : Between January 2003 to December 2004, a total of 60 cases of the carcinoma uterine cervix were selected randomly for the retrospective analyses. All 60 cases were grouped in six groups according to the treating radiotherapist who did the HDR-ICBT application. Three radiotherapists were considered for this study, named A, B and C. Ten cases for each radiotherapist in whom all three applications were done by the same radiotherapist. And 10 cases for each radiotherapist with shared applications in the same patient (A+B, A+C and B+C. The bladder and rectal doses were calculated in reference to point "A" dose and were limited to 80% of prescribed point "A" dose, as per ICRU-38 recommendations. Received dose grouped in three groups- less then 80% (< 80%, 80-100% and above 100% (>100%. A total of 180 applications for 60 patients were calculated for the above analyses. Results : There is a lot of difference in the bladder and rectal doses with the application by the different radiotherapists, even in the same patient with multiple fractions of HDR-ICBT. Applications by ′A′ radiotherapist were within the limits in the self as well as in the shared groups more number of times, by ′B′ radiotherapist was more times exceeding the limit and by ′C′ radiotherapist doses were in between the A and B. Discussion and Conclusion : For the rectal and bladder doses most important factors are patient′s age, disease stage, duration between EBRT and HDR-ICRT and patient anatomy, but these differences can be minimized to some extent by careful application, proper packing and proper fixation.

  8. Detection of up to 65% of Precancerous Lesions of the Human Colon and Rectum by Mutation Analysis of APC, K-Ras, B-Raf and CTNNB1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Mandy; Scholtka, Bettina, E-mail: scholtka@uni-potsdam.de [Chair of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Arthur- Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Gottschalk, Uwe [Maria Heimsuchung Caritas-Klinik Pankow, Breite Straße 46/47, 13187 Berlin (Germany); Faiss, Siegbert [III. Medizinische Abteilung - Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Rubenkamp 220, 22291 Hamburg (Germany); Schatz, Daniela; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia [BIOTECON Diagnostics GmbH, Hermannswerder Haus 17, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Steinberg, Pablo, E-mail: scholtka@uni-potsdam.de [Chair of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Arthur- Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    In the present study a recently conceived 4-gene marker panel covering the Wnt and Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK signaling pathways was used to analyze 20 colorectal serrated lesions and 41 colorectal adenoma samples and to determine the percentage of each of the above-mentioned potentially precancerous lesions carrying at least one of the four above-mentioned genes in a mutated form. CTNNB1 and B-Raf were screened by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, K-Ras by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and the APC gene mutation cluster region (codons 1243–1567) by direct DNA sequencing. APC mutations were only detected in 10% of the serrated lesions but in 34% of the adenomas. Twenty percent of the serrated lesions and 14% of the adenomas carried a mutated K-Ras. B-Raf was found to be mutated in 50% of the serrated lesions and in 22% of the adenomas. CTNNB1 was altered in 12% of the adenomas, but not in serrated lesions. By using the above gene marker panel it could be shown that 65% of the serrated lesions and 61% of the adenomas carried at least one of the four genes in a mutated form. Based on its excellent performance in detecting mutations in sporadic preneoplastic (in this study) and neoplastic lesions (in a previous study) of the human colon and rectum, this primer combination might also be suited to efficiently and non-invasively detect genetic alterations in stool DNA of patients with early colorectal cancer.

  9. Detection of up to 65% of Precancerous Lesions of the Human Colon and Rectum by Mutation Analysis of APC, K-Ras, B-Raf and CTNNB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schatz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a recently conceived 4-gene marker panel covering the Wnt and Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK signaling pathways was used to analyze 20 colorectal serrated lesions and 41 colorectal adenoma samples and to determine the percentage of each of the above-mentioned potentially precancerous lesions carrying at least one of the four above-mentioned genes in a mutated form. CTNNB1 and B-Raf were screened by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, K-Ras by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and the APC gene mutation cluster region (codons 1243–1567 by direct DNA sequencing. APC mutations were only detected in 10% of the serrated lesions but in 34% of the adenomas. Twenty percent of the serrated lesions and 14% of the adenomas carried a mutated K-Ras. B-Raf was found to be mutated in 50% of the serrated lesions and in 22% of the adenomas. CTNNB1 was altered in 12% of the adenomas, but not in serrated lesions. By using the above gene marker panel it could be shown that 65% of the serrated lesions and 61% of the adenomas carried at least one of the four genes in a mutated form. Based on its excellent performance in detecting mutations in sporadic preneoplastic (in this study and neoplastic lesions (in a previous study of the human colon and rectum, this primer combination might also be suited to efficiently and non-invasively detect genetic alterations in stool DNA of patients with early colorectal cancer.

  10. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  11. First report of urinary endoscopic vacuum therapy : For large bladder defect after abdomino-perineal excision of the rectum. Video paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, G; Schorsch, T; Kiesow, R U; Müller, C T

    2017-01-01

    The technique of active urinary endoscopic vacuum therapy (uEVT) is described. The surgical technique is demonstrated in detail with the help of a video of the operation, which is available online. Vesical fistulas are a rare complication following rectal surgery. The EVT technique is a novel method for the treatment of gastrointestinal leakage. This endoscopic procedure has been adapted to treat a large bladder defect after abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum with urine flowing out of the perineal wound. A new open-pore film drainage (OFD) catheter with an external diameter of only a few millimeters was developed and constructed from a very thin open-pore double-layered film and a drainage tube. The OFD was inserted into the bladder by means of flexible endoscopy and channeled out through a suprapubic incision. Continuous suction was applied with an electronic vacuum pump to actively drain the urine completely. A passive catheter drainage of urine from the renal pelvis via a transurethral single J stent was carried out simultaneously during the complete duration of treatment. The healing process was monitored during and after therapy via intravesical endoscopy. The application of continuous negative pressure via the OFD resulted in total collapse of the bladder. The urine in the bladder was actively and permanently drained through the OFD. Urine leakage from the perineal wound stopped immediately after induction of suction. The bladder defect healed after 18 days of treatment with uEVT. After therapy and removal of the catheters, the patient had normal micturition. A novel small-bore OFD was developed for EVT. The OFD technique allows for endoscopic application of negative pressure in the bladder. This first successful experience proves uEVT to be a potent interventional alternative in the treatment of bladder defects.

  12. [First report of urinary endoscopic vacuum therapy : For large bladder defect after abdomino-perineal excision of the rectum. Video paper. German version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, G; Schorsch, T; Kiesow, R U; Müller, C T

    2017-01-01

    The technique of active urinary endoscopic vacuum therapy (uEVT) is described. The surgical technique is demonstrated in detail with the help of a video of the operation and which is available online. Vesical fistulas are a rare complication following rectal surgery. The EVT technique is a novel method for treatment of gastrointestinal leakage. This endoscopic procedure has been adapted to treat a large bladder defect after abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with urine flowing out of the perineal wound. A new open-pore film drainage (OFD) catheter with an external diameter of only a few millimeters has been developed and is constructed from a very thin open-pore double-layered film and a drainage tube. The OFD was inserted into the bladder by means of flexible endoscopy and channeled out through a suprapubic incision. Continuous suction was applied with an electronic vacuum pump to actively drain the urine completely. A passive catheter drainage of urine from the renal pelvis via transurethral single J stent was carried out simultaneously during the complete duration of treatment. The healing process was monitored during and after therapy by intravesical endoscopy. The application of continuous negative pressure via the OFD resulted in total collapse of the bladder. The urine in the bladder was actively and permanently drained through the OFD. Urine leakage from the perineal wound stopped immediately after induction of suction. After 18 days of treatment with the uEVT the bladder defect was healed. After therapy and removal of the catheters the patient had normal micturition. A novel small-bore OFD has been developed for EVT. The OFD technique now allows endoscopic application of negative pressure in the bladder. This first successful experience proves uEVT to be a potent interventional alternative in the treatment of bladder defects.

  13. Abdomino-endoscopic perineal excision of the rectum for benign and malignant pathology: Technique considerations for true transperineal verus transanal total mesorectal excision endoscopic proctectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Furajii, Hazar; Kennedy, Niall; Cahill, Ronan A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Transanal minimally invasive surgery using single port instrumentation is now well described for the performance of total mesorectal excision with restorative colorectal/anal anastomosis most-often in conjunction with transabdominal multiport assistance. While non-restorative abdomino-endoscopic perineal excision of the anorectum is conceptually similar, it has been less detailed in the literature. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing non-restorative ano-proctectomy including a transperineal endoscopic component were analysed. All cases commenced laparoscopically with initial medial to lateral mobilisation of any left colon and upper rectum. The lower anorectal dissection started via an intersphincteric or extrasphincteric incision for benign and malignant pathology, respectively, and following suture closure and circumferential mobilisation of the anorectum, a single port (GelPOINT Path, Applied Medical) was positioned allowing the procedure progress endoscopically in all quadrants up to the cephalad dissection level. Standard laparoscopic instrumentation was used. Specimens were removed perineally. RESULTS: Of the 13 patients (median age 55 years, median BMI 28.75 kg/m2, median follow-up 17 months, 6 males), ten needed completion proctectomy for ulcerative colitis following prior total colectomy (three with concomitant parastomal hernia repair) while three required abdominoperineal resection for locally advanced rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Median operative time was 190 min, median post-operative discharge day was 7. Eleven specimens were of high quality. Four patients developed perineal wound complications (one chronic sinus, two abscesses needing drainage) within median 17-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Convergence of transabdominal and transanal technology and technique allows accuracy in combination operative performance. Nuanced appreciation of transperineal operative access should allow specified standardisation and

  14. Diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the rectum: an atypical cause of rectal bleeding Hemangioma cavernoso difuso del recto: una causa atípica de hemorragia digestiva baja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hervías

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: cavernous hemangioma of the rectosigmoid colon is a rare disease, with no more than 200 cases reported in the literature. The rectosigmoid is the most common site of this disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Case report: we report the case of a 31-year-old male with recurrent episodes of rectal bleeding, who was finally diagnosed of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the rectum. The tumor, of 12 x 10 x 9 cm in size, occupied the rectum to the margin of the anal sphincter. A surgical procedure was ruled out because of the inability to carry out a safe anastomosis while preserving anal sphincters. Discussion: rectal hemangiomas are less frequent vascular malformations. The clinical presentation of a cavernous hemangioma of the rectum is usually acute, recurrent or chronic rectal bleeding. Other symptoms stem from the possible compression or invasion of adjacent structures, such as lumbar or perianal pain, metrorrhage, hematuria, etc. This diagnosis is commonly made in younger patients. Colonoscopy is without doubt the diagnostic technique of choice, and it allows to establish the localization, morphology, and total extension of the lesion; its characteristic image is a red-purplish nodule with great vascular congestion. According to the opinion of most authors, biopsy is not advisable during colonoscopy, since imaging techniques are sufficient for an accurate diagnosis, and the risk of bleeding while manipulating this lesion is not negligible. Computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging, given their high precision to delimit the lesion and its relations to adjacent structures, are imaging studies that are mandatory before surgical treatment. Other techniques such as selective angiography, barium enema, gastrointestinal transit, and upper-tract endoscopy may be supplementary and help locate more lesions along the gastrointestinal tract. Failure to recognize the exact diagnosis and extent of diffuse cavernous hemangioma

  15. Pure HD polarized targets; Cibles polarisees de pur HD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglioso, S.; Arapoglou, B.; Bisson, Y.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Grolet, D.; Martret, R.; Rouille, G.; Skowron, R.; Vellard, N. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors) 1 ref., 1 fig.

  16. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950328 Stepwise regression analysis on affective fac-tor of the changes in gastrin and somatostatin in col-orectal cancer patients.WANG Yuanhe(王元和),etal.2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai,200003.Med J ChinPLA 1995:20(1):48-51.Gastrin and somatostatin (SS) levels in peripheralblood,tumor and its surrounding mucosa were deter-mined in 40 colorectal cancer patients by RIA with theserum gastrin (SG),plasma SS(PS),tumor SS(TS)or cancer-adjacent mucosa (CAMS)SS(CAMS)lev-els were taken as dependent variables and the remain-ing variables(including gastrin and SS levels,age and

  17. Robotic surgery: colon and rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seong Kyu; Carmichael, Joseph C; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Although robotic technology aims to obviate some of the limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery, the role of robotics in colorectal surgery is still largely undefined and different with respect to its application in abdominal versus pelvic surgery. This review aims to elucidate current developments in colorectal robotic surgery.In colon surgery, robotic techniques are associated with longer operative times and higher costs compared with laparoscopic surgery. However, robotics provides a stable camera platform and articulated instruments that are not subject to human tremors. Because of these advantages, robotic systems can play a role in complex procedures such as the dissection of lymph nodes around major vessels. In addition robot-assisted hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomoses can be easily performed by the surgeon, without a substantial need for a competent assistant. At present, although the short-term outcomes and oncological adequacy of robotic colon resection have been observed to be acceptable, the long-term outcomes of robotic colon resection remain unknown.In rectal surgery, robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer can be carried out safely and in accordance with current oncological principles. However, to date, the impact of robotic rectal surgery on the long-term oncological outcomes of minimally invasive total mesorectal excision remains undetermined. Robotic total mesorectal excision may allow for better preservation of urinary and sexual functions, and robotic surgery may attenuate the learning curve for laparoscopic rectal resection. However, a major drawback to robotic rectal surgery is the high cost involved.Large-scale prospective randomized clinical trials such as the international randomized trial ROLARR are required to establish the benefits of robotic rectal surgery.

  18. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010344 Serotonin transporter expression in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.SUN Chengcheng(孙程程),et al. Dept Gastroenterol,Peking Univ 1st Hosp,Beijing 100034.World Chin J Digestol 2010;18(14):1428-33. Objective To determine whether colonic serotonin transporter (SERT) expression is altered in rats with visceral hypersensitivity and to explore the

  19. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930135 Induction of expression of HLA anti-gens,carcinoembryonic antigen and oncogeneproduct on human colorectal cancer cell lineswith interferon-γ.WANG Ling(王聆),et al.Immunol Instit,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ.Chin J

  20. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008303 MicroRNA expression profiling in hydrox-ycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line by microarray.TONG Jinlu(童锦禄), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Sch, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai Instit Dig Dis, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Dig 2008;28(4):246-249.Objective To explore the role of a novel regulatory molecule-microRNA in the hydroxycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line SW1116/HCPTin order to provide a new reversal target for multidrug resistance.

  1. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  2. WE-G-18C-09: Separating Perfusion and Diffusion Components From Diffusion Weighted MRI of Rectum Tumors Based On Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, N; Wengler, K; Mazaheri, Y; Hunt, M; Deasy, J; Gollub, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pseudodiffusion arises from the microcirculation of blood in the randomly oriented capillary network and contributes to the signal decay acquired using a multi-b value diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI sequence. This effect is more significant at low b-values and should be properly accounted for in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculations. The purpose of this study was to separate perfusion and diffusion component based on a biexponential and a segmented monoexponential model using IVIM analysis Methods. The signal attenuation is modeled as S(b) = S0[(1−f)exp(−bD) + fexp(−bD*)]. Fitting the biexponetial decay leads to the quantification of D, the true diffusion coefficient, D*, the pseudodiffusion coefficient, and f, the perfusion fraction. A nonlinear least squares fit and two segmented monoexponential models were used to derive the values for D, D*,‘and f. In the segmented approach b = 200 s/mm{sup 2} was used as the cut-off value for calculation of D. DW-MRI's of a rectum cancer patient were acquired before chemotherapy, before radiation therapy (RT), and 4 weeks into RT and were investigated as an example case. Results: Mean ADC for the tumor drawn on the DWI cases was 0.93, 1.0 and 1.13 10{sup −3}×mm{sup 2}/s before chemotherapy, before RT and 4 weeks into RT. The mean (D.10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, D* 10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, and f %) based on biexponential fit was (0.67, 18.6, and 27.2%), (0.72, 17.7, and 28.9%) and (0.83,15.1, and 30.7%) at these time points. The mean (D, D* f) based on segmented fit was (0.72, 10.5, and 12.1%), (0.72, 8.2, and 17.4%) and (.82, 8.1, 16.5%) Conclusion: ADC values are typically higher than true diffusion coefficients. For tumors with significant perfusion effect, ADC should be analyzed at higher b-values or separated from the perfusion component. Biexponential fit overestimates the perfusion fraction because of increased sensitivity to noise at low b-values.

  3. Population dynamic of Sesarma rectum (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae from a muddy flat under human impact, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dinâmica populacional de Sesarma rectum (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae de uma área lodosa impactada, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Januário da Silva

    Full Text Available A population of Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 under the influence of human impact was studied. Monthly sampling (CPUE, two people during 30 min took place from August/2001 to July/2002 at an impacted muddy flat in Paraty city, State of Rio de Janeiro (23º13'S, 44º42'W. At the laboratory, specimens were classified by sex and measured with a vernier caliper (0.01 mm. The size at the beginning of the sexual maturity was obtained by means of different techniques: in the case of males it was used the allometric procedure and the macroscopic analysis of gonads wile for females, the size of the smallest ovigerous female was also considered. The population structure was evaluated by means the analysis of the variations in the modes of the size frequency distribution. The fecundity was assessed using sub samples of the egg mass. For males, the macroscopic analyses of gonads revealed larger values of carapace width than those obtained with morphometric analysis. Males larger than 18.5 mm of carapace width can be considered as mature. For females, such size was 17.4 mm CW. Despite of the human impact in the habitat, the population presented to be stable, as indicated by a single mode on the size frequency distribution. The second mode that appeared in some months is probably related to the entrance of juveniles in the population. The sex ratio of this population is closely approximating to 1:1 until crabs reach a carapace width of about 28 mm; after that, males outnumbered females. Comparing the fecundity of the present population with a previous study from Ubatuba, it can be verified a difference in the number of eggs. The fecundity of Paraty's population is significantly lower than the Ubatuba's population. This is probably related to the scarcity of food resource in Paraty, once no vascular plant can be found in that place. The continuity of reproductive processes and the juvenile recruitment suggest this species is able to live in the area with human

  4. Clinical study on intensity modulated radiation therapy combined with thermotherapy in treating advanced rectum cancer%IMRT联合热疗治疗中晚期直肠癌临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王园园; 王义善; 杨柯; 胡蓉蓉; 杨桂青

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察适形调强放射治疗(IMRT)联合热疗治疗中晚期直肠癌的临床疗效.方法 将60例中晚期直肠癌患者随机分为单纯IMRT组及IMRT联合热疗组,分别给予相应治疗,比较2组患者治疗后临床疗效.结果 IMRT联合热疗组的治疗有效率87%,单纯IMRT组63%,2组有效率比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);在ZPS评分改善方面,IMRT联合热疗组也优于单纯IMRT组,且差异具有统计学意义.结论 IMRT联合热疗能够更有效地控制中晚期直肠癌,值得临床推广应用.%Objective It is to observe the clinical effect of intensity-modulated radiation therapy ( IMRT ) combined with thermotherapy in the treatment for advanced rectum cancer. Methods Sixty patients with advanced rectum cancer were randomly divided into IMRT group and IMRT combined with thermotherapy group. After treatment, the differences of clinical effect between these two groups were evaluated. Results The therapeutic effect was 87% in IMRT combined with thermotherapy group, and that was 63% in IMRT group, there was significant difference between both groups ( P <0.05 ). In the aspect of the improvement of ZPS scores, IMRT combined with thermotherapy group was also better than IMRT group only, there was significant difference between both groups ( P <0.05 ). Conclusion IMRT combined with thermotherapy can control advanced rectum cancer better, and thus, it deserves popularize clinical application.

  5. Analyse des facteurs histo-pronostiques du cancer du rectum non métastatique dans une série ouest Algérienne de 58 cas au CHU-Tlemcen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesli, Smain Nabil; Regagba, Derbali; Tidjane, Anisse; Benkalfat, Mokhtar; Abi-Ayad, Chakib

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre travail est d'analyser les facteurs histo-pronostiques des cancers du rectum non métastatique opérés au service de chirurgie «A» de Tlemcen à ouest Algérien durant une période de six ans. Méthodes Etude rétrospective de 58 patients qui avait un adénocarcinome rectal. Le critère de jugement était la survie. Les paramètres étudiés, le sexe, l’âge, stade tumoral, et les récidives tumorales. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 58 ans. Avec 52% d'hommes contre 48% femmes avec sex-ratio (1,08). Le siège tumoral était: moyen rectum avec 41,37%, 34,48% au bas rectum et dans 24,13% au haut rectum. La classification TNM avec 17,65% au stade I, 18,61% au stade II, 53, 44% au stade III et 7,84% au stade IV. La survie médiane globale était de 40 mois ±2,937 mois. La survie en fonction du stade tumoral, le stade III et IV avait un faible taux de survie (19%) a 3 ans contre le stade I, II avait un taux de survie de (75%) (P = 0,000) (IC 95%). Les patients avec récidives tumorales avaient un taux de survie faible à 3 ans par rapport à ceux n'ayant pas eu de récidive (30,85% Vs 64,30% P = 0,043). Conclusion Dans cette série, l’étude uni varié des différents facteurs pronostiques conditionnant la survie n'a permis de retenir que trois facteurs influençant la survie, à savoir la taille tumorale, le stade, et les récidives tumorales. En analyse multi variée en utilisant le modèle Cox un seul facteur été retenu la récidive tumorale. PMID:27583069

  6. Radiotherapy for PSA failure after prostatectomy: which volumes?; Radiotherapie pelvienne pour recidive biochimique isolee apres prostatectomie pour cancer de prostate: quels volumes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosset, M.; Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Service de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Bosset, J.F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Jean Minjoz, Service de Radiotherapie, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2006-05-15

    After prostatectomy, radiotherapy is a potential curable treatment. From the surgery series, it is possible to identify all the localization at risk in case of biochemical relapse after prostatectomy. The target volume of irradiation has to be defined according to the pathological findings. The CTV is limited to the pelvic fascia laterally, to the anterior wall of the rectum behind. The inferior limit includes the anastomosis, and the superior is easier to define with the length of the prostatic gland. The inclusion of area of seminal vesicles and pelvic node areas should be discussed. The use of surgical clips on the anastomosis and image fusion techniques including the preoperative imaging would help physicians to define the CTV's limits. (authors)

  7. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna, E-mail: anapaulafortuna@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Atencao Integrada a Saude da Mulher. Divisao de Radioterapia; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Divisao de Radioterapia

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm{sup 3} had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm{sup 3}. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm{sup 3} should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. Keywords: Rectal volume; Prostate cancer; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  9. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  10. Clinical effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine rectum drip treating on diarrhea of infant%中药直肠滴注治疗婴幼儿腹泻80例的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨中药直肠滴注治疗婴幼儿腹泻的临床作用。方法:选取我院于2013年12月~2014年10月收治的80例接受中药直肠滴注治疗的腹泻婴幼儿为研究对象,并选取同期80例接受西药进行治疗的婴幼儿腹泻患儿为对照组,比较2组患者的临床疗效以及2组患儿的不良反应。结果:与对照组相比,研究组患儿的总有效率显著升高;且2组患儿均未发现不良反应。结论:中药直肠滴注治疗婴幼儿腹泻疗效显著,且无不良反应,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine rectum drip treating on diarrhea of infant. Methods:160 cases of infants with diarrhea adopted by our hospital during December 2013 and October 2014 were selected randomly as research objective.80 cases adopted the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine rectum drip were selected into research group, and the other 80 cases were as the control group.Compare the clinical effect and side-effect of both group.Results:Compared with the control group, infants of research group had higher total effective rate and there was no side-effect of both groups.Conclusion:Traditional Chi-nese Medicine rectum drip treating on diarrhea of infant could have significant clinical efficacy and no side-effect, deserved promoting and applying.

  11. Precise segmentation of multiple organs in CT volumes using learning-based approach and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Zheng, Yefeng; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhang, Jingdan; Kohlberger, Timo; Tietjen, Christian; Boettger, Thomas; Duncan, James S; Zhou, S Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method by incorporating information theory into the learning-based approach for automatic and accurate pelvic organ segmentation (including the prostate, bladder and rectum). We target 3D CT volumes that are generated using different scanning protocols (e.g., contrast and non-contrast, with and without implant in the prostate, various resolution and position), and the volumes come from largely diverse sources (e.g., diseased in different organs). Three key ingredients are combined to solve this challenging segmentation problem. First, marginal space learning (MSL) is applied to efficiently and effectively localize the multiple organs in the largely diverse CT volumes. Second, learning techniques, steerable features, are applied for robust boundary detection. This enables handling of highly heterogeneous texture pattern. Third, a novel information theoretic scheme is incorporated into the boundary inference process. The incorporation of the Jensen-Shannon divergence further drives the mesh to the best fit of the image, thus improves the segmentation performance. The proposed approach is tested on a challenging dataset containing 188 volumes from diverse sources. Our approach not only produces excellent segmentation accuracy, but also runs about eighty times faster than previous state-of-the-art solutions. The proposed method can be applied to CT images to provide visual guidance to physicians during the computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided radiotherapy to treat cancers in pelvic region.

  12. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna Poli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation ( p = 0.037. A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction ( p = 0.045. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation.

  13. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. PMID:26929456

  14. Tumor de reto e cárdia sincrônicos: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Rectum and cardia cynchronous tumor: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luis Silveira Jara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso raro de um paciente de 77 anos, que desenvolveu dois tumores sincrônicos do trato gastrintestinal, localizados em topografia de reto e cárdia. Feito o diagnóstico de ambos simultaneamente. Foi submetido à cirurgia em dois tempos e evoluiu bem, realizando a reconstrução do trato gastrintestinal três meses após a primeira intervenção. Não encontramos na literatura nenhum outro relato desta combinação de tumores.We discuss a 77-year-old man who developed two cancers: adenocarcinoma of the stomach and adenocarcinoma of the rectum. He was submitted at the surgery developed for two interventions and evolved aright. To the best of our knowledge, no other patient with the combination of these two cancers has been reported in the literature.

  15. 尿粪分流手术在治疗膀胱全切Sigma直肠膀胱术后严重代谢紊乱中的应用价值%Value of urine excrement shunt surgery for the treatment of severe metabolic disorders after Sigma rectum pouch of bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈华; 廖凯; 吴宏飞

    2015-01-01

    severe metabolic disorders after Sigma rectum pouch of bladder cancer.Methods From July 2011 to December 2013,4 male patients (mean age 72±10 years old,ranged from 58-82 years old),who received radical cystectomy and Sigma rectum pouch due to bladder cancer,were admitted in our hospital.Within four years after the operation,all patients complained about the recurrent fatigue,anorexia and even unconsciousness.The hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis,hypokalemia and renal dysfunction were diagnosed by blood gas analysis and biochemical tests.One week before urine excrement shunt operation,the arterial blood pH,HCO3-,serum potassium,chloride and creatinine were (7.15±0.08),(7.8±4.7)mmol/L,(3.1 ±0.2) mmol/L,(110.3±4.7) mmol/L,(314.8±66.4) μmol/L,respectively.They received urine excrement shunt surgery.The lower abdominal mid-line incision was made and the pouch was isolated from intestinal tract.The abdomen ostomy was made and the sigmoid colon and rectum were re-coincided in order to recover the intestinal continuity.The results of blood gas analysis,electrolytes and renal function after surgery were compared with those before surgery.Results The average operation time was (256.3±26.9) min and the mean volume of bleeding was (147.5±111.2) ml.There was no surgery related complication.Blood bicarbonate was (19.1±4.8) mmol/L one week after surgery,which was significantly improved than that before operation (P<0.05).One month later,blood pH level descended to (7.38±0.05),potassium level was (3.9±0.3) mmol/L,creatinine was (208.8±50.8) umol/L.All of them were significantly improved,compared with those results before surgery (P<0.05).Blood chloride was significantly reduced to (102.4±5.8) mmol/L (P<0.05) after 6 months of operation.Nobody developed severe acidosis and electrolyte disturbances during 6 months to 3 years' follow-up.Conclusions Urine excrement shunt surgery can effectively corrected the acidosis and electrolyte disturbances due to the radical

  16. 直肠癌术前五野静态调强和容积弧形调强放疗剂量学的比较研究%Dosimetric comparison between preoperative five-field intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy in the treatment of rectum cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶序卷; 高远红; 陈利; 杜乐辉; 张广顺; 贾钰铭; 雷开键; 刘孟忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨直肠癌术前五野静态调强(5 F-IMRT)和容积弧形调强(VMAT)放疗计划的剂量学特点.方法 应用CMS monaco治疗计划系统分别对23例术前同期放化疗的直肠癌患者行5F-IMRT和VMAT放疗计划设计,比较两种放疗技术的靶区剂量分布特点以及小肠、膀胱、双侧股骨头等正常组织的受照射剂量及体积.结果 5F-IMRT计划的适形指数(CI)为0.810±0.043,VMAT计划的CI为0.822±0.062,两者均能很好满足95%等剂量曲线对100% PTV体积的完全覆盖;5F-IMRT计划中GTV、CTV和PTV的均匀指数(HI)分别为1.052±0.019、1.063±0.016、1.075±0.020,VMAT计划分别为1.037±0.008、1.047 ±0.008、1.072±0.018,差异均无统计学意义.5F-IMRT和 VMAT计划中重耍的危及器官如小肠、膀胱和股骨头等的关键剂量评价指标(D5、Dmin、Dmean和Dmax)差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).小肠、膀胱和股骨头等受照射体积的关键评价指标(V20、V30、V40和V50)在两种放疗计划中差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 5F-IMRT和VMAT计划靶区的剂量分布均较理想,对小肠、膀胱、双侧股骨头等正常组织均有很好的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the dosimetric comparison between prenperalive live-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (5F-IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy ( VMAT) in the. rectum cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods With the application of CMS monaco syslems( V2. 0,Sweden) , 5F-IMRT and VMAT plans were simulated in 23 rectum cancer patients with preoperative concurrent chemoradlotherapy. The dose characteristic of target volume was evaluated and the dose-volume relationship of small bowel, bladder and bilateral femoral head was compared. Results The CI was similar between the 5F-IMRT(0. 810 ±0. 043) and VMAT plans(0. 822 ±0. 062) , which could satisfy 95% of prescribed dose for covered PTV. The HI of the prescribed dose to GTV( 1. 052 ±0. 019 vs. 1

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  18. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  19. Impact of (18)F-Fluciclovine PET on Target Volume Definition for Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiotherapy: Initial Findings from a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Ashesh B; Schreibmann, Eduard; Rossi, Peter J; Shelton, Joseph; Godette, Karen; Nieh, Peter; Master, Viraj A; Kucuk, Omer; Goodman, Mark; Halkar, Raghuveer; Cooper, Sherrie; Chen, Zhengjia; Schuster, David M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the synthetic amino acid PET radiotracer (18)F-fluciclovine in modifying the defined clinical and treatment-planning target volumes in postprostatectomy patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy and to evaluate the resulting dosimetric consequences to surrounding organs at risk. Methods: Ninety-six patients were enrolled in a randomized, prospective intention-to-treat clinical trial for potential salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy. The initial treatment plan was based on the results from conventional abdominopelvic CT and MRI. The 45 patients in the experimental arm also underwent abdominopelvic (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT, and the images were registered with the conventional images to determine whether the results would modify the initial treatment plan. The 51 patients in the control arm did not undergo (18)F-fluciclovine PET/CT. For each patient, the clinical and treatment-planning target volumes that would have been treated before (18)F-fluciclovine registration were compared with those after registration. For organs at risk (rectum, bladder, and penile bulb), the volumes receiving 40 Gy and 65 Gy before registration were compared with those after registration. Statistical comparisons were made using the paired t test. Acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was compared between the control and experimental arms using the χ(2) test. Results: In 24 cases, radiotherapy was planned to a clinical target volume consisting of the prostate bed alone (CTV) (64.8-66.6 Gy). In 21 cases, radiotherapy was planned to a clinical target volume consisting of the pelvis (CTV1) (45.0 Gy) followed by a boost to the prostate bed (CTV2) (19.8-25.2 Gy). In each case, the respective treatment-planning target volume expansion (PTV, PTV1, or PTV2) was 0.8 cm (0.6 cm posterior). With the exception of PTV2, all postregistration volumes were

  20. Probiotics for Rectal Volume Variation During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Yongkan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontaek, E-mail: rokwt@hanmail.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Juhye; Park, Dahl; Jeon, Hosang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Honggu; Kim, Taenam [Department of Urology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVC{sub R}), a crucial factor of prostate movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 × 10{sup 8} colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVC{sub R}, defined as the difference in rectal volume between the planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily megavoltage CT images, was analyzed. Results: Forty patients were randomized into 2 groups. The L acidophilus group showed significantly lower median rectal volume and median PVC{sub R} values than the placebo group. L acidophilus showed a significant reduction effect on the PVC{sub R} (P<.001). However, the radiation therapy fraction number did not significantly influence the PVC{sub R}. Conclusions: L acidophilus was useful in reducing the PVC{sub R}, which is the most important determining factor of prostate position, during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  1. Comparative analysis of dose-volume histograms between 3D conformal and conventional non-conformal radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer; Analise comparativa dos histogramas de dose e volume entre planejamentos tridimensionais conformados e convencionais nao conformados na radioterapia do cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Silvia Moreira; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Dias, Rodrigo Sousa; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: silviamfeitosa@yahoo.com.br

    2009-03-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at comparing conformal and non-conformal radiotherapy plans designed for patients with prostate cancer, by analyzing radiation doses in target volumes and organs at risk. Materials and methods: Radiotherapy plans for 40 patients with prostate cancer were analyzed. Conformal, conformal isocentric and non-conformal plans utilizing the source-surface distance were simulated for each of the patients for comparison of radiation dose in target volumes and organs at risk. For comparison purposes, dose-volume histograms for target volumes and organs at risk were analyzed. Results: Median doses were significantly lower in the conformal planning, with 25%, 40% and 60% volumes in the rectum and 30% and 60% in the bladder. The median doses were significantly lower in the conformal planning analyzing the right and left coxofemoral joints. Maximum, mean and median doses in the clinical target volume and in the planned target volume were significantly higher in the conformal planning. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conformal radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer allows the delivery of higher doses to the target volume and lower doses to adjacent healthy tissues. (author)

  2. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  3. Segmentation of organs at risk in CT volumes of head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaofei; Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Yan; Li, Meiling; Song, Yanli; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) is a key step in treatment planning system (TPS) of image guided radiation therapy. We are developing three classes of methods to segment 17 organs at risk throughout the whole body, including brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin. The three classes of segmentation methods include (1) threshold-based methods for organs of large contrast with adjacent structures such as lungs, trachea, and skin; (2) context-driven Generalized Hough Transform-based methods combined with graph cut algorithm for robust localization and segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen; and (3) atlas and registration-based methods for segmentation of heart and all organs in CT volumes of head and pelvis. The segmentation accuracy for the seventeen organs was subjectively evaluated by two medical experts in three levels of score: 0, poor (unusable in clinical practice); 1, acceptable (minor revision needed); and 2, good (nearly no revision needed). A database was collected from Ruijin Hospital, Huashan Hospital, and Xuhui Central Hospital in Shanghai, China, including 127 head scans, 203 thoracic scans, 154 abdominal scans, and 73 pelvic scans. The percentages of "good" segmentation results were 97.6%, 92.9%, 81.1%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 78.7%, 94.1%, 91.1%, 81.3%, 86.7%, 82.5%, 86.4%, 79.9%, 72.6%, 68.5%, 93.2%, 96.9% for brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin, respectively. Various organs at risk can be reliably segmented from CT scans by use of the three classes of segmentation methods.

  4. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  5. 改良Alamar Blue法检测结直肠微小组织块的活力%Viability of tissue fragments in colon and rectum detected using modified Alamar Blue assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘嘉亮; 高枫; 曹云飞; 廖存; 黄家豪; 唐双意

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alamar Blue assay is one of the common methods to evaluate histic or cellular viability. It is widely used to detect cell viability at present. However, using Alamar Blue assay to detect the viability of tissue fragments has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To detect the viability of the regular tissue fragments and cancer tissue fragments in the mucous membrane of colon and rectum using modified Alamar Blue assay. METHODS: Based on cell viability detect assay of Alamar Blue, the viability of the regular tissue fragments and cancer tissue fragments in the mucous membrane of colon and rectum was assessed using absorbance per unit mass. The detecting time was chosen at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 , 30 and 36 hours according to the specification of the Alamar Blue assay and the pre-experiment results. Every specimen was divided into seven groups and the blank control hole was established. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Absorbance per unit mass reflected the change tendency of proliferation activity in tissue fragments as the culture time went on. Both regular tissue fragments and cancer tissue fragments in the mucous membrane of colon and rectum reached the best proliferative state at 12-24 hours after culture. It confirms that the modified Alamar Blue assay is a sensitive and effective way to evaluate the viability of colorectal tissue fragments.%背景:Alamar Blue法是测定组织细胞活性的方法之一,目前多数应用在细胞系活力测定方面,尚未见应用于微小组织块活力的评价.目的:采用改良Alamar Blue法评价结直肠正常黏膜组织块和癌组织块的活力.方法:以细胞活力测定的Alamar Blue法为基础,应用单位质量吸光度来评价结直肠正常黏膜组织块和癌组织块的活力.根据检测试剂盒说明书和预实验结果,实验选择0,6,12,18,24,30,36 h作为检测时间点,每一例标本分为7组,设空白对照孔.结果与结论:单位质量吸光度能够随培养时间的推移,很好地反映组织

  6. Carcinomas neuroendocrinos de colon y recto: Experiencia de una unidad en seis años Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the colon and rectum: A unit's experience over six years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vilallonga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores neuroendocrinos de colon y recto son poco frecuentes. Suelen ser tumores poco diferenciados, diagnosticados por el patólogo y de especial agresividad en su comportamiento clínico. El pronóstico suele ser malo, con tendencia a la rápida metastatización. Material y métodos: se ha revisado la experiencia de una Unidad de Coloproctología durante un periodo de seis años. Se han revisado de manera retrospectiva los pacientes con un tumor de estirpe neuroendocrina. Se han excluido los tumores carcinoides. Resultados: durante este periodo, se han intervenido 2.155 pacientes por cáncer de colon y recto y se han hallado cinco pacientes con tumores neuroendocrinos. La edad media fue de 66 años, tres varones y dos hembras. Se localizaron uno en ciego, dos en recto y dos en sigma. Dos pacientes presentaban diseminación del tumor a distancia. Se realizó cirugía en todos los pacientes con quimioterapia posterior en dos de ellos. Un paciente falleció por insuficiencia hepática postoperatoria, otro a los dos meses y otro al año. Dos pacientes siguen vivos con un seguimiento medio de ocho meses. Conclusiones: los tumores neuroendocrinos son unos tumores de aparición rara en el colon y recto. La clínica de presentación no difiere de la que podrían tener los adenocarcinomas. En el momento del diagnóstico estos tumores suelen presentar enfermedad a distancia, como en dos de los cinco casos presentados, relacionándose con un mal pronóstico para el enfermo. El tratamiento quirúrgico y quimioterápico combinado es el que puede alargar más la supervivencia de los pacientes.Introduction: neuroendocrine tumours of the colon and rectum are infrequent. They are usually undifferentiated, easy to diagnose for the pathologist and are especially aggressive in their clinical behaviour. Prognosis is usually poor and they have a high tendency to metastase early. Material and methods: we have reviewed our experience in a

  7. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  8. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  9. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  10. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  11. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  12. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  13. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  14. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  15. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  16. Importância da dieta na epidemiologia do câncer de colon e reto The importance of diet in the epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza da Conceição da Fonseca Lopes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita atualização de estudos realizados com o objetivo de verificar a relação entre o fator ambiental, destacando-se a alimentação caracterizada por uma dieta pobre em fibra e rica em gordura e a distribuição epidemiológica do câncer de colon e reto. São enfatizadas as diferenças apresentadas pelas dietas dos países industrializados e dos países em desenvolvimento e a influência da religião e do fluxo migratório no hábito alimentar, associadas com as taxas de incidência da doença.Studies have been made to verify the relation between the environmental factor, diet rich in fat and deficient in fibre, and the epidemiologic distribution of cancer of the colon and rectum. The research emphasizes the differences between the diets of the industrialized and the developing countries, and the influence of religion and migratory movements on the diet usualy associated with incidence of the disease.

  17. Adenocarcinoma de recto y ano en paciente con enfermedad de Crohn tratado con infliximab Adenocarcinoma of the rectum and anus in a patient with Crohn´s disease treated with infliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Egea Valenzuela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we report the case of a patient with long-standing Crohn´s disease and multiple complications that, after receiving treatment with infliximab, was diagnosed with an adenocarcinoma of the rectum and anus that required radical surgery, later presenting multiple metastases. In the discussion, characteristics and major risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease will be largely reviewed, and current studies will be analyzed in connection with the appearance of neoplasms in patients being treated with biologics.Presentamos el caso de un paciente con enfermedad de Crohn de larga evolución y con múltiples complicaciones de su enfermedad que, tras recibir tratamiento con infliximab, es diagnosticado de un adenocarcinoma de recto y ano que precisa cirugía radical, presentando posteriormente metástasis múltiples. Se repasarán durante la discusión las características y los factores de riesgo más importantes del cáncer colorrectal en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, y se analizarán los trabajos existentes hasta la fecha en relación con la aparición de neoplasias en pacientes tratados con fármacos biológicos.

  18. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  19. Dosimetric comparison between conventional and conformal radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix: Are we treating the right volumes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirup Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Conventional portals, based on bony anatomy, for external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer have been repeatedly demonstrated as inadequate. Conversely, with image-based conformal radiotherapy, better target coverage may be offset by the greater toxicities and poorer compliance associated with treating larger volumes. This study was meant to dosimetrically compare conformal and conventional radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Five patients of carcinoma cervix underwent planning CT scan with IV contrast and targets, and organs at risk (OAR were contoured. Two sets of plans-conventional and conformal were generated for each patient. Field sizes were recorded, and dose volume histograms of both sets of plans were generated and compared on the basis of target coverage and OAR sparing. Results: Target coverage was significantly improved with conformal plans though field sizes required were significantly larger. On the other hand, dose homogeneity was not significantly improved. Doses to the OARs (rectum, urinary bladder, and small bowel were not significantly different across the 2 arms. Conclusion: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy gives significantly better target coverage, which may translate into better local control and survival. On the other hand, it also requires significantly larger field sizes though doses to the OARs are not significantly increased.

  20. RADIATION DOSE–VOLUME EFFECTS IN RADIATION-INDUCED RECTAL INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram; Jackson, Andrew; Tucker, Susan L.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2010-01-01

    The available dose/volume/outcome data for rectal injury were reviewed. The volume of rectum receiving ≥60Gy is consistently associated with the risk of Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity or rectal bleeding. Parameters for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model from four clinical series are remarkably consistent, suggesting that high doses are predominant in determining the risk of toxicity. The best overall estimates (95% confidence interval) of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters are n = 0.09 (0.04–0.14); m = 0.13 (0.10–0.17); and TD50 = 76.9 (73.7–80.1) Gy. Most of the models of late radiation toxicity come from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy dose-escalation studies of early-stage prostate cancer. It is possible that intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton beam dose distributions require modification of these models because of the inherent differences in low and intermediate dose distributions. PMID:20171506

  1. Early changes of volume and spatial location in target and normal tissues caused by IMRT for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwu; Liu, Ping; Chen, Wenjuan; Bai, Penggang; Li, Jiangshan; Ni, Xiaolei; Chen, Kaiqiang; Li, Qixin

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the early changes of volume and spatial location in target and normal tissues caused by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. Forty patients with cervical cancer were included in this study and treated by IMRT. Computed tomography (CT) was performed before radiotherapy and when the patient had received 27 Gy in 15 fractions. After image registration, the volume of interest (VOI) for the targets and organs at risk was delineated by clinicians on the CT images. Changes of volume, spatial location and Dice similarity were calculated for all VOIs. There were significant changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) in the primary tumor (GTV-T) with t = 8.304 (p<0.01) and visible pelvic lymph nodes (GTV-N) with t = 4.996 (p<0.01) caused by IMRT. The mean volume differences for GTV-T and GTV-N were 38.64% ± 19.50% (range 3.16%-86.49%) and 42.49% ± 25.68% (range 2.79%-87.42%), respectively. Among the organs at risk, the bladder had the greatest volume change with 55.13% ± 33.40% (range 3.25%-116.01%). The Dice similarity for GTV-T and GTV-N was 0.50 ± 0.18 (range 0.10-0.85) and 0.31 ± 0.20 (range 0.00-0.71), respectively. The rectum had the least Dice similarity among the normal tissues, with a mean value of 0.57 ± 0.14 (range 0.18-0.76). There were significant changes in volume and spatial location of the target and normal tissues after 27 Gy IMRT. In order to maintain the radiation dose to the targets and minimize the radiation to normal tissues, it is necessary to modify the radiotherapy planning.

  2. 盐酸吗啡缓释片直肠给药治疗晚期癌痛临床观察%The clinical observation of slow-released morphine tablets by rectum in the treatment of the patients with moderate to severe cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of slow-released morphine tablets by rectum in treating the patients of moderate to severe cancer pain with server nausea and vomiting or dysphagia. Methods: 54 cases of cancer patients with server nausea and vomiting symptoms or dysphagia were treated with slow-released morphine tablets by rectum, 30-90 mg/time, once every 12 hours. The drug dose was titrated by degree of pain, and the effects and adverse effects were observed. Results:The total effective rate was 81.48%, complete response rate was 51.85% (28/54), and the partial response rate was 29.63%(16/54); there were no obvious toxicities, and the common adverse symptoms included nausea (16.7%) and vomiting (9.3%).Conclusion: The treatment of slow-released morphine tablet by rectum could effectively control cancer pain, the adverse effects were slight than that by mouth. It is safe and effective to be worthy of the adhibition in clinic.

  3. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  4. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  5. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  6. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  7. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  8. A prospective case-control study of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) of the rectum versus conventional laparoscopic and open abdominoperineal excision: comparative analysis of short-term outcomes and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Cheung, T; Knight, J S; Nichols, P H; Pilkington, S A; Mirnezami, A H

    2012-10-01

    Conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE) of the rectum is associated with higher circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, increased local recurrence, and reduced survival compared to anterior resection. A more radical extralevator APE (ELAPE) technique may improve oncological outcome. However, this technique may confer additional morbidity, and little comparative data on short-term outcomes have been reported. This study compares short-term outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after open and laparoscopic ELAPE, laparoscopic APE (LAPE), and open APE (OAPE). Data on all ELAPE and 10 consecutive LAPE and OAPE were extracted from a prospective database. Perioperative care and follow-up were standardized. QOL was assessed using EORTC questionnaires. Sixteen ELAPE (14 laparoscopic), 10 LAPE, and 10 OAPE were included. Demographics, tumour stage, and neoadjuvant therapy use were comparable. Operative time was higher with ELAPE than LAPE and OAPE (295, 207.5, and 157.5 min, respectively, p = 0.01). A porcine collagen perineal mesh was used in 9 patients undergoing ELAPE but in no LAPE or OAPE patients. No difference in 30-day complications, re-admission, or length of stay was noted. ELAPE and LAPE were associated with earlier removal of urinary catheter (p = 0.02), yet other enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) parameters were equivalent. All ELAPE resections were R0 with no positive CRM identified. One LAPE and 2 OAPE were R1 resections. Analysis revealed no deterioration in QOL with ELAPE, with equivalent global health status. The results of this study suggest that ELAPE is not associated with deterioration in short-term outcomes or QOL when compared with LAPE or OAPE.

  9. 正常儿与先天性巨结肠症直肠结肠神经丛组织学观察%Histologic Studies of Plexuses in Rectum and Colon of Normal Children and Those with Hirschsprung's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钧澄; 赖炳耀

    1985-01-01

    Histologic studies of normal colon and rectum in 34 infantile cadavers by optical microscope showed that there were more morphologically typical and atypical ganglion ceils in both Auerbach and Meissner's plexuses.The staining of Nissl's bodies can help identify atypical ganglion cells.As the child grows older,these cells become larger.Typical ones increase proportionally.The nearer to the cephalic part of the lurge intestine,the greater its proportion,which demonstrates the ganglion cells are in the course of maturity.The number of Auerbach and Meissner's plexuses vary in different age groups and at different sites,and so does the number of ganglion cells.Therefore,the age of the patient and site examined should be considered in the assessment of the number of ganglion cells.Absence of these cells in the abovementioned plexuses was noticed in the spasmodic segment of the intestines on the histopathological examination of 23 cases of Hirschsprung's disease.Simultaneously,the nerve fibers there remarkably increased in number and size,interwoven into wave-like bundles.But 25 cm above the spasmodic segment,the intestine had a normal lumen,and the number and morphology of the plexuses and ganglion cell_s are within normal limits.%@@ 先天性巨结肠主要病理改变是神经节细胞缺如,但有关小儿正常直肠结肠的神经丛神经节细胞的组织学研究,国内外报道不多,本文对正常小儿与先天性巨结肠症直肠、结肠神经丛进行组织学观察.

  10. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  11. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  12. The benefit of using bladder sub-volume equivalent uniform dose constraints in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhu,1–3 Antoine Simon,3–5 Pascal Haigron,3–5 Caroline Lafond,4–6 Oscar Acosta,4,5 Huazhong Shu,1,3 Joel Castelli,4–6 Baosheng Li,1–3 Renaud De Crevoisier3–6 1Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute, Jinan, 3Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale Sino-français, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U1099, 5Laboratory of Signal and Image Processing (LTSI, University of Rennes 1, 6Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes, France Background: To assess the benefits of bladder wall sub-volume equivalent uniform dose (EUD constraints in prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning. Methods: Two IMRT plans, with and without EUD constraints on the bladder wall, were generated using beams that deliver 80 Gy to the prostate and 46 Gy to the seminal vesicles and were compared in 53 prostate cancer patients. The bladder wall was defined as the volume between the external manually delineated wall and a contraction of 7 mm apart from it. The bladder wall was then separated into two parts: the internal-bladder wall (bla-in represented by the portion of the bladder wall that intersected with the planning target volume (PTV plus 5 mm extension; the external-bladder wall (bla-ex represented by the remaining part of the bladder wall. In the IMRT plan with EUD constraints, the values of “a” parameter for the EUD models were 10.0 for bla-in and 2.3 for bla-ex. The plans with and without EUD constraints were compared in terms of dose–volume histograms, 5-year bladder and rectum normal tissue complication probability values, as well as tumor control probability (TCP values. Results: The use of bladder sub-volume EUD constraints decreased both the doses to the bladder wall (V70: 22.76% vs 19.65%, Dmean: 39.82 Gy vs 35

  13. Management of Acute Bleeding Per Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benita K.T. Tan

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Perianal conditions contributed to the majority of acute patient admissions. Colonic causes of bleeding were less common and were most stable. There were differences in the frequencies of aetiologies in our population compared to Western populations. Understanding the common pathologies and outcomes guides the management of our patients.

  14. Livstruende haemorrhagia per rectum postoperativt efter appendektomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, M A; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1994-01-01

    A case of life-threatening haemorrhage nine days after appendicectomy is described in a 51 year old previously healthy man. Coecotomy revealed a bleeding artery near the invaginated appendiceal stump. The bleeding artery was presumably an intramural branch to the appendix from the posterior coecal...... artery that had not been included in the primary appendiceal ligature. This artery was presumably electrocoagulated during the appendicectomy but bleeding ensued when the coagulated tissue sloughed....

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum with Cutaneous Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohad Hanbala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases of rectal carcinoma is a rare event. It occurs in fewer than 4% of all patients with rectal cancer. When present, it typically signifies a disseminated disease with a poor prognosis. Early detection and proper diagnosis of metastatic rectal cancer can significantly alter treatment and prognosis. We report a 70-year-oldmale who underwent rectal resection with permanent colostomy for rectal adenocarcinoma since seven years. The patient recently developed multiple skin nodules, mainly in his face, scalp, and upper trunk, associated with itching. Fine needle aspiration cytology from a face nodule was done which revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma associated with severe inflammation. Cutaneous metastasis of rectaladenocarcinoma is an unusual event that presents mainly in the form of skin nodules and could be the first sign of metastasis. Early diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis in these patients is important because it can alter treatment and prognosis.

  16. Prostatic tissue ectopia in the rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xin-lin; SHI Lin; ZHAO Li-zhen; WANG Jing-yuan; DONG Pei-de; XIA Yang-zhi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Areview of the literature on ectopic prostatic tissue reveals about 200 reports dating back to as early as 1894. The presence of prostate tissue outside the genitourinary system is extremely rare. It is usually incidentally found in surgical pathology and autopsy.

  17. Polyps of the Colon and Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assessment and Safety Committee Initiatives Past Presidents Healthcare Economics Committee 2017 Tripartite Meeting Search form Search Login Join Now Find a Surgeon You are here Patients / Resources / ...

  18. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  19. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  20. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  1. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  2. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  3. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  4. 肛门直肠畸形动物模型末端直肠肠壁肠神经系统及突触素的胚胎发育的研究%Enteric Peptides Distribution in distal rectum in fetal rats with anorectal malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾慧敏; 陈青江; 张树成; 张涛; 白玉作; 袁正伟; 王维林

    2009-01-01

    目的 检测蛋白基因产物(protein gene product 9.5,PGP 9.5)及突触素(synaptophysin,SY)在肛门直肠畸形胎鼠直肠肠壁胚胎发育过程中的分布,探讨其可能与排便功能的关系.方法 应用免疫组化、免疫荧光和Western Blot方法检测正常与肛门直肠畸形动物胎鼠直肠末端组织PGP 9.5、SY的表达情况.结果 正常组末端结肠及直肠壁内有神经节细胞,肠壁肌层及黏膜肌层PGP 9.5、SY大量表达;畸形组胎鼠直肠末端壁内的分布均比对照组明显减少,发育延迟,但随着远离肓端.PGP 9.5、SY出现并逐渐增多.正常胎鼠直肠末端壁内中PGP 9.5、SY总蛋白量明显高于畸形组(P<0.05).结论 肠神经系统及突触素的分布异常是肛门直肠畸形动物模型直肠末端壁的重要病理改变.%Objective To assess the enteric innervation of distal rectum in fetal rats of anorectal malformation.Methods The rectum or the blind of rectum specimens of rat fetuses were immuno-stained with protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and SY antibodies.The levels of PGP 9.5 and SY were further quantified with Western blot.Results PGP 9.5 were expressed in the myenteric plexuses and submucous plexus in all the hindguts of the control group,in fewer hindguts in the ARMs groups and in none of the recto-urethral fistulae.SY immunoflurescence is an indirect labeling method with a high detection rate for intestinal ganglion cells by demonstrating their synapses.There is a difference in SY expression of the distal part of rectum between the control and ARMs groups.In the control rectum tissues,the total levels of PGP 9.5 and SY proteins were significantly higher than that in ARMs groups (P<0.05).Conclusions The enteric nervous system in the rectums of the ARMs group was abnormal.

  5. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  6. Tratamiento del prolapso rectal en la infancia con infiltración de solución salina al 16,5 % Treatment of the prolapse of the rectum in childhood with 16,5 % saline solution infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Pérez

    2011-09-01

    el grupo experimental (6,2 %, un caso más. La recurrencia se comportó de forma inversa, predominó en un 6,2 % en el grupo control. Para disminuir el número de complicaciones se estipuló el uso profiláctico de antimicrobianos, el día del procedimiento y 2 días más. Conclusiones: quedó demostrado que el tratamiento de elección del prolapso rectal en la infancia es la infiltración, y que una sola sesión con 20 mL de solución salina al 16,5 % en cada paciente es un efectivo agente esclerosante.Introduction: when the conservative medical treatment fails in children with prolapse of the rectum it is necessary the perirrectal infiltration with irritant substances. In 1990s these infiltrations in our center were carried out using glycerin, but due to be scarce in the market we must to find other alternative infiltrating agent. The objective of present paper is to describe the experience with the use of 16,5 % saline solution. Methods: an experimental, prospective, longitudinal and interventional study of non-controlled clinical trial was conducted. It consists of a second part in which we used the randomization with a control group for validation. Universe included 27 patients and sample included 16 patients with prolapse of the rectum over 2003-2007, seen in service of gastroenterology of the Provincial Children Hospital of Holguín province. The variables developed were: a concentration suitable for treatment, amount of substance to be infiltrated, complications, recurrence, number of infiltrations and the cure at a year. Results are showed in percentage tables. Results: the effectiveness of the 16,5 % saline solution was of 100 %, all patients cured and any had relapse, thus there were not necessary two or more treatment sessions. There was a comment on a child that, after failure of breast milk infiltration like a first option and also of the cerclage, finally, resolved with this method. Complications were relatively few (18,9 %: an abscess, a cellulitis

  7. 改良式乙状结肠直肠储尿囊术的临床效果评价%Clinical analysis of improved sigmoid colon rectum allantoic storage technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长胜; 孙天明; 党乾元; 苟成毅; 张志鹏; 曲小勇; 高永峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价改良式乙状结肠直肠储尿囊术的临床效果。方法1992年2月至2014年6月,对48例肌层浸润性膀胱癌患者行根治性膀胱全切,在原Mainz膀胱Ⅱ式手术基础上进行可控尿流术式,即改良式乙状结肠直肠储尿囊术。结果术后随访3个月到5年结果显示:B超检查34例患者有单侧肾盂轻度扩张2.5cm,排尿稳定可控,最大容量为450~600 m L ;19例患者血CO2 cp提示偏酸,口服碳酸氢钠,肾功能均在正常范围,均可蹲位自行排尿,可控,尿粪均完全分开,大便成形,偶有夜间尿失禁。死亡5例,其中1例术后1周因绞窄性肠梗阻、感染性休克死亡,1例术后1年因为急性心肌梗塞死亡,2例3年后因肿瘤转移死亡,1例死因不详。肿瘤复发转移6例,其中肺转移2例,盆腔局部转移3例,尿道转移1例。48例患者中1例手术后20年仍健在。结论改良式乙状结肠直肠储尿囊术简单易行,在减少尿粪合流、逆行感染、代谢性酸中毒方面效果明显,并发症少,生活质量高,接近正常生理,有仿生学意义,是医患双方均易于接受的术式,且适应证相对较广,是一种较好的可控性尿流改道方法。%ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of modified sigmoid colon rectal storeage allantoic .Methods During Feb .1992 to Jun .2014 ,48 cases of invasive bladder cancer patients underwent radical cystectomy ,on the basis of orig‐inal Mainz bladder surgery II type controlled urine flow operation ,which modified the sigmoid colon rectum allantoic storage technique .Results During the follow‐up of 3 months to 5 years ,34 patients had 2 .5 cm expansion of unilateral renal pelvis , the urination was stable and controllable ,and the maximum capacity was 450~600 mL .19 patients'blood CO2 cp suggested partial acid .After oral sodium bicarbonate ,the renal function recovered ,and the urination was

  8. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  9. 全子宫切除对支配膀胱直肠神经损伤的研究%Study on nerve injury dominating bladder and rectum after total hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽平; 邱君君; 刘宏斌; 刘曼华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of hysterectomy of different ways on bladder function and rectal function. Methods: Three hundred patients undergoing hysterectomy were divided into two groups randomly, 150 patients in each group. The patients in study group were treated with modified hysterectomy, while the patients in control group were treated with conventional hysterectomy. The uterine ligament samples were obtained from the resected uterine specimens in the two groups, then S - 100 antibody levels in the two groups were detected, the nerval contents in the two groups were measured. The bladder functions and rectal functions at one week, one month, three months, and one year after surgery were compared between the two groups. Results: The content of S - 100 protein in study group was significantly lower than that in control group ( P 0. 05) . Conclusion: Modified hysterectomy can reduce injuries of nerves dominating bladder and rectum, and decrease the impact of surgery on bladder function and rectal function.%目的:比较不同方式的子宫切除术对膀胱直肠功能的影响.方法:选择需全子宫切除术的患者300例,分为两组,每组150例,研究组对传统子宫切除术式进行改良,对照组实施传统子宫切除术.于两组切除的子宫标本上分别取主韧带、骶韧带、膀胱宫颈韧带的附着部位最外侧组织行S - 100抗体的测定,了解其神经含量;将两组患者术后1周内、1个月、3个月、1年膀胱及肠功能情况进行比较.结果:改良手术组的韧带残端神经含量显著低于传统手术组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).改良手术组患者术后恢复排气、排便的时间早于传统组,术后尿频、排尿等待、尿失禁以及便秘发生率均低于传统组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量及术后住院日比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:改良子宫切除术能减少支配膀胱直肠神经损伤,降低

  10. 腹腔镜手术治疗先天性无肛并直肠尿道瘘15例%Laparoscopic operation for the treatment of congenital imperforate anus and rectum of urethral fistula.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈快; 黄金狮; 陶俊峰; 樊伟; 刘智文; 徐美汉; 刘玉; 陶强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔镜辅助下瘘修补+直肠拖出肛门成形术治疗先天性无肛并直肠尿道瘘的可行性.在腹腔镜监视下,电灼游离直肠至瘘管颈部,缝扎后离断直肠尿道瘘管,电刺激仪引导下定位盆底肌中心,将直肠从盆底肌中心拖出形成肛门.15例均在腹腔镜辅助下完成肛门成形术,腹腔镜操作时间(108±16)min,出血量<5 mL,无需要输血者.术后(7~10)d拔除尿管,术后住院时间6~15 d,平均(11.6±0.4)d.术后随访3~22个月,根据kelly评分及直肠肛管测压,肛门功能优9例,良6例.腹腔镜辅助肛门成形术,能准确辨别盆底肌群中心,避免损伤肌肉,创伤小,对于直肠膀胱颈部瘘及尿道前列腺部瘘而言,处理瘘管方便,但对尿道球部瘘显露较困难.%Objetive To discuss the feasibility of laparoscopically assisled anoreclal pull - ihrough in the Irealmenl of imperforale anus wilh a reclourelhral fislula. Methods Laparoscopic sharp disseclion and caulery were used to expose the reclal pouch down to the urelhral fislula, which was divided and ligaled. By e-leclrical slimulalion instrument, separate the center of pelvic floor muscle to form the tunnel where the rectum which was exteriorized to the perineum was through by. And then anorectal anastomosis was performed. Results 15 cases were completed anal forming technique assisted by laparoscopic. The mean time for the laparoscopic dissection was ( 108 ±16) minutes. The mean blood loss of the operation was 5 ml and blood transfusion was unnecessary, leases of the postoperatives with urethral fistula, the others remove catheter in 7 ~ 10 d, recovered uneventfully in the sixth to fifteenth day. They were followed up for 3 to 22 months, according to kelly score and Measuring pressure of the rectal. Anal function excellent in 9 cases, good in 6 cases. Conclusions Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through is aneffective technique for the treatment of high imperforate anus. Short

  11. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  12. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  13. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  14. Dosimetric benefit of DMLC tracking for conventional and sub-volume boosted prostate intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Tobias; Falk, Marianne; Poulsen, Per R.; Keall, Paul J.; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric impact of uncompensated motion and motion compensation with dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking for prostate intensity modulated arc therapy. Two treatment approaches were investigated; a conventional approach with a uniform radiation dose to the target volume and an intraprostatic lesion (IPL) boosted approach with an increased dose to a subvolume of the prostate. The impact on plan quality of optimizations with a leaf position constraint, which limited the distance between neighbouring adjacent MLC leaves, was also investigated. Deliveries were done with and without DMLC tracking on a linear acceleration with a high-resolution MLC. A cylindrical phantom containing two orthogonal diode arrays was used for dosimetry. A motion platform reproduced six patient-derived prostate motion traces, with the average displacement ranging from 1.0 to 8.9 mm during the first 75 seconds. A research DMLC tracking system was used for real-time motion compensation with optical monitoring for position input. The gamma index was used for evaluation, with measurements with a static phantom or the planned dose as reference, using 2% and 2 mm gamma criteria. The average pass rate with DMLC tracking was 99.9% (range 98.7–100%, measurement as reference), whereas the pass rate for untracked deliveries decreased distinctly as the average displacement increased, with an average pass rate of 61.3% (range 32.7–99.3%). Dose-volume histograms showed that DMLC tracking maintained the planned dose distributions in the presence of motion whereas traces with > 3 mm average displacement caused clear plan degradation for untracked deliveries. The dose to the rectum and bladder had an evident dependence on the motion direction and amplitude for untracked deliveries, and the dose to the rectum was slightly increased for IPL boosted plans compared to conventional plans for anterior motion with large amplitude. In conclusion, optimization using a leaf

  15. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  16. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... sleep. There was also increase in both frequency of uri- nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to ... phagia, fever, head trauma, chronic cough, weight loss, ... water deprivation at 15Kg. Total volume of urine voided.

  17. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...

  18. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  19. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  20. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  1. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  2. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  3. Therapy choice for rectum neoplasm; Le choix des therapeutiques du cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-06-01

    The tumour extension degree is given essentially by the rectal palpation and endo-rectal echography. The recent surgical technologies allow more and more often to keep the anal sphincter. The surgical ablation quality is a remote factor prognostic. The treatment decisions must be taken by trained pluridisciplinar teams.

  4. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  5. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  6. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  7. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  8. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  9. Clinical efficacy of laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation in the treatment of rectum cancer%腹腔镜下Mile's手术和改良Bacon's手术治疗直肠癌的临床疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白东林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation in the treatment of rectum cancer. Methods The clinica data of 64 patients with rectum cancer from June 2007 to June 2012 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the control group and the study group. Patients in the control group (n=31) were treated with laparoscopic Mile's operation, while those in the study group (n=33) were treated with laparoscopic modified Bacon's operation. The perioperative indicators, postoperative defecation function and survival situation were analyzed. Results The mean operation time, the mean blood loss, the number of lymph nodes, the length of hospital stay, and the incidence of complications showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The time of recovering defecation function in the study group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic Mile's operation and modified Bacon's operation have similar clinical efficacy for treating rectum cancer, but modified Bacon's operation result in better defecate function.%目的 观察腹腔镜下Mile's 手术和改良Bacon's 手术治疗直肠癌的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析 我院2007 年6 月至2012 年6 月收治的64 例直肠癌患者的临床资料,根据手术方式分为对照组和观察组,对照组 31 例行腹腔镜辅助Mile's 手术,观察组33 例行腹腔镜辅助Bacon's 手术.分别对两组围手术期指标、术后排便功 能及生存情况进行比较分析.结果 对照组和观察组手术时间、术中出血量、并发症发生率、住院时间及淋巴结 清扫数量比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).观察组排便功能恢复的时间显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义 (P0.05).结论 腹腔镜 下Mile's手术和改良Bacon's 手术疗效相当,但改良Bacon's 手术患者术后排便功能恢复快.

  10. Raman Spectral Analysis of Rectum Cancer by Serum Using PCA­LDA and Parameter­CART Methods%利用 PCA-LDA 和参数-CART 方法对直肠癌血清拉曼光谱的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓舟; 孙宝明; 杨天月; 金莉莉; 王德力; 于壮

    2015-01-01

    本文利用拉曼光谱技术检测由直肠癌的发生导致的血清成分的变化。比较了直肠癌患者和对照组之间血清拉曼光谱的差异,并对术后直肠癌患者血清拉曼光谱的变化也进行了比较,以监测术后治疗效果。结果表明在某些波数位置不同组的拉曼峰有统计学意义的变化,这些变化反应了血清中相应的生物物质的改变。之后,主成分分析(PCA)及峰强比参数这两种方法被用于原始拉曼光谱的特征变量的提取。将线性判别分析(LDA)和分类回归树(CART)两种判别分析法用于特征变量的判别分析。PCA-LDA 和参数-CART 方法的诊断准确率分别为87%和90%。%Raman spectroscopy technique was used in this paper to detect the changes of the components in serum ac-company with the occurrence of rectum cancer.The differences in Raman spectroscopy of serum between rectum cancer and the healthy controls were examined.Post-operative rectum cancer patients were also participated in the comparison to monitor the effects of the operation.The results showed that there are significant variations at certain wavenumbers which are predications of the alteration of corresponding biological substances.Then,principal component analysis (PCA)and parameters of intensity ratios were used on the original Raman spectra for the extraction of featured variables.Linear dis-criminant analysis (LDA)and classification and regression tree (CART)were used on the featured variables for the dis-crimination analysis.Accuracies of 87% and 90% were got for separate PCA-LDA and Parameter-CART.

  11. 龙血竭栓对兔直肠破损黏膜刺激性和对豚鼠皮肤致敏性实验%Stimulation of long xue jie’s suppository in rabbits’ damaged rectum mucous membrane and sensitization in guinea pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小宇; 朱海; 马秀娟; 张晓芳; 宗英; 陈云; 袁伯俊; 陆国才

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察龙血竭栓的刺激性与致敏性。方法:以龙血竭栓对新西兰兔直肠破损黏膜单次及多次给药,观察其对兔直肠破损黏膜的刺激性;采用 Buehler 法对豚鼠皮肤给药,观察龙血竭栓对其致敏性。结果:新西兰兔直肠破损黏膜单次和多次给药,各剂量组动物给药后未见疼痛症状,粪便未见明显异常,肛门区域和肛门括约肌局部组织未见充血、水肿等现象,直肠破损黏膜未发现药物相关的明显组织病理学改变。Buehler 实验龙血竭栓组动物过敏反应发生率为0%,实验期间未见任何过敏性反应症状。结论:龙血竭栓对兔直肠破损黏膜无刺激性,对豚鼠无致敏作用。%Obj ective :To evaluate the stimulation and the sensitization of the suppository of Long Xue Jie.Methods :The suppository of Long Xue Jie was used on New-Zealand rabbits after single and multiple times to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the drug on damaged rectummucous membrane.We used guinea pigs to proceed the skin drug administration to observe the sensitization of long xue jie’s suppository in Buehler test.Results :There were no painful symptoms in all groups of the New-Zealand rabbits after single and repeated dose in damaged rectum mucous membrane,and the excrements were normal.There were no signs of congestion and edema around the anus and the anus sphincter.Histopathologic examination showed that there were no obvious pathological changes in damaged rectum mucous membrane from the drug.In Buehler test, the sensitization response rate of the dosage group was 0%, and no anaphylactic reaction happened during the test. Conclusion:There is no stimulatory effect of the suppository of Long Xue Jie on damaged rectum mucous membrane in New-Zealand rabbits.The administration of the suppository of Long Xue Jie has no sensitization reaction on guinea pigs.

  12. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  13. Inertial confinement fusion target; Confinement inertiel d'une cible magnetisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, A

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  14. Etayage personnalisé et performances ciblées dans la formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferone Georges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude s'intéresse aux conséquences pédagogiques de la mise en œuvre d'enseignements à distance dans la formation professionnelle des adultes. L'étude de cas présentée montre que lorsqu'un enseignant propose un accompagnement basé sur la compréhension et la négociation des objectifs de travail, il favorise l'auto direction et la progression de ses étudiants. Elle permet aussi de préciser que cette réussite, au lieu d'être homogène, se produit avec une intensité et dans une temporalité qui varient selon les compétences considérées. Cela implique la nécessité pour l'enseignant d'expliciter les critères de réussite propres à la discipline qu'il enseigne pour sélectionner et ordonner ses objectifs selon la progression la plus favorable à l'amélioration de l'ensemble des performances de ses étudiants.

  15. Target design for the LMJ; Conception de cibles pour le LMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, P.A.; Andre, M.; Casanova, M.; Chaland, F.; Charpin, C.; Cherfils, C.; Divol, L.; Dumont, H.; Galmiche, D.; Giorla, J.; Hallo, L.; Laffite, S.; Lours, L.; Monteil, M.C.; Mourenas, D.; Poggi, F.; Saillard, Y.; Schurtz, G.; Valadon, M.; Vanderhaegen, D.; Wagon, F. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-08-01

    We recall the main features of the LMJ. By using a simple but global model we determined different shells able to give a thermonuclear yield larger than 15 MJ; this model delimited an operating domain for the laser with a 25% margin to take into account the poorly understood phenomena. The different issues are related to the physics of the shell and to the physics of the hohlraum: optimization of the shell implosion; laser-plasma interaction in the hohlraum; irradiation uniformity given by the hohlraum (2-D simulations); implosion with non-uniformities; robustness against the experimental uncertainties; hydrodynamic instabilities during implosion. (author)

  16. Target optimization for the laser megajoule; Optimisation des cibles pour le laser megajoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, P.A.; Dufour, J.M.; Dumont, H.; Giorla, J.; Hallo, L.; Laffite, S.; Saillard, Y. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    1999-12-01

    For the Inertial Confinement Fusion, the different problems to be studied are: DT burning, shell implosion and hydrodynamic instabilities, spherical symmetry of the shell given by the X-rays produced in a hohlraum and laser-plasma interaction. One of the requirements is that the shell stay essentially spherical up to the end of the implosion. In these conditions, 2-D simulations show a gain of 10 in a realistic configuration. The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities occurring during the shell implosion grow first in the linear regime for which we have some models and experimental results. But the saturation mechanism reduces the final amplitude significantly. By using a simple but global model, we determine an operating domain of the LMJ, taking into account a 25% margin for laser energy. (author)

  17. Thermo-forming of mylar target by mechanical swaging; Thermoformage de cible mylar par emboutissage mecanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesny, P.; Gheller, J.M.; Guillier, G.

    1994-01-17

    This short paper describes a hot swaging technique for the preparation of mylar targets without any gluing and with a large variety of diameters ranging from 20 to 140 mm. The paper gives informations about the different parts of the thermo-forming mechanism and about the manufacturing procedure. (J.S.). 1 fig.

  18. Quelle cible pour le service à rendre ? Proposition pour un changement de paradigme

    OpenAIRE

    Bercot, Régine

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Les précédentes contributions ont montré que la qualité du service est liée aux modalités de sa construction, ce qui conduit pour l’améliorer à prendre en compte le travail de ceux qui le rendent concrètement et qui peuvent l’ajuster aux diverses situations rencontrées. Nous partirons aussi du constat selon lequel la définition d’un service rendu fait rarement l’objet d’un débat organisé. La thèse que nous développerons ici vient en appui de ces précédentes remarques. Nous ...

  19. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  20. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  1. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  2. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  3. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  4. Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0005 Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness Sarah B. Murthi, MD February 2017...use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense Technical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-2-6D10 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Volumes of Polytopes Without Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Enciso, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formalism for defining and computing the volumes of completely general polytopes in any dimension. The expressions that we obtain for these volumes are independent of any triangulation, and manifestly depend only on the vertices of the underlying polytope. As one application of this formalism, we obtain new expressions for tree-level, n-point NMHV amplitudes in N=4 Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory.

  6. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  7. [Hospital variation in anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery in the Spanish Association of Surgeons project: The contribution of hospital volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Héctor; Biondo, Sebastiano; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Enríquez-Navascués, José; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José Vicente

    2016-04-01

    This multicentre observational study aimed to determine the anastomotic leak rate in the hospitals included in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons and examine whether hospital volume may contribute to any variation between hospitals. Hospital variation was quantified using a multilevel approach on prospective data derived from the multicentre database of all adenocarcinomas of the rectum operated by an anterior resection at 84 surgical departments from 2006 to 2013. The following variables were included in the analysis; demographics, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, use of defunctioning stoma, tumour location and stage, administration of neoadjuvant treatment, and annual volume of elective surgical procedures. A total of 7231 consecutive patients were included. The rate of anastomotic leak was 10.0%. Stratified by annual surgical volume hospitals varied from 9.9 to 11.3%. In multilevel regression analysis, the risk of anastomotic leak increased in male patients, in patients with tumours located below 12 cm from the anal verge, and advanced tumour stages. However, a defunctioning stoma seemed to prevent this complication. Hospital surgical volume was not associated with anastomotic leak (OR: 0.852, [0.487-1.518]; P=.577). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant variation in anastomotic leak between all departments (MOR: 1.475; [1.321-1.681]; P<0.001). Anastomotic leak varies significantly among hospitals included in the project and this difference cannot be attributed to the annual surgical volume. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. 超小水囊联合米索前列醇直肠给药对足月妊娠分娩的影响%Clinical research about effect of microminiature water balloon combined with misoprostol per rectum for delivery of full-term pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝英; 庞厚玲; 廉德花

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of microminiature water halloon combined with misoprostol per rectum for delivery of full-term pregnancy. Methods 305 full-term pregnant women with planned delivery were divided into three groups at random.The observation group (n=99) was given microminiature water balloon combined with misoprostol per rectum.The first control group (n=96) was only given misoprostol per rectum. The second control group (n=110) was given 0.5% oxytocin in a continuous infusion.Their results were taken a com-parative study,including the cervical ripening,dilivery process,delivery ways and the condition of the newbom. Results The observation group was better than other groups for cervical ripening(P0.05),but they were significantly different from the second con-trol group.There were no significant differences among the groups in neonatal asphyxia and amount of postpartum blood loss. Conclusions The efficiency of microminiature water balloon combined with misoprostol per rectum for delivery of full-tarm pregnancy was better than other groups.It has a short delivery process and shows no side effects on both mother and fetus,which is worthy of popularizing in obstetrics.%目的 探讨超小水囊联合米索前列醇直肠给药对足月妊娠分娩的影响.方法 将305例足月妊娠需计划分娩的孕妇随机分为观察组99例,对照组(1)96例,对照组(2)110例.观察组给予超小水囊联合米索前列醇直肠用药,对照组(1)给予单纯米索前列醇直肠用药,对照组(2)给予0.5%催产素静脉滴注.比较3组孕妇宫颈成熟度的效果及对产程、分娩方式、母儿并发症的影响.结果 观察组宫颈成熟度Bishop评分提高值大于2个对照组,差异有统计学意义,P0.05,但二者与对照组(2)比较差异有统计学意义,P<0.05;3组在产后出血量、新生儿窒息方面比较差异无统计学意义.结论 超小水囊联合米索前列醇直肠给药对足月妊娠计划分娩效果良好,有

  9. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  10. Functional Data Analysis in NTCP Modeling: A New Method to Explore the Radiation Dose-Volume Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamedamine.benadjaoud@gustaveroussy.fr [Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP) INSERM 1018 Radiation, Epidemiology Group, Villejuif (France); Université Paris sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Blanchard, Pierre [Université Paris sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schwartz, Boris [Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP) INSERM 1018 Radiation, Epidemiology Group, Villejuif (France); Université Paris sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Champoudry, Jérôme [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU de la Timone, Marseille (France); Bouaita, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil (France); Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Department of Radiation Physics, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Deutsch, Eric [Université Paris sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); INSERM 1030, Molecular Radiotherapy, Villejuif (France); Diallo, Ibrahima [Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP) INSERM 1018 Radiation, Epidemiology Group, Villejuif (France); Université Paris sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Cardot, Hervé [Institut de Mathématiques de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To describe a novel method to explore radiation dose-volume effects. Functional data analysis is used to investigate the information contained in differential dose-volume histograms. The method is applied to the normal tissue complication probability modeling of rectal bleeding (RB) for patients irradiated in the prostatic bed by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Kernel density estimation was used to estimate the individual probability density functions from each of the 141 rectum differential dose-volume histograms. Functional principal component analysis was performed on the estimated probability density functions to explore the variation modes in the dose distribution. The functional principal components were then tested for association with RB using logistic regression adapted to functional covariates (FLR). For comparison, 3 other normal tissue complication probability models were considered: the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, logistic model based on standard dosimetric parameters (LM), and logistic model based on multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). Results: The incidence rate of grade ≥2 RB was 14%. V{sub 65Gy} was the most predictive factor for the LM (P=.058). The best fit for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was obtained with n=0.12, m = 0.17, and TD50 = 72.6 Gy. In PCA and FLR, the components that describe the interdependence between the relative volumes exposed at intermediate and high doses were the most correlated to the complication. The FLR parameter function leads to a better understanding of the volume effect by including the treatment specificity in the delivered mechanistic information. For RB grade ≥2, patients with advanced age are significantly at risk (odds ratio, 1.123; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.22), and the fits of the LM, PCA, and functional principal component analysis models are significantly improved by including this clinical factor. Conclusion: Functional

  11. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  12. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  13. Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Cozzarini, Cesare; Fellin, Gianni; Foppiano, Franca; Menegotti, Loris; Piazzolla, Anna; Vavassori, Vittorio; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2003-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between rectal bleeding and dosimetric-clinical parameters in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective national study (AIROPROS01-01, AIRO: Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica), planning/clinical data for 245 consecutive patients with stage T1-4N0-x prostate carcinoma who underwent 3D-CRT to 70-78 Gy (ICRU point) were pooled from four Italian institutions. The correlation between late rectal bleeding and rectal dose-volume data (the percentage of rectum receiving more than 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 Gy [V(50-70)]) and other dosimetric and clinical parameters were investigated in univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox regression model) analyses. Median follow-up was 2 years. Twenty-three patients were scored as late bleeders according to a modified RTOG definition (Grade 2: 16; Grade 3: 7); the actuarial 2-year rate was 9.2%. Excepting V75, all median and third quartile V(50-70) values were found to be significantly correlated with late bleeding at univariate analysis. The smallest p value was seen for V(50) below/above the third quartile value (66%). The V70 (cut-off value: 30%) was found to be also predictive for late bleeding. In the high-dose subgroup (74-78 Gy), Grade 3 bleeding was highly correlated with this constraint. The predictive value of both V(50) and V(70) was confirmed by multivariate analyses. The present article provides evidence for correlation between rectal DVH parameters and late rectal bleeding in patients treated with curative intent with 3D-CRT. To keep the rate of moderate/severe rectal bleeding below 5-10%, it seems advisable to limit V(50) to 60-65%, V(60) to 45-50%, and V70 to 25-30%.

  14. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  15. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  16. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  17. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  18. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  19. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  20. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  1. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  2. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  3. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  4. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  5. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include amounts...

  6. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  7. Variations in Rectal Volumes and Dosimetry Values Including NTCP due to Interfractional Variability When Administering 2D-Based IG-IMRT for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hanada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated variations in rectal volumes and dosimetry values including NTCP with interfractional motion during prostate IG-IMRT. Rectal volumes, DVH parameters, and NTCPs of 20 patients were analyzed. For this patient population, the median (range volume on the initial plan for the rectum was 45.6 cc (31.3–82.0, showing on-treatment spread around the initial prediction based on the initial plan. DVH parameters of on-treatment CBCT analyses showed systematic regularity shift from the prediction based on the initial plan. Using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, NTCPs of predicted late rectal bleeding toxicity of rectal grade ≥ 2 (RTOG and the QUANTEC update rectal toxicity for the prediction based on the initial plan were 0.09% (0.02–0.24 and 0.02% (0.00–0.07, respectively, with NTCPs from on-treatment CBCT analyses being 0.35% (0.01–6.16 and 0.12% (0.00–4.11, respectively. Using the relative seriality model, for grade ≥ 2 bleeding rectal toxicity, NTCP of the prediction based on the initial plan was 0.64% (0.15–1.22 versus 1.48% (0.18–7.66 for on-treatment CBCT analysis. Interfraction variations in rectal volumes occur in all patients due to physiological changes. Thus, rectal assessment during 2D-based IG-IMRT using NTCP models has the potential to provide useful and practical dosimetric verification.

  8. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  9. Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI

    2007-01-01

    The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.

  10. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  11. Octree-based Volume Sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A volume sculpting system is presented. The system provides tools for interactive editing of a voxel raster that is stored in an octree data structure. Two different modes of sculpting are supported: Sculpting by adding and subtracting solids, and sculpting with tools that are based on a spray ca...... metaphor. The possibility of extending the method to support multiresolution sculpting is discussed....

  12. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  13. Archives of ALGA. Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 3 articles: Ilir Berisha, Translation of Bäcklunds paper ”Surfaces of constant negative curvature”; Johan Erlandsson, "Survey of mathematical models in biology from point of view of Lie group analysis"; Niklas Säfström, "Group analysis of a tumour growth model"

  14. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  15. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  16. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  17. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  19. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  20. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  1. Dose-volume parameters and clinical outcome of CT-guided free-hand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ye, Wei-Jun; Du, Le-Hui; Li, Ai-Ju; Ren, Yu-Feng; Cao, Xin-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Currently, image-based 3-dimentional (3D) planning brachytherapy allows for a better assessment of gross tumor volume (GTV) and the definition and delineation of target volume in cervix cancer. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of our novel computed tomography (CT)-guided free-hand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRISBT) technique for cervical cancer by evaluating the dosimetry and preliminary clinical outcome of this approach. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were analyzed according to the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group recommendations for image-based 3D treatment in cervical cancer. Twenty cervical cancer patients who underwent CT-guided free-hand HDRISBT between March 2009 and June 2010 were studied. With a median of 5 (range, 4–7) implanted needles for each patient, the median dose of brachytherapy alone delivered to 90% of the target volume (D90) was 45 (range, 33–54) Gyα/β10 for high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and 30 (range, 20–36) Gyα/β10 for intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV). The percentage of the CTV covered by the prescribed dose (V100) of HR-CTV with brachytherapy alone was 81.9%–99.2% (median, 96.7%). With an additional dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), the median D90 was 94 (range, 83–104) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 77 (range, 70–87) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV; the median dose delivered to 100% of the target volume (D100) was 75 (range, 66–84) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 65 (range, 57–73) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV. The minimum dose to the most irradiated 2 cc volume (D2cc) was 73–96 (median, 83) Gyα/β3 for the bladder, 64–98 (median, 73) Gyα/β3 for the rectum, and 52–69 (median, 61) Gyα/β3 for the sigmoid colon. After a median follow-up of 15 months (range, 3–24 months), two patients experienced local failure, and 1 showed internal iliac nodal metastasis. Despite the relatively small number of needles used, CT-guided HDRISBT for cervical cancer showed favorable

  2. Dose-volume parameters and clinical outcome of CT-guided freehand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang; Wei-Jun Ye; Le-Hui Du; Ai-Ju Li; Yu-Feng Ren; Xin-Ping Cao

    2012-01-01

    Currently,image-based 3-dimentional (3D) planning brachytherapy allows for a better assessment of gross tumor volume (GTV) and the definition and delineation of target volume in cervix cancer.In this study,we investigated the feasibility of our novel computed tomography (CT)-guided free-hand high-doserate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRISBT) technique for cervical cancer by evaluating the dosimetry and preliminary clinical outcome of this approach.Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were analyzed according to the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group recommendations for image-based 3D treatment in cervical cancer.Twenty cervical cancer patients who underwent CT-guided free-hand HDRISBT between March 2009 and June 2010 were studied.With a median of 5 (range,4-7) implanted needles for each patient,the median dose of brachytherapy alone delivered to 90% of the target volume (D90) was 45 (range,33-54) Gyα/β10 for high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and 30 (range,20-36)Gyα/β10 for intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV).The percentage of the CTV covered by the prescribed dose (V100) of HR-CTV with brachytherapy alone was 81.9%-99.2% (median,96.7%).With an additional dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT),the median D90 was 94 (range,83-104) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 77 (range,70-87) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV; the median dose delivered to 100% of the target volume (D100) was 75 (range,66-84) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 65 (range,57-73) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV.The minimum dose to the most irradiated 2 cc volume (D2cc) was 73-96 (median,83) Gyα/β3 for the bladder,64-98 (median,73) Gyα/β3 for the rectum,and 52-69 (median,61) Gyα/β3 for the sigmoid colon.After a median follow-up of 15 months (range,3-24 months),two patients experienced local failure,and 1 showed internal lilac nodal metastasis.Despite the relatively small number of needles used,CT-guided HDRISBT for cervical cancer showed favorable DVH parameters and clinical outcome.

  3. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that

  4. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  5. Resultados comparativos de la disección ganglionar en cáncer de recto con y sin tratamiento previo del tejido adiposo Comparative results of ganglion dissection in cancer of the rectum with and without prior treatment with adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Amat

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El propósito de este estudio es describir los resultados obtenidos mediante dos técnicas de aislamiento de ganglios linfáticos en piezas quirúrgicas de resección anterior por adenocarcinoma de recto. Material y métodos. En una serie de 30 casos consecutivos de pacientes intervenidos por adenocarcinoma de recto hemos realizado una búsqueda de ganglios de forma manual convencional y una segunda tras 24 horas en una solución desengrasante a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. En la primera búsqueda se han aislado 335 ganglios linfáticos con una media que oscila entre 6,46 y 17,58, correspondiendo los valores más bajos a los grupos que habían recibido tratamiento adyuvante previo. En la segunda inclusión, tras la acción de la solución de aclaramiento hemos encontrado nuevos ganglios (85 en un 70% de los casos, en número y tamaño sensiblemente inferior al inicial. Conclusiones. La disección ganglionar manual del tejido adiposo es un método fiable para el aislamiento de ganglios linfáticos en las piezas de resección por adenocarcinoma de recto. La búsqueda de ganglios linfáticos tras la acción de una solución de aclaramiento debe reservarse para los casos en los que no se alcanza el mínimo aconsejado en el estadiaje TNM.Background. The aim of this study is to describe the result obtained through two techniques of isolation of lymphatic lymph nodes in surgical pieces of anterior resection due to adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Material and methods. We carried out a search in a series of 30 consecutive cases of patients operated on for adenocarcinoma of the rectum for lymph nodes first in a manual conventional way and second after 24 hours in a degreasing solution at room temperature. Results. In the first search 335 lymph nodes were lymph nodes isolated, with an average that oscillated between 6.46 and 17.58, with the lower values corresponding to the groups that had received prior adjuvant treatment. In the second

  6. 直肠内脱垂致梗阻性排便综合征患者直肠 Cajal细胞的表达%The expression of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the rectum of patients with obstructed defecation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宏城; 李娟; 任东林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨直肠内脱垂致梗阻性排便综合征(ODS)患者直肠 Cajal 间质细胞(ICC)数量的变化。方法选择行经肛吻合器直肠切除术(STARR)治疗的 ODS 患者13例(ODS 组),取直肠全层标本进行常规 HE 染色及免疫组化染色,观察直肠 ICC 数量的变化。对照组为同期因重度脱垂性痔病行 STARR 的患者11例。结果常规光镜下观察,HE 染色结果显示 ODS 组直肠黏膜层呈轻度慢性炎症改变,肌间神经丛和肌层未见明显异常。免疫组化结果显示,直肠 ICC 主要包括4个部分,即黏膜下的 ICC(ICC - SMB)、环肌层 ICC(ICC - CM)、肌间神经的 ICC(ICC - MP)和纵肌层 ICC(ICC - LM)。与对照组相比,ODS 组直肠 ICC - SMB、ICC - CM、ICC - MP 和 ICC -LM 数量均显著减少(P <0.05)。结论 ODS 患者直肠 ICC - SMB、ICC - CM、ICC - MP 和 ICC - LM 数量均明显减少,其可能是 ODS 发病机制中的重要因素。%Objective To study the expression of the interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC)in the rectum of patients with obstructive defecation syndrome(ODS). Methods The rectum specimens of 13 patients with ODS undergone sta-pled transanal rectal resection(STARR)in our hospital since 2012 were collected. Full - thickness rectal specimens were stained with HE method and ICCs were evaluated by c - kit immunohistochemical staining. Eleven patients with severe prolapsed hemorrhoids undergone STARR in our hospital during the same period were enrolled as controls. Results HE staining showed the mucosa layer with mild chronic inflammatory in ODS patients,and there was no obvious abnormality in muscular layers or myenteric plexus. Immunohistochemistry showed that ICC was observed in all the four parts,namely submuscular ICC(ICC - SMB),circular muscular ICC(ICC - CM),myenteric plexus(ICC - MP)and longitudinal muscular ICC(ICC - LM). However,compared with the control group,ICC in ODS patients were significantly

  7. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  8. Influence of radiation dose distribution in radiobiological modifications after Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Massager, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    La radiochirurgie par Gamma Knife constitue une modalité thérapeutique reconnue de certaines affections cérébrales. Le traitement se base sur l’administration d’un rayonnement focalisé au niveau d’une cible intracrânienne. L’efficacité de ce traitement repose sur la délivrance d’une dose d’irradiation efficace au sein d’un volume-cible associé à la délivrance d’une dose d’irradiation négligeable à l’extérieur de ce même volume-cible. En pratique, la dose d’irradiation administrée à l’intérieu...

  9. Prices Up and Volumes Stable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 First Half China Garment Industry Report Exports Grew at a Slower Pace China Customs reported the garment & accessories export value of $51.286 billion for the first five months of this year, up 23.12% y/y, accounting for 56.28 percent of the total, 5% lower than the previous year’s points.Despite sales prices increase, sales volume remain stable. From Jan. to May

  10. Volume 7, Issue 1 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Creagh; John Clarke; Karen Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to Volume 7 of Student Success.  This editorial has two parts: The first part maintains the “doing things differently” tradition, making readers aware by chronicling the publishing of the journal in an open access (OA) forum.  Future editorials will briefly discuss other aspects and issues pertaining to the new scholarly publishing landscape that this journal adheres to, such as:  Creative Commons Licencing; ORCID IDs; considerations of new peer review models and importantly; measurin...

  11. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  12. Pre-and post-operative psychological characteristics and nursing measures of 48 cases carcinoma of rectum permanence colostomy%48例直肠癌永久性肠造口患者术前术后的心理特点及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑伟

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore pre- and post-operative psychological characteristics and nursing measures of carcinoma of rectum permanence colostomy.Methods Forty-eight cases carcinoma of rectum permanence colostomy were selected from Jan, 2004 to Dec, 2009 in our hospital.According to the pre-and post-operative psychological characteristics, homologous nursing measures were carried out.Results By nursing intervention, psychological obstacle was eliminated and both operative toleration and quality of life were raised with 46 cases within 48 patients.Conclusions Consummate pre-operative psychological nursing measures may abatement mental stress of patients and family, win the cooperation and increase the operative toleration of patients.Consummate post -operative psychological nursing measures may make patients handle the life change after permanence colostomy correctly and increase the confidence of recurring to the life before operation and social action.Therefore, patients' quality of life can be raised.%目的 探讨直肠癌肠造口患者术前及术后的心理特点,并探讨相应的护理对策.方法 选择2004年1月至2009年12月本院收治的直肠癌肠造口患者48例,结合其术前及术后心理特点采取相应的护理对策.结果 48例中有46例通过护理干预消除了心理障碍,提高了手术耐受性,提高了生活.结论 完好的术前心理护理,可以减轻患者及家属的心理压力,取得他们的合作,从而提高手术成功率.完好的术后护理,使患者能正确对待造口带来的生活改变,提高他们回归术前生活和社会活动的信心,从而提高生存质量.

  13. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  14. Análise comparativa dos histogramas de dose e volume entre planejamentos tridimensionais conformados e convencionais não conformados na radioterapia do câncer de próstata Comparative analysis of dose-volume histograms between 3D conformal and conventional non-conformal radiotherapy plannings for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Moreira Feitosa

    2009-04-01

    , dose-volume histograms for target volumes and organs at risk were analyzed. RESULTS: Median doses were significantly lower in the conformal planning, with 25%, 40% and 60% volumes in the rectum and 30% and 60% in the bladder. The median doses were significantly lower in the conformal planning analyzing the right and left coxofemoral joints. Maximum, mean and median doses in the clinical target volume and in the planned target volume were significantly higher in the conformal planning. CONCLUSION: The present study has demonstrated that the conformal radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer allows the delivery of higher doses to the target volume and lower doses to adjacent healthy tissues.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  16. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadis Aristotelis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV. Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29. 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10, that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss' only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG

  17. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  18. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  19. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  20. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  1. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  2. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  3. Volume control device for digital signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    A digital volume control device comprises a logic unit for volume control of digital input signals. Successively supplied m-bits words with maximally k bits active, derived from the output signals of or supplied by a volume control (4) with a quantizer (5) element the filtered m-bits workds are

  4. Clinical observation of individualized therapy for lung cancer using traditional Chinese drug by dripping into rectum combined with chemotherapy scheme according to immunohistochemistry%免疫组化结合中药直肠滴入对肺癌个体化治疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文丽; 考军; 邵纬; 赵克欣; 马晓业

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察根据免疫组化制定化疗方案结合中药直肠滴入对肺癌进行个体化治疗的临床效果.方法 将经病理证实的肺癌患者60例随机分为2组,治疗组根据免疫组化制定化疗方案+中药直肠滴入,对照组单用化疗,观察指标包括治疗效果、不良反应及体力状况(KPS评分).结果 治疗组有效率43%,对照组有效率40%,2组比较无显著性差异(P>0.05);与对照组比较,治疗组不良反应明显减轻,体力状况显著改善(P均0.05 ). Compared with control group, the side responses was decreased, and the physical strength conditions was improved in treatment group ( all P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Individualized therapy for lung cancer using the traditional Chinese drug by dripping into rectum combined with chemotherapy scheme according to immunohistochemistry can increase efficiency and decrease the side responses. Quality of life can be increased.

  5. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  6. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  7. Einstein equations with fluctuating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-07-01

    We develop a simple model to study classical fields on the background of a fluctuating spacetime volume. It is applied to formulate the stochastic Einstein equations with a perfect-fluid source. We investigate the particular case of a stochastic Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show that the resulting field equations can lead to solutions which avoid the initial big bang singularity. By interpreting the fluctuations as the result of the presence of a quantum spacetime, we conclude that classical singularities can be avoided even within a stochastic model that include quantum effects in a very simple manner.

  8. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  11. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  12. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage......, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways...... and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  13. Taurine Homeostasis and Volume Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.

  14. Study of the argillaceous fraction of sedimentary sequences of Meuse and Gard. Reconstitution of the diagenetic history and of the physico-chemical characteristics of the targets. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic aspects; Etude de la fraction argileuse de sequences sedimentaires de la Meuse et du Gard. Reconstitution de l'histoire diagenetique et des caracteristiques physico-chimiques des cibles. Aspects mineralogiques, geochimiques et isotopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, D

    2002-01-01

    Very low permeable argillaceous rocks like Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones or Vraconian siltstones were chosen to host a research laboratory built to determine the physico-chemical properties of the host formations for a potential underground disposal of radioactive waste. Knowledge and understanding of post-sedimentary modifications are of prime importance for definition of these properties; evaluation and quantification of the post-sedimentary changes represent the aim of this study, focused specifically on the clay material of the sequences. Samples were taken from two drillings (HTM102 and MAR501). In the HTM102 core samples, illite and mixed-layers illite/smectite are the dominant clay components of most clay fractions. Systematic SEM and TEM observations and isotopic K-Ar and Rb-Sr analyses pointed to diagenetic neo-formations of carbonates (calcite, dolomite) and clays. For instance, veils and laths of authigenic clay particles around old detrital ones can distinctly be observed. The epoch, duration and extent of the diagenetic activity(ies) are difficult to evaluate because of an overall detrital contribution even in the finest granulometric fractions. However; analysis of a bentonite layer in the sequence provides a diagenetic reference for the authigenic clay material. Correlation between relative sea level and authigenesis of smectite-rich mineral has been outlined. Chemistry of diagenetic fluids also seems to be reliable with sea level variations. These observations argue in favour of diagenetic activities limited in restricted rock volumes. The case study of MAR501 is close to the HTM102 one: smectite-rich illite/smectite mixed-layers represent the major component of the clay fraction and K-Ar values argue ire the sense of a mixing between detrital and younger clay populations. Diagenetic glauconites in the sequence yield are age close to 93,7 {+-}0,3 Ma for Vraconian level, in agreement with stratigraphical data. The case study of a clay-filled fault

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  16. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  17. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  18. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; /Daresbury; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; /Cockcroft Inst.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  19. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  20. Volume-effect in radiation therapy part one: volume-effect and tumour; L'effet volume en radiotherapie premiere partie: effet volume et tumeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Wu, J. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou (AP-HP), Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Dahan, O.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Volume is an important parameter of radiation therapy. Local control is inversely related to tumor size and the complication rate increases with the importance of the irradiated volume. Although the effect of irradiated volume has been widely reported since the beginning of radiotherapy, it has been less studied than other radiation parameters such as dose, fractionation, or treatment duration. One of the first organ system in which the adverse effect of increased volume was well defined is the skin. Over the last twenty years, numerous mathematical models have been developed for different organs. In this report we will discuss the relation between irradiated volume and tumor control. In a second article we will study the impact of irradiated volume on radiation adverse effects. (authors)

  1. An estimate of global glacier volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grinsted

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess the feasibility of using multivariate scaling relationships to estimate glacier volume from glacier inventory data. Scaling laws are calibrated against volume observations optimized for the specific purpose of estimating total global glacier ice volume. I find that adjustments for continentality and elevation range improve skill of area–volume scaling. These scaling relationships are applied to each record in the Randolph Glacier Inventory, which is the first globally complete inventory of glaciers and ice caps. I estimate that the total volume of all glaciers in the world is 0.35 ± 0.07 m sea level equivalent, including ice sheet peripheral glaciers. This is substantially less than a recent state-of-the-art estimate. Area–volume scaling bias issues for large ice masses, and incomplete inventory data are offered as explanations for the difference.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  3. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  4. Resección mesorrectal total y anastomosis coloanal con reservorio colónico en J para el tratamiento de los cánceres de recto medio y bajo Total mesorectum resection and coloanal anastomosis with J colonic reservoir for treatment of medium and low rectum cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Guerra Mesa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La proctosigmoidectomía con resección mesorrectal total, reservorio en J y anastomosis coloanal es útil en los pacientes con cánceres de recto medio y bajo, para evitar la colostomía terminal definitiva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la factibilidad de dicha técnica quirúrgica, el tratamiento integral multidisciplinario y los resultados obtenidos. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron 15 pacientes que padecían adenocarcinomas de recto medio y bajo, tratados entre enero de 1996 y diciembre de 2002 en el servicio de Cirugía Esplácnica del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de La Habana. El tratamiento consistió en una combinación de radioterapia más quimioterapia concurrentes neoadyuvantes, seguidas de cirugía y quimioterapia adyuvante. RESULTADOS. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 56 años. El adenocarcinoma fue el tipo histológico diagnosticado en todos los pacientes. La estadificación de los tumores fue la siguiente: T1 y T2, 4 pacientes (27 %, respectivamente; T3, 7 pacientes (46 %. Cuatro pacientes (20 % se complicaron como consecuencia del tratamiento radiante y 5 (33,3 %, a causa del tratamiento quirúrgico. La mortalidad quirúrgica fue de 1 paciente (6,6 % y 11 pacientes (73,3 % sobrevivieron más de 5 años. Ningún paciente presentó recidiva tumoral pélvica ni de la anastomosis coloanal. Se logró buena continencia esfinteriana. CONCLUSIONES. La resección mesorrectal total y anastomosis coloanal con reservorio colónico en J evita la colostomía terminal definitiva, cura a un alto porcentaje de pacientes con cánceres de recto medio y bajo, no transgrede los principios de la cirugía oncológica, es bien aceptada por los pacientes y es factible en nuestro medio.INTRODUCTION: Proctosigmoidectomy with total mesorectum resection, reservoir in J and colorectal is useful in patients with low and middle rectum cancer, to avoid the definite terminal colostomy. The aim of present paper was to

  5. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  9. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  10. Volume-effect and radiotherapy [2]. Part 2: volume-effect and normal tissue; Effet volume en radiotherapie [2]. Deuxieme partie: volume et tolerance des tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of our work has focused on the relationship bet men tumor Volume and tumor control. Indeed, it is well known that the importance of irradiated volume could be a main parameter of radiation-induced complications. Numerous mathematical models have described the correlation between the irradiated volume and the risk of adverse effects. These models should predict the complication rate of each treatment planning. At the present time late effects have been the most studied. In this report we firstly propose a review of different mathematical models described for volume effect. Secondly, we will discuss whether these theoretical considerations can influence our view of radiation treatment planning optimization. (authors)

  11. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  12. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  13. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  14. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... flow, or sequestration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, or any combination thereof. The present results indicate that central circulatory underfilling is an integral part of the hemodynamic and homeostatic derangement observed in cirrhosis....

  15. Impact of the target volume (prostate alone vs. prostate with seminal vesicles) and fraction dose (1.8 Gy vs. 2.0 Gy) on quality of life changes after external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eble, Michael J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Fischedick, Karin; Holy, Richard; Klotz, Jens; Nussen, Sandra; Krenkel, Barbara

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the impact of the clinical target volume (CTV) and fraction dose on quality of life (QoL) after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: a group of 283 patients has been surveyed prospectively before, at the last day, at a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT (70.2-72 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). FBRT of prostate alone (P, n = 70) versus prostate with seminal vesicles (PS, n = 213) was compared. Differences of fraction doses (1.8 Gy, n = 80, vs. 2.0 Gy, n = 69) have been evaluated in the patient group receiving a total dose of 72 Gy. Results: significantly higher bladder and rectum volumes were found at all dose levels for the patients with PS versus P within the CTV (p < 0.001). Similar volumes resulted in the groups with different fraction doses. Paradoxically, bowel function scores decreased significantly less 2 and 15 months after EBRT of PS versus P. 2 months after EBRT, patients with a fraction dose of 2.0 Gy versus 1.8 Gy reported pain with urination ({>=} once a day in 12% vs. 3%; p = 0.04) and painful bowel movements ({>=} rarely in 46% vs. 29%; p = 0.05) more frequently. No long-term differences were found. Conclusion: the risk of adverse QoL changes after EBRT for prostate cancer cannot be derived from the dose-volume histogram alone. Seminal vesicles can be included in the CTV up to a moderate total dose without adverse effects on QoL. Apart from a longer recovery period, higher fraction doses were not associated with higher toxicity. (orig.)

  16. Range of Hypoganglionic Zone of the Distal Rectum in Normal Infants and Children and Its Clinical Significance%正常婴幼儿直肠远端低神经节细胞区的范围及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光大; 霍宏慎; 李正; 王慧贞; 康恩光

    1985-01-01

    Histological study of enteric plexuses in the rectum xvas carried out by autopsy of 20 prematures,newborns,infants and children.(1)Length of the area in the dental line was measured and,generally,it become lengthened with the advance of age;(2) Hypoganglionic cell zone extends cranially for a variable distance from the dental line in the myenteric plexus(average 6 mm,range 0-15.2 mm),in the deep submucous plexus(average 10 mm,range 2.6-16.6 mm),and in the super ficial submucous plexus(average 12 mm,range 7.2-20 mm).Generally,it gets longer with the advance of age;(3)Ganglionic cells in the myenteric plexus were found below the dental line in a premature and an infant;and (4)In infants and children the sample for rectal mucosal biopsy should be obtained from the area 2 cm above the dental line.If gang lionic cells are absent at that area,a diag nosis of Hirschsprung's disease can be estab lished.%@@ 国外少数学者证明直肠和肛管远端有一个低神经节细胞区(1~4),但对低神经节细胞区的范围和活检部位的高低各家说法不一.本文研究并测量了直肠远端低神经节细胞区的范围,同时提出了直肠活检的位置,这对于先天性巨结肠,特别是超短段型的先天性巨结肠的诊断有重要意义.

  17. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  18. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J;

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV...

  19. Dose-volume histogram comparison between static 5-field IMRT with 18-MV X-rays and helical tomotherapy with 6-MV X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akihiro; Shibamoto, Yuta; Hattori, Yukiko; Tamura, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Michio; Otsuka, Shinya; Sugie, Chikao; Yanagi, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    We treated prostate cancer patients with static 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using linac 18-MV X-rays or tomotherapy with 6-MV X-rays. As X-ray energies differ, we hypothesized that 18-MV photon IMRT may be better for large patients and tomotherapy may be more suitable for small patients. Thus, we compared dose-volume parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) in 59 patients with T1-3 N0M0 prostate cancer who had been treated using 5-field IMRT. For these same patients, tomotherapy plans were also prepared for comparison. In addition, plans of 18 patients who were actually treated with tomotherapy were analyzed. The evaluated parameters were homogeneity indicies and a conformity index for the PTVs, and D2 (dose received by 2% of the PTV in Gy), D98, Dmean and V10-70 Gy (%) for OARs. To evaluate differences by body size, patients with a known body mass index were grouped by that index ( 25 kg/m(2)). For the PTV, all parameters were higher in the tomotherapy plans compared with the 5-field IMRT plans. For the rectum, V10 Gy and V60 Gy were higher, whereas V20 Gy and V30 Gy were lower in the tomotherapy plans. For the bladder, all parameters were higher in the tomotherapy plans. However, both plans were considered clinically acceptable. Similar trends were observed in 18 patients treated with tomotherapy. Obvious trends were not observed for body size. Tomotherapy provides equivalent dose distributions for PTVs and OARs compared with 18-MV 5-field IMRT. Tomotherapy could be used as a substitute for high-energy photon IMRT for prostate cancer regardless of body size.

  20. Seeing and feeling volumes: The influence of shape on volume perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrimanovic, Mirela; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2010-07-01

    The volume of common objects can be perceived visually, haptically or by a combination of both senses. The present study shows large effects of the object's shape on volume perception within all these modalities, with an average bias of 36%. In all conditions, the volume of a tetrahedron was overestimated compared to that of a cube or a sphere, and the volume of a cube was overestimated compared to that of a sphere. Additional analyses revealed that the biases could be explained by the dependence of the volume judgment on different geometric properties. During visual volume perception, the strategies depended on the objects that were compared and they were also subject-dependent. However, analysis of the haptic and bimodal data showed more consistent results and revealed that surface area of the stimuli influenced haptic as well as bimodal volume perception. This suggests that bimodal volume perception is more influenced by haptic input than by visual information.

  1. Extinction-Optimized Volume Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Marco; Zirr, Tobias; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-05-16

    We present a novel method to optimize the attenuation of light for the single scattering model in direct volume rendering. A common problem of single scattering is the high dynamic range between lit and shadowed regions due to the exponential attenuation of light along a ray. Moreover, light is often attenuated too strong between a sample point and the camera, hampering the visibility of important features. Our algorithm employs an importance function to selectively illuminate important structures and make them visible from the camera. With the importance function, more light can be transmitted to the features of interest, while contextual structures cast shadows which provide visual cues for perception of depth. At the same time, more scattered light is transmitted from the sample point to the camera to improve the primary visibility of important features. We formulate a minimization problem that automatically determines the extinction along a view or shadow ray to obtain a good balance between sufficient transmittance and attenuation. In contrast to previous approaches, we do not require a computationally expensive solution of a global optimization, but instead provide a closed-form solution for each sampled extinction value along a view or shadow ray and thus achieve interactive performance.

  2. Volume Renormalization and the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Quantum Field Theory (QFT) treats particle excitations as point-like objects, which is the source of ubiquitous divergences. We demonstrate that a minimal modification of QFT with finite volume particles may cure QFT of divergences and illuminate the physics behind the mathematical construct of our theories. The method allows for a non-perturbative treatment of the free field and self-interacting theories (though extensions to all interacting field theories might be possible). In particular, non-perturbatively defined mass is finite. When applied to the standard model Higgs mechanism, the method implies that a finite range of parameters allows for creation of a well defined Higgs particle, whose Compton wavelength is larger than its physical size, in the broken symmetry phase (as small oscillations around the vacuum). This has profound consequences for Higgs production at the LHC. The parameter range in which the Higgs excitation with the mass of 125 GeV behaves as a proper particle is very res...

  3. Volume-Enclosing Surface Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R

    2010-01-01

    A new method is presented here, which allows one to construct triangular surfaces from three-dimensional data sets, such as 3D image data and/or numerical simulation data that are based on regularly shaped, cubic lattices. This novel volume-enclosing surface extraction technique, which has been named VESTA, is guaranteed to always produce surfaces that do not contain any holes, e.g., in contrast to the well-known and very popular Marching Cubes algorithm, which has been developed by W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline in the mid-1980s. VESTA is not template based. In fact, the surface tiles are determined with a fast and robust construction technique. Among other things, VESTA's relationship to the DICONEX algorithm is explained, which -- in a lower-dimensional analogy -- produces contours from two-dimensional data sets, such as 2D gray-level images. In particular, the generation of isosurfaces from initially created VESTA surfaces is demonstrated here for the very first time. A few examples are provided, namely in ...

  4. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  5. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  6. Multi-Volume High Resolution RGB-D Mapping with Dynamic Volume Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, Michael; Finman, Ross; Leonard, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel RGB-D mapping system for generating 3D maps over spatially extended regions with higher resolution than current methods using multiple, dynamically placed mapping volumes. Our method takes in RGB-D frames and dynamically assigns multiple mapping volumes to the environment, exchanging mapping volumes between the CPU and GPU. Mapping volumes are added or removed as needed to allow for spatially extended, high resolution mapping. Our system is designed to maximize the resoluti...

  7. A note on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting.......It is shown that for a variety of biological particle shapes, the volume-weighted second moment of particle volume can be estimated stereologically using only the areas of particle transects, which can be estimated manually by point-counting....

  8. On pressure: volume relations in hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.Y. Ie (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 is a brief introduction to several aspects of cardiovascular pressure-volume relations in dialysis patients. The aims of the thesis are presented. In Chapter 2, an overview is presented of circulatory physiology in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Volume withdrawal by ultrafiltrati

  9. 3-Dimensional Right Ventricular Volume Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jainandunsing, Jayant S.; Matyal, Robina; Shahul, Sajid S.; Wang, Angela; Woltersom, Bozena; Mahmood, Feroze

    Purpose: The purpose of this review was to evaluate new computer software available for 3-dimensional right ventricular (RV) volume estimation. Description: Based on 2-dimensional echocardiography, various algorithms have been used for RV volume estimation. These are complex, time-consuming

  10. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  11. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m(3) and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  12. Rotational Crofton formulae for flagged intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    , and the integration is over all sections containing the fixed point origo. Our main result is a local stereological analogue to the well-known Crofton formula. More precisely, we derive geometric formulae that relate new flagged intrinsic volumes of a set with the flagged intrinsic volumes of its sections...

  13. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  14. Developmental Physical Education Accountability; Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the first of a two volume series is a developmental physical education checklist which provides teachers of trainable mentally retarded students with a permanent and accountable record of pupil progress and needs. The checklist is intended to be used with the accompanying volume of curricular activities in a nongraded enviroment for…

  15. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  16. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  17. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  18. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The third volume of this 4-volume report contains the last two speeches, on educational philosophy and the role of reason in society, from the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research (preceding speeches are in Vol. II, SP 003 901), reports on conferences on the culture of schools held in Pittsburgh and…

  19. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The first volume of this 4-volume report presents the basic rationale for an anthropological and cross-cultural approach to education, abstracts of 14 research projects sponsored by the American Anthropological Association, a proposal for the establishment of a Research Center for Anthropology and Education to be coordinated by the Association, a…

  20. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  1. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  2. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  3. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H. G., Ed.; Christiansen, Bent, Ed.

    This volume is largely based upon the preparation for and proceedings of the Third International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME) held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, in August 1976. The volume deals with 13 broad themes of general educational interest for mathematics teachers and educators. Six of these themes divided the…

  4. Volume of a doubly truncated hyperbolic tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Kolpakov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The present paper regards the volume function of a doubly truncated hyperbolic tetrahedron. Starting from the previous results of J. Murakami, U. Yano and A. Ushijima, we have developed a unified approach to expressing the volume in different geometric cases by dilogarithm functions and to treat properly the many analytic strata of the latter. Finally, several numeric examples are given.

  5. Simultaneous determination of extracellular volume and blood volume with the Volemetron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, B.A. de; Geyskes, C.G.; Dongen, R. van; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    A new instrument, the “Volemetron”***, constructed to measure blood volume with radioactive isotopes, was adapted to determine 82Br distribution volume. Details of the technique arc given. Mean values of both RISA and 82Br distribution volume in normal men and women were determined. They were in

  6. Assessment of liver volume with spiral computerized tomography scanning: predicting liver volume by age and height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Liver volume is a reliable index of liver size and measurement of liver volume with spiral CT is useful method. Spiral CT can be utilized for measurement of liver volume for such purpose. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3020-3023

  7. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  8. [Volume replenishment in haemorrhage: caution advised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooter, Albertus J; Zweegman, Sonja; Smulders, Yvo M

    2011-01-01

    Acute haemorrhage is a frequent problem in medicine. Patients with acute bleeding may present with signs of hypotension and reduced organ perfusion. The physician's reflex action is often to treat such patients with intravenous volume replenishment using colloid or cristalloid liquids. Intravenous volume replenishment has, however, a downside: it increases the tendency to bleed and therefore can increase blood loss. Previous clinical observations and experimental animal and human studies addressing volume replenishment in haemorrhagic shock have repeatedly shown that accepting hypotension favourably affects prognosis. However, relevant practice guidelines, such as for gastrointestinal bleeding, usually advise liberal intravenous volume replenishment if hypotension is present. In this article we advocate caution when considering intravenous blood volume adjustment in haemorrhage.

  9. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  10. Development of limb volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  11. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  12. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  13. Lake volume monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  14. Treatment of irradiation injuries of colon and rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Akihiko; Onitsuka, Atsuyoshi.

    1988-11-01

    During the past 12 years, 83 cases were treated for radiation injured bowel due to carcinoma of uterus. Forty cases have been undergone only radiation therapy and forty-three cases combined therapy with total hysterectomy. The duration of occurrence of symptom ranged from one month to one year after irradiation. The initial symptom was anal bleeding and bloody stool in the majority of cases. According to criteria on sygmoidscopic findings by Sherman, 58 cases were classified into first grade, 6 into second grade, 16 into third grade and 3 into fourth grade. The conservative treatment with Salazopyrin and Predonin was effective in 60 cases and colostomy was performed in 18 cases. Rectal amputation with colostomy was performed in 4 cases. The first choice of treatment for radiation injured bowel is ocnservative treatment with Salazopyrin and Steroid. However, the colostomy is recommended for uneffective cases for conservative therapy in few months. In most cases of these patients, the anal bleeding is generally subsided in several weeks postoperatively. However, there are few cases in which rectal amputation or resection are indicated for intolerable bleeding. (author).

  15. Surgical treatment of radiation injuries of the colon and rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Gunderson, L.L.

    1986-02-01

    Between 1950 and 1983, radiation-induced proctitis was diagnosed proctoscopically in 720 patients at the Mayo Clinic. Sixty-two patients with severe colorectal symptoms were treated surgically. The interval from cessation of radiotherapy to onset of symptoms ranged from 3 weeks to 24 months (mean 33 months). The 62 patients underwent a total of 143 operations with 8 operative deaths (13 percent), and 40 patients (65 percent) had 61 complications. The morbidity rate was lower after colostomy alone (44 percent in 27 patients) than after more aggressive operations (80 percent in 35 patients). Transverse loop colostomy and descending colostomy were safer than sigmoid colostomy. The dissection adhesions, opening of tissue planes, and careless manipulation of intestine may result in necrosis and perforation of the intestine, bladder, or vaginal wall; these were the main causes of fecal and other internal fistulas in our study.

  16. EURECCA colorectal : Multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Boelens, Petra G.; Borras, Josep M.; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Cervantes, Andres; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; van den Broek, Colette B. M.; Brown, Gina; Van Cutsem, Eric; Espin, Eloy; Haustermans, Karin; Glimelius, Bengt; Iversen, Lene H.; van Krieken, J. Han; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.; Henning, Geoffrey; Gore-Booth, Jola; Meldolesi, Elisa; Mroczkowski, Pawel; Nagtegaal, Iris; Naredi, Peter; Ortiz, Hector; Pahlman, Lars; Quirke, Philip; Roedel, Claus; Roth, Arnaud; Rutten, Harm; Schmoll, Hans J.; Smith, Jason J.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Taylor, Claire; Wibe, Arne; Wiggers, Theo; Gambacorta, Maria A.; Aristei, Cynthia; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20 years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. T

  17. Perforation af rectum med faekal peritonitis efter staplet haemorideoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuke, Anna-Christina; Pedersen, Mark Ellebaek; Qvist, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Rectal perforation and faecal peritonitis after stapled operation for grade IV haemorrhoids is described. The complication is rare, but surgeons performing the procedure must be familiar with potential risk factors.......Rectal perforation and faecal peritonitis after stapled operation for grade IV haemorrhoids is described. The complication is rare, but surgeons performing the procedure must be familiar with potential risk factors....

  18. Anus-rectum defects. Malformaciones ano-rectales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia López Martín

    Full Text Available Anorectal malformations are one of big causes of de intestinal obstruction in newborns. They constitute around 25% of digestive malformations. Have a frequency of 1 in 4000 born alive. They are more frequent in the male (1.4:1 and 40 to 70% of the patients have one or more associate anomalies. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Anorectal malformations, approved by consensus in the 2nd National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Manzanillo, Cuba, September 31 - October 3, 2002.
    Las malformaciones ano rectales son unas de las grandes causas de obstrucción intestinal en neonatos. Constituyen el 25 % de las malformaciones digestivas. Tiene una frecuencia de 1 x 4 000 nacidos vivos. Son más frecuentes en el varón (1.4:1 y del 40 al 70 % de los pacientes presentan una o más anomalías asociadas. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para Malformaciones ano rectales, aprobada por consenso en el 2º Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Manzanillo, 31 de septiembre al 3 de octubre del 2002.

  19. [Orbital metastasis from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekrine, T; Hassouni, A; Hatime, M; Jouhadi, H; Benchakroun, N; Bouchbika, Z; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2013-05-01

    Orbital metastasis from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. Only six cases are described in the literature. The discrepancy between the frequency of colorectal cancer and the rarity of metastasis to the eye and orbit remains paradoxical and enigmatic. We report the case of an 18-year-old young woman with orbital metastasis as the presenting sign of rectal cancer. Proptosis is the most frequent presenting clinical sign. Once the diagnosis is made, the prognosis is poor and treatment is palliative.

  20. EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, C.J. van de; Boelens, P.G.; Borras, J.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Cervantes, A.; Blomqvist, L.; Beets-Tan, R.G.; Broek, C.B. van den; Brown, G.; Cutsem, E. van; Espin, E.; Haustermans, K.; Glimelius, B.; Iversen, L.H.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Marijnen, C.A.; Henning, G.; Gore-Booth, J.; Meldolesi, E.; Mroczkowski, P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Naredi, P.; Ortiz, H.; Pahlman, L.; Quirke, P.; Rodel, C.; Roth, A.; Rutten, H; Schmoll, H.J.; Smith, J.J.; Tanis, P.J.; Taylor, C.; Wibe, A.; Wiggers, T.; Gambacorta, M.A.; Aristei, C.; Valentini, V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Th

  1. Detection of colon and rectum cancers by terahertz techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Oliveira, Albino; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius

    2010-04-01

    Based on experimental analyses of colon and rectal tissues by THz spectroscopy and THz imaging, we show it is possible to distinguish between healthy and cancerous zones. Plots of the absorption coefficient and the index of refraction of the healthy and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images will be presented. The experimental results will be discussed and the conditions for the tissues discrimination will be established.

  2. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for giant polyps of the rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential for malignancy in rectal polyps increases with the size of the polyp, and unexpected malignancy is reported in up to 39 % of large rectal adenomas. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) offers the possibility of an en bloc full-thickness excision for lesions in the rec...

  3. 12.4.Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920116 A study on chromosome instabiltyin patients with large bowel carcinoma andlarge bowel adenoma.Li Minglie (李明烈),etal.Shanghai Cancer Instit.Tumor 1991; 11 (5):215-217.The chromosome instability of peripheral lym-phocytes was studied in 10 patients with largebowel carcinoma (LBC),10 patients with large

  4. 12.4.Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930312 Test of colonic transit for the diagno-sis of constipation.LIU Shixin (刘世信),et al.Binjiang Hosp Tianjin,300022.Natl Med J China 1993;73(2)75—77.This study consists of the design of the ex-perimental markers for the colonic transit andthe application to clinical examination.Themarkers were displayed distinctly in the transittest.The study of clinical application showedthat colonic transit test is of diagnostic value inscreening patients with constipation.The indexof transit test,an authoritatively significant tar-get.has an imnortant valuta for the differential

  5. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joao Batista; Toppa, Nivaldo Hartung; Wexner, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a trematode infection endemic in more than 70 countries that affects an estimated 250 million people. We report the case of a 60-year-old healthy female referred for endoscopic ultrasound after rectal examination revealed granular lesions. Ultrasound revealed the presence of deep mucosal nodular lesions with calcified/hyperechoic inclusions. Histologic evaluation has confirmed the final diagnosis of chronic schistosomal colitis. In patients with nonspecific intestinal lesions without a suspected diagnosis of schistosomiasis, endoscopic ultrasound can be enlightening. Schistosomiasis is still an endemic infection in some parts of Brazil and other tropical regions, causing colorectal lesions with unspecific presentation. PMID:27579196

  6. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio G. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a trematode infection endemic in more than 70 countries that affects an estimated 250 million people. We report the case of a 60-year-old healthy female referred for endoscopic ultrasound after rectal examination revealed granular lesions. Ultrasound revealed the presence of deep mucosal nodular lesions with calcified/hyperechoic inclusions. Histologic evaluation has confirmed the final diagnosis of chronic schistosomal colitis. In patients with nonspecific intestinal lesions without a suspected diagnosis of schistosomiasis, endoscopic ultrasound can be enlightening. Schistosomiasis is still an endemic infection in some parts of Brazil and other tropical regions, causing colorectal lesions with unspecific presentation.

  7. Rectum-conserving surgery in the era of chemoradiotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: A complete pathological response occurs in 10-30 per cent of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The standard of care has been radical surgery with high morbidity risks and the challenges of stomata despite the favourable prognosis. This review assessed minimalist approaches (transanal excision or observation alone) to tumours with a response to CRT. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords included: \\'rectal\\

  8. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  9. Pituitary volume in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalci, Sukru; Dogan, Metin; Unal, Suheyla; Ozcan, A Cemal; Ozdemir, Serdal; Atmaca, Murad

    2011-01-15

    Panic patients have many functional deficiencies in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have shown changed pituitary gland volume in some psychiatric disorders that have functional deficiencies in the HPA axis. However, to date no study has evaluated the pituitary gland volume in patients with panic disorder (PD). We investigated the pituitary gland volume in patients with PD (n=27) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27), using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging in this study. Analysis showed that patients with PD had significantly smaller pituitary volume compared to healthy subjects. Patients with agoraphobia especially had a significantly smaller pituitary volume than patients without agoraphobia. There was a significant relationship between the pituitary volume and both the severity of symptoms and the illness duration in the patient group. The results show that patients with PD have reduced pituitary volume, which may reflect the functional abnormalities seen in this disorder. These findings may help us better understand the pathology of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Volume of intersection of two cones

    CERN Document Server

    Balogun, F A; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    Radiation measurements utilising collimated source and detector systems invariably result in a target volume described by the overlap of their fields of view. When these collimators are cylindrical, this is derived from the volume of intersection of two cones. In general, analysis of this volume does not lend itself to a direct analytical process. Here, numerical methods of estimating the common volume of two intersecting right cones are presented. These include methods which employ, (a) a sequential scanning of an elemental volume with a predetermined size across a defined space containing the volume of interest and (b) a Monte Carlo technique. The accuracy obtainable and the execution time in the first type of algorithm depend on the size of the elemental volume (bin-size). On the other hand, these two parameters are independent of the bin-size but dependent on the number of histories sampled, for the Monte Carlo technique. At 0 deg. angle of inclination, where an analytical estimation is easily obtained, t...

  11. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  12. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  13. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  14. Areas and volumes for null cones

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, James D E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent work of Choquet-Bruhat, Chrusciel, and Martin-Garcia, we prove monotonicity properties and comparison results for the area of slices of the null cone of a point in a Lorentzian manifold. We also prove volume comparison results for subsets of the null cone analogous to the Bishop-Gromov relative volume monotonicity theorem and Guenther's volume comparison theorem. We briefly discuss how these estimates may be used to control the null second fundamental form of slices of the null cone in Ricci-flat Lorentzian four-manifolds with null curvature bounded above.

  15. Swept Volume Parameterization for Isogeometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, M.; Heinrich, C.; Jüttler, B.; Pilgerstorfer, E.; Simeon, B.; Vuong, A.-V.

    Isogeometric Analysis uses NURBS representations of the domain for performing numerical simulations. The first part of this paper presents a variational framework for generating NURBS parameterizations of swept volumes. The class of these volumes covers a number of interesting free-form shapes, such as blades of turbines and propellers, ship hulls or wings of airplanes. The second part of the paper reports the results of isogeometric analysis which were obtained with the help of the generated NURBS volume parameterizations. In particular we discuss the influence of the chosen parameterization and the incorporation of boundary conditions.

  16. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  17. Quantum mechanics two volumes bound as one

    CERN Document Server

    Messiah, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ""Strongly recommended"" by the American Journal of Physics, this volume serves as a text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics as well as a reference for professionals. Clear in its presentation and scrupulous in its attention to detail, the treatment originally appeared in a two-volume French edition. This convenient single-volume translation begins with formalism and its interpretation, starting with the origins of quantum theory and examinations of matter waves and the Schrödinger equation, one-dimensional quantized systems, the uncertainty relations, and the mathema

  18. Sandia Software Guidelines, Volume 2. Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standards for software documentation, this volume provides guidance in the selection of an adequate document set for a software project and example formats for many types of software documentation. A tutorial on life cycle documentation is also provided. Extended document thematic outlines and working examples of software documents are available on electronic media as an extension of this volume.

  19. Enhanced performance large volume dissolution-DNP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of the performance of the dissolution process in dissolution-DNP is presented. A relatively simple set of modifications is made to the standard Hypersense dissolution system to enable polarization of large volume samples. These consist of a large volume sample cup along...... with supporting modifications to the dissolution head and related components. Additional modifications were made to support the mapping of the temperature/pressure space of the dissolution process as well as enabling the use of large volumes of solvent and improving the robustness of the system. No loss...

  20. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  1. Combinatorics of Link Diagrams and Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Giambrone, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We show that the volumes of certain hyperbolic A-adequate links can be bounded (above and) below in terms of two diagrammatic quantities: the twist number and the number of certain alternating tangles in an A-adequate diagram. We then restrict our attention to plat closures of certain braids, a rich family of links whose volumes can be bounded in terms of the twist number alone. Furthermore, in the absence of special tangles, our volume bounds can be expressed in terms of a single stable coef...

  2. Treatment of Locally Advanced Vaginal Cancer With Radiochemotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: Dose-Volume Parameters and First Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Schmid, Maximilian P., E-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Fidarova, Elena; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for patients with locally advanced vaginal cancer and to report treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with vaginal cancer were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45-50.4 Gy) plus IGABT with or without chemotherapy. Distribution of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages among patients were as follows: 4 patients had Stage II cancer, 5 patients had Stage III cancer, and 4 patients had Stage IV cancer. The concept of IGABT as developed for cervix cancer was transferred and adapted for vaginal cancer, with corresponding treatment planning and reporting. Doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy, applying the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy for tumor; {alpha}/{beta} = 3 for organs at risk). Endpoints studied were gross tumor volume (GTV), dose-volume parameters for high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and organs at risk, local control (LC), adverse side effects, and survival. Results: The mean GTV ({+-} 1 standard deviation) at diagnosis was 45.3 ({+-}30) cm{sup 3}, and the mean GTV at brachytherapy was 10 ({+-}14) cm{sup 3}. The mean D90 for the HRCTV was 86 ({+-}13) Gy. The mean D2cc for bladder, urethra, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 80 ({+-}20) Gy, 76 ({+-}16) Gy, 70 ({+-}9) Gy, and 60 ({+-}9) Gy, respectively. After a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 19-87 months), one local recurrence and two distant metastases cases were observed. Actuarial LC and overall survival rates at 3 years were 92% and 85%. One patient with Stage IVA and 1 patient with Stage III disease experienced fistulas (one vesicovaginal, one rectovaginal), and 1 patient developed periurethral necrosis. Conclusions: The concept of IGABT, originally developed for treating cervix cancer, appears to be applicable to vaginal cancer treatment with only minor adaptations. Dose-volume parameters for HRCTV and

  3. 直肠癌结肠造口癌因性疲乏患者的自我管理效能及其影响因素%Influencing Factor and Self-management Efficacy of Patients with Carcinoma of the Rectum and Colostomy Cancer-related Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱勤芬; 陆云; 赵春芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解直肠癌结肠造口癌因性疲乏患者的自我管理效能现状,分析其影响因素.方法便利抽样选择2012年8月至2014年8月昆山市中医医院直肠癌造口患者84例,采用造口自我管理效能问卷对其进行调查,运用多重线性回归分析患者自我效能的影响因素.结果造口患者自我效能总分为(75.00±10.41)分,为中等水平.影响造口患者自我效能的因素为年龄、婚姻状况、癌因性疲乏程度、造口自我接受程度、使用造口产品情况、肠造口时间、造口并发症、造口护理情况(均P<0.05).结论护理人员应采取有效措施控制直肠造口患者的癌因性疲乏,提高患者造口护理水平,以提高患者的自我管理效能和生活质量.%Objective To understand the influencing factor and current status of self-management efficacy of patients with carcinoma of the rectum and colostomy cancer-related fatigue.Methods By converence sampling,84 patients were selected and investigated by using stoma self-management efficacy question-naire,and influencing factors were analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis method.Results The overall score of stoma self-management efficacy was (75.00±10.41),which was in the moderate level. The influencing factors were age,marital status,level of cancer-related fatigue,self-acceptance level of sto-ma,the stoma bag usage,stoma time,complication and stoma nursing(all P<0.05).Conclusion Nursing staff should take effective measure to control the colostomy cancer-related fatigue,increasing the patient’s stoma nursing level and to improving the self-management efficacy and quality of life.

  4. Combining traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment of anal rectum abscess issue treated with simple incision drainage around the curative effect of contrast%中西医结合治疗肛门直肠周围脓肿一期根治术与单纯切开引流术的疗效对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐尔洪·买买提

    2015-01-01

    Objective to investigate the curative effect of combined Chinese and western medicine treatment around the anus rectum the abscess, and for a period of radical compared with pure the curative effect of incision drainage. Methods select our hospital 140 cases of acute crissum abscess patients according to the principles of average random divided into observation group and control group. Two groups of patients were line combine traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy, the control line simple incision drainage joint sitz bath, Chinese traditional medicine group combined traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) line issue of radical sitz bath. . Results the observation group of patients after infection control, abscess recurrence rate and of anal fistula index significantly better than control group, P < 0.05). Conclusion for patients with acute crissum abscess combined traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) issue of radical sitz bath can obtain significant clinical effect, can effectively shorten the time of infection control, accelerate wound healing, is worth promoting.%目的:探讨中西医结合治疗肛门直肠周围脓肿的疗效,同时对一期根治术与单纯切开引流术的疗效进行对比。方法选取我院140例急性肛周脓肿患者依据随机平均的原则分为观察组与对照组。两组患者均行中西医结合疗法,对照组行单纯切开引流术联合中药坐浴,观察组行一期根治术联合中药坐浴。对两组患者的感染控制状况、创面愈合时间等临床指标进行记录与比较。结果观察组患者的感染控制、脓肿复发率及后遗肛瘘等指标显著优于对照组,P<0.05。结论对急性肛周脓肿患者采取一期根治术联合中药坐浴能取得显著的临床效果,可有效缩短感染控制时间,加速创面愈合,值得推广。

  5. 肛门直肠周围脓肿行一期手术治疗对术后脓肿的复发率、肛瘘发生率的影响%Influence of the recurrence and incidence of anal fistula rate of abscess after the one stage surgical in the treatment of anus and rectum abscess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肛门直肠周围脓肿行一期手术治疗对术后脓肿的复发率、肛瘘发生率的影响.方法:收治肛门直肠周围脓肿患者94例,根据手术方式将其分为观察组和对照组各47例,观察组患者给予一期手术治疗,对照组患者给予单纯切开引流术.结果:观察组术后复发、发生后遗肛瘘及术后感染控制时间均较对照组少(P<0.05).结论:对肛门直肠周围脓肿患者行一期手术治疗能有效降低术后脓肿的复发率和肛瘘发生率,明显缩短术后感染控制时间.%Objective:To investigate the influence of the recurrence and incidence of anal fistula rate of abscess after the one stage surgical in the treatment of anus and rectum abscess.Methods:94 patients with anal rectal abscess were selected,they were divided into the observation group and the control group with 47 cases in each group according to the operation mode,the observation group was treated with one stage operation,and the control group was treated with open drainage.Results:The Postoperative recurrence,occurrence of residual fistula and postoperative infection control time of the observation group were less than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:One stage surgical in the treatment of the patients with anorectal abscess,it can reduce postoperative abscess recurrence rate and incidence of anal fistula effectively,and shorten the postoperative infection control time.

  6. Perennial snow and ice volumes on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, estimated with ice radar and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    The volume of four of the largest glaciers on Iliamna Volcano was estimated using the volume model developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is controlled by simulated valley cross sections that are constructed by fitting third-order polynomials to the shape of the valley walls exposed above the glacier surface. Critical cross sections were field checked by sounding with ice-penetrating radar during July 1998. The estimated volumes of perennial snow and glacier ice for Tuxedni, Lateral, Red, and Umbrella Glaciers are 8.6, 0.85, 4.7, and 0.60 cubic kilometers respectively. The estimated volume of snow and ice on the upper 1,000 meters of the volcano is about 1 cubic kilometer. The volume estimates are thought to have errors of no more than ?25 percent. The volumes estimated for the four largest glaciers are more than three times the total volume of snow and ice on Mount Rainier and about 82 times the total volume of snow and ice that was on Mount St. Helens before its May 18, 1980 eruption. Volcanoes mantled by substantial snow and ice covers have produced the largest and most catastrophic lahars and floods. Therefore, it is prudent to expect that, during an eruptive episode, flooding and lahars threaten all of the drainages heading on Iliamna Volcano. On the other hand, debris avalanches can happen any time. Fortunately, their influence is generally limited to the area within a few kilometers of the summit.

  7. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  8. Front Matter: Volume 1 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  9. Front Matter: Volume 3 (Proceedings of CBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  10. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  11. Measured and Calculated Volumes of Wetland Depressions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Measured and calculated volumes of wetland depressions This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wu, Q., and C. Lane. Delineation and quantification...

  12. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  15. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  16. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu

    2011-01-01

    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  17. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. On the volume inside old black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1+1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  19. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  20. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34549072X; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/286852071; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344497569; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811432; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142348228; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271562161; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hi

  1. Machine learning of Calabi-Yau volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefl, Daniel; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2017-09-01

    We employ machine learning techniques to investigate the volume minimum of Sasaki-Einstein base manifolds of noncompact toric Calabi-Yau three-folds. We find that the minimum volume can be approximated via a second-order multiple linear regression on standard topological quantities obtained from the corresponding toric diagram. The approximation improves further after invoking a convolutional neural network with the full toric diagram of the Calabi-Yau three-folds as the input. We are thereby able to circumvent any minimization procedure that was previously necessary and find an explicit mapping between the minimum volume and the topological quantities of the toric diagram. Under the AdS/CFT correspondence, the minimum volumes of Sasaki-Einstein manifolds correspond to central charges of a class of 4 d N =1 superconformal field theories. We therefore find empirical evidence for a function that gives values of central charges without the usual extremization procedure.

  2. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic; S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker; D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn; Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpi

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  4. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  5. Influence of Bulla Volume on Postbullectomy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the contribution of the resected volume and the presence of associated, functionally significant emphysema to the postoperative improvement of pulmonary function after resection of giant lung bullae.

  6. USCIS National Processing Volumes and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset provides the public with a comparison of form processing volumes and trend data for specific form types and offices with national levels. This gives the...

  7. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    6 pages, 2 figures, 18 references. Published in proceedings of Colloque EDP-Normandie held at Caen (France), on 28 & 29 October 2010. Other author papers can be dowloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh/; Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the m...

  8. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions.

  9. Prediction of Overpressure from Finite Volume Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramamurthi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tri-nitro toluene (TNT equivalence is not a good criterion for evaluating the practically encounted nonideal blast waves during ignition and in explosion-safety problems. A theoretical model which shows the trends related to the effects of source volume and energy time release on blast wave strength is discussed. A slower energy release and a larger source volume are shown to be necessary to reduce the blast effects.

  10. Nuclear Employment Planning. Volume 4. Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    3398 t• DNA-TR-90-33-V4 Nuclear Employment Planning OIPU EWE COPY Volume IV-Data Dictionary Donald W. Doerfler D TIC Lowry A. West ELECTE Debora R...DNA 001 -88-C-0068 Volume IV--Data Dictionary PE 62715HPR - RW 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - RN Donald W. Doerfler , Lowry A. West, WU - DH042980 Debora R. Gleason

  11. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of this 4-volume report contains the second half of a report on the Conference on the Culture of Schools held at Greystone, New York, (the first half of the conference report appears in Vol. I, SP 003 900), and the first part of a report on the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research in 1966. (The…

  12. Optimizing Crystal Volume for Neutron Diffraction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    For structural studies with neutron diffraction more intense neutron sources, improved sensitivity detector and larger volume crystals are all means by which the science is being advanced to enable studies on a wider range of samples. We have chosen a simplistic approach using a well understood crystallization method, with minimal amounts of sample and using design of experiment techniques to maximize the crystal volume all for minimum effort. Examples of the application are given.

  13. Poursuite multi-cible pour le traitement d'antennes : application à la reconstruction bathymétrique sonar

    OpenAIRE

    SAUCAN, Augustin Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrival (DOA) of multiple targets with phased arrays. Different methods are proposed and applied to bathymetry reconstruction in port and canal areas. Bathymetry represents an underwater depth map, that is, a 3D image of the underwater relief, which is obtained by processing sonar phased array data. Port and canal areas pose new challenges, such as multi-path propagation and reverberation, which for classical array processin...

  14. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets; Mesure integrale de la production de neutrons dans des cibles de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thompson, R. [Bechtel Nevada Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ward, T

    1998-12-31

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter {<=}20 cm. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Les gènes TWIST : cibles transcriptionnelles des gènes MYC dans le neuroblastome

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi, Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    The N-MYC gene is amplified in 20-25 % of human neuroblastoma, and this amplification is associated with poor clinical outcome. We previously reported aconstant deregulation of TWIST1 in synergy with N-MYC in aggressive stage IVneuroblastoma harboring N-MYC amplification (Valsesia-Wittmann et al., 2004). We demonstrated here that specifically in neuroblastoma cells, TWIST1 and TWIST2 are negatively or positively regulated depending on Myc oncoproteins dosage, thus being a putative Myc transcr...

  16. Non-Cooperative Air Target Identification Using Radar (l’Identification radar des cibles aeriennes non cooperatives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Artifact Mitigation Brett Borden Research and Technology Group Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division China Lake, CA 93555-6100 USA Summary. The...Tekhn. Fiz. ( URSS ), Objects’, IEEE Trans. Elect. Comp., EMC-24, pp. Vol. 27, n° 8, pp. 1708-1718, 1957 397-405, 1982 15 A. Nappi, ’Calcolo della RCS

  17. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  18. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  19. Product formulas for volumes of flow polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Meszaros, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the product formula prod_{i=1}^{n-2} C_i for the volume of the Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n, where C_i is the ith Catalan number, we construct a family of polytopes P_{m,n}, whose volumes are given by the product \\prod_{i=m+1}^{m+n-2}\\frac{1}{2i+1}{{m+n+i} \\choose {2i}}. The Chan-Robbins-Yuen polytope CRY_n coincides with P_{0,n-1}. Our construction of the polytopes P_{m,n} is an application of a systematic method we develop for expressing volumes of a class of flow polytopes as the number of certain triangular arrays. This method can also be used as a heuristic technique for constructing polytopes with combinatorial volumes. As an illustration of this we construct polytopes whose volumes equal the number of r-ary trees on n internal nodes, \\frac{1}{(r-1)n+1} {{rn} \\choose n}. Using triangular arrays we also express the volumes of flow polytopes as constant terms of formal Laurent series.

  20. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.