Sample records for rectangular narrow channel

  1. Critical Heat Flux In Inclined Rectangular Narrow Long Channel

    J. L. Rempe; S. W. Noh; Y. H. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim


    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel had been overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later identified in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, several investigations were performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of invessel retention. The experiments are conducted to investigate the general boiling phenomena, and the triggering mechanism for the CHF in a narrow gap using a 5 x 105 mm2 crevice type heater assembly and de-mineralized water. The test parameters include the gap size of 5 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180o) to the vertical position (90o). The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape from the narrow gap. The CHF is less than that in a shorter channel, compared with the previous experiments having a heated length of 35 mmin the copper test section.

  2. Experimental investigation on the CHF in the narrow rectangular channel under the downward flow condition

    Kim, Huiyung; Yun, Byongjo; Bak, Jinyeong [Pusan national university, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jonghark; Chae, Heetaek; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The new research reactor under constructing in Kijang adopts a plate-type-fuel with downward flow cooling to prevent release of radioactive substance at pool surface. The thermal hydraulic design for the narrow rectangular channel differs from that for rod bundle channel. The licensing for construction of research reactor requires thermal hydraulic safety analysis of narrow rectangular channel. In the thermal hydraulic safety analysis, critical heat flux (CHF) on the fuel surface is considerably important to determine power and safety margin. The objectives of present study are, therefore, to carry out the experiment of CHF for downward flow in narrow rectangular channel, to obtain the correlation of CHF prediction applicable to a subchannel of plate-type-fuel. CHF experiments were carried out in the narrow rectangular channel simulating plate-type-fuel for research reactors under the downward flow condition. With the investigation of CHF data of the present experiment and previous studies, a new CHF correlation was proposed for the downward flow in the subchannel of plate-type-fuel. The predicted CHF by the new CHF correlation shows good agreement with experimental data in the present study. However, the correlation was based on the limited number of experimental data under low-flow conditions. Therefore, further studies for more data are needed to generalize the CHF correlation.

  3. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux for Saturated Flow Boiling Water in Vertical Narrow Rectangular Channels

    Choi, Gil Sik; Jeong, Yong Hun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    There is an increasing need to understand the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, including the critical heat flux (CHF), in narrow rectangular channels and consider these in system design. The CHF mechanism under a saturated flow boiling condition involves the depletion of the liquid film of an annular flow. To predict this type of CHF, the previous representative liquid film dryout models (LFD models) were studied, and their shortcomings were reviewed, including the assumption that void fraction or quality is constant at the boundary condition for the onset of annular flow (OAF). A new LFD model was proposed based on the recent constitutive correlations for the droplet deposition rate and entrainment rate. In addition, this LFD model was applied to predict the CHF in vertical narrow rectangular channels that were uniformly heated. The predicted CHF showed good agreement with 284 pieces of experimental data, with a mean absolute error of 18. 1 % and root mean square error of 22.9 %.

  4. Growth of Bubble layer and Onset of Flow Instability in a vertical Narrow rectangular channel

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Even numerous studies have been constantly conducted to date, however the prediction of OFI is still questionable for wide range of conditions especially for low mass flux condition in narrow rectangular channel as reported in the previous works. In addition, the understanding of subcooled flow boiling structures at OFI is not sufficient due to lack of studies with visualization. In this regards, OFI experiment for downward and upward flow boiling in a narrow rectangular channel are newly conducted while visualizing boiling structure. Image processing method is adopted to quantify bubble layer thickness, which is turned out to be important factor to understand the OFI. Experimental studies on OFI in a narrow rectangular channel having gap size of 2.35 mm was conducted not only for downward flow but also upward flow condition. Flow boiling structures are visualized using HSV method and also quantized bubble boundary layers are obtained by using image processing method. Based on observation and analysis, the merging of facing vapor layers on opposite boiling surfaces is the key phenomena triggering OFI for both upward and downward flow.


    PATHAK Manabendra; DASS Anoop K; DEWAN Anupam


    A computational investigation of the mean flow field of turbulent rectangular jets issuing into a narrow channel crossflow is presented. The length of the jet slot spans more than 55% of the crossflow channel bed, leaving a small clearance between the jet edge and sidewalls. A finite volume code employing the standard k-e model is used to predict the mean, three-dimensional flow field. The mean flow field is investigated for two velocity ratios (6 and 9). Important flow features, such as the formation of different vortical structures and their characteristics owing to different values of the velocity ratio, are discussed. Some predicted results are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. The predicted mean and turbulent flow properties are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    Choi, Gil Sik, E-mail:; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon


    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  7. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    Wang Junfeng [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Huang Yanping, E-mail: [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wang Yanlin [CNNC Key Laboratory on Reactor Thermo-Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)


    Highlights: > Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. > Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. > Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. > The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  8. Flow instability and critical heat flux for downward flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both-sides

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Daeseong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Subcooled flow boiling in a vertical rectangular channel was experimentally investigated to enhance the understanding of the CHF and the effect of the two-phase flow instability on it under low pressure conditions, especially for downward flow which was adopted for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and Kijang research reactor (KJRR) to achieve easier fuel and irradiation rig loading. In addition, visual observations of subcoold flow boiling was conducted by using high-speed video (HSV) for a clear understanding of both phenomena. We concluded that flow excursion (which is static instability) could be induced due to the OPDF (which is dynamic instability) when a system has no resistibility to the pressure drop perturbation, which is caused by the coalescence of facing bubbles on opposing heated surfaces. In more stable system with throttling applied, flow rate could be maintained and stable CHF could be reached. The static flow instability (FI) and critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling in a vertical narrow channels under low pressure condition are fairly crucial phenomena relative to thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis for pool-type research reactors. It has been recommended that RRs and MTRs be designed to have sufficient margins for CHF and the onset of FI as well, since unstable flow could leads to premature CHF under very low wall heat flux in comparison to stable CHF. Even the fact and previous studies, however, the understanding of relationship among FI, premature CHF and stable CHF is not sufficient to date.

  9. Study on critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channel with repeated-rib roughness. 1. Experimental facility and preliminary experiments

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In the design of a spallation target system, the water cooling system, for example a proton beam window and a safety hull, is used with narrow channels, in order to remove high heat flux and prevent lowering of system performance by absorption of neutron. And in narrow channel, heat transfer enhancement using 2-D rib is considered for reduction the cost of cooling component and decrease inventory of water in the cooling system, that is, decrease of the amount of irradiated water. But few studies on CHF with rib have been carried out. Experimental and analytical studies with rib-roughened test section, in 10:1 ratio of pitch to height, are being carried out in order to clarify the CHF in rib-roughened channel. This paper presents the review of previous researches on heat transfer in channel with rib roughness, overview of the test facility and the preliminary experimental and analytical results. As a result, wall friction factors were about 3 times as large as that of smooth channel, and heat transfer coefficients are about 2 times as large as that of smooth channel. The obtained CHF was as same as previous mechanistic model by Sudo. (author)

  10. An experimental investigation of bubble growth in water subcooled flow boiling in a vertical narrow rectangular channel

    Deqi, Chen; Liangming, Pan; Dewen, Yuan [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Xiaojun, Wang [Institute of Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu (China)


    The mechanism of the bubble growth has been of particular interest for decades due to its significant contribution to the boiling heat transfer. That is why many industrial applications are very interested in understanding the mechanism of bubble growth. Revealing the bubble growth rate during the time from inception to departure is very important because the heat flux supplied to the bubbles corresponds to that required for the bubbles' volume change. And the bubble growth plays a key role in boiling heat transfer because the motion of the bubbles will disturb the boundary layer significantly. At present work, an experiment rig with visible test section was established, and a visualization experiment was carried out to analyze the bubble growth of forced flow boiling in a vertical narrow channel with cross section of 2 mm x 50 mm. Water was used as working fluid at 1 and 3 bar system pressure. Bubble growth behavior in different working conditions with varying mass flux and heat flux were recorded by a high speed camera with speed of 10000 fps. (film per second). The pictures recorded at different working conditions were analyzed to obtain the bubble growth data. Results show that the bubble growth and bubble size are significantly affected by mass flux, heat flux and system pressure, and also by the nucleation site density at a certain working condition. To reach a well prediction for the current experiment data, a dimensionless dual model is proposed. The dual model comprised by a linear model and a power curve model (corresponding to the inertia stage and the diffusion stage, respectively) is used to predict the dimensionless bubble growth, and the proposed dual model agrees with experimental results very well. The experiment constants, k and n, used in dual model almost keep constant even the working condition changed at wide range. K is about 2.79 in linear model and is approaching 1.02 in power curve model, respectively; and n approaches 0.25 in power

  11. 矩形窄缝通道内单相水流动特性研究%Research on Characteristics of Single-Phase Water Flow in Narrow Rectangular Channel

    幸奠川; 阎昌琪; 曹夏昕; 刘宇生; 谢清清


    A calculation formulation for laminar friction coefficient in narrow rectangular channel was obtained by theoretical analysis. Experiments have been made on flow characteristics in narrow rectangular channels with low aspect ratios, and the results show that the curve of friction coefficients in rectangular channel varying with Reynolds number is similar to that in round pipe. The conventional frictional correlations based on circular pipes are not available for rectangular channels, which depend on Reynolds numbers and aspect ratios, and the friction coefficient increases as the aspect ratio decreases. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The effects of aspect ratios on frictional characteristics in laminar flow were explained by taking into account wetting perimeter and shear stress.%通过理论分析,得到了计算矩形窄缝通道单相层流摩阻系数的公式.对小高宽比矩形窄缝通道内的流动特性进行了实验研究,结果表明:矩形窄缝通道内单相摩阻系数随Re变化的曲线和圆管有相同的趋势,但圆管流动摩阻公式不适用于矩形窄缝通道.矩形通道内摩阻系数与Re和通道截面高宽比有关,通道高宽比越小,摩阻系数越大.实验结果和理论推导结论一致.从截面湿周和切向应力两方面解释了高宽比对矩形窄缝通道内单相水层流摩阻特性的影响机理.

  12. 竖直窄矩形通道内环状流的流动传热特性%Flow and heat transfer characteristics of annular flow in vertical rectangular narrow channel

    陈冲; 高璞珍; 谭思超; 余志庭; 陈先兵


    为了研究竖直窄矩形通道内环状流的流动传热特性,建立了窄矩形通道内环状流的数学物理模型,并进行了实验验证。通过数值求解环状流的数学物理模型得到了环状流区域的压降梯度、沸腾传热系数和液膜内的速度分布。结果表明窄矩形通道内的环状流模型能够很好地预测环状流区域的压降梯度和沸腾传热系数,而且环状流液膜内速度在法向的分布是非线性的,在层流边界层区速度梯度较大。热通量和窄矩形通道的尺寸对液膜的流速有很大影响,随热通量的增加和窄矩形通道尺寸的减小液膜的流速逐渐增加,然而质量流速对液膜流速的影响较小,而且随质量流速的增加液膜的速度逐渐减小。%A mathematical model of annular flow in vertical rectangular narrow channel was developed and experimental verification was performed in order to study flow and heat transfer characteristics of annular flow in vertical rectangular narrow channel. Through numerically solving the mathematical model, pressure gradient, boiling heat transfer and liquid film velocity profile in the annular flow region were obtained. The present model could well predict pressure gradient and boiling heat transfer. The liquid film velocity profile of annular flow in the normal direction was not linear, and liquid film velocity gradient was large in the laminar boundary layer. Rectangular narrow channel size and heat flux had significant effect on liquid film velocity profile. Liquid film velocity increased with increasing heat flux and decreased with increasing channel size. The effect of mass flow rate on liquid film velocity was smaller than the effect of heat flux and channel size, and liquid film velocity decreased with increasing mass flow rate.

  13. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim


    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  14. Pressure Drop Characteristic of Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel Under Rolling Motion%摇摆运动下矩形窄通道内流动沸腾阻力特性

    刘传成; 阎昌琪; 孙立成


    本工作对摇摆运动下水在矩形窄通道内流动沸腾阻力特性进行实验研究分析.一方面利用竖直静止实验数据对已有两相压降的计算方法进行评价,结果表明,应用于常规通道的关系式已不适用于窄通道中流动沸腾压降的计算,基于窄通道的Zhang-Mishima及Sun-Mishima关系式预测结果与实验值符合较好;另一方面得出了摇摆运动下流动沸腾阻力特性,摇摆运动使两相压降周期性波动,但摇摆角度和摇摆周期对压降的波动幅度、两相平均摩擦压降几乎无影响.%Experimental investigation and analysis of the pressure drop characteristic of flow boiling in narrow rectangular channel were conducted under rolling motion. Several correlations for the two-phase frictional pressure drop were evaluated against the experimental data. The results show that the correlations for conventional channel poorly predict the results. While the Zhang-Mishima and Sun-Mishima correlations developed for narrow channel are better than other correlations. On the other hand, the pressure drop characteristic of flow boiling was analyzed under rolling motion. The two-phase pressure drop changes cyclically due to the rolling motion, rolling angle and period almost have no effect on the fluctuation of pressure drop and the average two-phase frictional pressure drop.

  15. Boiling Visualization and Critical Heat Flux Phenomena In Narrow Rectangular Gap

    J. J. Kim; Y. H. Kim; S. J. Kim; S. W. Noh; K. Y. Suh; J. Rempe; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim


    An experimental study was performed to investifate the pool boling critical hear flux (CHF) on one-dimensional inclined rectangular channels with narrow gaps by changing the orientation of a copper test heater assembly. In a pool of saturated water at atmospheric pressure, the test parameters include the gap sizes of 1,2,5, and 10 mm, andthe surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180 degrees) to the vertical position (90 degress) respectively.

  16. Experimental and Methodological Research on Pressure Drop of Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel%矩形窄通道内流动沸腾阻力实验与计算方法研究

    刘传成; 阎昌琪; 孙立成; 陈炳德; 幸奠川


    On the background of the miniaturization of heat exchanger, experimental investigation and analysis of the pressure drop of flow boiling in narrow rectangular channel were conducted. Six correlations for the two-phase friction pressure drop were evaluated against the experimental data. The results show that the correlations for conventional channel poorly predict the results. While the Sun-Mishima and Zhang-Mishima correlations developed for narrow channel are better than other correlations. In the meantime, the constant C in the Chisholm equation for calculating the two-phase friction pressure drop shows the exponential trend against Martinelli parameter X for different mass fluxes. Therefore, a new correlation was developed for calculating the two-phase frictional multiplier and the evaluation shows that it's better than the other evaluated correlations.%基于换热器小型化的研究背景,对水在矩形窄通道内流动沸腾阻力特性进行了实验研究与分析,并利用实验结果对常规通道和窄通道的两相摩擦压降计算的6种方法进行了评价.结果表明,应用于常规通道的关系式已不适于窄通道中流动沸腾压降的计算,而基于窄通道的Zhang-Mishima及SunMishima关系式预测结果与实验值符合较好.实验结果和理论分析表明,利用分相流方法得到的分液相摩擦因子计算式中Chisholm系数C与Martinelli参数X存在指数关系,且随着质量流速的变化也有所不同,据此给出了新的分液相摩擦因子的计算方法,新方法具有更高的计算精度.

  17. Studies on Water Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics in Vertical Narrow Rectangular Channel%竖直矩形窄通道内水流动沸腾换热特性的研究

    郑志皋; 陶乐仁; 黄理浩


    A single-side heating apparatus is set up to study the flow boiling and heat transfer in vertical narrow rectangular channel,experiment research on flow boiling and heat transfer characteristics in a vertical narrow rectangular channel with the section of 250mm ×5 mm is carried out.According to the experimental analysis:(1 )With the increase of dryness,the local heat transfer coefficient firstly increases then decreases ,there is a maximum,which is saturated nucleate boiling region ,the steam quality is close to zero,also it is close to the onset of boiling.Accordingly flow mode of fluid is from single phase,bubble,slug, churn to annular flow.(2)For flow boiling heat transfer,nuclear boiling heat transfer is significantly affected by heat flux,but liquid film evaporation is nearly not.So it is assumed that heat transfer is caused by the change of heat flux.(3 )The change of inlet temperature has influence on single-phase flow heat transfer coefficient,but flow boiling heat transfer coefficient has great re-lationship with flow pattern and generated bubbles,and not inlet temperature.%建立单面加热垂直矩形窄通道流动沸腾换热试验装置,针对截面250mm ×3.5mm的窄缝通道,对水流动沸腾换热特性进行试验研究。通过试验分析可知:(1)随着干度的增加,局部换热系数先增加后减小,有一个最大值,此时处于饱和核沸腾区域,其蒸汽干度也接近于0,同时也接近于沸腾起始点。相应地流体从单相流-泡状-块状流-搅拌-环状流转变。(2)在流动沸腾换热中,热流密度对核态沸腾换热有明显影响,而对流动沸腾液膜蒸发的影响甚小,所以可以认为由热流密度的变化而引起的换热变化,主要表现在核态沸腾。(3)入口温度的变化对单相流动的换热系数有影响,而沸腾换热系数与流型及汽泡的产生及扰动有极大关系,入口温度对流动沸腾局部换热系数基本没有影响。

  18. Driven tracers in narrow channels

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.


    Steady-state properties of a driven tracer moving in a narrow two-dimensional (2D) channel of quiescent medium are studied. The tracer drives the system out of equilibrium, perturbs the density and pressure fields, and gives the bath particles a nonzero average velocity, creating a current in the channel. Three models in which the confining effect of the channel is probed are analyzed and compared in this study: the first is the simple symmetric exclusion process (SSEP), for which the stationary density profile and the pressure on the walls in the frame of the tracer are computed. We show that the tracer acts like a dipolar source in an average velocity field. The spatial structure of this 2D strip is then simplified to a one-dimensional (1D) SSEP, in which exchanges of position between the tracer and the bath particles are allowed. Using a combination of mean-field theory and exact solution in the limit where no exchange is allowed gives good predictions of the velocity of the tracer and the density field. Finally, we show that results obtained for the 1D SSEP with exchanges also apply to a gas of overdamped hard disks in a narrow channel. The correspondence between the parameters of the SSEP and of the gas of hard disks is systematic and follows from simple intuitive arguments. Our analytical results are checked numerically.

  19. 窄矩形通道内过冷流动沸腾汽泡生长模型研究%Experimental Study on Bubble Growth Model of Subcooled Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel

    胡健; 高璞珍; 许超; 李少丹; 郑强


    By using a high speed camera ,a visual investigation of vapor bubble grow th under different system pressures in narrow rectangular channel was performed . The influences of system pressure ,bulk subcooling ,wall superheat and bulk velocity on bubble growth were analyzed . Bubble growth model which could meet different experimental conditions was established based on the Zuber model .The results show that Ja , Bo , Re and non‐dimensional temperature θcan describe the impact of the thermal parameters and flow parameters on bubble grow th comprehensively . T he exponential coefficients of K and n decrease with increasing system pressure ;bubble growth time and maximum diameter decrease with increasing θ.It is proved that the model correlates with the experimental data very well . As the bubble diameters are stochastic intensely under low pressure ,the relative errors between the model predicted values and experimental data under low pressure are relatively large .%采用高速摄影的方式,对不同系统压力条件下窄矩形通道内汽泡生长过程进行了可视化实验研究,分析了回路系统压力、主流过冷度、壁面过热度、主流速度等热工参数对汽泡生长的影响,并在Zuber公式的基础上建立了可满足不同实验工况的汽泡生长模型。结果表明:Ja、Bo、Re和无量纲温度θ可较为全面地描述热工参数和流动参数对汽泡生长的影响,在其他条件相同的情况下,汽泡生长指数拟合曲线的 K和n值随压力的升高明显减小;θ越大,汽泡的生长时间和所能达到的最大直径越小;在给定的参数范围内模型结果与实验结果符合较好,但由于低压条件下汽泡直径变化的随机性更强,所以模型结果与个别低压实验数据的相对误差较大。

  20. 摇摆工况下窄矩形通道内两相沸腾摩擦压降特性%Two-phase frictional pressure drop characteristics of boiling flow in rectangular narrow channel under rolling motion

    陈冲; 高璞珍; 余志庭; 陈先兵


    In order to investigate the two-phase frictional pressure drop characteristics of boiling flows in a rectangular narrow channel under rolling motion, a series of thermal hydraulic experiments and theoretical analysis are performed. The results demonstrate that the additional inertial force is imposed on the fluid and the space of experimental loop will vary periodically under rolling motion. The fluctuation amplitude of the two-phase frictional gradient increases with increasing rolling angle and rolling period. The fluctuation amplitude and time average value of the two-phase frictional pressure gradient increase with increasing heat flux, while it decreases with the increase of system pressure. The mass flux varies with the fluctuation of frictional pressure gradient at the same period. The phase change between the fluctuation of mass flux and frictional pressure gradient is approximately equal to 1/4 rolling period due to the velocity difference of the pressure propagation and mass flux increases.%为了研究摇摆工况下窄矩形通道内的两相摩擦压降特性,进行了一系列的热工水力实验和理论分析。结果表明,摇摆工况下流体会受到附加惯性力的作用且实验回路的空间位置也会出现周期性的变化,两相摩擦压降梯度的波动振幅随着摇摆角度和摇摆周期的增加而增加;随着通道热通量的增加或者系统压强的减小,两相摩擦压降梯度的波动振幅和时均值逐渐增加。窄矩形通道内的质量流速随着两相摩擦压降梯度的波动而波动,且具有相同的波动周期,由于流体加速和压力传播的速度不同,流量波动和摩擦压降波动存在约1/4周期的相位差。

  1. 倾斜窄矩形通道内弹状流特性的实验研究%Experimental Investigation on Characteristics of Slug Flow in a Vertical Narrow Rectangular Channel

    闫超星; 阎昌琪; 孙立成


    以空气和水为工质,应用高速摄影仪,对3.25 mm×43 mm的竖直和倾斜窄矩形通道的弹状流进行了可视化研究.按分液相雷诺数将流动分为层流区(Re lo<3000)和湍流区(Re lo≥3000).实验结果表明,在层流区,气弹上升速度随倾斜角度的增加而增大;在湍流区,倾斜角度对气弹上升速度的影响不明显.基于湍流区拟合得到的分布参数C0和班可夫系数C A分别为1.151和0.788,与实验数据具有较好的一致性.对于空泡份额Jones-Zuber模型和Ishii模型,在湍流区两者预测结果与实验基本一致,但在层流区,Jones-Zuber模型预测效果较好而Ishii模型偏差较大.%Visualized investigation was performed with a high-speed camera to study the characteristics of slug flow in a narrow rectangular channel with a cross section of 3.25 mm×43 mm under vertical and inclined conditions. Air and water were used as the test fluids. The flow regime was divided into laminar flow region (Relo<3000) and turbulent flow region (Relo≥3000) based on the liquid Reynolds number. The experimental result shows that bubble rising velocity increases with the increase of the inclined angle in the laminar flow region, but it nearly keeps constant in the turbulent flow region. The fitted distribution parameter C0 and Bankoff coefficient CA for the turbulent flow region are 1.151 and 0.788 respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. Both of the Jones-Zuber and Ishii void fraction models have good agreement with experimental data in the turbulent flow region. The Jones-Zuber model predicts the experimental data well for the laminar flow region, while the Ishii model shows a large deviation.

  2. Microlayer during boiling in narrow slot channels

    Diev, Mikhail D.; Leontiev, Alexander I.


    An international space station Alpha will have a two-phase thermal control system. Boiling of a liquid ammonia will be a process of heat collection in evaporative heat exchangers. Unfortunately, only little data is available for boiling heat transfer in microgravity. Geometries of boiling channels working good in normal gravity are not appropriate in microgravity, and special means should be worked out to avoid some undesired events. From this point of view, the narrow slot channels may be assumed as a promising geometry for microgravity operation. During boiling in narrow slots, the vapor bubbles are flattened between the channel walls. The vapor phase and the channel wall are separated by a thin liquid film which is known as a microlayer. The paper presents the experimental results compared to the theoretical analysis, the paper also shows the narrow slot channels as a perspective configuration for microgravity applications.

  3. Graphene-based tunable terahertz filter with rectangular ring resonator containing double narrow gaps

    Su, Wei; Chen, Bingyan


    A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing the width of the graphene nanoribbon, the coupling distance and chemical potential of graphene. In addition, by introducing narrow gaps in the rectangular ring resonators, it shows the single frequency filtering effect. Moreover, the structure also shows high sensitivity for different surrounding mediums. This work provides a novel method for designing all-optical integrated components in optical communication.

  4. Graphene-based tunable terahertz filter with rectangular ring resonator containing double narrow gaps



    A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing the width of the graphene nanoribbon, the coupling distance and chemical potential of graphene. In addition, by introducing narrow gaps in the rectangular ring resonators, it shows the single frequency filtering effect. Moreover, the structure also shows high sensitivity fordifferent surrounding mediums. This work provides a novel method for designing all-optical integrated components in optical communication.

  5. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    De Vriend, H.J.


    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The mos

  6. Boiling heat transfer in horizontal and inclined rectangular channels

    Morcos, S.M.; Mobarak, A.; Hilal, M.; Mohareb, M.R. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))


    The present experimental investigation is concerned with boiling heat transfer of water inside both horizontal and inclined rectangular channels under a relatively low heat flux. These configurations simulate the absorber channel of line-focus solar concentrations under boiling conditions. The experimental facility includes electrically heated aluminum rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 2.67 and 0.37. The experimental results of the two-phase Nusselt number for the two aspect ratios and for the inclination angles 0, 15, 30, and 45 deg were correlated in terms of a ratio of the two-phase to the liquid-phase Reynolds number for the forced-convection vaporization region. The proposed correlations agree well with previous investigations. In the present work, classifications of the various flow patterns were made by direct observation through a glass window at the end of the test section.

  7. End depth in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels

    Subhasish Dey


    The paper presents a theoretical model to compute the end depth of a free overfall in steeply sloping rough rectangular channels. A momentum equation based on the Boussinesq approximation is applied to obtain the equation of the end depth. The effect ofstreamline curvature at the free surface is utilized to develop the differential equation for the flow profile upstream of the free overfall of a wide rectangular channel. As direct solutions for the end depth and flow profile cannot be obtained owing to implicit forms of the developed equations, an auto-recursive search scheme is evolved to solve these equations simultaneously. A method for estimation of discharge from the known end depth and Nikuradse equivalent sand roughness is also presented. Results from the present model correspond satisfactorily with experimental observations except for some higher roughnesses.

  8. Energy tunneling through narrow waveguide channel and design of small antennas

    Mitrović Miranda


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the conditions for energy tunneling through narrow channel obtained by reducing the height of rectangular waveguide. Tunneling of the energy occurs at the frequency for which the effective dielectric permittivity of the channel becomes equal to zero, so it can be treated as an ENZ (epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. We investigated how geometry of the channel and dielectric permittivity affect the transmission coefficient and field density in the channel. Adding slots in the channel, which are placed orthogonally to the wave propagation, we designed a small antenna with directivity of 5.44 dBi at the frequency of 3 GHz.

  9. Experimental study of natural circulation flow instability in rectangular channels

    Zhou, Tao; Qi, Shi; Song, Mingqiang [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Passive Nuclear Safety Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab.; Xiao, Zejun [Nuclear, Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Chengdu (China). CNNC Key Lab.


    Experiments of natural circulation flow instability were conducted in rectangular channels with 5 mm and 10 mm wide gaps. Results for different heating powers were obtained. The results showed that the flow will tend to be instable with the growing of heating power. The oscillation period of pressure D-value and volume flow are the same, but their phase positions are opposite. They both can be described by trigonometric functions. The existence of edge position and secondary flow will strengthen the disturbance of fluid flow in rectangle channels, which contributes to heat transfer. The disturbance of bubble and fluid will be strengthened, especially in the saturated boiling section, which make it possible for the mixing flow. The results also showed that the resistance in 5 mm channel is bigger than that in 10 mm channel, it is less likely to form stable natural circulation in the subcooled region.

  10. Confined swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in rectangular channels.

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Yesilyurt, Serhat


    Controlled swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in confined spaces needs to be understood well for potential use in medical applications in conduits and vessels inside the body. In this study, experimental and computational studies are performed for analysis of swimming modes of a bio-inspired microrobot in rectangular channels at low Reynolds number. Experiments are performed on smooth and rough surfaces using a magnetic helical swimmer (MHS), having 0.5 mm diameter and 2 mm length, with left-handed helical tail and radially polarized magnetic head within rotating magnetic field obtained by two electromagnetic coil pairs. Experiments indicate three motion modes of the MHS with respect to the rotation frequency: (i) lateral motion under the effect of a perpendicular force such as gravity and the surface traction at low frequencies, (ii) lateral motion under the effect of fluid forces and gravity at transition frequencies, and (iii) circular motion under the effect of fluid forces at high frequencies. Observed modes of motion for the MHS are investigated with computational fluid dynamics simulations by calculating translational and angular velocities and studying the induced flow fields for different radial positions inside the channel. Results indicate the importance of rotation frequency, surface roughness and flow field on the swimming modes and behaviour of the MHS inside the rectangular channel.

  11. Channel Narrowing and Channel Reset: Effects of a Large Flood on the Vegetated, Narrowing Rio Grande

    Dean, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.


    In September 2008, heavy precipitation from a tropical storm in the Sierra Madre Occidental, MX, produced large amounts of stream flow to the Rio Conchos and lower Rio Grande. This flood was well publicized in the media due to the widespread flooding in Ojinaga, Chih., and Presidio, TX. Gage records indicate that this flood had an approximate recurrence of 15 years as measured on the Rio Grande near Presidio. Nevertheless, flood stages were the highest ever recorded and resulted from a significant loss of channel capacity due to channel narrowing that had occurred during the previous 18 years. Measurements from aerial photographs indicate that channel width had decreased between 35 and 50% between 1990 and 2008 during regional drought. During this period of low stream flow, invasion by non-native riparian vegetation (Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) helped trap sediment and promote floodplain accretion. Our resurveys of the channel indicate that the 2008 flood was a reset event and that the channel was re-widened by 32 to 48%. Repeated, oblique photographs showed significant channel migration and large scale floodplain stripping during this flood. These results show that although riparian vegetation may actively promote channel narrowing and floodplain accretion, moderately large floods may cause large scale bank erosion, floodplain stripping, and vegetation removal in alluvial valleys subject to large-scale invasion by nonnative plants.

  12. Numerical Studies of Convective Mass Transfer Enhancement in a Membrane Channel by Rectangular Winglets☆

    Jingchun Min; Bingqiang Zhang


    Numerical calculations were conducted to simulate the flow and mass transfer in narrow membrane channels with and without flow disturbers. The channel consists of an impermeable solid wall and a membrane surface with a spacing of 2.0 mm. The flow disturbers studied include rectangular winglets, which are often used as lon-gitudinal vortex generators to enhance heat transfer in heat exchanger applications, as wel as square prism, tri-angular prism, and circular cylinder, which are used here to mimic the traditional spacer filaments for comparison of their abilities in enhancing the convective mass transfer near the membrane surface to al eviate the concentration polarization. The disturber performance was evaluated in terms of concentration polarization factor versus consumed pumping power, with a larger factor meaning a more serious concentration polarization. Calculations were carried out for NaCl solution flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 400 to 1000. The results show that the traditional flow disturbers can considerably reduce the concentration polarization but cause a substantial pressure drop, while the rectangular winglets can effectively reduce the concentration polarization with a much less pressure drop penalty. The rectangular winglets were optimized in geometry under equal pumping power condition.

  13. Experimental study of the water jet induced by underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube

    Koita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Sun, M.


    This paper reports an experimental investigation on the effects of explosion depth and tube width on the water jet induced by an underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube. The water jet formation and bubble structure were evaluated from the images recorded by a high-speed video camera. Two typical patterns of jet formation and four general patterns of bubble implosion were observed, depending on the explosion depth and tube width. The velocity of the water jet was calculated from the recorded images. The jet velocity was observed to depend on not only the explosion depth and energy, but also on the tube width. We proposed an empirical formula defining the water jet velocity in the tube as a function of the tube width and explosion depth and energy.

  14. Experimental study of the water jet induced by underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube

    Koita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Sun, M.


    This paper reports an experimental investigation on the effects of explosion depth and tube width on the water jet induced by an underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube. The water jet formation and bubble structure were evaluated from the images recorded by a high-speed video camera. Two typical patterns of jet formation and four general patterns of bubble implosion were observed, depending on the explosion depth and tube width. The velocity of the water jet was calculated from the recorded images. The jet velocity was observed to depend on not only the explosion depth and energy, but also on the tube width. We proposed an empirical formula defining the water jet velocity in the tube as a function of the tube width and explosion depth and energy.

  15. Boiling heat transfer in a small horizontal rectangular channel

    Tran, T.N.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Compact heat exchangers have traditionally found wide application in the transportation industry, where they are used as evaporators and condensers in vapor compression cycles for air conditioning and refrigeration. Such heat exchangers possess numerous attractive features including high thermal effectiveness, small size, low weight, design flexibility, and pure counterflow, and they can accommodate multiple streams. Today, there is a widespread interest in expanding the range of application of compact heat exchangers to include phase-change heat transfer in the process industries, among others. An overall objective of this effort is to provide the basis for establishing design technology in this area. In the present study, small channel flow boiling heat transfer was extended to a rectangular channel (4.06 {times} 1.70 mm) using refrigerant 12 (R-12). As with the circular tube studies, the flow channel wall was electrically heated providing a constant heat flux. Tests were performed over a quality range of 0.15 to 0.80, and large ranges of mass fluxes (50 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s) and heat flux (4 to 34 kW/m{sup 2}). Heat transfer was measured and results are compared with correlation predictions.

  16. Wall and Bed Shear Force in Rectangular Open Channels

    Tavakkol, Sasan


    A method is introduced to determine the percentage of the total shear force acting on the walls and bed in rectangular open channels. The proposed method takes both the velocity gradients and secondary currents into account. In the current method the channel cross section is divided into subsections using the bisectors along which there are no secondary flow effects, and isovels orthogonal trajectories along which there is no shear stress. Based on these subsections and assuming the equilibrium between the shear force and gravitational force, the share of the bed and wall from the mean shear force of the flow are calculated. Calculated wall and bed shear forces are in very good agreement with experimental data with an average relative error less than 5%. It is also shown that neglecting the effect of secondary currents and only assuming zero-shear division lines does not yield to acceptable results. The method also provides a possible range for wall and bed shear forces which nicely covers the experimental da...

  17. Mobility of protozoa through narrow channels.

    Wang, Wei; Shor, Leslie M; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Wikswo, John P; Kosson, David S


    Microbes in the environment are profoundly affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities occurring on a spatial scale of millimeters to micrometers. Physical refuges are critical for maintaining stable bacterial populations in the presence of high predation pressure by protozoa. The effects of microscale heterogeneity, however, are difficult to replicate and observe using conventional experimental techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial constraints on the mobility of six species of marine protozoa. Microfluidic devices were created with small channels similar in size to pore spaces in soil or sediment systems. Individuals from each species of protozoa tested were able to rapidly discover and move within these channels. The time required for locating the channel entrance from the source well increased with protozoan size and decreased with channel height. Protozoa of every species were able to pass constrictions with dimensions equal to or smaller than the individual's unconstrained cross-sectional area. Channel geometry was also an important factor affecting protozoan mobility. Linear rates of motion for various species of protozoa varied by channel size. In relatively wide channels, typical rates of motion were 300 to 500 microm s(-1) (or about 1 m per hour). As the channel dimensions decreased, however, motilities slowed more than an order of magnitude to 20 microm s(-1). Protozoa were consistently observed to exhibit several strategies for successfully traversing channel reductions. The empirical results and qualitative observations resulting from this research help define the physical limitations on protozoan grazing, a critical process affecting microbes in the environment.

  18. Onset of Nucleate Boiling in Rectangular Channels under Low Pressure

    Song, Jung Hyun; Lee, Juhyung; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, new methodology to define ONB point based on the heat transfer coefficient difference between single phase heat transfer and two phase heat transfer using single phase heat transfer correlation. In addition, several existing ONB prediction correlations based on the Hsu's model showed large error with experimental data. It can support that not only heat flux and wall superheat, but also the local parameters should be figured into ONB prediction. Nuclear reactors can be divided into two types; commercial reactor and research reactor. Radiation from research reactors is used for many industries. Due to that characteristic of research reactors, as many people work around research reactor, the design with conservative safety margin for research reactor is more sensitive issue. Some research reactors such as the Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) have three characteristics. First, they operate under atmospheric pressure. Second, they use the nuclear fuel plate. Third, they use downward flow to remove the heat of the fuel plate. However, one of the precautions of using downward flow under low pressure is that fluid behavior can change much faster than under high pressure. Bubble nucleation itself is not important for nuclear reactor safety at all, but it can be lead to critical thermal-hydraulic events such as onset of fluid instability (OFI) or critical heat flux (CHF) easily. Also, bubble nucleation would be avoided to maintain the steady normal operation. The IAEA also recommends for research reactors to have enough ONB margin to maintain a normal operation state in 'IAEA-TECDOC-233' (1980). It can support that the existing ONB prediction correlations are not suitable for predict ONB in rectangular channel and new correlation is needed to this condition.

  19. Thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of forced and mixed convection flow through vertical rectangular channels

    Hanafi Abdalla S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical studies for the case of turbulent forced and mixed convection flow of water through narrow vertical rectangular channel. The channel is composed of two parallel plates which are heated at a uniform heat flux, whereas, the other two sides of the channel are thermally insulated. The plates are of 64 mm in width, 800 mm in height, and separated from each other at a narrow gap of 2.7 mm. The Nusselt number distribution along the flow direction normalized by the Nusselt number for the case of turbulent forced convection flow is obtained experimentally with a comparison with the numerical results obtained from a commercial computer code. The quantitative determination of the nor- malized Nusselt number with respect to the dimension-less number Z = (Gr/Re21/8Pr0.5 is presented with a comparison with previous experimental results. Qualitative results are presented for the normalized temperature and velocity profiles in the transverse direction with a comparison between the forced and mixed convection flow for both the cases of upward and downward flow directions. The effect of the axial locations and the parameter Gr/Re on the variation of the normalized temperature profiles in the transverse direction for both the regions of forced and mixed convection and for both of the upward and downward flow directions are obtained. The normalized velocity profiles in the transverse directions are also determined at different inlet velocity and heat fluxes for the previous cases. It is found that the normalized Nusselt number is greater than one in the mixed convection region for both the cases of upward and downward flow and correlated well with the dimension-less parameter Z for both of the forced and mixed convection regions. The temperature profiles increase with increasing the axial location along the flow direction or the parameter Gr/Re for both of the forced and mixed convection regions, but this increase is

  20. Secondary Flow Effects in Relatively Narrow Channels

    Rudolf Dvo(r)ák


    Secondary flow effects were discussed in numerous papers at the past ISAIF Symposia, mainly in connection with turbine or compressor cascades[1]. This paper will complement these papers by looking at the problem from the channel (or blade passages) geometry point of view. If we describe as secondary flows any flows in planes perpendicular to the main flow direction, then there are at least three kinds of secondary flows in a typical turbine rotor cascade: - secondary flows of the 1st kind, generated by centrifugal forces in closed curved channels, - secondary flows of the 2nd kind, generated by interacting boundary layers, mainly in corners (this will include even the horseshoe vortices), - secondary flows due to mass inflow through the tip clearance. Quite often all the secondary flow vortices merge downstream into a passage vortex with a non-negligible contribution to the channel (cascade) losses, and it is worth investigating the individual contributions to these losses to take them into account in the design procedure.

  1. Convective mass transfer enhancement in a membrane channel by delta winglets and their comparison with rectangular winglets☆

    Jingchun Min; Bingqiang Zhang


    Numerical calculations were conducted to simulate the flow and mass transfer in narrow membrane channels equipped with delta winglets, which are often used as longitudinal vortex generators to enhance heat transfer in heat exchanger applications. The channel consists of an impermeable solid wall and a membrane. The delta winglets are attached to the solid wal surface to enhance the mass transfer near the membrane surface and sup-press the concentration polarization. The winglet performance was evaluated in terms of concentration polariza-tion factor versus consumed pumping power. Calculations were implemented for NaCl solution flow in a membrane channel having a height of 2.0 mm for Reynolds numbers ranging from 400 to 1000. The delta wing-lets were optimized under equal pumping power condition, and the results of optimization suggest winglet height of 5/6 of the channel height, aspect ratio of 2.0, attack angle of 30°, and a winglet interval equal to the chan-nel height. The optimal delta winglets were compared with the optimal rectangular winglets we found previous-ly, and it is shown that the rectangular winglets yield a somewhat better performance than the delta winglets. © 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  2. Coherent Structures near Narrow Gaps in Channel Flows

    Guellouz, M. S.; Tavoularis, S.


    Flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry were used to investigate the velocity field in axial flow within a rectangular channel containing a single cylindrical rod, parallel to the channel's axis and positioned at different distances from the wall. The formation of a street of three-dimensional, quasi-periodic, counter-rotating vortices in the vicinity of the gap has been observed, even for relatively large gaps. The Strouhal number, convection speed and streamwise spacing of these vortices have been determined as functions of the gap size and the flow parameters. A useful feature of these vortices is the large-scale transport of fluid across the gap, which enhances momentum, heat and mass transfer.

  3. Numerical simulations of developing flow and vortex street in a rectangular channel with a cylindrical core

    Chang, Dongil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tavoularis, Stavros, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LES are more accurate than URANS for rod bundle flows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer URANS are still an acceptable choice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steady RANS analysis is very inaccurate in narrow gap regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Streamwise-periodic boundary conditions are not suitable for practical rod bundles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gap instability is an inviscid process. - Abstract: Three-dimensional, unsteady simulations of developing turbulent flows in a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod have been performed to investigate their sensitivity to the choices of boundary conditions and turbulence models. Among all methods, large eddy simulations, employed in a downstream sub-domain of the channel as part of the segregated hybrid model, reproduced most accurately the experimental results. However, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations with a Reynolds stress model appear to be also an acceptable choice for approximate rod bundle analyses, making fairly accurate predictions at a much lower computational cost. In agreement with previous findings, steady RANS simulations are not recommended as a low-cost substitute of URANS for flows in tightly packed rod bundles. The URANS simulations were found to be insensitive to inlet turbulence specification and to be more accurate when a uniform inlet velocity was specified rather than a fully developed inlet velocity distribution. Developing flow simulations were found to be preferable to simulations with a streamwise-periodic boundary condition. Finally, unsteady inviscid (Euler) simulations with a fully developed initial velocity distribution predicted the onset of gap instability, but were otherwise found to be unsuitable for practical analysis of rod bundle flows.

  4. Tunable polarization plasma channel undulator for narrow bandwidth photon emission

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Wang, J. W.; Kharin, V. Yu.; Lei, B.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.


    The theory of a plasma undulator excited by a short intense laser pulse in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The undulator fields are generated either by the laser pulse incident off-axis and/or under the angle with respect to the channel axis. Linear plasma theory is used to derive the wakefield structure. It is shown that the electrons injected into the plasma wakefields experience betatron motion and undulator oscillations. Optimal electron beam injection conditions are derived for minimizing the amplitude of the betatron motion, producing narrow-bandwidth undulator radiation. Polarization control is readily achieved by varying the laser pulse injection conditions.

  5. Effect Of Flow Resistance In Open Rectangular Channel

    Ahmad Noor Aliza


    Full Text Available The determination of flow resistance for open channels remains a challenge in practices. In this research, an experimental study was carried out to investigate the hydraulic roughness characteristics in an open channel. The experimental flume (10 m length, 0.30 m width and 0.46 height was carried out with two conditions ; contain gravel bed and without gravel bed (as controller. Blocks of concrete foam were fabricated and laid on the bed surface for providing uniformly roughened along the open channel. A velocity flow meter was used to quantify the average velocity, and other parameters such as cross-section, hydraulic radius, wetted perimeter, and channel slopes were also calculated. Finally, the flow resistance, n obtained using the flume with gravel bed surface is higher than the flume without gravel bed surface. The flow conditions were declared as subcritical as the Froude number is less than 1 for both conditions in the flume. As a conclusion, it was identified that the hydraulic roughness n, was influenced by the type bed roughness, flow rate and channel slope.

  6. Supersonic—Subsonic Transition in Relatively Narrow Channels



    The flow structure in relatively narrow channels has a strong three-dimensional character with complex flow phenomena.Including regions of localized spearation.various vortical structures.etc.,all of which have to be considered when dealing with the problem of supersonic-subsonic transition.In this paper only the following three problems are considered:1.the effect of channel width on transition form supersonic to subsonic velocities.2.transition from supersonic to subsonic velocities in a system of shock waves-pseudoshock wave.3.transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities in a critical cross section at the end of a duct with fully developed turbulent channel flow.Problems connectewd with vortical structures and flow separation were discussed by the same author elsewhere (see References).

  7. Measurement of turbulent flow in a narrow open channel

    Sarkar Sankar


    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of turbulent flow over hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Experiments were conducted in a rectangular flume under the aspect ratio b/h = 2 (b = width of the channel 0.5 m, and h = flow depth 0.25 m for both the bed conditions. For the hydraulically rough bed, the roughness was created by using 3/8″ commercially available angular crushed stone chips; whereas sand of a median diameter d50 = 1.9 mm was used as the bed material for hydraulically smooth bed. The three-dimensional velocity components were captured by using a Vectrino (an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The study focuses mainly on the turbulent characteristics within the dip that were observed towards the sidewall (corner of the channel where the maximum velocity occurs below the free-surface. It was also observed that the nondimensional Reynolds shear stress changes its sign from positive to negative within the dip. The quadrant plots for the turbulent bursting shows that the signs of all the bursting events change within the dip. Below the dip, the probability of the occurrence of sweeps and ejections are more than that of inward and outward interactions. On the other hand, within the dip, the probability of the occurrence of the outward and inward interactions is more than that of sweeps and ejections.

  8. Collapse of Non-Rectangular Channels in a Soft Elastomer

    Tepayotl-Ramirez, Daniel; Park, Yong-Lae; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel


    We examine the collapse of microchannels in a soft elastomer by treating the sidewalls as in- denters that penetrate the channel base. This approach leads to a closed-form algebraic mapping between applied pressure and cross-sectional deformation that are in strong agreement with ex- perimental measurements and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. Applications of this new approach to modeling soft microchannel collapse range from lab-on-a-chip microfluidics for pressure-controlled protein filtration to soft-matter pressures sensing. We demonstrate the latter by comparing theoretical predictions with experimental measurements of the pressure-controlled electrical resistance of liquid-phase Gallium alloy microchannels embedded in a soft silicone elas- tomer.

  9. Experimental study of two-phase water flow in vertical thin rectangular channels

    Wright, Christopher T.; O'Brien, James E.; Anderson, Elgin A.


    An experimental heat transfer study of two-phase water flow in vertical thin rectangular channels with side vents is conducted. A multiple, heated channel configuration with up- and down-flow conditions is investigated. Parallel heated and unheated flow channels test the effects of cross flow on the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and critical heat flux (CHF). The test apparatus provides pressure and substrate temperature data and visual data of the boiling regimes and side-vent flow patterns. The objectives are to determine the two-phase, heat and mass transfer characteristics between adjacent channels as permitted by side-vent cross flow. These data will help develop ONB and CHF correlations for flow geometries typical of plate-type nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. Fundamentally, the data shows how the geometry, flow conditions, and channel configurations affect the heat transfer characteristics of interior channel flows, essential in understanding the ONB and CHF phenomena.

  10. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  11. Effect of Channel Sidewalls on Joule Heating Induced Sample Dispersion in Rectangular Ducts.

    Dutta, Debashis


    In this article, we analyze the effect of channel sidewalls on the broadening of analyte bands resulting from Joule heating during their electrokinetic migration through a rectangular conduit. A method-of-moments formulation has been used to numerically evaluate the Taylor-Aris dispersivity of sample zones under these conditions for thin electrical double layers applicable to a majority of microfluidic assays. Our analysis shows that the larger surface area to volume ratio around the side regions of a rectangular channel causes these corners to stay cooler than the rest of the conduit. While such a thermal profile does not modify the electroosmotic flow in the system for a fixed temperature at the channel walls, it reduces the electrophoretic transport rate by about 10% for small temperature differentials across the channel cross-section (effect of these thermal gradients on the hydrodynamic dispersion of analyte bands is more significant however, increasing such band broadening by nearly an order of magnitude in large aspect ratio designs. Our analyses further show that the trends noted above are magnified when a fixed heat transfer coefficient is assumed at the channel walls, in which case, the temperature along this boundary is no longer constant. The non-isothermal channel walls combined with the temperature dependence of zeta potential and other material properties in this situation leads to a non-uniform electroosmotic slip velocity in the system modifying both fluid and analyte transport rates. Again, while the resulting solute flow profile reduces the migration velocity of sample zones only to a moderate extent, it is found to increase the hydrodynamic dispersion of analyte bands by several orders of magnitude in large aspect ratio rectangular channels.

  12. CFD modeling of heat transfer in a rectangular channel with dimplepin finning

    Spokoiny M. Yu.


    Full Text Available Using the CFD modeling method, the authors have investigated conjugate heat transfer in a rectangular channel with dimple-pin finning with hight of pins, depth of cavities and Reynolds number values varying in the range, characteristic for heat exchangers designed for liquid cooling of microelectronic devices, such as microprocessors. Criterion dependencies for calculation of heat transfer under these conditions have been obtained.

  13. Optimizing electroosmotic pumping rates in a rectangular channel with vertical gratings

    Lai, Anison K. R.; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Chang-Yi


    The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) velocity is known to be an accurate and useful formula for estimating the electro-osmotic (EO) flow rates in a simple micro-channel with a thin electric-double layer. However, in case the channel cross section is not so simple, the usefulness of H-S velocity could be sharply limited. A case of fundamental interest representing this situation is a rectangular channel (comprising parallel plates) with built-in vertical gratings, in which the surfaces inside the channel may develop different normalized zeta potentials α (on the gratings) and β (on the side walls). In this study, analytical solutions are pursued under the Debye-Hückel approximation to obtain EO pumping rates in a rectangular channel with vertical gratings. In particular, we identify the conditions under which the H-S formula can be properly applied and investigate how the EO flow rates may deviate from those predicted by the H-S velocity with varying physical parameters. Moreover, a diagram of the optimal EO pumping rates on the α-β plane is introduced that accounts for the general features of the analysis, which is consistent with a mathematical model and may serve as a convenient guide for engineering design and applications.

  14. The Chemical Vapour Deposition of Tantalum - in long narrow channels

    Mugabi, James Atwoki

    use as a construction material for process equipment, with the cheaper alternative being the construction of equipment from steel and then protecting it with a thin but efficacious layer of tantalum. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is chosen as the most effective process to apply thin corrosion...... protective layers of tantalum because of the process’ ability to coat complex geometries and its relative ease to control. This work focuses on studying the CVD of tantalum in long narrow channels with the view that the knowledge gained during the project can be used to optimise the commercial coating...... process that Tantaline A/S and Alfa Laval (Sweden) use to manufacture tantalum coated plate heat exchangers. Experiments are done by coating the inner side of long, thin stainless steel tubes in the temperature range of 700 – 950 °C and pressure range of 25 – 990 mbar while using different reactant...

  15. Near-limit propagation of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.


    New results on the near-limit behaviors of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels are reported in this paper. Annular channels of widths 3.2 and 5.9 mm were made using circular inserts in a 50.8 mm-diameter external tube. The length of each annular channel was 1.8 m. Detonations were initiated in a steel driver tube where a small volume of a sensitive C2H2+ 2.5O2 mixture was injected to facilitate detonation initiation. A 2 m length of circular tube with a 50.8 mm diameter preceded the annular channel so that a steady Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation was established prior to entering the annular channel. Four detonable mixtures of C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 85 % Ar, C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 70 % Ar, C3H8 {+} 5O2, and CH4 {+} 2O2 were used in the present study. Photodiodes spaced 10 cm throughout the length of both the annular channel and circular tube were used to measure the detonation velocity. In addition, smoked foils were inserted into the annular channel to monitor the cellular structure of the detonation wave. The results show that, well within the detonability limits, the detonation wave propagates along the channel with a small local velocity fluctuation and an average global velocity can be deduced. The average detonation velocity has a small deficit of 5-15 % far from the limits and the velocity rapidly decreases to 0.7V_{CJ}-0.8V_{CJ} when the detonation propagates near the limit. Subsequently, the fluctuation of local velocity also increases as the decreasing initial pressure approaches the limit. In the two annular channels used in this work, no galloping detonations were observed for both the stable and unstable mixtures tested. The present study also confirms that single-headed spinning detonation occurs at the limit, as in a circular tube, rather than the up and down "zig zag" mode in a two-dimensional, rectangular channel.

  16. Numerical simulation of passage of a neutrophil through a rectangular channel with a moderate constriction.

    Atsushi Shirai

    Full Text Available The authors have previously presented a mathematical model to predict transit time of a neutrophil through an alveolar capillary segment which was modeled as an axisymmetric arc-shaped constriction settled in a cylindrical straight pipe to investigate the influence of entrance curvature of a capillary on passage of the cell. The axially asymmetric cross section of a capillary also influences the transit time because it requires three-dimensional deformation of a cell when it passes through the capillary and could lead to plasma leakage between the cell surface and the capillary wall. In this study, a rectangular channel was introduced, the side walls of which were moderately constricted, as a representative of axially asymmetric capillaries. Dependence of transit time of a neutrophil passing through the constriction on the constriction geometry, i.e., channel height, throat width and curvature radius of the constriction, was numerically investigated, the transit time being compared with that through the axisymmetric model. It was found that the transit time is dominated by the throat hydraulic diameter and curvature radius of the constriction and that the throat aspect ratio little affects the transit time with a certain limitation, indicating that if an appropriate curvature radius is chosen, such a rectangular channel model can be substituted for an axisymmetric capillary model having the same throat hydraulic diameter in terms of the transit time by choosing an appropriate curvature radius. Thus, microchannels fabricated by the photolithography technique, whose cross section is generally rectangular, are expected to be applicable to in vitro model experiments of neutrophil retention and passage in the alveolar capillaries.

  17. Heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger containing rectangular channels and using helium gas

    Olson, D. A.


    Development of a National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which will fly at hypersonic speeds, require novel cooling techniques to manage the anticipated high heat fluxes on various components. A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of 12 parallel, rectangular channels in a flat piece of commercially pure nickel. The channel specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes of up to 77 W/sq cm, insulated on the back side, and cooled with helium gas flowing in the channels at 3.5 to 7.0 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 1400 to 28,000. The measured friction factor was lower than that of the accepted correlation for fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to uncertainty in the channel height and a high ratio of dynamic pressure to pressure drop. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in channels. Flow nonuniformity from channel-to-channel was as high as 12 pct above and 19 pct below the mean flow.

  18. Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel

    Kozioł Adam


    Full Text Available Turbulent intensity and scales of turbulence after hydraulic jump in rectangular channel. Experimental research was undertaken to investigate the changes in spatial turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies (macroeddies in a rectangular channel and the influence of the hydraulic jump on vertical, lateral and streamwise distributions of relative turbulence intensity and scales of turbulent eddies. The results of three tests for different discharges are presented. An intensive turbulent mixing that arises as a result of a hydraulic jump has a significant effect on instantaneous velocity, turbulent intensities and sizes of eddies, as well as their vertical and longitudinal distributions. In the analysed case the most noticeable changes appeared up to 0.5 m downstream the hydraulic jump. In the vertical dimension such an effect was especially seen near the surface. The smallest streamwise sizes of macroeddies were present near the surface, maximum at the depth of z/h = 0.6 and from that point sizes were decreasing towards the bottom. The intensive turbulent mixing within the hydraulic jump generates macroeddies of small sizes.

  19. The equilibrium velocity of spherical particles in rectangular microfluidic channels for size measurement.

    Sommer, Christian; Quint, Stephan; Spang, Peter; Walther, Thomas; Bassler, Michael


    According to the Segré-Silberberg effect, spherical particles migrate to a lateral equilibrium position in parabolic flow profiles. Here, for the first time, the corresponding equilibrium velocity is studied experimentally for micro particles in channels with rectangular cross section. Micro channels are fabricated in PMMA substrate based on a hot embossing process. To measure individual particle velocities at very high precision, the technique of spatially modulated emission is applied. It is found that the equilibrium velocity is size-dependent and the method offers a new way to measure particle size in microfluidic systems. The method is of particular interest for microfluidic flow cytometry as it delivers an alternative to the scatter signal for cell size determination.

  20. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.


    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  1. Analytical solutions of heat transfer for laminar flow in rectangular channels

    Rybiński, Witold; Mikielewicz, Jarosław


    The paper presents two analytical solutions namely for Fanning friction factor and for Nusselt number of fully developed laminar fluid flow in straight mini channels with rectangular cross-section. This type of channels is common in mini- and microchannel heat exchangers. Analytical formulae, both for velocity and temperature profiles, were obtained in the explicit form of two terms. The first term is an asymptotic solution of laminar flow between parallel plates. The second one is a rapidly convergent series. This series becomes zero as the cross-section aspect ratio goes to infinity. This clear mathematical form is also inherited by the formulae for friction factor and Nusselt number. As the boundary conditions for velocity and temperature profiles no-slip and peripherally constant temperature with axially constant heat flux were assumed (H1 type). The velocity profile is assumed to be independent of the temperature profile. The assumption of constant temperature at the channel's perimeter is related to the asymptotic case of channel's wall thermal resistance: infinite in the axial direction and zero in the peripheral one. It represents typical conditions in a minichannel heat exchanger made of metal.

  2. Verification of equations for incipient motion studies for a rigid rectangular channel.

    Bong, Charles Hin Joo; Lau, Tze Liang; Ghani, Aminuddin Ab


    The current study aims to verify the existing equations for incipient motion for a rigid rectangular channel. Data from experimental work on incipient motion from a rectangular flume with two different widths, namely 0.3 and 0.6 m, were compared with the critical velocity value predicted by the equations of Novak & Nalluri and El-Zaemey. The equation by El-Zaemey performed better with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.06 compared with the equation by Novak & Nalluri with an average discrepancy ratio value of 0.87. However, as the sediment deposit thickness increased, the equation by El-Zaemey became less accurate. A plot on the Shields Diagram using the experimental data had shown the significant effect of the sediment deposit thickness where, as the deposit becomes thicker, the dimensionless shear stress θ value also increased. A new equation had been proposed by incorporating the sediment deposit thickness. The new equation gave improved prediction with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.02.

  3. Spreading of Advected Tracers in a Creeping Flow in a Rectangular Channel

    Kaufman, Miron


    We have developed an analytical solution [M.Kaufman, 2003 AIChE Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings] of the Navier-Stokes equation for the two-dimensional incompressible flow in a rectangular cavity in the limit of zero Reynolds number. An analytical solution for the fluid velocity along the axis of a parallelepiped, again in the Stokes limit, is also known. In this work we combine the two solutions to get analytically the three-dimensional creeping flow inside a channel in the shape of a parallelepiped. We integrate numerically the velocity vector to get trajectories of tracers advected by the fluid. We analyze the spreading in space of the tracers by calculating the time evolution of the entropy.

  4. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom


    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  5. Augmentation of heat transfer in a bubble agitated vertical rectangular channel

    Mitra, Asish; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Ghosh, Dibyendu Narayan


    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of convective heat transfer between three parallel vertical plates symmetrically spaced with and without bubble agitation to ascertain the degree of augmentation of the heat transfer coefficients due to agitation. The centre plate was electrically heated, while the other side plates were water-cooled forming two successive parallel vertical rectangular channels of dimensions 20 cm × 3.5 cm × 35 cm (length W, gap L, height H) each. At the bottom of the hot and cold plates air spargers were fitted. Water/ethylene glycol (100%) was used to fill the channels. The superficial gas velocity ranged from 0.0016 to 0.01 m/s. Top, bottom and sides of the channels were open to the water/ethylene glycol in the chamber which is the novel aspect of this study. Experimental data have been correlated as under: Natural convective heat transfer: Nu = 0.60 Gr 0.29, r = 0.96, σ = 0.186, 1.17 E6 E-2 < ( ReFrPr 2) < 1.36 E2.

  6. New experimental results on local heat transfer inside a rectangular channel with rib-roughened surfaces

    Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Vitali, L.; Niro, A.


    In this paper we present new experimental results on local heat transfer characteristics of a forced air-flow through a 12-mm-height, rectangular channel of 1:10 aspect ratio, with square-cross-section ribs mounted onto the lower surface. Data are collected on a completely redesigned test section. Specifically, the electric heater is made of very thin copper tracks, in direct contact with the air flow and covering at 97.5% the channel lower surface to guarantee a very uniform heat flux. The copper tracks are laminated onto a 2-mm thick board of FR-4 glass epoxy to provide negligible heat conduction inside the plate and heat losses from its sides. Finally, the channel walls are in XPS and, into the upper one, a double glazing consisting of two 120 mm x 120 mm Germanium windows is mounted to allow optical access to the IR camera and to reduce local heat dispersions. Data here presented refer to convection over 4 mm x 2 mm ribs in transverse configuration for Reynolds numbers, based on the duct hydraulic diameter, ranging between 700 and 8000. Preliminary tests show how the new apparatus has significantly improved the quality, the ease and the quickness of the measurements.

  7. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

    Orten Pål


    Full Text Available We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

  8. Numerical heat transfer in a rectangular channel with mounted obstacles on upper and lower walls

    Korichi, Abdelkader [Centre Universitaire de Medea, Quartier Ain D' heb Medea 26000 (Algeria); Oufer, Lounes [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculte de Genie Mecanique et de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Genie des Procedes, B.P. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)


    A numerical investigation of convective heat transfer between a fluid and three physical obstacles (blocks) mounted on the lower wall (2 blocks) and on the upper wall (1 block) of a rectangular channel was conducted. Laminar flow of the fluid circulating through the channel was assumed. The effect of the Reynolds number, block spacing and dimensions and solid to fluid thermal conductivity ratio were studied. A uniform heat flux through the blocks was assumed. The results showed that transition from steady to unsteady flows occurred at lower values of the Reynolds number when an obstacle is placed on the upper wall of the channel. The isotherms around the blocks were presented and the heat transfer evaluated through the Nusselt number. As expected, the results obtained showed that as the value of the Reynolds number was increased, the heat removed from the obstacles increased sensibly with a maximum heat removal around the obstacle corners. Moreover, the temperature difference between the three obstacles decreased as the Reynolds number was increased. Some disagreement in the results was observed when compared with those reported in the literature. (authors)

  9. Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel

    Budiman, Alexander Christantho


    Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Convection heat transfer from discrete heat sources in a liquid cooled rectangular channel

    Bhowmik, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur 1700 (Bangladesh); Tso, C.P. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Tou, K.W.; Tan, F.L. [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)


    Steady-state experiments are performed to study general convective heat transfer from an in-line four simulated electronic chips in a vertical rectangular channel using water as the working fluid. The experimental data covers a wide range for laminar flow under natural, mixed and forced convection conditions with Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic diameter ranging from 40 to 2220 and Reynolds number based on heat source length ranging from 50 to 2775, respectively. The heat flux ranges from 0.1W/cm{sup 2} to 0.6W/cm{sup 2}. The inlet water temperature is at 24{sup o}C. The effect of heat fluxes, flow rates and geometrical parameters such as chip number are investigated. The experimental results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected by Reynolds number and fully-developed values of heat transfer coefficient are reached before the first chip. Empirical correlations are developed for relations using Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Grashof number, based on channel hydraulic diameter. (author)

  11. Study on the pre——ignition characteristics of wire insulation in the narrow channel setup

    WANG Kai; WANG BaoRui; AI YuHua; KONG WenJun


    A narrow channel setup was established and experiments were conducted to study the pre-ignition characteristics of wire insulation under overload conditions in weak buoyancy environment.The pre-ignition temperature variation trend of both the wire insulation and its nearby temperature monitoring points,the movement characteristics of smoke produced from the wire insulation and the ignition delay time of wire insulation were investigated.The results indicated that the narrow channel setup with a height of 10-15 mm was effective to suppress the effect of buoyancy,and the pre-ignition characteristics of wire insulation in microgravity could be predicted well by the narrow channel method.

  12. Premixed Flame Dynamics in Narrow 2D Channels

    Ayoobi, Mohsen


    Premixed flames propagating within small channels show complex combustion phenomena that differ from flame propagation at conventional scales. Available experimental and numerical studies have documented stationary/non-stationary and/or asymmetric modes that depend on properties of the incoming reactant flow as well as channel geometry and wall temperatures. The present work seeks to illuminate mechanisms leading to symmetry-breaking and limit cycle behavior that are fundamental to these combustion modes. Specifically, four cases of lean premixed methane/air combustion -- two equivalence ratios (0.53 and 0.7) and two channel widths (2 and 5mm) -- are investigated in a 2D configuration with constant channel length and bulk inlet velocity, where numerical simulations are performed using detailed chemistry. External wall heating is simulated by imposing a linear temperature gradient as a boundary condition on both walls. In the 2mm-channel, both equivalence ratios produce flames that stabilize with symmetric fla...

  13. Biased Brownian motion in narrow channels with asymmetry and anisotropy

    To, Kiwing; Peng, Zheng


    We study Brownian motion of a single millimeter size bead confined in a quasi-two-dimensional horizontal channel with built-in anisotropy and asymmetry. Channel asymmetry is implemented by ratchet walls while anisotropy is introduced using a channel base that is grooved along the channel axis so that a bead can acquire a horizontal impulse perpendicular to the longitudinal direction when it collides with the base. When energy is injected to the channel by vertical vibration, the combination of asymmetric walls and anisotropic base induces an effective force which drives the bead into biased diffusive motion along the channel axis with diffusivity and drift velocity increase with vibration strength. The magnitude of this driving force, which can be measured in experiments of tilted channel, is found to be consistent to those obtained from dynamic mobility and position probability distribution measurements. These results are explained by a simple collision model that suggests the random kinetic energies transfer between different translational degrees of freedom may be turned into useful work in the presence of asymmetry and anisotropy.

  14. Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels

    Zemach, T., E-mail: [Department of Computer Science, Tel-Hai College, Tel-Hai (Israel)


    We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ{sub i}, propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ{sub a}. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f{sub 1}(z) ≤ y ≤ f{sub 2}(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z{sup α} and f(z) = (H − z){sup α}, where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.

  15. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei


    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  16. Analytical solutions of heat transfer for laminar flow in rectangular channels

    Rybiński Witold


    Full Text Available The paper presents two analytical solutions namely for Fanning friction factor and for Nusselt number of fully developed laminar fluid flow in straight mini channels with rectangular cross-section. This type of channels is common in mini- and microchannel heat exchangers. Analytical formulae, both for velocity and temperature profiles, were obtained in the explicit form of two terms. The first term is an asymptotic solution of laminar flow between parallel plates. The second one is a rapidly convergent series. This series becomes zero as the cross-section aspect ratio goes to infinity. This clear mathematical form is also inherited by the formulae for friction factor and Nusselt number. As the boundary conditions for velocity and temperature profiles no-slip and peripherally constant temperature with axially constant heat flux were assumed (H1 type. The velocity profile is assumed to be independent of the temperature profile. The assumption of constant temperature at the channel’s perimeter is related to the asymptotic case of channel’s wall thermal resistance: infinite in the axial direction and zero in the peripheral one. It represents typical conditions in a minichannel heat exchanger made of metal.

  17. Experimental study of an upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel

    Kouidri, A.; Madani, B.; Roubi, B.; Hamadouche, A.


    The upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. The aim of the present work is the studying of the local heat transfer phenomena. Concerning the experimentation: the n-pentane is used as a working fluid, the independent variables are: the velocity in the range from 0.04 to 0.086 m/s and heat flux density with values between 1.8 and 7.36 W/cm2. The results show that the local Nusselt number distribution is not uniform along the channel; however, uniformity is observed in the mean Nusselt number for Reynolds under 1600. On the other hand, a new correlation to predict the local fluid temperature is established as a function of local wall temperature. The wall's heat is dissipated under the common effect of the sub-cooled regime; therefore, the local heat transfer coefficient is increased. The study of the thermal equilibrium showed that for Reynolds less than 1500; almost all of the heat flux generated by the heater cartridges is absorbed by the fluid.

  18. Numerical Investigation on Bubble Growth and Sliding Process of Subcooled Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel

    De-wen Yuan


    Full Text Available In order to investigate single bubble evolution, a boiling phase change model in subcooled flow boiling is proposed in this paper, and VOF model combined with phase change model is adopted to simulate the single bubble growth and movement. The effects of flow velocity, liquid subcooling, wall superheat, and vapor-liquid contact angle are considered in this model. The predicted bubble growth curve agrees well with the experimental result. Based on the analysis of bubble shape evolution and temperature field, it is found that the average bubble growth rate, flow velocity, and dynamic contact angle have significant effect on the bubble shape evolution during the bubble growth and movement while the temperature gradient in superheated liquid does not change with bubble growing. The character of dynamic contact angle during bubble growth and movement is also obtained in different working condition.

  19. The study and development of the empirical correlations equation of natural convection heat transfer on vertical rectangular sub-channels

    Kamajaya, Ketut; Umar, Efrizon; Sudjatmi, K. S.


    This study focused on natural convection heat transfer using a vertical rectangular sub-channel and water as the coolant fluid. To conduct this study has been made pipe heaters are equipped with thermocouples. Each heater is equipped with five thermocouples along the heating pipes. The diameter of each heater is 2.54 cm and 45 cm in length. The distance between the central heating and the pitch is 29.5 cm. Test equipment is equipped with a primary cooling system, a secondary cooling system and a heat exchanger. The purpose of this study is to obtain new empirical correlations equations of the vertical rectangular sub-channel, especially for the natural convection heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders rectangular arrangement sub-channels. The empirical correlation equation can support the thermo-hydraulic analysis of research nuclear reactors that utilize cylindrical fuel rods, and also can be used in designing of baffle-free vertical shell and tube heat exchangers. The results of this study that the empirical correlation equations of natural convection heat transfer coefficients with rectangular arrangement is Nu = 6.3357 (Ra.Dh/x)0.0740.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Single Phase Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer In Rectangular Micro Channel Using Nanofluids as A Cooling Liquid

    Mr. Sanjay V. Barad,


    Full Text Available In this paper The Thermal behaviour of Micro channel heat sink were investigated used Al2o3-water base nanoluid. The model have been solved by ANSYS fluent 14.5 solver. The Dimension of each rectangular channel is 215m width, 821m depth and 4.48cm length. The Reynolds number range from 200 to 400 for power input 100 w. The high thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is shown to enhance the single phase heat transfer coefficient, especially for laminar flow. Higher heat transfer coefficient were achieved mostly in entrances region of micro channels. The enhancement was weaker in fully developed region.

  1. Analytical estimates of free brownian diffusion times in corrugated narrow channels.

    Bosi, Leone; Ghosh, Pulak K; Marchesoni, Fabio


    The diffusion of a suspended brownian particle along a sinusoidally corrugated narrow channel is investigated to assess the validity of two competing analytical schemes, both based on effective one-dimensional kinetic equations, one continuous (entropic channel scheme) and the other discrete (random walker scheme). For narrow pores, the characteristic diffusion time scale is represented by the mean first exit time out of a channel compartment. Such a diffusion time has been analytically calculated in both approximate schemes; the two analytical results coincide in leading order and are in excellent agreement with the simulation data.

  2. Two-phase flow characteristics across sudden expansion in small rectangular channels

    Chen, Ing Youn [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Liu, Chung-Che; Chien, Kuo-Hsiang; Wang, Chi-Chuan [D100, Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 64, 195-6 Section 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu 310 (China)


    This study examines the two-phase flow pattern change and frictional pressure loss pertaining to the sudden flow area expansion from a small diameter tube into small rectangular channels. It is found that a unique flow pattern ''liquid jet-like flow pattern'' occurs at a very low quality region of G=100kg/ m{sup 2} s in a test section of 3mm x 9mm. This flow pattern is almost inconceivable for the 3mm x 6mm test section. The pressure difference usually increases with vapor quality but a setback is encountered provided that the liquid jet flow pattern prevails. A phenomenal observation suggests that a conceivable reduction of the pressure difference is related to the liquid jet-like flow pattern, yet a flat or level-off of the pressure difference is seen when the liquid jet-like flow is less pronounced. By contrast, an appreciable increase of pressure difference is seen when the liquid jet-like flow pattern is completely gone. The measured pressure differences are compared with existing correlations/models, whereas none of them gives satisfactory predictions against the present data. It is found that a slight modification to the empirical constant K of Wadle's correlation may give rise to a fair improvement of the predictive ability. (author)

  3. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    Joekar-Niasar, V.


    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. Shape optimization of rotating rectangular channels with pin-fins by kriging method

    Moon, Mi Ae; Husain, Afzal; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents numerical optimization of the design of a rotating rectangular channel with staggered arrays of pin-fins with Kriging metamodeling technique. Two non-dimensional variables, the ratio of the height to diameter of the pin-fin and the ratio of the spacing between the pin-fins to diameter of the pin-fins are chosen as design variables. The objective function as a linear combination of heat transfer and friction loss related terms with a weighting factor is selected for the optimization. Objective function values at twenty training points generated by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) are evaluated by three-dimensional ReynoldsAveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. The prediction of objective function by Kriging metamodeling at optimum point shows reasonable accuracy in comparison with the values calculated by RANS analysis. With increase in height of the pin-fin, heat transfer is decreased and at the same time pressure drop is also decreased, while opposite behavior is obtained for the pin-fin spacing.

  5. Clearance of viscoelastic mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel, an experimental study.

    Hassan, Amgad A; Evrensel, Cahit A; Krumpe, Peter E


    Interaction of mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. Two different viscoelastic gel mucus simulants are prepared by cross linking Borax with Locust Bean Gum (LBG) solution; liquid-like (LM) with lower storage modulus and semi-solid (SM). The rheological difference between LM and SM represent the qualitative change from liquid-like healthy mucus to the one with higher storage modulus found in a person with lung disease. The study concentrates on the effect of viscoelastic layer thickness and rheology on the wave formation and clearance due to its interaction with airflow. The results indicate that the onset air velocity for wave initiation reduces by increasing layer thickness. This effect is more pronounced for SM. Slowly propagating waves initiate at a lower air velocity for LM compared to SM for thinner layer thickness and this behavior reverses for a thicker layer. Although SM clears at a critical air velocity, LM does not show clearance behavior, defined as separation of layer section from rest and movement in the downstream flow direction. This seems to suggest that thicker mucus with higher elastic modulus, similar to the mucus for a person with lung disease, may clear easier with a two-phase air-liquid flow, as in cough.

  6. Experimental study on heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    Islam, M.S.; Monde, Masanori [Saga Univ. (Japan); Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio


    Frictional pressure drop and heat transfer performance in a very narrow rectangular channel having one-sided constant heat flux and repeated-ribs for turbulent flow have been investigated experimentally, and their experimental correlations were obtained using the least square method. The rib pitch-to-height ratios(p/k) were 10 and 20 while holding the rib height constant at 0.2mm, the Reynolds number(Re) from 2,414 to 98,458 under different channel heights of 1.2mm, 2.97mm, and 3.24mm, the rib height-to-channel equivalent diameter(k/De) of 0.03, 0.04, and 0.09 respectively. The results show that the rib-roughened surface augments heat transfer 2-3 times higher than that of the smooth surface with the expense of 2.8-4 times higher frictional pressure drop under Re=5000-10{sup 5}, p/k=10, and H=1.2mm. Experimental results obtained by channel height, H=1.2mm shows a little bit higher heat transfer and friction factor performance than the higher channel height, H=3.24mm. The effect of fin and consequently higher turbulence intensity are responsible for producing higher heat transfer rates. The obtained correlations could be used to design the cooling passages between the target plates to remove high heat flux up to 12MW/m{sup 2} generated at target plates in a high-intensity proton accelerator system. (author). 54 refs.



    The velocities of boundary layer flows between two parallel oscillating plates separated by small distance, i.e., in so called narrow channel, were theoretically and experimentally studied. The focus was on the laminar case where the Reynolds number is much smaller than the transition value. The theoretical analysis of the Stokes layer in oscillating flow over a narrow channel was made first. Then Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) was employed to measure the Stokes boundary layer above an oscillating flat plate and inside the oscillating narrow channel at various numbers. At the same time, the phase angle difference along the vertical direction in both analysis and experiment were provided. The good agreements are shown between the measured results and the theoretical solution.

  8. Low Reynolds number flow in rectangular cooling channels provided with low aspect ratio pin fins

    Armellini, Alessandro; Casarsa, Luca [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine (Italy); Giannattasio, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.giannattasio@uniud.i [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine (Italy)


    The flow structures around single heat transfer promoters of different shapes (square, circular, triangular and rhomboidal) have been investigated experimentally by means of a 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The geometrical configuration and flow conditions considered are typical of real liquid cooling channels. They include low aspect ratio pin fins confined at both ends by the walls of a rectangular channel, water flow at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 800, 1800, 2800), high core flow turbulence and undeveloped boundary layers at the position of the obstacle. In front of the pin fins the high turbulence level is found to promote a strong instability of the horseshoe vortex system that forms at the wall/obstacle junction. In particular, frequent events of break-away of the primary vortices and inrush of core fluid, which are known to enhance the wall heat transfer, are observed in the cases of square and circular pins already from Re = 1800. The near wake downstream of the obstacles appears to be influenced by streamwise oriented vortical structures produced at the wall/obstacle junction. They give rise to spanwise velocity components (up-wash flow) that lead to a three-dimensional mass recirculation behind the pins. The combination of up-wash flows, low Reynolds number and high core flow turbulence gives rise to a competition between the classical alternate vortex shedding and an irregular shedding mode characterized by the decoupling of the shear layers and the absence of well organized primary structures. At Re = 800, the irregular shedding prevails and the mean wake topology is almost insensitive to the obstacle shape. As the Reynolds number is increased, the junction flow structures reduce in size and strength, their effect on the wake flow weakens and the recirculation structures behind the obstacles differentiate significantly according to the pin shape. Besides investigating complex flow structures in geometrical and flow configurations of

  9. Single phase flow characteristics of FC-72 and ethanol in high aspect ratio rectangular mini- and micro-channels

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhen-guo


    Single phase flow friction factor of FC-72 and ethanol in mini-and micro-channels are experimentally investigated in the present study. High aspect ratio3 rectangular channels are selected, the hydraulic diameters of which are 571 µm, 762 µm and 1454 µm, and the aspect ratios are 20, 20 and 10 respectively. Degassed ethanol and FC-72 are used as working fluids. All the friction factors acquired in the 571 µm and 762 µm channels agree with the conventional friction theory within  ±20%-±25%. In the 1454 µm channel, however, deviations from the conventional theory occur and a modified empirical correlation of friction factor as a function of Reynolds number is proposed. Early transition from laminar to transitional flow is captured. Besides, effects of liquid physical properties are discussed. Lower viscosity and higher liquid density are responsible for the higher friction factor of FC-72. The influence of liquid properties weakens as the Reynolds number increases.

  10. Radiation-Induced Short Channel (RISCE) and Narrow Channel (RINCE) Effects in 65 and 130 nm MOSFETs

    Faccio, F; Cornale, D; Paccagnella, A; Gerardin, S


    The behavior of transistors in commercial-grade complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies in the 65 and 130 nm nodes has been explored up to a total ionizing dose of 1 Grad. The large dose tolerance of the thin gate oxide is confirmed, but defects in the spacer and STI oxides have a strong effect on the performance of the transistors. A radiation-induced short channel effect is traced to charge trapping in the spacers used for drain engineering, while a radiation-induced narrow channel effect is due to defect generation in the lateral isolation oxide (STI). These strongly degrade the electrical characteristics of short and narrow channel transistors at high doses, and their magnitude depends on the applied bias and temperature during irradiation in a complex way.

  11. Kinetic Study of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tantalum in Long Narrow Channels

    Mugabi, James Atwoki; Eriksen, Søren; Petrushina, Irina


    A kinetic study of the chemical vapor deposition of tantalum in long narrow channels is done to optimize the industrial process for the manufacture of tantalum coated plate heat exchangers. The developed model fits well at temperatures between 750 and 850 °C, and in the pressure range of25–990 mb...

  12. Transport of Brownian particles in a narrow, slowly varying serpentine channel

    Wang, Xinli; Drazer, German


    We study the transport of Brownian particles under a constant driving force and moving in channels that present a varying centerline but have constant aperture width (serpentine channels). We investigate two types of channels, solid channels, in which the particles are geometrically confined between solid walls and soft channels, in which the particles are confined by the potential energy landscape. We consider the limit of narrow, slowly varying channels, i.e., when the aperture and the variation in the position of the centerline are small compared to the length of a unit cell in the channel (wavelength). We use the method of asymptotic expansions to determine both the average velocity (or mobility) and the effective dispersion coefficient of the particles. We show that both solid and soft-channels have the same effects on the transport properties up to leading order correction. Including the next order correction, we obtain that the mobility in a solid-channel is smaller than that in a soft-channel. However, we discuss an alternative definition of the effective width of a soft channel that leads to equal mobilities up to second order terms. Interestingly, in both cases, the corrections to the mobility of the particles are independent of the Péclet number, and the Einstein-Smoluchowski relation is satisfied.

  13. Experimental Characterization of Inter-channel Mixing Through a Narrow Gap

    Buchanan, Jack; Makiharju, Simo; Mychkovsky, Alexander; Hogan, Kevin; Lowe, Kirk; Ceccio, Steven


    Mixing trough narrow gaps that connect primary flow paths is an important flow process for many thermal-hydraulic applications, such as flow through nuclear reactor rod bundles or heat exchangers. The flow in a narrow gap can exhibit periodic flow structures due to travelling vortices. These flow structures in the gap, as well as any pressure gradient across the gap, have a significant effect on the rate of mixing between the primary flow paths. To investigate such flows in detail, and to develop validation quality data sets for comparison with CFD, we have conducted a canonical inter-channel mixing experiment between two channels, with a (127 mm)2 cross-section. The channels were connected by a gap 914.4 mm long in the stream-wise direction and 50.8 mm wide in the cross-stream direction. The gap height could be varied from 0 to 50.8 mm. The flow speed in both channels could be independently varied to have Re = (40 to 100) × 103. The integral mixing rates were determined by injecting fluorescent dye into one of the channels well upstream of the test section and by measuring the dye concentration at the channel inlets and outlets. Additionally, the flow fields in the gap and channels were measured with LDV and PIV. Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122.

  14. Numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer under high heat flux using rectangular micro-channels

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.


    A 3D-conjugate numerical investigation was conducted to predict heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular cross-sectional micro-channel employing simultaneously developing single-phase flows. The numerical code was validated by comparison with previous experimental and numerical results for the same micro-channel dimensions and classical correlations based on conventional sized channels. High heat fluxes up to 130W/cm 2 were applied to investigate micro-channel thermal characteristics. The entire computational domain was discretized using a 120×160×100 grid for the micro-channel with an aspect ratio of (α=4.56) and examined for Reynolds numbers in the laminar range (Re 500-2000) using FLUENT. De-ionized water served as the cooling fluid while the micro-channel substrate used was made of copper. Validation results were found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and numerical data [1] with an average deviation of less than 4.2%. As the applied heat flux increased, an increase in heat transfer coefficient values was observed. Also, the Reynolds number required for transition from single-phase fluid to two-phase was found to increase. A correlation is proposed for the results of average Nusselt numbers for the heat transfer characteristics in micro-channels with simultaneously developing, single-phase flows. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Removal of Liquid Leaked into Narrow Channel Using High-Intensity Aerial Ultrasonic Waves

    Ito, Youichi; Kotani, Masayuki


    We tried to remove a liquid leaked into a narrow channel immediately by radiating high-intensity aerial ultrasonic waves (at a frequency of 20 kHz) onto the liquid to atomize and disperse it into the atmosphere. Channels of 0.3 to 2 mm width and 1 to 10 mm depth with and without a bottom were used. The results of experiments showed that an ultrasonic radiation of 170 dB or more could remove a liquid in each of the channels immediately, by atomizing and dispersing it. The processes of atomization and dispersion of the liquid in each channel without a bottom largely varied, depending on the channel width and depth as well as the ultrasonic radiation intensity.

  16. Numerical investigation of the mechanism of two-phase flow instability in parallel narrow channels

    Hu, Lian [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China); Chen, Deqi, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China); CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Yanping, E-mail: [CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yuan, Dewen; Wang, Yanling [CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Pan, Liangming [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China)


    Highlights: • A mathematical model is proposed to predict the two-phase flow instability. • The mathematical model predicted result agrees well with the experimental result. • Oscillation characteristics of the two-phase flow instability is discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this paper, the mechanism of two-phase flow instability in parallel narrow channels is studied theoretically, and the characteristic of the flow instability is discussed in detail. Due to the significant confining effect of the narrow channel on the vapor–liquid interface, the two-phase flow resistance in the narrow channel is probably different from that in conventional channel. Therefore, the vapor confined number (N{sub conf}), defined by the size of narrow channel and bubble detachment diameter, is considered in the “Chisholm B model” to investigate the two-phase flow pressure drop. The flow instability boundaries are plotted in parameter plane with phase-change-number (N{sub pch}) and subcooling-number (N{sub sub}) under different working conditions. It is found that the predicted result agrees well with the experimental result. According to the predicted result, the oscillation behaviors near the flow instability boundary indicate that the Supercritical Hopf bifurcation appears in high sub-cooled region and the Subcritical Hopf bifurcation appears in low sub-cooled region. Also, a detailed analysis about the effects of key parameters on the characteristic of two-phase flow instability and the flow instability boundary is proposed, including the effects of inlet subcooling, heating power, void distribution parameter and drift velocity.

  17. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Chun-Ki Lee


    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Rectangular Channel with Discontinuous Crossed Ribs and Grooves

    唐新宜; 朱冬生


    Experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted to study turbulent flow of water and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with discontinuous crossed ribs and grooves.The tests investigated the overall heat transfer performance and friction factor in ribbed and ribbed-grooved channels with rib angle of 30°.The experimental results show that the overall thermo-hydraulic performance for ribbed-grooved channel is increased by 10%-13.6% when compared to ribbed channel.The investigation on the effects of different rib angles and rib pitches on heat transfer characteristics and friction factor in ribbed-grooved channel was carried out using Fluent with SST(shear-stress transport) k-ω turbulence model.The numerical results indicate that the case for rib angle of 45° shows the best overall thermo-hydraulic performance,about 18%-36% higher than the case for rib angle of 0°.In addition,the flow patterns and local heat transfer characteristics for ribbed and ribbed-grooved channels based on the numerical simulation were also analyzed to reveal the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement.

  19. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    Bouremel, Yann


    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation on the diffusion of polymer in narrow periodical channels

    Chen, Ying-Cai; Zhou, Yan-Li; Wang, Chao


    Diffusion of polymer in narrow periodical channels, patterned alternately into part α and part β with the same length lp/2, was studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. The interaction between polymer and channel α is purely repulsive, while that between polymer and channel β is attractive. Results show that the diffusion of polymer is remarkably affected by the periodicity of channel, and the diffusion constant D changes periodically with the polymer length N. At the peaks of D, the projected length of polymer along the channel is an even multiple of lp/2, and the diffusion of polymer in periodical channel is nearly the same as that of polymer in homogeneous channel. While at the valleys of D, the projected length of polymer is an odd multiple of lp/2, and polymer is in a trapped state for a long time and it rapidly jumps to other trapped regions during the diffusion process. The physical mechanisms are discussed from the view of polymer-channel interaction energy landscape.

  1. Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel

    Uruba V.


    Full Text Available The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a parallel-plate channel with transverse rectangular cavities

    Mohebbi, Rasul; Heidari, Hanif

    The aim of this paper is investigating the forced convection heat transfer in a channel with transverse rectangular cavities using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is not available in the literature yet. The effects of the Reynolds number (100-400), cavity aspect ratio (AR=0.25, 0.5, 1.0), distance of cavities from each other (S‧=0,2,4,6) in fixed depth of cavity (A‧=0.5) on the velocity and temperature profiles are studied. Moreover, the flow patterns such as deflection and re-circulation zone inside the cavities are obtained. The local and averaged Nusselt numbers on the channel walls are achieved. The results show that the channel with cavities achieves heat transfer enhancements relative to the smooth channel. For the constant cavity aspect ratio, the maximum value of averaged Nusselt number in the channel is obtained in the case of S‧=2. Heat transfer to the working fluids increases significantly by increasing the aspect ratio. The existed results are used to ascertain the validity of the numerical code and excellent agreement between results was found.

  3. The impact of plasma induced flow on the boundary layer in a narrow channel

    Procházka P.


    Full Text Available The induced flow generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD actuator working in steady and unsteady regime will be used to modify properties of naturally developed boundary layer (BL in short and long rectangular perspex channel which is connected to the blow-down wind tunnel. The actuator is placed in spanwise configuration and the inlet velocities will range between 5 and 20 m•s-1. Previously, mean flow field and statistical quantities were subjugated to investigation. In this paper, there will be presented dynamical features of the BL. Oscillation pattern decomposition (OPD of influenced flow field and frequency analysis will be presented. These results should be taken into account regarding to use in the flow around a bluff body.

  4. Development of a high-performance boiling heat exchanger by improved liquid supply to narrow channels.

    Ohta, Haruhiko; Ohno, Toshiyuki; Hioki, Fumiaki; Shinmoto, Yasuhisa


    A two-phase flow loop is a promising method for application to thermal management systems for large-scale space platforms handling large amounts of energy. Boiling heat transfer reduces the size and weight of cold plates. The transportation of latent heat reduces the mass flow rate of working fluid and pump power. To develop compact heat exchangers for the removal of waste heat from electronic devices with high heat generation density, experiments on a method to increase the critical heat flux for a narrow heated channel between parallel heated and unheated plates were conducted. Fine grooves are machined on the heating surface in a transverse direction to the flow and liquid is supplied underneath flattened bubbles by the capillary pressure difference from auxiliary liquid channels separated by porous metal plates from the main heated channel. The critical heat flux values for the present heated channel structure are more than twice those for a flat surface at gap sizes 2 mm and 0.7 mm. The validity of the present structure with auxiliary liquid channels is confirmed by experiments in which the liquid supply to the grooves is interrupted. The increment in the critical heat flux compared to those for a flat surface takes a maximum value at a certain flow rate of liquid supply to the heated channel. The increment is expected to become larger when the length of the heated channel is increased and/or the gravity level is reduced.

  5. The Effect of Confluence Angle on the Flow Pattern at a Rectangular Open-Channel

    F. Rooniyan


    Full Text Available Flow connection in channels is a phenomenon which frequently happens in rivers, water and drainage channels and urban sewage systems. The phenomenon appears to be more complex in rivers than in channels, especially at the y-junction bed joint that causes erosion and sedimentation at some areas resulting to morphological changes. Flow behavior at the channel junction area depends on variables such as channel geometry, discharge ratio, tributary width and y-junction connection angle of the channel, bed level changes at the bed joint, flow characteristic at the bed joint upstream and flow Froude number in different sections. In this research, fluent numerical model and junction angles of 30o, 45o & 60o are used to analyze and evaluate the effect of channel junction geometry on the flow pattern and the flow separation zone dimensions in different ratios of flow discharge (upstream channel discharge to total discharge of the flow. Results for two ratios of flow discharge are represented. Results are in agreement with earlier studies and it is shown that the change of the channel crossing angle affects the flow pattern in the main channel and also that the dimensions of the created separation zone in the main channel become larger when the crossing angle increases. This phenomenon can also be observed when the flow discharge ratio is lower. Analysis showed that the least dimension of the separation zone will be at the crossing angle of 45o .

  6. High Spectrum Narrowing Tolerant 112 Gb/s Dual Polarization QPSK Optical Communication Systems Using Digital Adaptive Channel Estimation

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich


    We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth.......We experimentally demonstrate high spectrum narrowing tolerant 112-Gb/s QPSK polarization multiplex system based on digital adaptive channel estimation method. The proposed algorithm is able to detect severe spectrum-narrowed signal even with 20GHz 3dB bandwidth....

  7. Numerical investigation on the flow structures in a narrow confined channel with staggered jet array arrangement

    Liu Haiyong


    Full Text Available A series of numerical analyses have been performed to investigate the flow structures in a narrow confined channel with 12 staggered circular impingement holes and one bigger exit hole. The flow enters the channel through the impingement holes and exits through the far end outlet. The flow fields corresponding to two jet Reynolds numbers (25000 and 65000 and three channel configurations with different ratios of the channel height to the impingement hole diameter (Zr = 1, 3, 5 are analyzed by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the realizable k–ε turbulence model. Detailed flow field information including the secondary flow, the interaction between the jets and the cross flow, and flow distribution along the channel has been obtained. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental results of the flow fields at the four planes along the channel are performed to validate the numerical method. The calculated impingement pattern, high velocity flow distribution, low velocity separation region and vortices are in good agreement with the experimental data, implying the validity and effectiveness of the employed numerical approach for analyzing relevant flow field.

  8. Rotation Effect on Jet Impingement Heat Transfer in Smooth Rectangular Channels with Film Coolant Extraction

    James A. Parsons


    Full Text Available The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in twin channels was studied. Impinging jet flows were in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the direction of rotation in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on the smooth, heated target wall in each channel. The spent air exited the channels through extraction holes in each target wall, which eliminates cross flow on other jets. Jet rotation numbers and jet Reynolds numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and 5000 to 10,000, respectively. For the target walls with jet flow in the direction of rotation (or opposite to the direction of rotation, as rotation number increases heat transfer decreases up to 25% (or 15% as compared to corresponding results for non-rotating conditions. This is due to the changes in flow distribution and rotation induced Coriolis and centrifugal forces.

  9. High-frame rate, fast neutron imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel

    Zboray, R; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R


    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 millisecond exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed.

  10. A Class of Optimal Rectangular Filtering Matrices for Single-Channel Signal Enhancement in the Time Domain

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In this paper, we introduce a new class of op- timal rectangular filtering matrices for single-channel speech enhancement. The new class of filters exploits the fact that the dimension of the signal subspace is lower than that of the full space. By doing this, extra degrees of freedom...... in the filters, that are otherwise reserved for preserving the signal subspace, can be used for achieving an improved output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the filters allow for explicit control of the tradeoff between noise reduction and speech distortion via the chosen rank of the signal subspace...... and real signals. The results show a number of interesting things. Firstly, they show how speech distortion can be traded for noise reduction and vice versa in a seamless manner. Moreover, the introduced filter designs are capable of achieving both the upper and lower bounds for the output SNR via...

  11. Experimental research on dryout point of flow boiling in narrow annular channels


    An experimental research on the dryout point of flow boiling in narrow annular channels under low mass flux with 1.55 mm and 1.05 mm annular gap, respectively, is conducted. Distilled water is used as working fluid and the range of pressure is limited within 2.0~4.0 MPa and that of mass flux is 26.0~69.0 kg·m-2·s-1. The relation of critical heat flux (CHF) and critical qualities with mass flux and pressure are revealed. It is found that the critical qualities decrease with the increasing mass flux and increase with the increasing inlet qualities in externally heated annuli.Under the same conditions, critical qualities in the outer tube are always larger than those in the inner tube. The appearance of dryout point in bilaterally heated narrow annuli can be judged according to the ratio of qo/qi.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels

    Adel Asnaashari


    Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis of flagellated bacteria swimming in corners of rectangular channels

    Shum, Henry; Gaffney, Eamonn A.


    The influence of nearby solid surfaces on the motility of bacteria is of fundamental importance as these interactions govern the ability of the microorganisms to explore their environment and form sessile colonies. Reducing biofouling in medical implants and controlling the transport of bacterial cells in a microfluidic device are two applications that could benefit from a detailed understanding of swimming in microchannels. In this study, we investigate the self-propelled motion of a model bacterium, driven by rotating a single helical flagellum, in such an environment. In particular, we focus on the corner region of a large channel modeled as two perpendicular sections of no-slip planes joined with a rounded corner. We numerically solve the equations of Stokes flow using the boundary element method to obtain the swimming velocities at different positions and orientations relative to the channel corner. From these velocities, we construct many trajectories to ascertain the general behavior of the swimmers. Considering only hydrodynamic interactions between the bacterium and the channel walls, we show that some swimmers can become trapped near the corner while moving, on average, along the axis of the channel. This result suggests that such bacteria may be found at much higher densities in corners than in other parts of the channel. Another implication is that these corner accumulating bacteria may travel quickly through channels since they are guided directly along the corner and do not turn back or swim transversely across the channel.

  14. Effect of viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation in narrow channels

    Deshpande, A.; Puranik, B.


    In the present work, the effects due to viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock propagation and attenuation in narrow channels are numerically investigated. A two-dimensional viscous shock tube configuration is simulated, and heat conduction in the channel walls is explicitly included. The simulation results indicate that the shock attenuation is significantly less in the case of an adiabatic wall, and the use of an isothermal wall model is adequate to take into account the wall heat conduction. A parametric study is performed to characterize the effects of viscous forces and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation, and the behaviour is explained on the basis of boundary layer formation in the post-shock region. A dimensionless parameter that describes the shock attenuation is correlated with the diaphragm pressure ratio and a dimensionless parameter which is expressed using the characteristic Reynolds number and the dimensionless shock travel.

  15. Validation of system codes RELAP5 and SPECTRA for natural convection boiling in narrow channels

    Stempniewicz, M.M., E-mail:; Slootman, M.L.F.; Wiersema, H.T.


    Highlights: • Computer codes RELAP5/Mod3.3 and SPECTRA 3.61 validated for boiling in narrow channels. • Validated codes can be used for LOCA analyses in research reactors. • Code validation based on natural convection boiling in narrow channels experiments. - Abstract: Safety analyses of LOCA scenarios in nuclear power plants are performed with so called thermal–hydraulic system codes, such as RELAP5. Such codes are validated for typical fuel geometries applied in nuclear power plants. The question considered by this article is if the codes can be applied for LOCA analyses in research reactors, in particular exceeding CHF in very narrow channels. In order to answer this question, validation calculations were performed with two thermal–hydraulic system codes: RELAP and SPECTRA. The validation was based on natural convection boiling in narrow channels experiments, performed by Prof. Monde et al. in the years 1990–2000. In total 42 vertical tube and annulus experiments were simulated with both codes. A good agreement of the calculated values with the measured data was observed. The main conclusions are: • The computer codes RELAP5/Mod 3.3 (US NRC version) and SPECTRA 3.61 have been validated for natural convection boiling in narrow channels using experiments of Monde. The dimensions applied in the experiments were performed for a range that covers the values observed in typical research reactors. Therefore it is concluded that both codes are validated and can be used for LOCA analyses in research reactors, including natural convection boiling. The applicability range of the present validation is: hydraulic diameters of 1.1 ⩽ D{sub hyd} ⩽ 9.0 mm, heated lengths of 0.1 ⩽ L ⩽ 1.0 m, pressures of 0.10 ⩽ P ⩽ 0.99 MPa. In most calculations the burnout was predicted to occur at lower power than that observed in the experiments. In several cases the burnout was observed at higher power. The overprediction was not larger than 16% in RELAP and 15% in

  16. Projection of two-dimensional diffusion in narrow asymmetric channels onto the longitudinal direction

    Pineda, Inti; Dagdug, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 México Distrito Federal (Mexico)


    Diffusive transport of particles is a ubiquitous feature of physical, chemical and biological systems. Typical structures like pores, tubes or fibers, are quasi one-dimensional, such that we need to solve 2+1 or 3+1 dimensional differential equations to describe correctly transport along them. The so-called Fick-Jacobs approach dramatically simplifies the problem if one assumes that a solute distribution in any cross-section of the channel is uniform at equilibrium. That study focuses on the mapping of the diffusion equation in a two-dimensional narrow asymmetric channel of varying cross section onto the longitudinal coordinate. We present a generalization to the case of an asymmetric channel using the projection method introduced earlier by Kalinay and Percus. We derive an expansion of the effective diffusion coefficient, which represents corrections to the Fick-Jacobs equation and contains the well-known previous results as special cases. Finally, we study numerically some specific two-dimensional asymmetric channel configurations to test and show the broader applicability of this effective diffusion coefficient formula.

  17. Correlation Equations of Heat Transfer in Nanofluid Al2O3-Water as Cooling Fluid in a Rectangular Sub Channel Based CFD Code

    Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan


    Full Text Available Safety is a major concern in the design, operation and development of a nuclear reactor. One aspect of nuclear reactor safety factor is thermal-hydraulics aspect. In a PWR-type nuclear power plant has been used lighter fluid coolant is water or H2O. In this research, using nanofluid Al2O3-Water with volume fraction of (1%, (2% and also (3%, used as a cooling fluid in a nuclear reactor core with sub channel PWR fuel element rectangular arrangement. This research was carried out modeling of fuel elements are arranged rectangular, then performed numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code. In order to obtain the characteristic pattern of flow velocity of each fluid, the fluid temperature distribution along the cylinder wall temperature distribution of the fuel element. Then analyzed the heat transfer in a nuclear reactor core with sub channel PWR fuel element rectangular arrangement, including heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number (Nu, as well as heat transfer correlations. Heat transfer correlation for nanofluid Al2O3-Water (1%, (2% and also (3% proved to core of PWR nuclear reactor fuel element sub channel rectangular arrangement with the Reynolds number (Re is stretched, namely: 404 096

  18. Dynamics of the free surface of stratified two-phase flows in channels with rectangular cross-sections

    Vallee, Christophe


    Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at different test facilities with horizontal test sections in order to provide an experimental database for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These channels were designed with rectangular cross-sections to enable optimal observation conditions for the application of optical measurement techniques. Consequently, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera, delivering data with highresolution in space and time as needed for CFD code validation. Generic investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two air/water channels made of acrylic glass. Divers preliminary experiments were conducted with various measuring systems in a test section mounted between two separators. The second test facility, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), is dedicated to co-current flow investigations. The hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was studied in this closed channel. Moreover, the instable wave growth leading to slug flow was investigated from the test section inlet. For quantitative analysis of the optical measurements, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames, allowing statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. The third test apparatus was installed in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility in order to be operated at reactor typical conditions under pressure equilibrium with the vessel atmosphere. The test section representing a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor (PWR) scaled at 1:3 is equipped with large glass side walls in the region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber to allow visual observations. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and water at

  19. Influence of tool deflection on micro channel pattern of 6:4 brass with rectangular tool

    Tae-Jin JE; Kang-Won LEE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Jae-Gu KIM; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyoung-Taik PARK; Kyung-Hyun WHANG


    Machining experiment of micro channel structure with 6:4 brass was carried out by shaping process using a single crystal diamond tool. FEM simulation using solid cantilever beam model was analyzed. In result of experiment, tool deflection is observed as machining characteristics through result of experiments such as surface roughness, cutting force and burr formations. And the influence of tool deflection is experimentally proved.

  20. On the channel width-dependence of the thermal conductivity in ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons

    Karamitaheri, Hossein; Neophytou, Neophytos


    The thermal conductivity of low-dimensional materials and graphene nanoribbons, in particular, is limited by the strength of line-edge-roughness scattering. One way to characterize the roughness strength is the dependency of the thermal conductivity on the channel's width in the form Wβ. Although in the case of electronic transport, this dependency is very well studied, resulting in W6 for nanowires and quantum wells and W4 for nanoribbons, in the case of phonon transport it is not yet clear what this dependence is. In this work, using lattice dynamics and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations, we examine the width dependence of the thermal conductivity of ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons under the influence of line edge-roughness. We show that the exponent β is in fact not a single well-defined number, but it is different for different parts of the phonon spectrum depending on whether phonon transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized. The exponent β takes values β diffusive or localized phonons, and β = 1 only in the case where the transport is diffusive. The overall Wβ dependence of the thermal conductivity is determined by the width-dependence of the dominant phonon modes (usually the acoustic ones). We show that due to the long phonon mean-free-paths, the width-dependence of thermal conductivity becomes a channel length dependent property, because the channel length determines whether transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized.

  1. Glasslike behavior of a hard-disk fluid confined to a narrow channel

    Robinson, J. F.; Godfrey, M. J.; Moore, M. A.


    Disks moving in a narrow channel have many features in common with the glassy behavior of hard spheres in three dimensions. In this paper we study the caging behavior of the disks that sets in at characteristic packing fraction ϕd. Four-point overlap functions similar to those studied when investigating dynamical heterogeneities have been determined from event-driven molecular dynamics simulations and the time-dependent dynamical length scale has been extracted from them. The dynamical length scale increases with time and, on the equilibration time scale, it is proportional to the static length scale associated with the zigzag ordering in the system, which grows rapidly above ϕd. The structural features responsible for the onset of caging and the glassy behavior are easy to identify as they show up in the structure factor, which we have determined exactly from the transfer-matrix approach.

  2. Understanding the kinetics of adsorption in narrow channel metal organic frameworks

    Zhou, Wei; Simmons, Jason; Yildirim, Taner


    Advancements in the controlled synthesis of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have lead to impressive increases in hydrogen storage capacities and enhanced binding energies that may offer higher temperature operation. Given that the optimum pore size for hydrogen adsorption is on the order of 7 Angstroms, diffusion of hydrogen into these materials can play an important role in their ultimate implementation. In this presentation we use a combination of experimental and computational techniques, including gas sorption and neutron scattering measurements and detailed first-principles calculations, to better understand the kinetic limitations to adsorption in narrow channel MOF. In particular we show that the adsorption is diffusion limited with a significant activation barrier of ˜70 meV, and that this barrier is phonon-mediated. This work demonstrates the importance of considering kinetic effects in addition to pore volume and heats of adsorption when optimizing MOF materials for hydrogen storage.

  3. Tsunami-induced force and surface pressure on multiple rectangular buildings in an unsteady free-surface channel flow

    Bahmanpour, Alireza; Eames, Ian


    We study the flow around multiple rectangular obstacles in an unsteady free-surface channel flow using a combination of mathematical models, computations and experiments. The unsteady flow is triggered by a dam-break. The total drag force and surface pressure distribution on the obstacles are examined. The height and length of the building are fixed; the influence of initial water height and blocking ratio b / w is studied. The force scalings are confirmed from the computational analysis and found to be consistent with the experimental results. The effects of the additional buildings on the total drag force are noted and compared against the case of a single building. Increasing the number of buildings as well as the blocking ratio results in the water to inundate further onshore. The pressure distribution on the individual surfaces are analyzed and shown to vary linearly with height from the building base and dominated by the hydrostatic component. We summarize the results in terms of a new Fr - b / w regime diagram and explain how the force on buildings subject to an unsteady flow can be estimated from the upstream velocity and water height. We would like to thank HR Wallingford for their continued support in funding the project.

  4. Diaphragm opening effects on shock wave formation and acceleration in a rectangular cross section channel

    Pakdaman, S. A.; Garcia, M.; Teh, E.; Lincoln, D.; Trivedi, M.; Alves, M.; Johansen, C.


    Shock wave formation and acceleration in a high-aspect ratio cross section shock tube were studied experimentally and numerically. The relative importance of geometric effects and diaphragm opening time on shock formation are assessed. The diaphragm opening time was controlled through the use of slit-type (fast opening time) and petal-type (slow opening time) diaphragms. A novel method of fabricating the petal-type diaphragms, which results in a consistent burst pressure and symmetric opening without fragmentation, is presented. High-speed schlieren photography was used to visualize the unsteady propagation of the lead shock wave and trailing gas dynamic structures. Surface-mounted pressure sensors were used to capture the spatial and temporal development of the pressure field. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation predictions using the shear-stress-transport turbulence model are compared to the experimental data. Simulation results are used to explain the presence of high-frequency pressure oscillations observed experimentally in the driver section as well as the cause of the initial acceleration and subsequent rapid decay of shock velocity measured along the top and bottom channel surfaces. A one-dimensional theoretical model predicting the effect of the finite opening time of the diaphragm on the rate of driver depressurization and shock acceleration is proposed. The model removes the large amount of empiricism that accompanies existing models published in the literature. Model accuracy is assessed through comparisons with experiments and simulations. Limitations of and potential improvements in the model are discussed.

  5. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread in a Narrow Channel Apparatus over Thin PMMA Sheets

    Bornand, G. R.; Olson, Sandra L.; Miller, F. J.; Pepper, J. M.; Wichman, I. S.


    Flame spread tests have been conducted over polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples in San Diego State University's Narrow Channel Apparatus (SDSU NCA). The Narrow Channel Apparatus (NCA) has the ability to suppress buoyant flow in horizontally spreading flames, and is currently being investigated as a possible replacement or complement to NASA's current material flammability test standard for non-metallic solids, NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1. The buoyant suppression achieved with a NCA allows for tests to be conducted in a simulated microgravity atmosphere-a characteristic that Test 1 lacks since flames present in Test 1 are buoyantly driven. The SDSU NCA allows for flame spread tests to be conducted with varying opposed flow oxidizer velocities, oxygen percent by volume, and total pressure. Also, since the test sample is placed symmetrically between two confining plates so that there is a gap above and below the sample, this gap can be adjusted. This gap height adjustment allows for a compromise between heat loss from the flame to the confining boundaries and buoyancy suppression achieved by those boundaries. This article explores the effect gap height has on the flame spread rate for 75 µm thick PMMA at 1 atm pressure and 21% oxygen concentration by volume in the SDSU NCA. Flame spread results from the SDSU NCA for thin cellulose fuels have previously been compared to results from tests in actual microgravity at various test conditions with the same sample materials and were found to be in good agreement. This article also presents results from the SDSU NCA for PMMA at 1 atm pressure, opposed oxidizer velocity ranging from 3 to 35 cm/s, oxygen concentration by volume at 21%, 30 %, and 50% and fuel thicknesses of 50 and 75 µm. These results are compared to results obtained in actual microgravity for PMMA obtained at the 4.5s drop tower of MGLAB in Gifu, Japan, and the 5.2s drop tower at NASA's Zero-Gravity Research Facility in Cleveland, OH. This comparison confirms

  6. The Behavior and Characteristics of the Interfacial Waves in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Separated Flow Thorugh Downward Inclined Rectangular Channel


    An Experimental investigation on the behavior and characteristics of interfacial waves in downward inclined rectangular channel was conducted.The interfacial waves were traced and measured by using conductance technique.The wave patterns were distingushed and defined.The characteristics of the interfacial waves.such as time-averaged film thickness,wave height,wave propagation speed,wavelength and wave frequency,were systematically examined in terms of gas and liquid superficial volumetric fluxes.The effect of the inclination and flow channel geometry of the test section on the interfacial wave was also investigated.

  7. Gravity currents in a linearly stratified ambient fluid created by lock release and influx in semi-circular and rectangular channels

    Longo, S.; Ungarish, M.; Di Federico, V.; Chiapponi, L.; Addona, F.


    We present an experimental investigation, supported by a theoretical model, of the motion of lock-release, constant inflow, and time varying inflow gravity currents (GCs) into a linearly stratified ambient fluid at large Reynolds number. The aim is the experimental validation of a simple model able to predict the slumping phase front speed and the asymptotic self-similar front speed for rectangular and circular cross section channels. The first investigated system is of Boussinesq type with the dense current (salt water dyed with aniline) released in a circular channel of 19 cm diameter and 400 cm long (605 cm in the inflow experiments), half-filled of linearly stratified ambient fluid (salt water with varying salt concentration). The second system has the same components but with a channel of rectangular cross section of 14 cm width, 11 cm ambient fluid depth, and 504 cm length. The density stratification of the ambient fluid was obtained with a computer controlled set of pumps and of mixing tanks. For the experiments with inflow, a multi-pipes drainage system was set at the opposite end with respect to the inflow section, computer controlled to avoid the selective withdrawal. The numerous experiments (28 for circular cross section, lock release; 26 for circular and 14 for rectangular cross section, constant inflow (fluid volume ∝tα, with α = 1); 6 for circular cross section, linearly increasing inflow (α = 2)), with several combination of the stratification parameter (0 view of the various underlying simplifications and approximations. The results on the front speed of the GCs are discussed in the presence of the internal waves, which have a celerity given by a theoretical and experimentally tested model for the rectangular but not for the circular cross section. The theoretical analysis of internal waves in circular cross sections has been extended and experimentally validated.

  8. The nature of bubble growth under different system pressures in a narrow channel

    Chen Deqi [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan Liangming, E-mail: [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yuan Dewen; Zhang Hui [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xu Jianhui; Huang Yanping [Institute of Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    Research highlights: We find that Sliding bubble growth occurs under higher system pressure (6-10 bar). The heat transfer situation is quite different under different system pressure. The latent heat needed for a bubble increases with increasing system pressure. So the bubble size and bubble growth rate decrease with increasing system pressure. Also a method for non-dimensionalizing the bubble radius and growth time is proposed. - Abstract: Bubble growth in a vertical narrow channel under different system pressures (1-10 bar) was photographically studied. It was found that bubble growth rates and bubble sizes decrease with increasing system pressures. It was also found that bubbles grow at nucleate sites and begin to shrink due to condensation after departing from nucleate sites under lower system pressures (1-3 bar). However, bubbles keep growing along the heating wall under higher system pressures (6-10 bar). All bubble growth curves under different system pressures can be predicted by power curve model in the present study. A theoretical analysis on the effect of system pressure on bubble growth shows that the latent heat needed for a bubble with unit volume and the heat transfer on the heating wall are quite different under different system pressures, which results in distinct difference in bubble growth under different system pressure.

  9. Search for narrow pion-proton states in s-channel at EPECUR: experiment status

    Alekseev, I G; Bordyuzhin, I G; Budkovsky, P Ye; Fedin, D A; Filimonov, Ye A; Golubev, V V; Kanavets, V P; Koroleva, L I; Kovalev, A I; Kozlenko, N G; Kozlov, V S; Krivshich, A G; Morozov, B V; Nesterov, V M; Novinsky, D V; Ryltsov, V V; Sadler, M; Sulimov, A D; Sumachev, V V; Svirida, D N; Tarakanov, V I; Trautman, V Yu


    An experiment EPECUR, aimed at the search of the cryptoexotic non-strange member of the pentaquark antidecuplet, started its operation at a pion beam line of the ITEP 10 GeV proton synchrotron. The invariant mass range of the interest (1610-1770) MeV will be scanned for a narrow state in the pion-proton and kaon-lambda systems in the formation-type experiment. The scan in the s-channel is supposed to be done by the variation of the incident pi- momentum and its measurement with the accuracy of up to 0.1% with a set of 1 mm pitch proportional chambers located in the first focus of the beam line. The reactions under the study will be identified by a magnetless spectrometer based on wire drift chambers with a hexagonal structure. Because the background suppression in this experiment depends on the angular resolution, the amount of matter in the chambers and setup is minimized to reduce multiple scattering. The differential cross section of the elastic pi-p-scattering on a liquid hydrogen target in the region of ...

  10. Experimental investigation of effect of flow attack angle on thermohydraulic performance of air flow in a rectangular channel with discrete V-pattern baffle on the heated plate

    Raj Kumar


    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of angle of attack ( α a of the discrete V-pattern baffle on thermohydraulic performance of rectangular channel has been studied experimentally. The baffle wall was constantly heated and the other three walls of the channel were kept insulated. The experimentations were conducted to collect the data on Nusselt number ( N u b and friction factor ( f b by varying the Reynolds number (Re = 3000–21,000 and angle of attack ( α a from 30° to 70°, for the kept values of relative baffle height ( H b / H = 0 . 50 , relative pitch ratio ( P b / H = 1 . 0 , relative discrete width ( g w / H b = 1 . 5 and relative discrete distance ( D d / L v = 0 . 67 . As compared to the smooth wall, the V-pattern baffle roughened channel enhances the Nusselt number ( N u b and friction factor ( f b by 4.2 and 5.9 times, respectively. The present discrete V-pattern baffle shapes with angle of attack ( α a of 60° equivalent to flow Reynolds number of 3000 yields the greatest thermohydraulic performance. Discrete V-pattern baffle has improved thermal performance as compared to other baffle shapes’ rectangular channel.

  11. Application of a soft computing technique in predicting the percentage of shear force carried by walls in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness.

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein


    Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.

  12. Surface Potential and Threshold Voltage Model of Fully Depleted Narrow Channel SOI MOSFET Using Analytical Solution of 3D Poisson’s Equation

    Prashant Mani


    Full Text Available The present paper is about the modeling of surface potential and threshold voltage of Fully Depleted Silicon on Insulator MOSFET. The surface potential is calculated by solving the 3D Poisson’s equation analytically. The appropriate boundary conditions are used in calculations. The effect of narrow channel width and short channel length for suppression of SCE is analyzed. The narrow channel width effect in the threshold voltage is analyzed for thin film Fully Depleted SOI MOSFET.

  13. Three-Dimensional Simulation of High Reynolds Turbulent Flows in a Rectangular Open Channel with the Presence of a Disruptive Element (Obstacles Transversely

    Boudiaf H’ssine


    Full Text Available This study aims at describing a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent flow with a high Reynolds number in a rectangular open channel with the presence of a disruptive element (obstacles transversely. The numerical study is based on measuring the flow velocity in two directions, i.e., horizontal and vertical, in four planes located near the obstacle built across a simulated channel. For the modeling of the free surface, a Volume Of Fluid (VOF multiphase flow model is used. In the present case, namely a study of turbulence, three numerical models are compared, a k-ε standard, a k-w standard and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM. The verification of the simulation results has allowed us to show the advantages of the Reynolds stress model. This model is more representative of the phenomena of an intense vortex flow in the presence of obstacles, especially in drainage systems.

  14. An oscillating motion of a red blood cell and a neutrally buoyant particle in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel

    Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland


    Two motions of oscillation and vacillating breathing (swing) of a red blood cell have been observed in bounded Poiseuille flows (Phys. Rev. E 85, 16307 (2012)). To understand such motions, we have studied the oscillating motion of a neutrally buoyant rigid particle of the same shape in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel and obtained that the crucial point is to have the particle interacting with Poiseuille flow with its mass center moving up and down in the channel central region. Since the mass center of the cell migrates toward the channel central region, its oscillating motion of the inclination angle is similar to the aforementioned motion as long as the cell keeps the shape of long body. But as the up-and-down oscillation of the cell mass center damps out, the oscillating motion of the inclination angle also damps out and the cell inclination angle approaches to a fixed angle.

  15. Three-Dimensional, Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Channels Subject to Partial Blockage

    Salama, Amgad


    Numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in two adjacent channels is conducted with one of the channels partially blocked. This system simulates typical channels of a material testing reactor. The blockage is assumed due to the buckling of one of the channel plates inward along its width. The blockage ratio considered in this work is defined as the ratio between the cross-sectional area of the blocked and the unblocked channel. In this work, we consider a blockage ratio of approximately 40%. However, the blockage is different along the width of the channel, ranging from 0% at the end of the channel to 90% in the middle. The channel walls are sandwiching volumetric heat sources that vary spatially as chopped cosine functions. Interesting patterns are highlighted and investigated. The reduction in the flow area of one channel results in the flow redistributing among the two channels according to the changes in their hydraulic conductivities. The results of the numerical simulations show that the maximum wall temperature in the blocked channel is well below the boiling temperature at the operating pressure.

  16. Flowing equation gradually varied in rectangles channels on depth curve; Ecuacion del flujo gradualmente variado en canales rectangulares de fondo curvo

    Sotelo-Avila, G.; Gallegos-Silva, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    The study of channel flow usually have its basis in the hydrostatic distribution of pressure and the rectilinear flow hypotheses. It is from this hypothesis that the main flow equations are obtained. However, this is not applicable to a vertically curved flow that is present in a curved bed channel. This kind of channel is used to join two different slopes or in ski jumps. This kind of flow presents several changes from the rectilinear flow as in the velocity and pressure distributions and even in the energy loses. The authors of this article propose an equation of gradually varied flow for vertically-curved bed rectangular channels that adds a coefficient to modify the velocity in the calculus of the local friction gradient. With these results is possible now to analyze flow profiles in vertically-curved bed channels where before were used the methods for straight channels and therefore, increase accuracy. [Spanish] Las hipotesis del movimiento rectilineo y de distribucion hidrostatica de la presion son ciertamente las mas importantes en la hidraulica de canales, y de ellas se derivan los principales modelos de flujo que usualmente emplean. Sin embargo, no es valido aplicar la misma hipotesis y metodos de analisis al flujo curvilineo, que ocurre cuando el canal adopta curvaturas verticales en el fondo, las cuales inducen cambios importantes en la distribucion de la velocidad, presion y hasta en la perdida d energia. Tal es el caso de canales que contienen curvas verticales para unir tramos de distintas pendientes y producir el cambio en la direccion del flujo en cubetas deflectoras y vertedores en tunel. Los autores de este articulo proponen una ecuacion de flujo gradualmente variado en canales rectangulares de fondo curvo, esta es de gran utilidad en la determinacion del perfil del flujo con dichas caracteristicas, donde se plantea la adicion de un factor de amplificacion de la velocidad en el calculo del gradiente local de friccion, para tomar en cuenta el

  17. Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature

    Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)


    The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)

  18. Experimental study of dryout heat transfer in rectangular channel%矩形通道干涸点传热特性试验研究

    李虹波; 陈炳德; 赵华; 熊万玉


    The experiment of dryout heat transfer in rectangular channel has been carried out on the basic experimental loop of flow & heat transfer at NPIC. The results of the experimental study of thermal-hydraulic parameters on characteristics of dryout heat transfer in rectangular channel show that; (1) The dryout heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient decrease, while the dryout quality increases with the increase of inlet quality; (2) The dryout heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient increase, while the dryout quality decreases with the increase of mass flow velocity; (3) The dryout heat flux, quality, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient increase with the increase of system pressure. Comparing the experimental data with empirical correlations, it finds out that these correlations are appropriate for the situations of middle-high pressure and low-middle mass flow velocity, and deviate seriously in low pressure and high mass flow velocity cases. Based on the Gutajellade correlation, and considering the effects of the dimension of rectangular channel and inlet enthalpy on heat transfer, a new correlation for dryout in rectangular channel is developed, which correlates the experimental data quite well.%在中国核动力研究设计院流动传热基础试验平台上进行了矩形通道干涸点传热试验.通过对各种热工水力参数的试验研究,得出结论:(1)随着进口含汽率的增加,干涸点热流密度减小,含汽率增加,壁面温度降低,传热系数减小;(2)随着质量流速的增大,干涸点热流密度增大,含汽率减小,壁面温度升高,传热系数增大;(3)随着系统压力的升高,干涸点热流密度增大,含汽率增加,壁面温度升高,传热系数增大.由试验数据与现有经验关系式的比较,发现这些关系式适合中高压、中低质量流速工况,而对低压、高质量流速工况存在较大的偏差.在古塔杰拉奇关系式的基础上,引

  19. Microdynamics of dusty plasma liquids in narrow channel: from disorder to order

    Woon Wei Yen; Deng L Iwen; Lin, I


    We report direct observations on the microscopic dynamics of dusty plasma liquid confined in a narrow gap. We measure the horizontal and transverse displacement histograms as well as the transverse particle density distributions from particle trajectories. Under confinement, the liquid forms a layer structure. The dust particle motion at boundaries show anisotropy and three outermost layers is found due to the pinching effect of the boundaries. When the gap width is reduced to below 7d (d = inter-layer width), the dust particle motion in the central region shows a transition from isotropic motion to anisotropic discrete hopping motion, leading to a slower dynamics and layer structure through the whole liquid.

  20. Narrow-Linewidth Distributed Feedback Channel Waveguide Laser in Al$_2$O$_3$:Er$^{3+}$

    Bernhardi, E.H.; Agazzi, L.; Wörhoff, K.; Ridder, de R.M.; Pollnau, M.; Pozo, J.; Mortensen, M.; Urbach, P.; Leijtens, X.; Yousefi, M.


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a distributed feedback channel waveguide laser in erbium-doped aluminium oxide on a standard thermally oxidized silicon substrate. Holographically-written surface-relief Bragg gratings have been integrated with the aluminium oxide waveguides via r

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of flow field and heat transfer from electronic components in a rectangular channel with an impinging jet

    Calisir Tamer


    Full Text Available Thermal control of electronic components is a continuously emerging problem as power loads keep increasing. The present study is mainly focused on experimental and numerical investigation of impinging jet cooling of 18 (3 × 6 array flash mounted electronic components under a constant heat flux condition inside a rectangular channel in which air, following impingement, is forced to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and impingement plate. Copper blocks represent heat dissipating electronic components. Inlet flow velocities to the channel were measured by using a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA system. Flow field observations were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV and thermocouples were used for temperature measurements. Experiments and simulations were conducted for Re = 4000 – 8000 at fixed value of H = 10 × Dh. Flow field results were presented and heat transfer results were interpreted using the flow measurement observations. Numerical results were validated with experimental data and it was observed that the results are in agreement with the experiments.

  2. Experimental Study on the Effect of Initial Temperature on CHF in a Vertical Annulus Narrow Channel with Bilateral Heated

    M. Juarsa


    Full Text Available Study on understanding of the complexities of boiling in the narrow channel which was occured in a severe accident on nuclear power plant has been carried out in experimentally using simulation apparatus in order to achieve the safety management capability. Critical Heat Flux (CHF is one important parameter to control heat during transient accident. The methodology of research is an experiment using experiment apparatus called HeaTiNG-01 test section with modifications in the outside pipe using stainless steel material as the reactor vessel wall simulation. Experiments were conducted by heating the heated rod as a simulation of debris until the desired initial temperature by bilateral heated. Then water with a saturation temperature in atmospheric was poured gravitationally into the narrow channel. Data acquisition system recorded temperature changes in transient during the cooling process. The transient temperature profile in double heating surface and rewetting point (rewet fronts was characterized. Experiment was conducted at three initial temperature variations i.e. 650oC, 750oC and 850oC and using channel width 1 mm. Experiment data was used to calculate heat flux then to fitting CHF form boiling curve. The results showed that CHF in outer pipe is higher than heated rod, these conditions explain that more heat is released through the outer pipe, so that the heat control can be done from outside the system to reduce the temperature quickly. The average value of CHF for each vertical position 100 mm and 400 mm at outer pipe are 380 kW/m2 and 733 kW/m2, and then at the heated rod are 250 kW/m2 and 497 kW/m2

  3. Performance analysis of subcarrier intensity modulation using rectangular QAM over Malaga turbulence channels with integer and non-integerβ

    Alheadary, Wael G.


    In this paper, we derive the performances of optical wireless communication system utilizing adaptive subcarrier intensity modulation over the Malaga turbulent channel. More specifically, analytical closed-form solutions and asymptotic results are derived for average bit error rate, achievable spectral efficiency, outage probability, and ergodic capacity by utilizing series expansion identity of modified Bessel function. Our asymptotic and analytical results based on series solutions with finite numbers highly matched to the numerical results. By exploiting the inherent nature of fading channel, the proposed adaptive scheme enhances the spectral efficiency without additional transmit power while satisfying the required bit error rate criterion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    Lee, Bok Jik


    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  5. Dynamics of particle sedimentation in viscoelastic fluids: A numerical study on particle chain in two-dimensional narrow channel

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay


    In this article we present a numerical method for simulating the sedimentation of circular particles in two-dimensional channel filled with a viscoelastic fluid of FENE-CR type, which is generalized from a domain/distributed Lagrange multiplier method with a factorization approach for Oldroyd-B fluids developed in [J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 156 (2009) 95]. Numerical results suggest that the polymer extension limit L for the FENE-CR fluid has no effect on the final formation of vertical chain for the cases of two disks and three disks in two-dimensional narrow channel, at least for the values of L considered in this article; but the intermediate dynamics of particle interaction before having a vertical chain can be different for the smaller values of L when increasing the relaxation time. For the cases of six particles sedimenting in FENE-CR type viscoelastic fluid, the formation of chain of 4 to 6 disks does depend on the polymer extension limit L. For the smaller values of L, FENE-CR type viscoelastic flu...


    Lee, Bok Jik


    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  7. Numerical modeling of first experiments on PbLi MHD flows in a rectangular duct with foam-based SiC flow channel insert

    Smolentsev, S., E-mail: [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Courtessole, C.; Abdou, M.; Sharafat, S. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sahu, S. [Institute of Plasma Research (India); Sketchley, T. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)


    Highlights: • Numerical studies were performed as a pre-experimental analysis to the experiment on MHD PbLi flows in a rectangular duct with a flow channel insert (FCI). • Dynamic testing of foam-based SiC foam-based CVD coated FCI has been performed using MaPLE facility at UCLA. • Two physical models were proposed to explain the experimental results and 3D and 2D computations performed using COMSOL, HIMAG and UCLA codes. • The obtained results suggest that more work on FCI development, fabrication and testing has to be done to assure good hermetic properties before the implementation in a fusion device. - Abstract: A flow channel insert (FCI) is the key element of the DCLL blanket concept. The FCI serves as electrical and thermal insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop and to decouple the temperature-limited ferritic structure from the flowing hot lead-lithium (PbLi) alloy. The main focus of the paper is on numerical computations to simulate MHD flows in the first experiments on PbLi flows in a stainless steel rectangular duct with a foam-based silicon carbide (SiC) FCI. A single uninterrupted long-term (∼6500 h) test has recently been performed on a CVD coated FCI sample in the flowing PbLi in a magnetic field up to 1.5 T at the PbLi temperature of 300 °C using the MaPLE loop at UCLA. An unexpectedly high MHD pressure drop measured in this experiment suggests that a PbLi ingress into the FCI occurred in the course of the experiment, resulting in degradation of electroinsulating FCI properties. The ingress through the protective CVD layer was further confirmed by the post-experimental microscopic analysis of the FCI. The numerical modeling included 2D and 3D computations using HIMAG, COMSOL and a UCLA research code to address important flow features associated with the FCI finite length, fringing magnetic field, rounded FCI corners and also to predict changes in the MHD pressure drop in the unwanted event of a PbLi ingress. Two physical

  8. Longitudinal pressure-driven flows between superhydrophobic grooved surfaces: Large effective slip in the narrow-channel limit

    Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud


    The gross amplification of the fluid velocity in pressure-driven flows due to the introduction of superhydrophobic walls is commonly quantified by an effective slip length. The canonical duct-flow geometry involves a periodic structure of longitudinal shear-free stripes at either one or both of the bounding walls, corresponding to flat-meniscus gas bubbles trapped within a periodic array of grooves. This grating configuration is characterized by two geometric parameters, namely the ratio κ of channel width to microstructure period and the areal fraction Δ of the shear-free stripes. For wide channels, κ ≫1 , this geometry is known to possess an approximate solution where the dimensionless slip length λ , normalized by the duct semiwidth, is small, indicating a weak superhydrophobic effect. We here address the other extreme of narrow channels, κ ≪1 , identifying large O (κ-2) values of λ for the symmetric configuration, where both bounding walls are superhydrophobic. This velocity enhancement is associated with an unconventional Poiseuille-like flow profile where the parabolic velocity variation takes place in a direction parallel (rather than perpendicular) to the boundaries. Use of matched asymptotic expansions and conformal-mapping techniques provides λ up to O (κ-1) , establishing the approximationλ ˜κ-2Δ/33 +κ-1Δ/2π ln4 +⋯, which is in excellent agreement with a semianalytic solution of the dual equations governing the respective coefficients of a Fourier-series representation of the fluid velocity. No similar singularity occurs in the corresponding asymmetric configuration, involving a single superhydrophobic wall; in that geometry, a Hele-Shaw approximation shows that λ =O (1 ) .

  9. The feasible study of the water flow in the micro channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates

    Jasikova D.


    Full Text Available Here we present the results of measurement in micro-channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates. There was used BSG micro-channel with trapezoidal cross-section. The parameters of the channel are described in the paper. The flow in the micro-channel was invested with micro-PIV technique and various flow rates were set on each inlet. The resulting flow rate in the steady area follows the laminar flow with very low Re 30. Here we are focused on the flow characteristic in the Y-junction and in selected narrow structure. The fluid flow is evaluated with vector and scalar maps and the profile plots that were taken in the point of interest.

  10. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    Zboray, Robert; Mor, Ilan; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai


    In a previous work we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been e...

  11. Nucleate boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular mini-channel%竖直矩形细通道内的水沸腾换热特性

    常威; 张树生; 程林; 郭雷


    以宽度为1.0mm和0.1mm的竖直矩形细通道内的沸腾换热特性为研究对象,运用数值模拟的方法探索气泡生成、长大和脱离的过程,通过几何重构和界面追踪的方法获取相界面移动和变化对系统内压差以及平均表面换热系数的影响.计算中考虑重力、表面张力和壁面黏性的作用.研究结果表明:通道宽度的不同对气泡生长方式和气泡形态产生很大影响,且核态沸腾换热系数随着细通道宽度的减小而增大;表面张力在细通道沸腾换热过程中所起的作用明显增大,证明细通道有强化换热的作用;由于数值计算中进行了理想化假设,导致数值模拟的沸腾传热系数比现有细通道沸腾传热实验传热系数普遍偏高.%In order to study the characteristics of boiling two-phase heat transfer in vertical rectangular mini-channels with width of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm, a numerical simulation was conducted to explore the course of bubble generation, growing up and departure from the wall. Gravity, surface tension and the wall adhesion were taken into consideration, the effect caused by the interface movement on the system pressure difference and the average surface heat transfer coefficient was also discussed by using the geometry reconstruction and interface tracking method. The results show that the variation of channel width has great influence on the course of bubble growth and motion. As the channel size decreases, the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient increases obviously, proving that the mini-channel can enhance the heat transfer. However, due to some idealized assumptions, the boiling heat transfer coefficient of the numerical simulation is higher than the existing experimental value.

  12. Study of ebullition inside a rectangular inclinable channel, of large hydraulic diameter; Etude de l`ebullition dans un canal rectangulaire, inclinable, de grand diametre hydraulique

    Nehme, H


    This work is performed in the framework of the investigation of-Severe Accidents of Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants (PWR). A concept of molten core recovery is based on a retention in the lower head of the reactor vessel or in core-catchers which are externally cooled by water, Critical heat flux must be avoided in this external natural convection two-phase flow. The SULTAN experiment has been launched in order to investigate two-phase flow characteristics at experiment is described. Tests are performed under forced convection conditions for extended analytical investigation of the flow characteristics. They are mainly aimed to measure pressure drops, onset of critical heat flux (CHF), temperature and void fraction profiles in the flow. These results are describe and analyzed in a second part. The flow reveals to be very different from the classical flow in narrow channels. The difference is mainly due to 2-D effects and internal flow re-circulations. The limit of validity of 1-D analytical description of the flow is tested. This approach is improved by the proposal of a new correlation for the prediction of net vapor generation point and for the calculation of the mean density along the subcooled part of the flow. New CHF correlations are proposed. CHF is shown to be the same order of magnitude as these measured on the ULPU facility in UCSB and at the MIT. However 1-D approach has limitations at high qualities for large and inclined channels. A better description must be linked to the use of multi-dimensional numerical two-phase flow codes. (author) 87 refs.

  13. Observation of high deflection efficiency and narrow energy loss distributions for 450 GeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.


    A 450 GeV proton beam has been deflected by various angles from 1 to 11 mrad using planar channeling in a (111) silicon crystal which was mechanically bent to achieve the desired beam deflection. High deflection efficiencies of up to 50% have been measured, in good agreement with present theoretical estimates. It is shown that bent crystals are also a unique tool for measurements of energy loss and straggling of channeled particles, without any influence from random particles: Selecting protons which are deflected by increasing angles corresponds to decreasing the transverse energy at the crystal entrance. With this technique energy loss and straggling was measured for protons channeled in the wide and narrow (111) planes in silicon for the first time.

  14. Dedicated to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.techn. E.h. Jurjen Zierep on the occasion of his 80th birthday Transonic flows in narrow channels

    A. Kluwick


    This article is the written version of a lecture given at the Festkolloquium on the occasion of Prof. Dr.-Ing.Dr.techn. E.h. Jurgen Zierep's 80th birthday held at the Universitat Karlsrube, 21 January 2009. It deals with laminar viscous inviscid interactions in transonic narrow channel flows. Special emphasis is placed on the internal structure of pseudo-shocks and properties of nozzle flows. Also, it is shown that the theory, first formulated for perfect gases, can easily be extended to the case of general single phase fluids.

  15. Transitional Criterion From Bubbly Flow to Slug Flow in Vertical Rectangular Channels Based on Drift-flux Model%基于漂移流模型的矩形通道内泡状流-弹状流转变准则

    闫超星; 阎昌琪; 孙立成; 王洋


    以空气和水为工质,对竖直向上矩形通道(40 mm ×1.41 mm ,40 mm ×10 mm)两相流流型特性进行了可视化研究。气液相表观速度分别为0.01~0.59 m/s和0.02~3.72 m/s。基于3个经典的泡状流向弹状流转变准则,考虑矩形通道的尺寸效应,导出了泡状流向弹状流转变时的临界空泡份额为0.23。以窄边宽度2.5 mm为界,将矩形通道分为小通道和常规通道两类,对泡状流向弹状流转变准则进行修正,修正准则能很好地预测实验值。为进一步验证修正准则的准确性和适用性,将修正准则与Mishima、Wilmarth和Sadatomi等的实验数据进行了对比,结果显示修正准则同样具有较好的预测效果。%A visualized study of flow patterns was carried out for air-water two-phase flow in two narrow rectangular ducts (40 mm × 1.41 mm , 40 mm × 10 mm ) respectively .The superficial velocity ranges of air and water were 0.01-0.59 m/s and 0.02-3.72 m/s .Based on three classical criteria on transition from bubbly flow to slug flow ,critical transition void fraction 0.23 was deduced by introducing the effect of channel size .The rectangular ducts were classified as small channel (s≤2.5 mm) and conventional channel (s>2.5 mm) ,based on which a modified transition criterion for bubbly flow to slug flow was proposed .The modified criterion shows a good agreement with the experimental data from this study .Experimental data from Mishima ,Wilmarth and Sadatomi etc .were also collected to further evaluate the accuracy and applicability of the modified criterion ,showing a good prediction to these experimental data as well .

  16. Transformation and intensification of tornado-like flow in a narrow channel during elongation of an oval dimple with constant area

    Isaev, S. A.; Leontiev, A. I.; Gul'tsova, M. E.; Popov, I. A.


    Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model have been numerically solved on multiblock intersecting structured grids of various scales. The obtained solution has been used to analyze the separated flow past an elongated oval dimple oriented at 45± on the wall of a narrow plane-parallel channel and to study transformation of the flow with increasing dimple aspect ratio at constant depth and spot area. It is established that, at a dimple width below one-third of the equivalent dimple diameter, intensification of the generated helical vortices observed when the transverse flow velocity exceeds 80% of the average mass flow velocity is accompanied by decrease in the level of hydraulic losses below that in an otherwise identical channel with an equivalent spherical dimple.

  17. High Resolution Mapping and Interpretation of Channel and Floodplain Topography With a Narrow-Beam Terrestrial-Aquatic Lidar

    McKean, J.; Isaak, D.; Tonina, D.; Wright, W.; Kinzel, P.


    Basic description of channel and floodplain topography remains a fundamental challenge for modeling flow and sediment transport or even simply mapping habitat. Standard field wading and boat surveys of stream topography are limited by costs and logistics to relatively small sample reaches and floodplain maps are seldom well- integrated with channel bathymetry. We used the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) to map channel and floodplain topography and investigate geomorphic controls on physical habitat in two diverse channels in the watershed of the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Bear Valley Creek is a small low-gradient gravel-bed stream flowing across an unconfined valley filled with glacial outwash materials. A hierarchy of nested geomorphic features is evident in this channel with the broadest fluvial domains a legacy of ~15,000 years of post-glacial valley evolution. Contemporary hydraulics operate on this broad template and control two smaller scales of pool-riffle morphology. Salmon spawning patterns closely reflect these nested physical domains, demonstrating how geomorphic history can influence modern distributions of aquatic habitat and organisms. In contrast, Big Creek is a higher-gradient stream predominately confined by steep side slopes in a deep valley. Here, the distribution of geomorphic domains and physical habitat is controlled by modern erosion processes and rock quality. Tributaries and valley walls contribute coarse debris, up to large boulders, to the channel, resulting in very rough and poorly organized bed topography. Tributary fans also function as local grade control with sediment deposition in lower-gradient reaches upstream of fans. A GIS toolkit is under development to extract at-a-station channel metrics from EAARL data, including for example, cross section and longitudinal profile characteristics. A new investigation has also begun to further investigate the quality of EAARL data. This study will explore the

  18. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    Victor M. García-Chocano


    Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  19. UNC79 and UNC80, putative auxiliary subunits of the NARROW ABDOMEN ion channel, are indispensable for robust circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila.

    Bridget C Lear

    Full Text Available In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a network of circadian pacemaker neurons drives daily rhythms in rest and activity. The ion channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA, orthologous to the mammalian sodium leak channel NALCN, functions downstream of the molecular circadian clock in pacemaker neurons to promote behavioral rhythmicity. To better understand the function and regulation of the NA channel, we have characterized two putative auxiliary channel subunits in Drosophila, unc79 (aka dunc79 and unc80 (aka CG18437. We have generated novel unc79 and unc80 mutations that represent strong or complete loss-of-function alleles. These mutants display severe defects in circadian locomotor rhythmicity that are indistinguishable from na mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific RNA interference and rescue analyses indicate that UNC79 and UNC80 likely function within pacemaker neurons, with similar anatomical requirements to NA. We observe an interdependent, post-transcriptional regulatory relationship among the three gene products, as loss of na, unc79, or unc80 gene function leads to decreased expression of all three proteins, with minimal effect on transcript levels. Yet despite this relationship, we find that the requirement for unc79 and unc80 in circadian rhythmicity cannot be bypassed by increasing NA protein expression, nor can these putative auxiliary subunits substitute for each other. These data indicate functional requirements for UNC79 and UNC80 beyond promoting channel subunit expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments also confirm that UNC79 and UNC80 form a complex with NA in the Drosophila brain. Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila NA, UNC79, and UNC80 function together in circadian clock neurons to promote rhythmic behavior.


    Jay L. Hirshfield


    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  1. Propagation of positive streamers on the surface of shallow as well as deep tap water in wide and narrow dielectric channels

    Akishev, Yu; Karalnik, V.; Medvedev, M.; Petryakov, A.; Shafikov, A.; Trushkin, N.


    The results of experiments studying long-living positive streamers propagating on the surface of tap water are presented; the plasma-forming gas is air at atmospheric pressure. Measurement data for the strength of the longitudinal electric field in the surface streamer, the streamer velocity versus time until it stops, and the length of the streamer versus the applied voltage are presented. It is revealed that the depth of the water in a basin influences the streamer length: the deeper the water, the longer the streamer. Besides this, restricting the transverse direction of the area in the water accessible for streamer extension suppresses streamer branching until it fully disappears. It is shown that non-branching streamers propagating in narrow water channels increase their length considerably. Placing a dielectric plate with long, narrow slits of the required configuration on the water enables one to control the trajectory of streamer propagation. Three-dimensional numerical calculations of the spatial structure of the electric field and the current inside and outside the streamer in the water basin with different depths and widths were made. It is shown numerically that the streamer length and its diameter strongly influence both the strength and spatial structure of the electric field in the air around the streamer.

  2. 安装涡发生器的矩形截面螺旋通道内流体流动%Fluid flow in rectangular helical channels with vortex generator

    张丽; 李佳其; 张春梅; 王翠华; 吴剑华


    对安装三角翼型涡发生器的曲率为0.05的矩形截面螺旋通道内的流场进行了实验测量,并将测量值与模拟值进行比较,二者吻合较好。利用数值模拟方法研究了矩形截面螺旋通道内涡量的演变过程,研究了曲率及Reynolds数对涡发生器有效作用距离的影响。结果表明,安装三角翼型涡发生器后,矩形截面内靠近内壁处新出现了两个common-flow-down型的二次涡,新出现的额外涡量的极值为原有涡量的2.0~2.8倍。Reynolds数越大,曲率越小,涡发生器的有效作用距离越长。当曲率为0.05,迎流角为10°,Reynolds数为5370时,其值可达翼高的79倍。%The flow field of rectangular helical channel with triangle winglet pair vortex generator was measured experimentally. The curvature of the helical channel was 0.05. The experimental data are in good agreement with the calculated data. The evolution of vorticity in the helical channel and the influence of Reynolds number and the curvature on the effective influence distance of vortex generator were investigated by numerical method. The results show that, two extra vortices in common-flow-down type emerge near the inner wall in the rectangular cross section of the helical channel with triangle winglet pair vortex generator. The values of extra vorticity are 2.0-2.8 times those of the original vorticity. The effective influence distance of the vortex generator increases with the decrease of curvature and the increase of Reynolds number. It can reach 79 times of the height of the vortex generator with the curvature of 0.05, attack angle of 10° and Reynolds number of 5370.

  3. On a novel rate theory for transport in narrow ion channels and its application to the study of flux optimization via geometric effects.

    Abad, E; Reingruber, J; Sansom, M S P


    We present a novel rate theory based on the notions of splitting probability and mean first passage time to describe single-ion conduction in narrow, effectively one-dimensional membrane channels. In contrast to traditional approaches such as transition state theory or Kramers theory, transitions between different conduction states in our model are governed by rates which depend on the full geometry of the potential of mean force (PMF) resulting from the superposition of an equilibrium free energy profile and a transmembrane potential induced by a nonequilibrium constraint. If a detailed theoretical PMF is available (e.g., from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations), it can be used to compute characteristic conductance curves in the framework of our model, thereby bridging the gap between the atomistic and the mesoscopic level of description. Explicit analytic solutions for the rates, the ion flux, and the associated electric current can be obtained by approximating the actual PMF by a piecewise linear potential. As illustrative examples, we consider both a theoretical and an experimental application of the model. The theoretical example is based on a hypothetical channel with a fully symmetric sawtooth equilibrium PMF. For this system, we explore how changes in the spatial extent of the binding sites affect the rate of transport when a linear voltage ramp is applied. Already for the case of a single binding site, we find that there is an optimum size of the site which maximizes the current through the channel provided that the applied voltage exceeds a threshold value given by the binding energy of the site. The above optimization effect is shown to arise from the complex interplay between the channel structure and the applied electric field, expressed by a nonlinear dependence of the rates with respect to the linear size of the binding site. In studying the properties of current-voltage curves, we find a double crossover between sublinear and superlinear

  4. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim


    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  5. Analysis of Gaseous Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro Rectangular Channels%微矩形槽道内的气体滑移流动和传热分析

    肖睿; 辛明道; 朱恂


    This article present the theoretical analysis of gas flow and heat transfer in micro rectangular channels in the regime of velocity-slip and temperature-jump. The model is built on the assumption that the bottom wall of the channel is in uniform heat flux while the other three walls are adiabatic, and that the flow and heat transfer is of the hydraulic and thermal fully developed laminar flow of the incompressible fluid. Analytic solutions of the cross-section distributions of both the velocity and temperature are obtained.The friction and heat transfer performances are discussed. The agreement between analytic solutions and experimental results existed shows that in a definite extension of Knudsen number the traditional Navier-Stoks equations and energy equations with the boundary conditions of slip velocity and temperature jump can describe the gaseous flow and heat transfer mechanisms in micro rectangular channels.%分析了微矩形槽道内的不可压缩气体在速度滑移和温度跳跃区的流动和传热过程。在分析模型中,假定矩形槽道底面定热流加热,其余三面绝热,流动和换热均为充分发展,且处于滑移流动区。给出了截面上速度分布和温度分布的分析解,讨论了阻力特性和换热特性,并与实验结果作了比较。二者的吻合程度表明,在一定的Knudsen数范围内,传统的Navier-Stokes方程和能量方程在考虑了速度滑移和温度跳跃影响后可以描述微矩形槽道内的气体流动和传热过程。

  6. Radiation losses of step-tapered channel waveguides.

    Marcuse, D


    We compute the radiation losses of a rectangular dielectric waveguide (integrated optics channel waveguide) that is tapered so that its wider cross-sectional dimension increases by roughly a factor of three while its narrow dimension remains constant. As the waveguide widens its refractive index decreases to ensure that the waveguide supports only one guided mode. The taper is approximated by a discontinuous staircase curve. A rectangular waveguide taper of 2-microm thickness, tapering from 3- to 10-microm width through fourteen steps of 0.25-microm height, has a minimum loss (at 0.6328-microm wavelength) of 0.13 dB for a 200-microm taper length.

  7. Sedimentary constraints on the development of a narrow deep strait (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Sasaki, Dalton Kei; Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Taborda, Rui; de Souza, Luiz Antonio Pereira


    The São Sebastião Channel (SSC), which separates São Sebastião Island from the continent, is a deep elongated strait on the inner shelf of the São Paulo Bight (SE Brazil). The aim of this study is to explain why it is presently sediment starved, instead of forming a tombolo. Wave data were obtained from both a WW3 model database and buoy records, and wave propagation patterns from the SWAN numerical model. Grain size trend analysis of 579 surficial sediment samples from the strait and the surrounding region served to estimate the residual transport directions. Bedload sediment transport was computed considering in situ currents and bottom sediment grain size. Moreover, six seismic profiles and one gravity core were obtained in the strait in order to evaluate the hickness of the sedimentary deposits. The geometry of the SSC (X/B=0.3, where B is the breakwater or island diameter and X is its cross-shore distance to the mainland) predicts that a tombolo should be formed, and wave patterns confirm that it is a zone sheltered from both S and NE waves. Previous studies have shown that the hydrodynamics of the SSC is controlled by wind-driven currents, which are more intense in the eastern and central sectors of the strait. The western sector is currently covered by sandy mud, whereas very coarse to fine sand prevails in the deeper eastern sector. Sediment patterns show a trend to deposition of fine sediment in the western sector of the SSC and two main depocentres located at the northern limit of the study area and at the southern mouth of the strait. Sandy mud in the western sector forms a 40-m-thick deposit close to the outer limit of Araçá Bay, whereas the remainder of the SSC is covered by a very thin layer of sandy sediments. Dominance of mud in the depositional western sector suggests low availability of sand in the area. Therefore, despite the geometry and wave patterns of the SSC favouring the formation of a tombolo, the dominance of wind-driven currents

  8. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Krishnendra Shekhawat


    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  9. Dynamics of two disks settling in a two-dimensional narrow channel: From periodic motion to vertical chain in Oldroyd-B fluid

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay


    In this article we present a numerical study of the dynamics of two disks settling in a narrow vertical channel filled with Oldroyd-B fluid. Two kinds of particle dynamics are obtained: (i) periodic interaction between two disks and (ii) the chain formation of two disks. For the periodic interaction of two disks, two different motions are obtained: (a) two disks stay far apart and interact periodically and (b) two disks interact closely and then far apart in a periodic way, like the drafting, kissing and tumbling of two disks sedimenting in Newtonian fluid, due to the lack of strong enough elastic force. For the formation of two disk chain occurred at higher values of the elasticity number, it is either a tilted chain or a vertical chain. The tilted chain can be obtained for either that the elasticity number is less than the critical value for having the vertical chain or that the Mach number is greater than the critical value for a long body to fall broadside-on. Hence the values of the elasticity number and...

  10. Mass and heat transfer during water evaporation in laminar flow inside a rectangular channel - validity of heat and mass transfer analogy

    Boukadida, N. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. of Physics, Monastir (Tunisia); Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Dept. of Energetics (Tunisia)


    A detailed numerical analysis concerning the mechanism of heat and mass transfer during water evaporation in a two dimensional steady laminar flow of dry air or air-vapor mixture in a horizontal channel is studied. The gas is considered as absorbing, emitting and non-scattering medium with variable thermophysical properties. The results show the effect of different state variables on the coefficients of heat and mass transfer and the domain where the analogy between the heat and mass transfer is valid. They also show the effect of the thermal radiation on the ratio between Sherwood and Nusselt numbers. The comparison between the present results and those obtained in previous published studies [32-34] features to a satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  11. 通道内矩形涡对涡发生器强化换热的数值研究%Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Rectangular Winglet Vortex Generator Pair in a Channel

    张强; 王良璧


    用数值模拟方法研究了在矩形通道底壁安装矩形涡产生器对(RWP)时纵向涡对层流换热的影响。在雷诺数变化范围为500~7000,通道底壁安装RWP和不安装RWP两种情况下,比较了流体流动和换热性能。同时对涡产生器的高度和攻角对表面换热性能的影响也做了研究。结果表明:通道的底壁安装 RWP 可以显著提高换热性,雷诺数越大,换热性越强。随着涡产生器高度的增大,换热性增强,但阻力系数会急剧增加。当攻角为29°时,强化换热效果是最强的。%A numerical simulation is performed to investigate the effect of longitudinal vortices on the heat transfer enhancement of the laminar flow in a rectangle duct mounted with rectangular winglet pair (RWP)on the bottom wall.Reynolds number is defined in two times of channel height ranges from 500 to 7 000.The comparison of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics with RWP or without RWP is made.The effect of the height of vortex generator pair and its at-tack angle on heat transfer performance of channel surface is investigated.The results show that the case with RWP on the bottom wall of the channel can significantly enhance heat transfer.The larger Reynolds number is,the stronger heat transfer enhancement is.With increasing height of RWP,heat transfer is enhanced,but drag coefficient is sharply increased.The heat transfer en-hancement is the strongest when the angle of attack is 2 9 deg.

  12. 纵向涡发生器作用下矩形通道内流动换热性能研究%Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristic in Rectangular Channel With Longitudinal Vortex Generator

    唐凌虹; 谭思超; 高璞珍


    In this study , the effects of three types of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) configurations on the flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel were investigated and analyzed by field synergy principle .The results show that the temperature of plate fuel assembly can be decreased and the critical heat flux (CHF) of the reactor will be increased .Compared by the performance evaluation parameter ,JF factor ,the results indicate that “common flow up”combined with ellipse pole configura-tion can bring about more enhancement of heat transfer at a modest expense of the addi-tional pressure-loss .%对渐缩式纵向涡发生器与椭圆支柱共同作用下矩形通道内的流动换热性能进行了研究,与渐缩式纵向涡发生器、渐扩式纵向涡发生器和光通道的流动换热性能进行了对比,并利用场协同原理对其换热机理进行了分析。结果表明:纵向涡发生器可增强换热,有利于降低加热板的表面温度,从而提高反应堆堆芯的C H F值。采用JF因子对各矩形通道的综合流动换热性能进行了比较,结果表明,渐缩式纵向涡发生器与椭圆支柱组合结构能以较小的阻力代价得到较大的换热效果,是一种理想的强化换热方式。

  13. an asymmetrically heated rectangular minichannel

    Strąk Kinga


    Full Text Available This paper discusses test results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel 1.7 mm in depth, 16 mm in width and 180 mm in length. The essential part of the experimental stand was a vertically oriented rectangular minichannel, which was heated asymmetrically with a plate made of Haynes-230 alloy. Distilled water was used as the cooling fluid. Changes in the temperature on the outer side of the heated plate in the central, axially symmetric part of the channel were measured using infrared thermography. Simultaneously, the other side of the heated plate in contact with the fluid was observed through a glass pane to identify the two-phase flow patterns. The one-dimensional model used for the heat transfer analysis took into account the heat flow direction, which was perpendicular to the direction of the fluid flow in the minichannel. The study involved determining local values of the heat transfer coefficient and generating boiling curves. The data for water were compared with the findings reported for the FC-72 fluid.

  14. 矩形通道干涸后过渡沸腾传热试验研究%Experimental Study on Post-Dryout Transition Boiling Heat Transfer ( ) Rectangular Channel

    李虹波; 陈炳德; 熊万玉


    在流动传热基础试验平台上进行了矩形通道干涸后过渡沸腾传热试验.对过渡沸腾的传热特性进行分析;对进口含汽率、质量流速、系统压力等各热工水力参数对过渡沸腾传热的影响进行试验研究.结果表明:干涸后过渡沸腾是一个不稳定的传热过程,壁面温度发生明显的脉动,过渡沸腾会引起质量流速和流道进出口压降等流动参数的脉动;进口含汽率的增加会导致过渡沸腾热流密度减小,壁面温度升高,传热系数减小;质量流速的增大或者系统压力的升高均会导致过渡沸腾热流密度增大,壁面温度降低,传热系数增大.%The experiment of post-dryout transition boiling heat transfer in rectangular channel has been carried out on the basic experimental loop of flow and heat transfer. The characteristics of the transition boiling heat transfer is analyzed. The effects of thermal-hydraulic parameters such as inlet quality,mass flow velocity,and system pressure on the characteristics of post-dryout transition boiling heat transfer are experimentally researched. The results show that the post-dryout transition boiling is unstable,wall temperature oscillates fiercely,and the mass flow velocity and pressure drop oscillate as also; the post-dryout transition boiling heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are decreased,but the wall temperature is increased with the increasing of inlet quality; and the post-dryout transition boiling heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are increased,but the wall temperature is decreased with the increasing of mass flow velocity or system press.

  15. Research on Turbulent Vibration of Double-Ends-Fixed Flexible Plate in Rectangular Channel%矩形通道中两端固定柔性单板湍流微振的研究

    赵玉静; 陆道纲; 李向宾; 刘丽芳; 李阳


    平行板燃料组件的流致振动特性研究对于保证核反应堆的安全可靠运行具有重要意义.本文将平行板燃料组件简化成-个在矩形通道中两端固定的柔性单板结构,研究其振动机理,为研究平行板燃料组件的流致振动特性奠定基础.利用加速度传感器等测得实验用铝板的固有频率和弹性模量,使用应变片和激光位移传感器测量平板在不同流速下的振动频率和位移.结果表明:在目前的实验条件下,平板的振动表现为-种由于湍流引起的复杂的随机振动;平板在水中的振动位移随流速的增大而变大;随着流速的增大,平板振动加剧,振动表现为低频成分减少,高频成分增加.%Research on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of the parallel-plate fuel assembly plays an important role in the reactor safety analysis.In this paper, the vibration mechanism of a simplified double-ends-fixed flexible plate in the rectangular channel was researched, which lays the foundation for the flow-induced vibration research on the parallel-plate fuel assembly.In the experiment, the natural frequency and actual elastic modulus of the plate were investigated with an acceleration sensor, and the relative vibrant frequency and displacement were measured by strain gauges and laser displacement sensor in different velocities.The results indicate that the plate vibration in the water behaves as a complicated turbulence-induced one.The higher the velocity is, the bigger the vibration displacement is.With the velocity increasing, the plate vibrates severely.The low frequency reduces, while the high frequency increases.

  16. Rectangular spectral collocation

    Driscoll, Tobin A.


    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  17. Walking droplets in linear channels

    Filoux, Boris; Hubert, Maxime; Schlagheck, Peter; Vandewalle, Nicolas


    When a droplet is placed onto a vertically vibrated bath, it can bounce without coalescing. Upon an increase of the forcing acceleration, the droplet is propelled by the wave it generates and becomes a walker with a well-defined speed. We investigate the confinement of a walker in different rectangular cavities, used as waveguides for the Faraday waves emitted by successive droplet bounces. By studying the walker velocities, we discover that one-dimensional confinement is optimal for narrow channels of width of D ≃1.5 λF . Thereby, the walker follows a quasilinear path. We also propose an analogy with waveguide models based on the observation of the Faraday instability within the channels.

  18. 中国先进研究堆矩形通道流场数值计算分析%Numerical Simulation of Temperature and Velocity Fields in Narrow Rectangular Channel for China Advanced Research Reactor

    周涛; 张记刚; 王若苏; 张亚培



  19. Study on Calculation Model of Onset of Nucleate Boiling in Narrow Channels%窄通道欠热沸腾起始点计算模型的分析

    张明; 周涛; 盛程; 傅涛; 肖泽军


    In the reactor engineering, narrow channels was used widely for its high power density,exceptional heat transfer and actual engineering requirements. The point of Onset of Nucleate Boiling(ONB) is the key point of boiling heat transfer in narrow channels. The point of ONB can directly influence the following flow and heat transfer characteristics in the reactor. Due to the special structure and complexity flow, the point of ONB in narrow channels are effected by many factors, which characteristics are not understood completely yet. Using B&R model, Su Shun-yu model, Pan Liang-ming model and Yang Rui-chang model, the heat flux of onset of nucleate boiling is compared and analyzed by taking water as the medium. And then the relationships of the heat flux with pressure, mass flow and wall temperature are obtained. Based on the differences of each model, the mechanisms for the main influence factors are suggested.%欠热沸腾起始点(ONB)是窄通道内沸腾传热的关键转变点,直接关系到其后的流动传热特性.窄通道内ONB点的产生受很多因素影响,目前对其特征的把握尚不完善.运用B&R模型、苏顺玉经验关系式、潘良明模型和杨瑞昌模型对以水为工质的ONB热流密度进行分析比较,得出其与压力、质量流速和壁面温度的关系曲线,进而根据各计算模型的差异,提出主要影响因素的作用机理.

  20. Random rectangular Graphs

    Estrada, Ernesto


    A generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) model is proposed by considering a set of points uniformly and independently distributed on a rectangle of unit area instead of on a unit square \\left[0,1\\right]^{2}. The topological properties, such as connectivity, average degree, average path length and clustering, of the random rectangular graphs (RRGs) generated by this model are then studied as a function of the rectangle sides lengths a and b=1/a, and the radius r used to connect the nodes. When a=1 we recover the RGG, and when a\\rightarrow\\infty the very elongated rectangle generated resembles a one-dimensional RGG. We provided computational and analytical evidence that the topological properties of the RRG differ significantly from those of the RGG. The connectivity of the RRG depends not only on the number of nodes as in the case of the RGG, but also on the side length of the rectangle. As the rectangle is more elongated the critical radius for connectivity increases following first a power-law an...

  1. An efficient rectangular plate element


    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  2. A wideband rectangular-ring textile antenna integrated with corner-notched artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plane

    Aun, N. F. M.; Soh, P. J.; Jamlos, M. F.; Lago, H.; Al-Hadi, A. A.


    This paper presents the design of a wideband artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) for operation in the Wireless Body Area Network Ultra Wideband (WBAN-UWB) mandatory channel 6. The proposed AMC is incorporated onto a rectangular-ring patch antenna for operation centered at 8 GHz with 2 GHz of bandwidth. The incorporation of the AMC improved the antenna reflection coefficient and impedance bandwidth, besides shielding the radiator against on-body detuning. The prototype is fully fabricated using textiles except for an SMA connector used for feeding. It is observed that the experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations, and bandwidth broadening is successfully achieved and validated.

  3. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail.

  4. Exciton and Biexciton Binding Energies in Rectangular Quantum Dots

    LIU Yong-Hui; KONG Xiao-Jun


    @@ In the effective mass approximation, using the variational technology and a method of expanding the wavefunctions of exciton in terms of the eigenfunctions of the noninteracting electron-hole system, we calculate the exciton and biexciton ground state binding energies for rectangular quantum dots (QDs). In the calculation, a three-dimensional Fourier expansion of Coulomb potential is used to remove the numerical difficulty with the 1/r singularity, and it considerably reduces the computational effort. Our results agree fairly well with the previous results. It is found that the binding energies are highly correlated to the size of QDs. The quantum confinement effect of spherical QDs about biexciton is obviously larger than that of rectangular QDs when the well width is narrower than 2.0aB.

  5. Power allocation and mode selection methods for cooperative communication in the rectangular tunnel

    Zhai Wenyan; Sun Yanjing; Xu Zhao; Li Song


    For the multipath fading on electromagnetic waves of wireless communication in the confined areas, the rectangular tunnel cooperative communication system was established based on the multimode channel model and the channel capacity formula derivation was obtained. On the optimal criterion of the channel capacity, the power allocation methods of both amplifying and forwarding (AF) and decoding and forwarding (DF) cooperative communication systems were proposed in the limitation of the total power to maximize the channel capacity. The mode selection methods of single input single output (SISO) and single input multiple output (SIMO) models in the rectangular tunnel, through which the higher channel capacity can be obtained, were put forward as well. The theoretical analysis and simulation comparison show that, channel capacity of the wireless communication system in the rectangular tunnel can be effectively enhanced through the cooperative technology; channel capacity of the rectangular tunnel under complicated conditions is maximized through the proposed power allocation methods, and the optimal cooperative mode of the channel capacity can be chosen according to the cooperative mode selection methods given in the paper.

  6. Instability of modes in a partially hinged rectangular plate

    Ferreira, Vanderley; Gazzola, Filippo; Moreira dos Santos, Ederson


    We consider a thin and narrow rectangular plate where the two short edges are hinged whereas the two long edges are free. This plate aims to represent the deck of a bridge, either a footbridge or a suspension bridge. We study a nonlocal evolution equation modeling the deformation of the plate and we prove existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior for the solutions for all initial data in suitable functional spaces. Then we prove results on the stability/instability of simple modes motivated by a phenomenon which is visible in actual bridges and we complement these theorems with some numerical experiments.

  7. Numerical Simulation on Flow-Structure Interaction for Flexible Plate in Narrow Flow Channel%窄流道中柔性单板流固耦合数值模拟

    张娟花; 陆道纲


    The plate-type fuel assembly is widely used in the design of the advanced reactor. It may occur the flow-induced vibration (FIV) when the fluid flows over the fuel plate in axial direction. At the same time, the FIV also influences the distributions of the flow. It forms a strong fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the plates and the fluid. The code developed in the research is for a single plate. It is based on physical component and body-fitted coordinate (PCBFC), and applies arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method to realize the grid moving. The distribution of the flow in the narrow channel was simulated. The numerical calculation was performed for the formula of beam vibration of the plate coupled with the pressure. This is a new method to simulate FSI for the flexible plate in a narrow flow channel.%板状燃料组件在先进核反应堆中得到了广泛应用.流体以一定流速轴向掠过平行板组件可能导致板的流致振动(FIV),而板的振动又会影响流场的重新分布,两者之间构成强烈的流固耦合(FSI)关系.针对板状燃料组件的FIV现象开发了计算程序.程序基于物理组成贴体坐标系(PCBFC),结合任意拉格朗日欧拉坐标法(ALE)实现网格的移动.本工作详细模拟了在窄通道中移动边界条件下流场的分布;数值求解板在流体压力下的梁式振动方程,从而实现窄流道中柔性单板流固耦合的数值模拟.

  8. On diffusion in narrow random channels

    Freidlin, Mark


    We consider in this paper a solvable model for the motion of molecular motors. Based on the averaging principle, we reduce the problem to a diffusion process on a graph. We then calculate the effective speed of transportation of these motors.

  9. A Microflow Cytometer with a Rectangular Quasi-Flat-Top Laser Spot.

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng


    This work develops a microflow cytometer, based on a microfluidic chip for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing and a binary optical element (BOE) for shaping and homogenizing a laser beam. The microfluidic chip utilizes sheath flows to confine the sample flow along the channel centerline with a narrow cross section. In addition to hydrodynamic focusing, secondary flows are generated to strengthen the focusing in the vertical direction. In experiments, the chip was able to focus the sample flow with cross sections of 15 μm high and 8-30 μm wide at 5 m/s, under the condition of the sample flow rates between 10 and 120 μL/min. Instead of using the conventional elliptical Gaussian spot for optical detection, we used a specially designed BOE and obtained a 50 μm × 10 μm rectangular quasi-flat-top spot. The microflow cytometer combining the chip and the BOE was tested to count 3, 5, and 7 μm fluorescence microbeads, and the experimental results were comparable to or better than those derived from two commercial instruments.

  10. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan


    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  11. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    Wang, Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.


    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is ˜ 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an ˜800 MV/m field on the diamond surface—provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  12. Processamento visual da forma: evidências para canais múltiplos de freqüências angulares em humanos Visual processing of form: evidences for angular narrow-band frequency channels in humans

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e comparar curvas de resposta do sistema visual humano para filtros de freqüências angulares de 1 e 4 ciclos/360º em coordenadas polares. Mensuramos 15 curvas para cada filtro com o paradigma de somação de resposta de supralimiar e com a participação de 5 voluntários adultos. Os resultados demonstraram somações máximas de limiar de contraste na freqüência de teste dos filtros angulares (1 e 4 ciclos/360º circundadas por inibições nas freqüências vizinhas às freqüências de teste de cada filtro. Estes resultados são consistentes com a existência de canais ou filtros angulares de banda estreita operando no sistema visual humano através do processo de somação ou inibição em faixa de freqüências específicas.The aim of this work was to characterize and to compare the response curves of the human visual system for angular filters of 1 and 4 cycles/360º defined in polar coordinates. We measured 15 curves for each filter with 5 adult volunteers using a supra-threshold summation method with a forced-choice paradigm. The results showed maximum summation effects at test frequencies for angular (1 and 4 cycles/360º filters surrounded on both sides by strong inhibition. These results were in agreement with the existence of channels or narrow-band angular filters operating in the human visual system either through summation or inhibition of specific frequency ranges.

  13. Head Discharge Relationship of Thin Plated Rectangular Lab Fabricated Sharp Crested Weirs

    S. A. Tekade


    Full Text Available Measuring open channel flows has been a major challenge at the field level. Because of the fact that the measuring devices are to be made from procedures and materials prescribed in standard codes. Weirs over a period of time had been used to measure discharges in open channel systems. But non-availability of standard material at village level proves to be a major bottleneck in implementing weirs as field measurement devices. The present experimental study is an attempt to prove the good hydraulic performance of weirs made of locally available metal sheets. That use of complicated material and machining is not necessary in the fabrication of rectangular weir. A discharge formula for the rectangular weir of different sizes is extensively studied. From the experimental study it is concluded that the Cd value for each weir is nearly same. Also material and slight variation in thickness has no effect on the Cd value in case of rectangular sharp crested weir.

  14. Broadband Slotted Rectangular Shaped Microstrip Antenna For WI-Max Applications

    Chandan Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available Many applications require very broadband antenna, but the narrow bandwidth of a microstrip antenna restricts its wide usage. The aim of this paper is to enhance the bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch antenna. For this purpose, we cut four slots in the proposed antenna. The dielectric substrate material of the antenna is glass epoxy FR4 having εr=4. 4 and loss tangent 0.025. The performance of the final modified antenna is compared with that of a conventional rectangular microstrip antenna. The designed antenna has two resonant frequencies 5.42 GHz and 5.70 GHz. So this antenna is best suitable for the Wi-Max applications. The designed antenna offers much improved impedance bandwidth 10.45 %. This is approximately two times higher than that in a conventional rectangular patch antenna (Bandwidth= 5.34% having the same dimensions.

  15. Regimes of Vorticity in the Wake of a Rectangular Vortex Generator

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    This paper concerns the study of the secondary structures generated in the wake of a wall mounted rectangular vane, commonly referred to as a vortex generator. The study has been conducted by Stereoscopic PIV measurements in a wind tunnel and supplementary flow visualizations in a water channel...

  16. Superconvergence for rectangular serendipity finite elements

    CHEN; Chuanmiao(陈传淼)


    Based on an orthogonal expansion and orthogonality correction in an element, superconvergenceat symmetric points for any degree rectangular serendipity finite element approximation to second order ellipticproblem is proved, and its behaviour up to the boundary is also discussed.

  17. Thermal Impedance of Rectangular Microwave Oven Linings

    SHIShang-zhao; XUFu-qiu; 等


    Amodel was preseted for calcultaing the thermal impedance of the insulation and refractory linings of rectangular microwave ovens,of which the oven cavity's dimensions are relatively small,while the linings re relatively thick.

  18. Demagnetizing effects in stacked rectangular prisms

    Christensen, Dennis; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden;


    A numerical, magnetostatic model of the internal magnetic field of a rectangular prism is extended to the case of a stack of rectangular prisms. The model enables the calculation of the spatially resolved, three-dimensional internal field in such a stack given any magnetic state function, stack...... configuration, temperature distribution and applied magnetic field. In this paper the model is applied to the case of a stack of parallel, ferromagnetic rectangular prisms and the resulting internal field is found as a function of the orientation of the applied field, the number of prisms in the stack...... a direct impact on the design of, e.g., active magnetic regenerators made of stacked rectangular prisms in terms of optimizing the internal field....

  19. Fluid in Rectangular Tank – Frequency Analysis

    Kotrasová Kamila


    Full Text Available Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquids. During earthquake activity the liquid exerts impulsive and convective pressures (sloshing on the walls and bottom of the rectangular tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of circular frequencies and hydrodynamic pressures developed during an earthquake in rectangular container. Analytical results of first natural frequency are compared with experiment.

  20. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  1. Evaluation of TEP Deaeration Tower Rectangular Flange

    WANG; Zhi-hao


    The rectangular flange is adapted in the heater of TEP deaeration tower(Fig.1).The rectangular flange is no-round type flange,the evaluation of which is worked on equivalent round flange method.Thecalculation is based on no-round type flange evaluation chapter in HGT 20582—2011 Steel chemical vessel strength calculation code.The loads on the flange are inner pressure,nozzle loads and seismic loads.The nozzle loads is

  2. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  3. Efficient, Narrow-Pass-Band Optical Filters

    Sandford, Stephen P.


    Optical filters with both narrow pass bands and high efficiencies fabricated to design specifications. Offer tremendous improvements in performance for number of optical (including infrared) systems. In fiber-optic and free-space communication systems, precise frequency discrimination afforded by narrow pass bands of filters provide higher channel capacities. In active and passive remote sensors like lidar and gas-filter-correlation radiometers, increased efficiencies afforded by filters enhance detection of small signals against large background noise. In addition, sizes, weights, and power requirements of many optical and infrared systems reduced by taking advantage of gains in signal-to-noise ratios delivered by filters.

  4. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    Sedgwick, Mark


    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  5. Capillary driven flow of polydimethylsiloxane in open rectangular microchannels.

    Sowers, Timothy W; Sarkar, Rohit; Eswarappa Prameela, Suhas; Izadi, Ehsan; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan


    The flow of liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Dow Corning Sylgard 184, 10 : 1 base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon microchannels, with and without a coating (100 nm) of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create microchannels with a range of widths (∼5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). Experimental PDMS flow rates in both PTFE-coated and uncoated channels were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates matched the predicted flow rates reasonably well when the channel aspect ratio (width to depth), p, was less than 2. For channels with p > 2, the observed flow rates progressively lagged model predictions with increasing p. The experimental data, including zero flow rates in certain high aspect ratio PTFE-coated channels, can largely be explained by changes in the front and upper meniscus morphology of the flow as the channel aspect ratio is varied. The results strongly suggest that meniscus morphology needs to be taken into account to accurately model capillary flow in microchannels, especially those with large aspect ratios.

  6. Correlates of Narrow Bracketing

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We examine whether different phenomena of narrow bracketing can be traced back to some common characteristic and whether and how different phenomena are related. We find that making dominated lottery choices or ignoring the endowment when making risky choices are related phenomena and are both as...

  7. Transmission-line analysis of an epsilon near zero tunneling circuit using a double ridge rectangular waveguide

    Kim, Byung-Mun [Gyeongbuk Provincial College, Yecheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyeok-Woo; Cho, Young-Ki [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae-Pyo [Kyungil University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a simple method for efficient modeling of the tunneling effect in an Epsilon Near Zero (ENZ) channel waveguide based on a transmission-line model. The proposed ENZ channel uses a double-ridge rectangular waveguide (RWG) and is located in the middle of the input-output standard rectangular waveguides (IORWG). The height of the channel waveguide is much smaller than that of the IORWG. The detailed design of the ENZ channel is presented, and the optimum length for tunneling phenomena is calculated. These theoretical studies highlight the substantial differences between this unique tunneling phenomenon and higher-frequency Fabry-Perot resonances. We perform a simulation for the designed ENZ channel by using a commercial FEM simulator. The simulated and the measured results for the fabricated ENZ channel structure are in good agreement.

  8. MHD and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid metal flow in rectangular ducts. Final paper

    Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hua, T.Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Araseki, Hideo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Liquid metal cooling systems of a self-cooled blanket in a tokamak reactor will likely include channels of rectangular cross section where liquid metal is circulated in the presence of strong magnetic fields. MHD pressure drop, velocity distribution and heat transfer characteristics are important issues in the engineering design considerations. Computer codes for the reliable solution of three-dimensional MHD flow problems are needed for fusion relevant conditions. This paper describes four benchmark problems to validate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and heat transfer computer codes. The problems include rectangular duct geometry with uniform and nonuniform magnetic fields, with and without surface heat flux, and various rectangular cross sections. Two of the problems are based on experiments. Participants in this benchmarking activity come from three countries: The Russian Federation, The United States, and Japan. The solution methods to the problems are described. Results from the different computer codes are presented and compared.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Flow Boiling in Parallel Mini-channels

    Wu, Wan.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Xia, J. J.; Wen, S.-Z.; Wang, Z.-R.; He, Z.-H.; Huang, Z.-C.


    Flow boiling in micro-channels and mini-channels has received significant attention due to its capability for dissipating highflux heat, especially in the thermal management of high precision electronics. A heat sink with narrow rectangular mini-channels is designed to investigate flow boiling in the mini-channels, including the effect of gravity. It contains 14 parallel channels with a cross section, of 1×4mm 2, of which the hydraulic diameter is 1.6mm. The cooling capability, the temperature uniformity, and the temperature stability of the flow boiling in minichannels are investigated with R22, with total mass flow flux ranges from 35 to 70kg/m 2s. The results show that the cooling capability of the heat- sink is up to 340W(˜ 3.0W/cm 2), and the temperature difference is below 4 ∘C(even down to 2 ∘C) on the heat sink. The temperature uniformity isn't quite sensitive to heat flux. The instability has not been observed in the present researches.

  10. Experimental Investigation of a Rectangular Airlift Pump

    I. I. Esen


    Full Text Available Hydraulic performance of an airlift pump having a rectangular cross-section 20 mm × 80 mm was investigated through an experimental program. The pump was operated at six different submergence ratios and the liquid flow rate was measured at various flowrates of air injected. The effectiveness of the pump, defined as the ratio of the mass of liquid pumped to the mass of air injected, was determined as a function of the mass of air injected for different submergence ratios. Results obtained were compared with those for circular airlift pumps using an analytical model for circular pumps. Effectiveness of the rectangular airlift pump was observed to be comparable to that of the circular pumps. Hydraulic performance of the rectangular airlift pump investigated was then described by a set of semilogarithmic empirical equations.

  11. Topology optimization design of space rectangular mirror

    Qu, Yanjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bei; Li, Xupeng


    A conceptual lightweight rectangular mirror is designed based on the theory of topology optimization and the specific structure size is determined through sensitivity analysis and size optimization in this paper. Under the load condition of gravity along the optical axis, compared with the mirrors designed by traditional method using finite element analysis method, the performance of the topology optimization reflectors supported by peripheral six points are superior in lightweight ratio, structure stiffness and the reflective surface accuracy. This suggests that the lightweight method in this paper is effective and has potential value for the design of rectangular reflector.

  12. Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction

    CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)


    Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.

  13. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E


    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  14. Lossy-Transmission-Line Analysis of Frequency Reconfigurable Rectangular-Ring Microstrip Antenna

    Bambang Setia Nugroho


    Full Text Available An analytical model for a frequency reconfigurable rectangular-ring microstrip antenna is proposed. The resonant frequencies and input impedance of the reconfigurable antenna are analyzed using a lossy-transmission-line (LTL model. By making use of Y-admittance matrices, a formulation for the input impedance is analytically derived. The structure of the frequency reconfigurable antenna consists of a rectangular-ring shaped microstrip antenna which is loaded with a rectangular patch in the middle of the rectangular-ring antenna and fed by a microstrip line. RF switches are applied to connect the load to the antenna in order to reconfigure the operating frequencies. By modeling the antenna into a multiport equivalent circuit, the total input impedance is analytically derived to predict the resonant frequencies. To verify the analysis, the model input impedance and reflection coefficient calculation have been compared with the full-wave simulation and measurement results. The proposed model shows good agreement with full-wave simulated and measured results in the range of 1–3 GHz.

  15. Residual stresses of thin, short rectangular plates

    Andonian, A. T.; Danyluk, S.


    The analysis of the residual stresses in thin, short rectangular plates is presented. The analysis is used in conjunction with a shadow moire interferometry technique by which residual stresses are obtained over a large spatial area from a strain measurement. The technique and analysis are applied to a residual stress measurement of polycrystalline silicon sheet grown by the edge-defined film growth technique.


    Xiao-yuan Qian


    Non-tensor product bivariate fractal interpolation functions defined on gridded rectangular domains are constructed. Linear spaces consisting of these functions are introduced.The relevant Lagrange interpolation problem is discussed. A negative result about the existence of affine fractal interpolation functions defined on such domains is obtained.

  17. Spin-Up in a Rectangular Cylinder


    cylinder by scaling as follows: I I IElt , and p = E’,X, 3.22 where we have scaled the radial and vertical flow to be higher order in Ekman number than the...two flow visualization systems, and the rectangular tank with prepared water. Fig- ure 4.1 is a schematic of this system, which we describe below.I I

  18. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas


    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  19. An Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Bending of Rectangular Plate

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sakiyama, Takeshi


    In this paper, a discrete method for analyzing the problem of elasto-plastic bending of a rectangular plate is proposed. The solutions for partial differential equation of rectangular plate are obtained in discrete forms by applying numerical integnltion. An incremental variable elasticity procedure has been used for the clasta-plastic analysis of the rectangular plate. As the applications of the proposed method, clasta-plastic bending of rectangular plate with four types of boundary conditio...

  20. Computation with narrow CTCs

    Say, A C Cem


    We examine some variants of computation with closed timelike curves (CTCs), where various restrictions are imposed on the memory of the computer, and the information carrying capacity and range of the CTC. We give full characterizations of the classes of languages recognized by polynomial time probabilistic and quantum computers that can send a single classical bit to their own past. Such narrow CTCs are demonstrated to add the power of limited nondeterminism to deterministic computers, and lead to exponential speedup in constant-space probabilistic and quantum computation. We show that, given a time machine with constant negative delay, one can implement CTC-based computations without the need to know about the runtime beforehand.

  1. g-Weak Contraction in Ordered Cone Rectangular Metric Spaces

    S. K. Malhotra


    Full Text Available We prove some common fixed-point theorems for the ordered g-weak contractions in cone rectangular metric spaces without assuming the normality of cone. Our results generalize some recent results from cone metric and cone rectangular metric spaces into ordered cone rectangular metric spaces. Examples are provided which illustrate the results.

  2. 熔融物与下封头间球形窄缝通道内 CHF理论研究%Theoretical Research of CHF in Hemispherical Narrow Gap Channel Between Molten Corium and Lower Head

    封坤; 田文喜; 巫英伟; 苏光辉; 秋穗正; 余红星


    严重事故下熔融物与下封头间球形窄缝通道的存在对于下封头结构的完整性有一定的积极意义。本工作通过理论分析,在汽液两相间逆向对流限制机理的基础上提出了球形窄缝通道内的CHF机理模型和预测关系式,预测结果与实验数据符合较好,验证了所建模型的正确性,并进一步分析了系统压力、熔融物半径、间隙尺寸等关键参数对临界热流密度的影响规律。利用本工作的预测模型对三哩岛(TMI-2)事故后堆芯熔融物特性进行了计算分析,结果表明,熔融物与下封头内壁面间的球形窄缝可有效带走堆芯余热,保证了下封头的完整性。%The existence of the hemispherical narrow gap between the molten corium and the lower head during severe accidents is very significative to the integrity of the lower head .Based on the counter current flow limitation between the vapour phase and liquid phase ,a mechanism model and a predicting formula of CHF in hemispherical narrow gap were proposed .The established model was validated by comparing the predicted results with the test data ,which showed good agreement between them .Furthermore ,the effects of key parameters including the system pressure ,the radius of molten corium and the gap size on the critical heat flux were also analyzed .Besides ,the accident of TMI-2 was also calculated by using the predicting formula .The results indicate that the narrow gap between the molten corium and the lower head can take away the afterheat of the reactor core effectively and ensure the integrity of the lower head .

  3. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    J. G. Joshi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  4. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Zhongping Li


    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Zp-Ofdm Scheme in Time Varying Underwater Multipath Channel

    Rehan Khan


    Full Text Available An experimental analysis to evaluate the practical suitability of the Underwater Acoustic (UWA communication scheme is the major aim of this study. Oceanic channel imposes two major challenges (i.e., multipath propagation and Doppler effects for underwater acoustic communication. Being fastest possible underwater information exchanger, OFDM is considered as the most viable option for mitigation of multipath. However, wideband nature of oceanic channel introduces severe Doppler shifts when dealing with OFDM subcarriers. Slight dynamics in a channel may cause overlapping of subcarriers such that entire signal can get completely distorted and sued as ICI (inter-carrier interference induced transmission. In this study, we are presenting the algorithm to rectify the effects of Doppler shifts and to make OFDM technique more robust and more feasible for underwater environments. This study assures the performance of Zero-Padded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (ZP-OFDM based communication system in dynamic channel conditions. Data transmission using various packets structures are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of ZP-OFDM scheme. The narrow rectangular water tank of acoustic lab, Harbin Engineering University is utilized as a dynamic aquatic channel. The experimental results endorse the successful performance and suggest ZP-OFDM as a viable choice for high-rate communications over dynamic and high multipath oceanic channels.

  6. Rectangular Wilson Loops at Large N

    Lohmayer, Robert


    This work is about pure Yang Mills theory in four Euclidean dimensions with gauge group SU(N). We study rectangular smeared Wilson loops on the lattice at large N and relatively close to the large-N transition point in their eigenvalue density. We show that the string tension can be extracted from these loops but obtain a shape dependence different from the prediction of effective string theory.

  7. On rectangular HOMFLY for twist knots

    Kononov, Ya


    As a new step in the study of rectangularly-colored knot polynomials, we reformulate the prescription of arXiv:1606.06015 for twist knots in the double-column representations $R=[rr]$ in terms of skew Schur polynomials. These, however, are mysteriously shifted from the standard topological locus, what makes further generalization to arbitrary $R=[r^s]$ not quite straightforward.

  8. Efficient Algorithm for Rectangular Spiral Search

    Brugarolas, Paul; Breckenridge, William


    An algorithm generates grid coordinates for a computationally efficient spiral search pattern covering an uncertain rectangular area spanned by a coordinate grid. The algorithm does not require that the grid be fixed; the algorithm can search indefinitely, expanding the grid and spiral, as needed, until the target of the search is found. The algorithm also does not require memory of coordinates of previous points on the spiral to generate the current point on the spiral.

  9. Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    Klaus-G. Hinzen


    Full Text Available Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.

  10. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    Pellenard, Bertrand


    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  11. Turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzle with a rectangular notch at the midspan

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Harima, Takashi; Osaka, Hideo


    The turbulent flowfield of turbulent jet issuing from rectangular nozzle (Aspect Ratio=12.5) with a rectangular notch at the midspan, has been investigated experimentally. Four aspect ratios of rectangular notch (NAR: Notch Aspect Ratio) used in this experiment were 2.5, 7.5, 12.5 and 165. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue, was kept constant 30000 (NAR=2.5 and 7.5), 15000 (NAR=12.5) and 13000 (NAR=165), respectively. Longitudinal mean velocity and turbulent intensities were measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (5 µm in diameter, 1 mm effective length) operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC), and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 80 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the attachment of a rectangular notch to the rectangular jet suppressed the development of the turbulent velocity scales near the jet centre in the upstream region for the cases of NAR≥7.5.

  12. Turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzle with a rectangular notch at the midspan

    Osaka Hideo


    Full Text Available The turbulent flowfield of turbulent jet issuing from rectangular nozzle (Aspect Ratio=12.5 with a rectangular notch at the midspan, has been investigated experimentally. Four aspect ratios of rectangular notch (NAR: Notch Aspect Ratio used in this experiment were 2.5, 7.5, 12.5 and 165. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue, was kept constant 30000 (NAR=2.5 and 7.5, 15000 (NAR=12.5 and 13000 (NAR=165, respectively. Longitudinal mean velocity and turbulent intensities were measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (5 µm in diameter, 1 mm effective length operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC, and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 80 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the attachment of a rectangular notch to the rectangular jet suppressed the development of the turbulent velocity scales near the jet centre in the upstream region for the cases of NAR≥7.5.

  13. Compressibility effects in the shear layer over a rectangular cavity

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin; Casper, Katya Marie


    we studied the influence of compressibility on the shear layer over a rectangular cavity of variable width in a free stream Mach number range of 0.6–2.5 using particle image velocimetry data in the streamwise centre plane. As the Mach number increases, the vertical component of the turbulence intensity diminishes modestly in the widest cavity, but the two narrower cavities show a more substantial drop in all three components as well as the turbulent shear stress. Furthermore, this contrasts with canonical free shear layers, which show significant reductions in only the vertical component and the turbulent shear stress due to compressibility. The vorticity thickness of the cavity shear layer grows rapidly as it initially develops, then transitions to a slower growth rate once its instability saturates. When normalized by their estimated incompressible values, the growth rates prior to saturation display the classic compressibility effect of suppression as the convective Mach number rises, in excellent agreement with comparable free shear layer data. The specific trend of the reduction in growth rate due to compressibility is modified by the cavity width.

  14. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  15. Buckling analysis of rectangular composite plates with rectangular cutout subjected to linearly varying in-plane loading using fem

    A Lakshmi Narayana; Krishnamohana Rao; R Vijaya Kumar


    A numerical study is carried out using finite element method, to examine the effects of square and rectangular cutout on the buckling behavior of a sixteen ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate $[0^\\circ /+45^\\circ /-45^\\circ /90^\\circ ]_{2s}$, subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loads. Further, this paper addresses the effects of size of square/rectangular cutout, orientation of square/rectangular cutout, plate aspect ratio(a/b), plate length/thickness ratio(a/t), boundary conditions on the buckling bahaviour of symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loading. It is observed that the various linearly varying in-plane loads and boundary conditions have a substantial influence on buckling strength of rectangular composite plate with square/rectangular cutout.


    潘良明; 何川; 辛明道; 吴小航


    The bubble behavior of subcooled R-12 flow boiling in the narrow channels with both doubleside and single-side heating was studied experimentally. Experimental settings are: a test-section heating length of 400 ram, a cross-section of 35 mm in width and 2ram in gap size, a mass flux of 700-1500 kg ·m-2·s-1 , a heat flux of 25-70 kW · m-2 and a pressure of 1.3-2. 0 MPa. A comparison was made in terms of the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) point and bubble characters with other flow pattern. The study found that with some appropriate modifications, the characteristics of double-side heating and single-side heating showed a better similarity.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in rectangular ducts

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.


    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a rectangular duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear materials attenuate sound more than linear materials except at high acoustic frequencies. The nonlinear materials produce higher and combination tones which have higher attenuation rates than the fundamentals. Moreover, the attenuation rates of the fundamentals increase with increasing amplitude.

  18. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco


    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  19. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco


    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  20. MHD and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid metal flow in rectangular ducts

    Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hua, T.Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Araseki, H. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokoyo (Japan)


    Liquid metal cooling systems of a self-cooled blanket in a tokamak reactor will likely include channels of rectangular cross section where liquid metal is circulated in the presence of strong magnetic fields. MHD pressure drop, velocity distribution and heat transfer characteristics are important issues in the engineering design considerations. Computer codes for the reliable solution of three-dimensional MHD flow problems are needed for fusion relevant conditions. Argonne National Laboratory and The Efremov Institute have jointly defined several benchmark problems for code validation. The problems, described in this paper, are based on two series of rectangular duct experiments conducted at ANL; one of the series is a joint ANL/Efremov experiment. The geometries consist of variation of aspect ratio and wall thickness (thus wall conductance ratio). The transverse magnetic fields are uniform and nonuniform in the axial direction.

  1. Hydrodynamic cavitation in micro channels with channel sizes of 100 and 750 micrometers

    Rooze, J.; André, M.; Gulik, van der G-J.S.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Rebrov, E.V.; Schouten, J.C.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.


    Decreasing the constriction size and residence time in hydrodynamic cavitation is predicted to give increased hot spot temperatures at bubble collapse and increased radical formation rate. Cavitation in a 100 × 100 μm2 rectangular micro channel and in a circular 750 μm diameter milli channel has be

  2. Constructal design for a rectangular body with nonuniform heat generation

    Feng, Huijun; Chen, Lingen; Xie, Zhihui; Sun, Fengrui


    Nonuniform heat generation models with constant and variable cross-section high-conductivity channels (HCCs) are built in this paper. The minimum dimensionless peak temperature (DPT) is taken as the optimization objective. Different from the models with uniform heat generation and constant cross-section HCCs built by Bejan (1997) and Ledezma et al. (1997), the model with nonuniform heat generation and variable cross-section HCC is more practical and can help to improve the heat conduction performance of a thermal system. The results show that for the rectangular first-order assembly (RFOA) with nonuniform heat generation, there exist both the optimal shape of the RFOA and the optimal HCCs width ratio, which lead to the minimum DPT. They are different from those with uniform heat generation. When the heat is nonuniformly generated in the RFOA, the minimum DPT of the RFOA with variable cross-section HCC is reduced by 12.11% compared with that with constant cross-section HCC. Moreover, the numerical results are also verified by the analytical method.

  3. Products of rectangular random matrices: singular values and progressive scattering.

    Akemann, Gernot; Ipsen, Jesper R; Kieburg, Mario


    We discuss the product of M rectangular random matrices with independent Gaussian entries, which have several applications, including wireless telecommunication and econophysics. For complex matrices an explicit expression for the joint probability density function is obtained using the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integration formula. Explicit expressions for all correlation functions and moments for finite matrix sizes are obtained using a two-matrix model and the method of biorthogonal polynomials. This generalizes the classical result for the so-called Wishart-Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble (or chiral unitary ensemble) at M=1, and previous results for the product of square matrices. The correlation functions are given by a determinantal point process, where the kernel can be expressed in terms of Meijer G-functions. We compare the results with numerical simulations and known results for the macroscopic level density in the limit of large matrices. The location of the end points of support for the latter are analyzed in detail for general M. Finally, we consider the so-called ergodic mutual information, which gives an upper bound for the spectral efficiency of a MIMO communication channel with multifold scattering.

  4. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho


    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals.

  5. Rectangular Laser Resonators with Astigmatic Compensation

    Skettrup, Torben


    An investigation of rectangular resonators with a view to the compensation of astigmatism has been performed. In order to have beam waists placed at the same positions in the tangential and sagittal planes, pairs of equal mirrors were considered. It was found that at least two concave mirrors...... are necessary to obtain compensation. Four-concave-mirror systems are most stable close to the quadratic geometry, although the symmetric quadratic resonator itself cannot be compensated for astigmatism. Using four equal concave mirrors, compensation of astigmatism can be obtained in two arms at the same time....... Usually several stability ranges are found for four-mirror resonators with pair-wise equal mirrors, and it is possible with these systems to obtain small compensated beam waist radii suitable for frequency conversion. Relevant formulae are given and several relevant examples are shown using simulation...

  6. Physics from Angular Projection of Rectangular Grids

    Singh, Ashmeet


    In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple, yet interesting problem, has both a scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work can interest undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential ap...

  7. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    M.N. Kirsanov


    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  8. Method and structure for cache aware transposition via rectangular subsections

    Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Gunnels, John A


    A method and structure for transposing a rectangular matrix A in a computer includes subdividing the rectangular matrix A into one or more square submatrices and executing an in-place transposition for each of the square submatrices A.sub.ij.

  9. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Razdolsky, A. G.


    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  10. Fluid Flow and Infrared Image Analyses on Endwall Fitted with Short Rectangular Plate Fin

    Kenyu OYAKAWA; Islam Md. DIDARUL; Minoru YAGA


    An experimental investigation is carried out to study fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics on the endwall fitted with arrays ( 7 × 7 ) of short rectangular plate fins of different pattern (co-angular and zigzag) for different pitch ratio. Experiments were conducted in a rectangular duct of 50 mm height for an air flow of Reynolds number ranged from 18750 to 62500 based on the equivalent diameter and air velocity of the duct. Infrared image analysis technique was employed to make clear the characteristics of local heat transfer coefficients on fin base, endwall and overall surface. Flow pattern around the short rectangular plates were visualized by inducing fluorescent dye in a water channel and longitudinal vortices were observed. Increasing the distance between plates in flow direction causes heat transfer enhancement for co-angular pattern, while decreasing the distance causes heat transfer enhancement for zigzag pattern. Zigzag pattern with pitch ratio 2 is found to be more effective in heat transfer enhancement than any other cases investigated.

  11. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.


    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  12. Barotropic wind-driven circulation patterns in a closed rectangular basin of variable depth influenced by a peninsula or an island

    B. V. Chubarenko

    Full Text Available We study how a coastal obstruction (peninsula or coastal island affects the three-dimensional barotropic currents in an oblong rectangular basin with variable bathymetry across the basin width. The transverse depth profile is asymmetric and the peninsula or island lies in the middle of the long side of the rectangle. A semi-spectral model for the Boussinesq-approximated shallow water equations, developed in Haidvogel et al. and altered for semi-implicit numerical integration in time in Wang and Hutter, is used to find the steady barotropic state circulation pattern to external winds. The structural (qualitative rearrangements and quanti2tative features of the current pattern are studied under four principal wind directions and different lengths of the peninsula and its inclination relative to the shore. The essentially non-linear relationships of the water flux between the two sub-basins (formed by the obstructing peninsula and the corresponding cross-sectional area left open are found and analysed. It is further analysed whether the depth-integrated model, usually adopted by others, is meaningful when applied to the water exchange problems. The flow through the channel narrowing is quantitatively estimated and compared with the three-dimensional results. The dynamics of the vortex structure and the identification of the up-welling/down-welling zones around the obstruction are discussed in detail. The influence of the transformation of the peninsula into a coastal island on the global basin circulation is considered as are the currents in the channel. The geometric and physical reasons for the anisotropy of the current structure which prevail through all obtained solutions are also discussed.

    Key words: Oceanography: general (limnology; numerical modeling - Oceanography: physical (currents

  13. Fano Resonance Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide-Coupled Double Rectangular Cavities for Plasmonic Nanosensors

    Zhidong Zhang


    Full Text Available A refractive index sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguides coupled double rectangular cavities is proposed and investigated numerically using the finite element method (FEM. The transmission properties and refractive index sensitivity of various configurations of the sensor are systematically investigated. An asymmetric Fano resonance lineshape is observed in the transmission spectra of the sensor, which is induced by the interference between a broad resonance mode in one rectangular and a narrow one in the other. The effect of various structural parameters on the Fano resonance and the refractive index sensitivity of the system based on Fano resonance is investigated. The proposed plasmonic refractive index sensor shows a maximum sensitivity of 596 nm/RIU.

  14. Features of two-phase flow patterns in horizontal rectangular microchannels of height 50 μm

    Ron’shin Fedor


    Full Text Available The horizontal microchannel with the height of 50 micrometres and width of 40 mm of a rectangular cross-section has been used to study two-phase flow. The classical patterns of two-phase flow in the channel (bubble, stratified, churn, jet, and annular have been detected. Experimental information allows us to define the characteristics of the regimes and to determine precisely the boundaries between the patterns of the two-phase flows.

  15. Gleason's Theorem for Rectangular JBW-Triples

    Edwards, C. Martin; Rüttimann, Gottfried T.

    A JBW*-triple B is said to be rectangular if there exists a W*-algebra A and a pair (p,q) of centrally equivalent elements of the complete orthomodular lattice of projections in A such that B is isomorphic to the JBW*-triple pAq. Any weak*-closed injective operator space provides an example of a rectangular JBW*-triple. The principal order ideal of the complete *-lattice of centrally equivalent pairs of projections in a W*-algebra A, generated by (p,q), forms a complete lattice that is order isomorphic to the complete lattice of weak*-closed inner ideals in B and to the complete lattice of structural projections on B. Although not itself, in general, orthomodular, possesses a complementation that allows for definitions of orthogonality, centre, and central orthogonality to be given. A less familiar notion in lattice theory, that is well-known in the theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan triple systems, is that of rigid collinearity of a pair (e2,f2) and (e2,f2) of elements of . This is defined and characterized in terms of properties of . A W*-algebra A is sometimes thought of as providing a model for a statistical physical system. In this case B, or, equivalently, pAq, may be thought of as providing a model for a fixed sub-system of that represented by A. Therefore, may be considered to represent the set consisting of a particular kind of sub-system of that represented by pAq. Central orthogonality and rigid collinearity of pairs of elements of may be regarded as representing two different types of disjointness, the former, classical disjointness, and the latter, decoherence, of the two sub-systems. It is therefore natural to consider bounded measures m on that are additive on centrally orthogonal and rigidly collinear pairs of elements. Using results of J.D.M. Wright, it is shown that, provided that neither of the two hereditary sub-W*-algebras pAp and qAq of A has a weak*-closed ideal of Type I2, such measures are precisely those that are the restrictions of

  16. 云南新生代农民工就业渠道不畅原因探析--基于昆明市的部分调查%The Research of the Reason that Cenozoic Era Migrant Workers from Yunnan Have Narrow Channels of Employment:Part Investigation in Kunming City

    董树; 周婷婷; 何珊


    The new migrant workers in Yunnan, a frontier place abundant in mountains and ethnic groups, have narrow employment channels with the characteristics of imperfect employment policies, local based and spontaneous migration, and tertiary industry-centered employment. The thesis aims to analyze the attributes to the characteristics from the perspective of registration system and a series of polices, with reference to their low intellectual level, poor skills as well as the less employment opportunities, so as to shed light on the coming policies.%作为集边疆、山区和民族于一体的云南,新生代农民工就业渠道呈现出就业渠道窄且就业机制不完善、以本土为主、主要集中于第三产业、以自发性转移为主要方式等特点,本文从籍制度及其衍生的一系列制度与政策、新生代农民工知识水平与技术技能相对较低以及获取就业信息渠道不畅等方面分析造成这些特点的原因,从而为制定相应对策提供参考。

  17. The problem of isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges

    C Erdem İmrak; Ismail Gerdemeli


    The examination of the exact solution of the governing equation of the rectangular plate is important for many reasons. This report discusses in exact solution of the governing equation of an isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges. A numerical method for clamped isotropic rectangular plate under distributed loads and an exact solution of the governing equation in terms of trigonometric and hyperbolic function are given. Finally, an illustrative example is given and the results are compared with those reported earlier. This method is found to be easier and effective. The results show reasonable agreement with other available results, but with a simpler and practical approach.

  18. Simulation of a Narrow Bandpass-Limited Satellite Channel


    3.2 was the first to be designed [36] and simulated. This linear phase filter is used as a baseline for comparison, especially with respect to...results for nonlinear phase filters . Its frequency response and the associated performance data for B/R = 0.69 and 0.46 are given in Figs, 10-12 of [37...A 1 01 a 0.88 • 076 10 12 (Eb/No»eff Fig. 3.6. BPSK performance for cubic- phase filter , bandpass limiter, random data, and balanced links (36

  19. Epidemic Spreading in Random Rectangular Networks

    Estrada, Ernesto; Moreno, Yamir


    Recently, Estrada and Sheerin (Phys. Rev. E 91, 042805 (2015)) developed the random rectangular graph (RRG) model to account for the spatial distribution of nodes in a network allowing the variation of the shape of the unit square commonly used in random geometric graphs (RGGs). Here, we consider an epidemics dynamics taking place on the nodes and edges of an RRG and we derive analytically a lower bound for the epidemic threshold for a Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) or Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model on these networks. Using extensive numerical simulations of the SIS dynamics we show that the lower bound found is very tight. We conclude that the elongation of the area in which the nodes are distributed makes the network more resilient to the propagation of an epidemics due to the fact that the epidemic threshold increases with the elongation of the rectangle. On the other hand, using the "classical" RGG for modeling epidemics on non-squared cities generates a larger error due to the effects...


    Awad D.S


    Full Text Available Deep drawing is a process for shaping flat sheets into cup shaped articles without fracture or excessive localized thinning. The complex deep drawing of thin metallic sheets is widely used during industrial material forming applications. It allows production of thin walled parts with complicated shapes such as automotive panels or structural parts. The process consists of the plastic deformation of an initial at blank subjected to the action of a rigid punch and die while constrained on the periphery by a blank holder. Conventional design processes for sheet metal forming are usually based on a empirical approach. However, due to the requirement of high precision and reliability in shaped parts, these methods are far away from a final and reliable solution. Nowadays, Finite Element Method (FEM is being gradually adopted by industry to envisage the formability properties of sheet metals. The design and control of a deep drawing process depends not only on the work piece material, but also on the condition at the tool work piece interface, the mechanics of plastic deformation and the equipment used. In this paper, rectangular cup component of EDDQ Steel and Mild Steel is simulated using HYPERMESH 11 by varying various process parameters.

  1. Flow Characteristics of Rectangular Underexpanded Impinging Jets

    Minoru YAGA; Yoshio KINJO; Masumi TAMASHIRO; Kenyu OYAKAWA


    In this paper, the flow fields of underexpanded impinging jet issued from rectangular nozzles of aspect ratio 1,3 and 5 are numerically and experimentally studied. Two dimensional temperature and pressure distributions are measured by using infrared camera and the combination of a pressure scanning device and a stepping motor, respectively. The variation of the stagnation pressure on the impinging plate reveals that a hystcretic phenomenon exists during the increasing and decreasing of the pressure ratio for the aspect ratio of 3.0 and 5.0. It is also found that the nozzle of aspect ratio 1.0 caused the largest total pressure loss pc/p0 = 0.27 at the pressure ratio of p0/pb, = 6.5, where pc is the stagnation center pressure on the wall, p0 the upstream stagnation pressure, pb the ambient pressure. The other two nozzles showed that the pressure loss pc / p0=0.52 and 0.55 were achieved by the nozzles of the aspect ratio 3,0 and 5.0, respectively. The comparison between the calculations and experiments is fairly good, showing the three dimensional streamlines and structures of the shock waves in the jets. However, the hysteresis of the pressure variations observed in the experiments between the pressure ratio of 3.5 and 4.5 cannot be confirmed in the calculations.

  2. Epidemic spreading in random rectangular networks

    Estrada, Ernesto; Meloni, Sandro; Sheerin, Matthew; Moreno, Yamir


    The use of network theory to model disease propagation on populations introduces important elements of reality to the classical epidemiological models. The use of random geometric graphs (RGGs) is one of such network models that allows for the consideration of spatial properties on disease propagation. In certain real-world scenarios—like in the analysis of a disease propagating through plants—the shape of the plots and fields where the host of the disease is located may play a fundamental role in the propagation dynamics. Here we consider a generalization of the RGG to account for the variation of the shape of the plots or fields where the hosts of a disease are allocated. We consider a disease propagation taking place on the nodes of a random rectangular graph and we consider a lower bound for the epidemic threshold of a susceptible-infected-susceptible model or a susceptible-infected-recovered model on these networks. Using extensive numerical simulations and based on our analytical results we conclude that (ceteris paribus) the elongation of the plot or field in which the nodes are distributed makes the network more resilient to the propagation of a disease due to the fact that the epidemic threshold increases with the elongation of the rectangle. These results agree with accumulated empirical evidence and simulation results about the propagation of diseases on plants in plots or fields of the same area and different shapes.

  3. FEM buckling analysis of quasi-isotropic symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates with a square/rectangular cutout

    Narayana, A. Lakshmi [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore (India); Rao, Krishnamohana [JNTUH, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, R. Vijaya [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalor (India)


    A numerical study was conducted using the finite element method to determine the effects of square and rectangular cutouts on the buckling behavior of a 16-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate. The square/ rectangular cutouts were subjected to uniaxial compression loading. This study addresses the effects of the size of the square/rectangular cutout, orientation of the square/rectangular cutout, plate aspect ratio (a/b), and plate length/thickness ratio (a/t) on the buckling behavior of the symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate under uniaxial compression loading. Buckling loads were computed for seven different quasi-isotropic laminate configurations [0 .deg. /+45 .deg. /-45 .deg. /90 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [15 .deg. /+60 .deg. /-30 .deg. /-75 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [30 .deg. /+75 .deg. /-15 .deg. /-60 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [45 .deg. /+90 .deg. /0 .deg. /-45 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [60 .deg. /-75 .deg. /+15 .deg. /-30 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [75 .deg. /-60 .deg. /+30 .deg. /-15 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [90 .deg. /-45 .deg. /+45 .deg. / .deg. 0 .deg. ]{sub 2s}. Results showed that the magnitudes of the buckling loads decrease with increasing cutout positioned angle as well as c/b and d/b ratios for plates with a rectangular cutout. The symmetrically laminated quasi-isotropic [0 .deg. /+45 .deg. /-45 .deg. /90 .deg. ]{sub 2s} composite plate is stronger than all other symmetrically analyzed laminated quasi-isotropic composite plates. The magnitudes of the buckling loads of a rectangular composite plate with square/rectangular cutout decrease with increasing plate aspect ratio (a/b) and plate length/thickness (a/t) ratio.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Rectangular Heated Pipe for Turbulent Nanofluid

    Hooman Yarmand


    Full Text Available Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM. The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.

  5. Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement in a rectangular heated pipe for turbulent nanofluid.

    Yarmand, Hooman; Gharehkhani, Samira; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza


    Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.

  6. Hydrodynamic resistance of confined cells in rectangular microchannels

    Khan, Zeina S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.


    Several microfluidic approaches have been developed to screen suspended cells mechanically in microchannels by exploiting characteristics that are linked to their individual mechanical properties. Typically changes in cell shape due to shear-induced deformation and transit times are reported; while these measurements are qualitative compared to more precise techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration their advantage lies in throughput, with the ability to screen hundreds to thousands of cells in a minute. We study the potential of a microfluidic cell squeezer to characterize the hydrodynamic resistance of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by measuring dynamical pressure-drop variations along a micrometer-sized channel. The hydrodynamic resistance of the cell introduces an excess pressure drop in the narrow channel which depends on the mechanical stiffness of the cell. We additionally visualize the cell size and assess the influence of cell size on the hydrodynamic resistance of each cell, demonstrating the capability of the microfluidic cell squeezer to yield the hydrodynamic resistance as a mechanical fingerprint of cells.

  7. Triple-band metamaterial absorption utilizing single rectangular hole

    Kim, Seung Jik; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak


    In the general metamaterial absorber, the single absorption band is made by the single meta-pattern. Here, we introduce the triple-band metamaterial absorber only utilizing single rectangular hole. We also demonstrate the absorption mechanism of the triple absorption. The first absorption peak was caused by the fundamental magnetic resonance in the metallic part between rectangular holes. The second absorption was generated by induced tornado magnetic field. The process of realizing the second band is also presented. The third absorption was induced by the third-harmonic magnetic resonance in the metallic region between rectangular holes. In addition, the visible-range triple-band absorber was also realized by using similar but smaller single rectangular-hole structure. These results render the simple metamaterials for high frequency in large scale, which can be useful in the fabrication of metamaterials operating in the optical range.

  8. Propagation of a Rectangular Pulse in an Anomalous Dispersive Medium

    HUANG Chao-Guang; ZHANG Yuan-Zhong


    The pulse with a rectangular envelop propagating through the caesium vapour with two gain lines used inthe Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu [Nature (London) 406 (2000) 277] experiment is studied. It is shown that there existsan obvious distortion for the pulse.

  9. On Short Cuts - or - Fencing in Rectangular Strips

    Altshuler, Yaniv


    In this paper we consider an isoperimetric inequality for the "free perimeter" of a planar shape inside a rectangular domain, the free perimeter being the length of the shape boundary that does not touch the border of the domain.

  10. Generalized regularity and regularizability of rectangular descriptor systems

    Guangren DUAN; Yan CHEN


    The notion of generalized regularity is proposed for rectangular descriptor systems. Generalized regularizability of a rectangular descriptor system via different feedback forms is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized regularizability are obtained, which are only dependent upon the open-loop coefficient matrices. It is also shown that under these necessary and sufficient conditions, all the generalized regularizing feedback controllers form a Zarisky open set. A numerical example demonstrates the proposed results.

  11. Evaluation of Double Perforated Baffles Installed in Rectangular Secondary Clarifiers

    Byonghi Lee


    Double perforated baffles in rectangular secondary clarifiers were studied to determine whether they contribute to producing high-quality effluents. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations indicated that bio-flocculation occurred at the front of the baffle and the longitudinal movement of the settled sludge was hampered whenever the clarifier had high inflow. Simulation results showed that the rectangular clarifier with the double perforated baffle produced an effluent with lower s...

  12. Kinetic narrowing of size distribution

    Dubrovskii, V. G.


    We present a model that reveals an interesting possibility for narrowing the size distribution of nanostructures when the deterministic growth rate changes its sign from positive to negative at a certain stationary size. Such a behavior occurs in self-catalyzed one-dimensional III-V nanowires and more generally whenever a negative "adsorption-desorption" term in the growth rate is compensated by a positive "diffusion flux." By asymptotically solving the Fokker-Planck equation, we derive an explicit representation for the size distribution that describes either Poissonian broadening or self-regulated narrowing depending on the parameters. We show how the fluctuation-induced spreading of the size distribution can be completely suppressed in systems with size self-stabilization. These results can be used for obtaining size-uniform ensembles of different nanostructures.

  13. Different localized states of travelling-wave convection in a rectangular container

    Li Guo-Dong; Huang Yong-Nian


    We have performed numerical simulations of localized travelling-wave convection in a binary fluid mixture heated from below in a long rectangular container. Calculations are carried out in a vertical cross section of the rolls perpendicular to their axes. For a negative enough separation ratio, two types of quite different confined states were documented by applying different control processes. One branch of localized travelling waves survives only in a very narrow band within subcritical regime, while another branch straddles the onset of convection existing both in subcritical and supercritical regions. We elucidated that concentration field and its current are key to understand how confined convection is sustained when conductive state is absolutely unstable. The weak structures in the conducting region are demonstrated too.

  14. "Credit Markets and Narrow Banking"

    Ronnie Phillips


    Maurice Allais's view that the credit created by fractional reserve banking is equivalent to counterfeiting has led him to recommend the separation of the depository and lending functions of banks. This proposal has recently been reintroduced by James Tobin and others under the term "narrow banking." Proponents cite the potential for enhanced safety of the payments mechanism and the elimination of costs associated with the preses system of Federal deposit insurance. This plan resembles the "1...


    苟晓凡; 杨勇; 郑晓静


    From the molecular current viewpoint,an analytic expression exactly describing magnetic field distribution of rectangular permanent magnets magnetized sufficiently in one direction was derived from the Biot-Savart's law. This expression is useful not only for the case of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk, but also for that of several rectangular permanent magnet bulks. By using this expression,the relations between magnetic field distribution and the size of rectangular permanent magnets as well as the magnitude of magnetic field and the distance from the point in the space to the top (or bottom) surface of rectangular permanent magnets were discussed in detail. All the calculating results are consistent with experimental ones. For transverse magnetic field which is a main magnetic field of rectangular permanent magnets,in order to describe its distribution,two quantities,one is the uniformity in magnitude and the other is the uniformity in distribution of magnetic field,were defined. Furthermore, the relations between them and the geometric size of the magnet as well as the distance from the surface of permanent magnets were investigated by these formulas. The numerical results show that the geometric size and the distance have a visible influence on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field.

  16. Computational modeling of flow and combustion in a couette channel simulating microgravity

    Hamdan, Ghaleb

    Theoretically a Couette flow in a narrow channel can be utilized to simulate microgravity conditions experienced by a surface flame due to the linear velocity profile. Hence, the Couette channel is a potential apparatus for the study of flame spread in an environment that recreated microgravity flow conditions. Simulated microgravity conditions were achieved by limiting the vertical extent over and under the flame to suppress buoyancy. This numerical study was done for a 2-D channel using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). This thesis is divided into two sections; the first is the study of Couette flow with a non-reacting cold flow in a finite length channel, a subject with surprisingly little past research, despite the ubiquity of "infinite" Couette channels in text books. The channel was placed in a room to allow for a better representation of a realistic channel and allow the flow and pressure field to develop without forcing them at the inlet and outlet. The plate's velocities, channel's gap and the channel's length were varied and the results of the u-velocity profile, w-velocity profile and pressure were investigated. The entrance length relationship with Reynolds number for a finite Couette Channel was determined for the first time - as far as the author knows - in order to ensure the flame occurs in a fully developed flow. In contrast to an infinite channel, the u-velocity was found to be nonlinear due to an adverse pressure differential created along the channel attributed to the pull force along the entrance of the channel created by the top plate a well as the pressure differential created by the flow exiting the channel. The linearity constant was derived for the one moving plate case. The domain consisted of a rectangular region with the top plate moving and the bottom plate fixed except for a few cases in which the bottom plate also moved and were compared with only one moving plate. The second section describes the combustion of a thin cellulose sample

  17. Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.

    Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W


    Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity.

  18. A study on the number of Hierarchical Rectangular Partitions of Order k

    Balachandran, Shankar


    Given a rectangle $R$, a Rectangular Dissection (RD) is a subdivision of $R$ into smaller rectangles by non-intersecting vertical or horizontal segments. Rectangular dissections are also called floorplans. In this paper we study the number of rectangular dissections which can be decomposed hierarchically. A rectangular partition is said to be a Hierarchical Rectangular Dissection (HRD) of order $k$ if the rectangular dissection can be obtained by starting from a single rectangle by embedding rectangular dissections of at most $k$ basic rectangles hierarchically. When $k=2$ this is exactly the class of guillotine rectangular dissections. Ackerman et al. proved that point-free rectangular dissections are in bijective correspondence with Baxter permutations. We characterize HRD-$k$, a sub-class of point-free rectangular dissections, based on the Baxter permutations corresponding to them. We provide a recurrence relation for the distinct number of HRD-$k$ with $n$ rooms by proving that they are in bijective corre...

  19. Experimental investigation of the two-phase flow regimes and pressure drop in horizontal mini-size rectangular test section

    Elazhary, Amr Mohamed; Soliman, Hassan M.


    An experimental study was conducted in order to investigate two-phase flow regimes and fully developed pressure drop in a mini-size, horizontal rectangular channel. The test section was machined in the form of an impacting tee junction in an acrylic block (in order to facilitate visualization) with a rectangular cross-section of 1.87-mm height on 20-mm width on the inlet and outlet sides. Pressure drop measurement and flow regime identification were performed on all three sides of the junction. Air-water mixtures at 200 kPa (abs) and room temperature were used as the test fluids. Four flow regimes were identified visually: bubbly, plug, churn, and annular over the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0.04 ≤ JG ≤ 10 m/s and 0.02 ≤ JL ≤ 0.7 m/s, respectively, and a flow regime map was developed. Accuracy of the pressure-measurement technique was validated with single-phase, laminar and turbulent, fully developed data. Two-phase experiments were conducted for eight different inlet conditions and various mass splits at the junction. Comparisons were conducted between the present data and former correlations for the fully developed two-phase pressure drop in rectangular channels with similar sizes. Wide deviations were found among these correlations, and the correlations that agreed best with the present data were identified.

  20. Spectral Narrowing in Semiconductor Microcavities

    La Rocca, G. C.; Bassani, F.; Agranovich, V. M.


    The notion of in-plane motional narrowing of cavity polariton (CP) lines has been recently considered ( D.M. Whittaker et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4792 (1996); V. Savona et al.. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4470 (1997). We point out that, in the presence of N>1 resonating quantum wells (QWs), the exciton component in a CP is coherently delocalized over all the individual QWs. Besides the two CP branches, also a dark exciton branch is present given by N-1 states similarly delocalized, but orthogonal to the cavity photon mode. If the QW disorder potential is weak compared to the Rabi splitting, it is seen by a CP as reduced by a factor 1/√N because of averaging along the cavity axis (G.C. La Rocca, F. Bassani, V.M. Agranovich, JOSA B 15), (1998). As for the in-plane motional narrowing, a simple scaling procedure shows that it would imply that the inhomogeneous linewidth of a CP be reduced by about four orders of magnitude compared to a QW exciton, which is incompatible with the experimental observations. The physical reason of such a shortcoming is that the disorder introduces localized exciton states which can resonantly scatter CPs, mixing them with states having a large k vector as well as with dark exciton states.

  1. Knight’s Tours on Rectangular Chessboards Using External Squares

    Grady Bullington


    Full Text Available The classic puzzle of finding a closed knight’s tour on a chessboard consists of moving a knight from square to square in such a way that it lands on every square once and returns to its starting point. The 8 × 8 chessboard can easily be extended to rectangular boards, and in 1991, A. Schwenk characterized all rectangular boards that have a closed knight’s tour. More recently, Demaio and Hippchen investigated the impossible boards and determined the fewest number of squares that must be removed from a rectangular board so that the remaining board has a closed knight’s tour. In this paper we define an extended closed knight’s tour for a rectangular chessboard as a closed knight’s tour that includes all squares of the board and possibly additional squares beyond the boundaries of the board and answer the following question: how many squares must be added to a rectangular chessboard so that the new board has a closed knight’s tour?

  2. Factorization of differential expansion for non-rectangular representations

    Morozov, A


    Factorization of the differential expansion coefficients for HOMFLY-PT polynomials of double braids, discovered in arXiv:1606.06015 in the case of rectangular representations $R$, is extended to the first non-rectangular representations $R=[2,1]$ and $R=[3,1]$. This increases chances that such factorization will take place for generic $R$, thus fixing the shape of the DE. We illustrate the power of the method by conjecturing the DE-induced expression for double-braid polynomials for all $R=[r,1]$. In variance with rectangular case, the knowledge for double braids is not fully sufficient to deduce the exclusive Racah matrix $\\bar S$ -- the entries in the sectors with non-trivial multiplicities sum up and remain unseparated. Still a considerable piece of the matrix can be directly extracted and can be used as a base for new speculations and insights.

  3. A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak

    Islam, Sikder Sunbeam; Faruque, Mohammd Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul


    A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI) metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis) wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  4. Rectangular superpolynomials for the figure-eight knot

    Kononov, Ya


    We rewrite the recently proposed differential expansion formula for HOMFLY polynomials of the knot $4_1$ in arbitrary rectangular representation $R=[r^s]$ as a sum over all Young sub-diagrams $\\lambda$ of $R$ with extraordinary simple coefficients $D_{\\lambda^{tr}}(r)\\cdot D_\\lambda(s)$ in front of the $Z$-factors. Somewhat miraculously, these coefficients are made from quantum dimensions of symmetric representations of the groups $SL(r)$ and $SL(s)$ and restrict summation to diagrams with no more than $s$ rows and $r$ columns. They possess a natural $\\beta$-deformation to Macdonald dimensions and produces positive Laurent polynomials, which can be considered as plausible candidates for the role of the rectangular superpolynomials. Both polynomiality and positivity are non-evident properties of arising expressions, still they are true. This extends the previous suggestions for symmetric and antisymmetric representations (when $s=1$ or $r=1$ respectively) to arbitrary rectangular representations. As usual for ...

  5. Critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes



    This study examined critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes. It is shown that the critical submergence for an isolated intake can be predicted by disregarding whole boundary blockages on the complete imaginary critical sink surface that is the combination of imaginary complete critical cylindrical and hemi-spherical sink surfaces. It is proposed that this theory can be applied to the rectangular intakes located in general geometrical and flow conditions (i.e., intake in still water, circulation imposed flow, non-developedcross-flow, multiple intakes, etc.) and that it does not require computation of blockages caused from flow boundaries. The concept of complete sink surface (disregarding whole boundary blockages) developed for an isolated intake was also applied to dual rectangular intakes. The agreement between available test data and theoretical results was found to be satisfactory.

  6. Errors generated with the use of rectangular collimation

    Parks, E.T. (Department of Allied Health, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green (USA))


    This study was designed to determine whether various techniques for achieving rectangular collimation generate different numbers and types of errors and remakes and to determine whether operator skill level influences errors and remakes. Eighteen students exposed full-mouth series of radiographs on manikins with the use of six techniques. The students were grouped according to skill level. The radiographs were evaluated for errors and remakes resulting from errors in the following categories: cone cutting, vertical angulation, and film placement. Significant differences were found among the techniques in cone cutting errors and remakes, vertical angulation errors and remakes, and total errors and remakes. Operator skill did not appear to influence the number or types of errors or remakes generated. Rectangular collimation techniques produced more errors than did the round collimation techniques. However, only one rectangular collimation technique generated significantly more remakes than the other techniques.

  7. Design of omnidirectional and multiple channeled filters using one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a defect layer with a negative refractive index.

    Xu, Kun-Yuan; Zheng, Xiguang; Li, Cai-Lian; She, Wei-Long


    The band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a defect layer with a negative refractive index are studied, showing that the defect modes possess three types of dispersion: positive, zero, and negative types. Based on these three types of dispersion, practical designs for large incident angle filters without polarization effect and for narrow frequency and sharp angular filters are suggested. Moreover, the splitting of one degenerate defect mode into multiple defect modes is observed in the band gap when the parameters of the defect layer vary. This mode splitting phenomenon can be used to design multiple channeled filters or filters with a rectangular profile. The dispersion multiplicity of the defect modes can be understood by an approximate formula, and the critical condition for the defect mode splitting is also analyzed. Based on these analyses, practical optimization design of omnidirectional filter is also suggested.

  8. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue


    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  9. Subwavelength rectangular cavity partially filled with left-handed materials

    Jiang Tian; Chen Yan; Feng Yi-Jun


    In this paper, we present the electromagnetic analysis of a rectangular cavity partially filled with a left-handed material slab. Our theoretical investigation shows that there exist novel resonant modes in the cavity, and such a cavity becomes a subwavelength cavity. The eigenvalue equation of the cavity is derived and the resonant frequencies of the novel modes are calculated by using numerical simulation. We also discuss the stability of the novel resonant modes and show the best condition under which a useful rectangular cavity of subwavelength dimensions with tolerable stability is obtained.

  10. A modified adaptive compensation scheme for nonlinear bandlimited satellite channels

    Feng, Gang; Li, Le-Min; Wu, Shi-Qi

    The authors propose a modified algorithm for an adaptive predistorter (APD) to compensate for the nonlinear distortion encountered in a satellite channel. They describe a recursive algorithm for an APD in rectangular coordinates and give the structure for implementation of the algorithm. A modified recursive algorithm which is called the sign algorithm and the structure for implementation are proposed. Computer simulation results show that the sign algorithm is effective for the compensation of nonlinear satellite channels. The modified algorithm is based on the rectangular representation of data symbols.

  11. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Abderraouf Messai


    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of channel and hillslope erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, 1992-95

    Gellis, A.C.


    Like many areas of the southwestern United States, the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, has high rates of erosion, ranging from 95 to greater than 1,430 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Erosion on the Zuni Indian Reservation includes channel erosion (arroyo incision and channel widening) and hillslope (sheetwash) erosion. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 3-year (1992-95) study on channel erosion and hillslope erosion in the portion of the Rio Nutria watershed that drains entirely within the Zuni Indian Reservation. Results of the study can be used by the Zuni Tribe to develop a plan for watershed rehabilitation. Channel changes, gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined to characterize and evaluate channel erosion in the Rio Nutria watershed. Channel cross-sectional changes included width, depth, width-to-depth ratio, area, and geometry. Relative rates of gully growth, headcuts, and changes in dirt roads over time were examined using aerial photographs. Results of resurveys conducted between 1992 and 1994 of 85 channel cross sections indicated aggradation of 72 percent of cross sections in three subbasins of the Rio Nutria watershed. Forty-eight percent of resurveyed cross sections showed an increase in cross-sectional area and erosion; nine of these are in tributaries. Some channels (43 percent) aggraded and increased in cross-sectional area. This increase in cross- sectional area is due mostly to widening. Channel widening is a more pervasive form of erosion than channel scour on the Zuni Indian Reservation. The tops of channels widened in 67 percent and the bottoms of channels widened in 44 percent of resurveyed cross sections. Narrow, deep triangular channels are more erosive than rectangular cross sections. Five land-cover types--three sites on mixed-grass pasture, two sites on sites on unchained pi?on and juniper, one site on sagebrush, one site on ponderosa pine, and two sites on chained pi?on and juniper

  13. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

    Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

    Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the

  14. Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia

    Ghosh, P K; Marchesoni, F; Nori, F; Schmid, G; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021112


    The transport of suspended Brownian particles dc-driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. Being such a diffusion length inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility and diffusivity, markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.

  15. Modelling of laminar flow in the inlet section of rectangular microchannels

    Martinelli, Matteo; Viktorov, Vladimir


    This paper is a study of laminar flow in rectangular microchannels. The behaviour of compressible and incompressible fluids in microchannels was simulated using CFD software. Numerical data were compared to experimental measurements to test the validity of CFD models. The velocity profile of flow developing inside the channel is described as a function of the Reynolds number Re, varying from 100 to 2000, and the aspect ratio h/w, ranging from 1 to 0.125. The fundamental importance of the entrance length of microchannels is highlighted. Numerical data were applied to define analytical formulae covering the minimum entrance length for fully developed laminar flow of compressible fluids, viscous stress and incremental pressure drop effect during flow development, and the velocity profiles of flow for compressible and incompressible fluids.

  16. Experimental study of developing turbulent flow and heat transfer in ribbed convergent/divergent rectangular ducts

    Karthikeyan Sivakumar


    Full Text Available The article represents an experimental investigation of friction and heat transfer characteristics of divergent / convergent rectangular ducts with an inclination angle of 1˚ in the y-axis. Measurements were taken for a convergent / divergent rectangular duct of aspect ratio AR at inlet1.25 and outlet in convergent channel 1.35; but in case of divergent duct it can be reversed. The four uniform rib heights, e = 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm the ratio between rib height to hydraulic mean diameter (e/Dm are 34.8, 69.7, 104.6 and 138.7 a constant rib pitch distance, P = 60 mm has been used. The flow rate in terms of average Reynolds number based on the hydraulic mean diameter (Dm is 86 mm of the channel was in a range of 20,000 to 50,000. The two ceramic heating strip of 10 mm thickness is used as a heating element have attached on top and bottom surfaces for the test sections. The heat transfer performance of the divergent / convergent ducts for 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm ribs was conducted under identical mass flow rate based on the Reynolds number. In our experiments has totally 8 different ducts were used. In addition, the acceleration / deceleration caused by the cross section area, the divergent duct generally shows enhanced heat transfer behavior for four different rib sizes, while the convergent duct has an appreciable reduction in heat transfer performance. From result point view divergent duct with 3 mm height ribbed square duct gets maximum heat transfer coefficient with minimum friction loss over the other convergent / divergent ducts.

  17. Compression analysis of rectangular elastic layers bonded between rigid plates

    Hsiang-Chuan Tsai [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Construction Engineering


    An elastic layer bonded between two rigid plates has higher compression stiffness than the elastic layer without bonding. While the finite element method can be applied to calculate the stiffness, the compression stiffness of bonded rectangular layers derived through a theoretical approach in this paper provides a convenient way for parametric study. Based on two kinematics assumptions, the governing equation for the mean pressure is derived from the equilibrium equations. Using the approximate shear boundary condition, the mean pressure is solved and the compression stiffness of the bonded rectangular layer is then established in an explicit single-series form. Through the solved pressure, the horizontal displacements are derived from the corresponding equilibrium equations, from which the shear stress on the bonding surface can be found. It is found that the effect of the rectangular aspect on the compression stiffness is significant only when Poisson's ratio is near 0.5. For the smaller Poisson's ratio, the compression stiffness of the rectangular layer can be approximated by the formula for the infinite-strip layer of the same shape factor. (author)

  18. Large-N string tension from rectangular Wilson loops

    Lohmayer, Robert


    In pure SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions, we determine the string tension at large N from smeared rectangular Wilson loops on the lattice. We learn how well loops of sizes barely on the strong-coupling side of the large-N transition in their eigenvalue distribution can be described by effective string theory.

  19. Calculations of circular waveguide with a rectangular metal insert.

    Yu. K. Sydoruk


    Full Text Available Calculated and analyzed the basic parameters of electromagnetic wave in a circular waveguide with a rectangular metal plate in the following cases: when  the circular waveguide without metal plate for a H11 wave of subcritical, critical and supercritical. For calculations was used a finite element method and Ansoft HFSS program.

  20. Numerical simulation of small section rectangular tube in parallel welding


    The welding temperature field and deformation of parallel arrangement small-section rectangular tubes is calculated by using a non-contact model. After comparing the computed results with the experimentally measured results, it shows that there exist big errors when applying this model to the numerical simulation of small-section rectangular tube's welding temperature field and deformation. Based on a simple analysis of the errors, a contact model is presented. The heat transfer and stress analysis between small-section rectangular tubes and clamping fixture are simulated by using direct constraints method, and then the laws of the temperature distribution, which coincide with experiment, are obtained. A further numerical analysis of the stress and deformation are made, it shows that a "T" shaped stress-field is formed in the vicinity of the weld. As the stress-field departs from the centroid of tubes', this leads to the small rectangular tubes not only have a longitudinal deflection, but also have a transverse bending and deformation.

  1. Evaluation of Double Perforated Baffles Installed in Rectangular Secondary Clarifiers

    Byonghi Lee


    Full Text Available Double perforated baffles in rectangular secondary clarifiers were studied to determine whether they contribute to producing high-quality effluents. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations indicated that bio-flocculation occurred at the front of the baffle and the longitudinal movement of the settled sludge was hampered whenever the clarifier had high inflow. Simulation results showed that the rectangular clarifier with the double perforated baffle produced an effluent with lower suspended solid (SS concentrations than the effluent from the clarifier without the baffle. To verify the simulation results, a double perforated baffle was installed in two of the 48 rectangular clarifiers in a 300,000 m3/d-capacity wastewater treatment plant. To study the effect of the baffle on solid removal, the effluent turbidity of the clarifier with and without the double perforated baffle was measured simultaneously. Experimental data showed that the double perforated baffle played a significant role in reducing effluent turbidity. The effluent turbidity reduction ratio with the baffle decreased when the Sludge Volume Index (SVI of the Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS was below 100 mL/g. The overall average reduction ratio was 24.3% for SVI < 100 mL/g and 45.1% for SVI > 100 mL/g. The results of this study suggest that double perforated baffles must be installed in secondary rectangular clarifiers to produce high-quality effluent regardless of the operational conditions.

  2. Relationship between room shape and acoustics of rectangular concert halls

    Klosak, Andrzej K.; Gade, Anders Christian


    Extensive acoustics computer simulations have been made using Odeon computer simulation software. In 24 rectangular rooms representing "shoe-box" type concert halls with volumes of 8 000 m3, 12 000 m3 and 16 000 m3 from 300 to 850 measurements positions have been analysed. Only room averaged...

  3. Free vibrations of rectangular orthotropic shallow shells with varying thickness

    Budak, V. D.; Grigorenko, A. Ya.; Puzyrev, S. V.


    The paper proposes a numerical-analytic approach to studying the free vibrations of orthotropic shallow shells with double curvature and rectangular planform. The approach is based on the spline-approximation of unknown functions. Calculations are carried out for different types of boundary conditions. The influence of the mid-surface curvature and variable thickness on the behavior of dynamic characteristics is studied

  4. Two-Dimensional Rectangular Stock Cutting Problem and Solution Methods

    Zhao Hui; Yu Liang; Ning Tao; Xi Ping


    Optimal layout of rectangular stock cutting is still in great demand from industry for diversified applications. This paper introduces four basic solution methods to the problem: linear programming, dynamic programming, tree search and heuristic approach. A prototype of application software is developed to verify the pros and cons of various approaches.

  5. Sound Radiation Characteristics of a Rectangular Duct with Flexible Walls

    Praveena Raviprolu


    Full Text Available Acoustic breakout noise is predominant in flexible rectangular ducts. The study of the sound radiated from the thin flexible rectangular duct walls helps in understanding breakout noise. The current paper describes an analytical model, to predict the sound radiation characteristics like total radiated sound power level, modal radiation efficiency, and directivity of the radiated sound from the duct walls. The analytical model is developed based on an equivalent plate model of the rectangular duct. This model has considered the coupled and uncoupled behaviour of both acoustic and structural subsystems. The proposed analytical model results are validated using finite element method (FEM and boundary element method (BEM. Duct acoustic and structural modes are analysed to understand the sound radiation behaviour of a duct and its equivalence with monopole and dipole sources. The most efficient radiating modes are identified by vibration displacement of the duct walls and for these the radiation efficiencies have been calculated. The calculated modal radiation efficiencies of a duct compared to a simple rectangular plate indicate similar radiation characteristics.

  6. Analysis of heat transfer and nanofluid fluid flow in microchannels with trapezoidal, rectangular and triangular shaped ribs

    Behnampour, Ali; Akbari, Omid Ali; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Ghavami, Mohammad; Marzban, Ali; Sheikh Shabani, Gholamreza Ahmadi; zarringhalam, Majid; Mashayekhi, Ramin


    In the present study, the effect of triangular, rectangular and trapezoidal ribs on the laminar heat transfer of water-Ag nanofluid in a ribbed triangular channel under a constant heat flux was numerically studied using finite volume method. Height and width of ribs have been assumed to be fixed in order to study the effect of different rib forms. Modeling were performed for laminar flow (Re=1, 50 and 100) and nanofluid volume fractions of 0, 2% and 4%. The results indicated that an increase in volume fraction of solid nanoparticle leads to convectional heat transfer coefficient enhancement of the cooling fluid, whereas increasing the Nusselt number results in a loss of friction coefficient and pressure. Also, along with the fluid velocity increment, there will be an optimal proportion between heat and hydrodynamic transfer behavior which optimizes performance evaluation criteria (PEC) behavior. Among all of the investigated rib forms, the rectangular one made the most changes in the streamlines and the triangular form has the best thermal performance evaluation criteria values. For all studied Reynold numbers, heat transfer values are least for rectangular rib from. Therefore, trapezoidal ribs are recommended in high Reynold numbers.

  7. Effect of shell drilling stiffness on response calculations of rectangular plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section under compression.

    Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo


    This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.

  8. Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope.

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D; Harmon-Jones, Eddie


    For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approach-motivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope.

  9. Effects of narrow plant spacing on root distribution and physiological nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize

    Wenshun Jiang


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the effects of plant spacing on grain yield and root competition in summer maize (Zea mays L.. Maize cultivar Denghai 661 was planted in rectangular tanks (0.54 m × 0.27 m × 1.00 m under 27 cm (normal and 6 cm (narrow plant spacing and treated with zero and 7.5 g nitrogen (N per plant. Compared to normal plant spacing, narrow plant spacing generated less root biomass in the 0–20 cm zone under both N rates, slight reductions of dry root weight in the 20–40 cm and 40–70 cm zones at the mid-grain filling stage, and slight variation of dry root weights in the 70–100 cm zone during the whole growth period. Narrow plant spacing decreased root reductive activity in all root zones, especially at the grain-filling stage. Grain yield and above-ground biomass were 5.0% and 8.4% lower in the narrow plant spacing than with normal plant spacing, although narrow plant spacing significantly increased N harvest index and N use efficiency in both grain yield and biomass, and higher N translocation rates from vegetative organs. These results indicate that the reductive activity of maize roots in all soil layers and dry weights of shallow roots were significantly decreased under narrow plant spacing conditions, resulting in lower root biomass and yield reduction at maturity. Therefore, a moderately dense sowing is a basis for high yield in summer maize.

  10. Effects of narrow plant spacing on root distribution and physiological nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize

    Wenshun; Jiang; Kongjun; Wang; Qiuping; Wu; Shuting; Dong; Peng; Liu; Jiwang; Zhang


    The objective of this study was to understand the effects of plant spacing on grain yield and root competition in summer maize(Zea mays L.). Maize cultivar Denghai 661 was planted in rectangular tanks(0.54 m × 0.27 m × 1.00 m) under 27 cm(normal) and 6 cm(narrow) plant spacing and treated with zero and 7.5 g nitrogen(N) per plant. Compared to normal plant spacing, narrow plant spacing generated less root biomass in the 0–20 cm zone under both N rates, slight reductions of dry root weight in the 20–40 cm and 40–70 cm zones at the mid-grain filling stage, and slight variation of dry root weights in the 70–100 cm zone during the whole growth period. Narrow plant spacing decreased root reductive activity in all root zones, especially at the grain-filling stage. Grain yield and above-ground biomass were 5.0% and 8.4% lower in the narrow plant spacing than with normal plant spacing, although narrow plant spacing significantly increased N harvest index and N use efficiency in both grain yield and biomass, and higher N translocation rates from vegetative organs. These results indicate that the reductive activity of maize roots in all soil layers and dry weights of shallow roots were significantly decreased under narrow plant spacing conditions, resulting in lower root biomass and yield reduction at maturity. Therefore, a moderately dense sowing is a basis for high yield in summer maize.

  11. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    A. Morozov


    Full Text Available Differential expansion (DE for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern–Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso–Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R=[rs], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  12. Performance of NBPE in Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna



    Full Text Available In this paper we use a rectangular microstrip patch antenna with fed patch contains four notches of equal Length and width (L×W and having one parasitic patch, to achieve dual band operation of proposed microstrip patch antenna, is analyzed using circuit theory concept. The theoretical and simulated results of proposed antenna are compared. The return loss of NBPE using rectangular microstrip patch antenna decreased and bandwidth at dual operating frequency 1.44 GHz & 1.80 GHz are increased at a substrate height of 1.6 mm. This paper shows the decreased in return loss & improves in Gain as well as bandwidth using NBPE. These structures are simulated using IE3D version 12.29 Zeland software incorporation.

  13. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Morozov, A


    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation $R$ is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of $3d$ Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil $3_1$ and for the figure eight knot $4_1$. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfil this program for all rectangular representation $R=[r^s]$, i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  14. Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot

    Morozov, A.


    Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R = [rs ], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.

  15. Sound equalization in a large region of a rectangular enclosure

    Sarris, John C.; Jacobsen, Finn; Cambourakis, Georg E.


    The work presented by Santillán [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1989–1997 (2001)] about equalization at low frequencies in rectangular enclosures is extended, and topics that remained unaddressed in the original study are treated in this paper. A modification is introduced to the original cost function...... the dependence of the limits of the zone of equalization on factors such as the damping constant of the modes of the enclosure, the number of sources, and the driving frequency. ©2004 Acoustical Society of America.......The work presented by Santillán [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1989–1997 (2001)] about equalization at low frequencies in rectangular enclosures is extended, and topics that remained unaddressed in the original study are treated in this paper. A modification is introduced to the original cost function...



    According to the differential equation for transverse displacement function of anisotropic rectangular thin plates in free vibration, a general analytical solution is established. This general solution, composed of the composite solutions of trigonometric function and hyperbolic function, can satisfy the problem of arbitrary boundary conditions along four edges. The algebraic polynomial with double sine series solutions can also satisfy the problem of boundary conditions at four corners. Consequently, this general solution can be used to solve the vibration problem of anisotropic rectangular plates with arbitrary boundaries accurately. The integral constants can be determined by boundary conditions of four edges and four corners. Each natural frequency and vibration mode can be solved by the determinate of coefficient matrix from the homogeneous linear algebraic equations equal to zero. For example, a composite symmetric angle ply laminated plate with four edges clamped has been calculated and discussed.

  17. Characterizing octagonal and rectangular fibers for MAROON-X

    Sutherland, Adam P; Miller, Katrina R; Seifahrt, Andreas; Bean, Jacob L


    We report on the scrambling performance and focal-ratio-degradation (FRD) of various octagonal and rectangular fibers considered for MAROON-X. Our measurements demonstrate the detrimental effect of thin claddings on the FRD of octagonal and rectangular fibers and that stress induced at the connectors can further increase the FRD. We find that fibers with a thick, round cladding show low FRD. We further demonstrate that the scrambling behavior of non-circular fibers is often complex and introduce a new metric to fully capture non-linear scrambling performance, leading to much lower scrambling gain values than are typically reported in the literature (<1000 compared to 10,000 or more). We find that scrambling gain measurements for small-core, non-circular fibers are often speckle dominated if the fiber is not agitated.

  18. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Biao Li


    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  19. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Kanak Kalita


    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  20. Electronic structure of rectangular HgTe quantum dots

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Ji


    We theoretically investigate the single- and few-electron ground-states properties of HgTe topological insulator quantum dots with rectangular hard-wall confining potential using configuration interaction method. For the case of single electron, the edge states is robust against the deformation from a square quantum dot to a rectangular ones, in contrast to the bulk states, the energy gap of the QDs increased due to the coupling of the opposite edge states; for the case of few electrons, the electrons first fill the edge states in the bulk band gap and the addition energy exhibit universal even-odd oscillation due to the shape-independent two-fold degeneracy of the edge states. The size of this edge shell can be controlled by tuning the dot size, shape or the bulk band gap via lateral or vertical electric gating respectively of the HgTe quantum dot.

  1. Study on dryout point in vertical narrow annuli

    TIAN Wen-Xi; AYE Myint; QIU Sui-Zheng; JIA Dou-Nan


    Prediction of dryout point is experimentally investigated with deionized water upflowing through narrow annular channel with 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm gap respectively. The annulus with narrow gap is bilaterally heated by AC current power supply. The experimental conditions covered a range of pressure from 0.8 to 3.5 MPa, mass flux of 26.6 to 68.8 kg·m-2·s-1 and wall heat flux of 5 to 50 kW·m-2. The location of dryout is obtained by observing a sudden rise in surface temperature. Kutateladze correlation is cited and modified to predict the location of dryout and proved to be not a proper one. Considering in detail the effects of geometry of annuli, pressure, mass flux and heat flux on dryout, an empirical correction is finally developed to predict dryout point in narrow annular gap under low flow condition, which has a good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings

    Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.


    Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.


    孙卫明; 杨光松; 李东旭


    The Fourier series method was extended for the exact analysis of wave propagation in an infinite rectangular beam. Initially, by solving the three-dimensional elastodynamic equations a general analytic solution was derived for wave motion within the beam. And then for the beam with stress-free boundaries, the propagation characteristics of elastic waves were presented. This accurate wave propagation model lays a solid foundation of simultaneous control of coupled waves in the beam.

  4. Longitudinal slots in dielectric-filled rectangular waveguides

    Rengarajan, Sembiam R.; Steinbeck, Michael


    A rigorous analysis is conducted of a dielectric-filled rectangular waveguide, in whose broad wall a longitudinal radiating slot has been cut; the coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of a thick wall slot are solved by the method of moments. Attention is given to numerical results for the slot characteristics over a range of dielectric permittivity values. It is noted that the shunt admittance representation is poor for higher dielectric permittivity values.

  5. Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators

    Geerts, Jonathan Simon

    Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Anisotropic rectangular nonconforming finite element analysis for Sobolev equations

    SHI Dong-yang; WANG Hai-hong; GUO Cheng


    An anisotropic rectangular nonconforming finite element method for solving the Sobolev equations is discussed under semi-discrete and full discrete schemes.The corresponding optimal convergence error estimates and superclose property are derived,which are the same as the traditional conforming finite elements.Furthermore,the global superconvergence is obtained using a post-processing technique.The numerical results show the validity of the theoretical analysis.

  7. Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas

    Pozar, D. M.


    A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.


    Celal YILDIZ


    Full Text Available A very simple model for the input impedance of a coax-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna is presented. It is based on the cavity model and the equivalent resonant circuits. The theoretical input impedance results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This model is well suited for computer-aided design (CAD.

  9. Radiative transfer in rectangular enclosures - A discretized exchange factor solution

    Naraghi, M. H. N.; Kassemi, M.


    The discretized exchange factor method is used to analyze radiative exchange in a rectangular enclosure. The results compare excellently with those of other methods, especially the zonal method. Since the direct exchange factors are between nodal points no integration is necessary for evaluation of these factors. It is found that the present approach provides accurate results even when a small number of nodes is used.

  10. A projectile for a rectangular barreled rail gun

    Juanche, Francisco M.


    The Physics Department at the Naval Postgraduate School is developing a concept to overcome the problems that keep present rail guns from being practical weapons. The rails must be replaced often if the rail gun operation is to be continuous. Replacing the rails in present rail gun configurations is time consuming. The Physics Department's design concept uses a rectangular barrel as part of the solution to the problem of replacing the rails. The projectile will require flat surfaces to mainta...

  11. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    Rui Li


    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.


    Edgar González


    Full Text Available Numeric study of the rectangular billiards is approached from the context of the causal quantum theory.The conditions that make possible the existence of quantum chaos are verified, identifying irregularbehavior through criteria such Lyapunov exponents and power spectra. Quantum potential is determinedas well as Wigner and Ferry-Zhou potentials, analyzing the role they play in the expressions of quantumchaos and its correspondence in the classic limit.

  13. Partitioning Rectangular and Structurally Nonsymmetric Sparse Matrices for Parallel Processing

    B. Hendrickson; T.G. Kolda


    A common operation in scientific computing is the multiplication of a sparse, rectangular or structurally nonsymmetric matrix and a vector. In many applications the matrix- transpose-vector product is also required. This paper addresses the efficient parallelization of these operations. We show that the problem can be expressed in terms of partitioning bipartite graphs. We then introduce several algorithms for this partitioning problem and compare their performance on a set of test matrices.

  14. Flow dynamics and concentration polarisation in spacer-filled channels

    Lipnizki, Jens; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    The key to developing highly efficient spiral-wound modules is the improvement of the mass transfer mechanisms. In this study a study of the mass transfer has been carried out using a flat test cell with six permeate outlets and a rectangular feed channel. Using this experimental set-up, it has b...

  15. Why $\\Xi(1690)$ and $\\Xi(2120)$ are so narrow?

    Khemchandani, K P; Hosaka, A; Nagahiro, H; Navarra, F S; Nielsen, M


    The $\\Xi$ baryons are expected to be naturally narrower as compared to their non-strange and strange counterparts since they have only one light quark and, thus, their decay involves producing either a light meson and doubly strange baryon or both meson and baryon with strangeness which involves, relatively, more energy. In fact, some $\\Xi$'s have full widths of the order of even 10-20 MeV when, in principle, they have a large phase space to decay to some open channels. Such is the case of $\\Xi (1690)$, for which the width has been found to be of the order of 10 MeV in the latest BABAR and BELLE data. In this manuscript we study why some $\\Xi$'s are so narrow. Based on a coupled channel calculation of the pseudoscalar meson-baryon and vector meson-baryon systems with chiral and hidden local symmetry Lagrangians, we find that the answer lies in the intricate hadron dynamics. We find that the known mass, width, spin-parity and branching ratios of $\\Xi (1690)$ can be naturally explained in terms of coupled chann...

  16. Formation of wind-driven ice bridges in narrow straits

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.


    An ice bridge is a static arch made of tightly packed ice that can be formed when sea ice flows through a narrow strait between landmasses. The formation of a stable ice arch prevents the further flow of sea ice into warmer oceans, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the local climate and ecology and to an extent, the mass balance of Arctic ice. While ice bridges are a seasonal phenomenon in many parts of the Canadian Archipelago, the process of their formation and breakup is poorly understood. Using thin-layer theory along with dynamic sea ice models widely used in climate modeling, we develop a reduced-order description of wind-driven ice bridge formation in long, narrow straits. Our theory predicts a critical static condition for arrested flow that involves the ice properties (thickness and compactness), the geometry of the channel, and the magnitude of the wind stress. Further, we show that in a channel of varying shape and under a constant wind stress, a spatially uniform ice field evolves towards a steady state with discontinuities in its properties, consistent with observed mechanisms of ice bridge formation. The reduced-order model thus provides a predictive tool for the flow and stoppage of sea ice in straits.

  17. Ergodic channel capacity of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel

    ZHANG Hui-ping; WU Ping; LIU Ai-jun


    The theoretical capacity of the spatial correlated Rayleigh multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is an important issue in MIMO technology. In this article, an ergodic channel capacity formula of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel is provided, which is deduced when two antennas exist at either the transmitter or the receiver. The multi-dimensional least-squares fit algorithm is employed to narrow the difference between the theoretical formula capacity and the practical capacity. Simulation results show that the theoretical capacity approaches the practical one closely.

  18. Lightweight design of the rectangular mirror using topology optimization

    Xiang, Meng; Li, Fu


    That minimizing the mass of space optical remote sensor at the same time guaranteeing of structural rigidity and surface shape accuracy, became a new critical research topic. This paper achieves detailed design of meniscus rectangular lens body structure by taking the choice of materials, design of supporting structure and lightweight form of mirror into account. And we established lightweight concrete of the mirror under self-weight by the method of topological optimization design. For the optimization, we used a 3-D model of the rectangular mirror and calculated based on that making minimum weight of the mirror as an objective function constrained by the displacement of the mirror surface. Finally finite element analysis method was adopted to get the optimization results analyzed and compared with the traditional triangular lightweight model. Analysis results prove that: the new mirror is superior to the traditional model in surface accuracy and structural rigidity, PV value, RMS value and the lightweight rate. With enough high dynamic-static stiffness and thermal stability, this kind of mirror can meet the demand under the self-weight and the random vibration environment respectively. So this article puts forward a new idea in the lightweight design of rectangular mirror.

  19. Spectrum analysis of rectangular pulse in the atmospheric turbulence propagation

    Liu, Yi; Ni, Xiaolong; Jiang, Huilin; Wang, Junran; Liu, Zhi


    Atmospheric turbulence has a great influence on the performance of the atmospheric laser communication system reducing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increasing the bit error rate (BER). However, there is rarely study on the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the power spectrum of the rectangular pulse. In this paper, a spectral analyzing method is used to analyze the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the signal. An experiment of laser beam propagation characteristic is carried out on a 6km horizontal atmospheric link, the wavelength is 808 nm. The signal is 100MHz rectangular pulse. The waveform of the rectangular pulse is collected by the oscilloscope, and the power spectral density of the signal is calculated and analyzed by the method of periodogram. Experimental results show that the response and noise characteristics of the laser and photoelectric detector have a great influence on the signal power spectrum distribution which can increase the noise component in the 10^6 Hz frequency range. After the atmospheric turbulence propagation, the signal power decreases in the whole frequency range. However, as the existence of atmospheric turbulence, the signal power increases in the atmospheric turbulence characteristic frequency (tens to hundreds of Hz). The noise power increases in the high frequency range (10^7 10^8 Hz).

  20. Double-composite rectangular truss bridge and its joint analysis

    Yongjian Liu


    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel composite tubular truss bridge with concrete slab and concrete-filled rectangular chords. With concrete slab plus truss system and joints reinforced with concrete and Perfobond Leiste rib, double composite truss bridge proved to be a fairly suitable solution in negative moment area. Perfobond Leiste shear connector (PBL is widely implemented in the composite structure for its outstanding fatigue resistance. In this pilot bridge, Perfobond Leister ribs (PBR were installed in the truss girder's joints, which played double roles as shear connector and stiffener. An erection method and overall bridge structural analysis were then presented. Typical joints in the pilot bridge were selected to analyze the effect of PBR. Investigation of the effect of PBR in concrete-filled tubular joints was elaborated. Comparison has revealed that concrete-filled tubular joints with PBR have much higher constraint capability than joints without PBR. For rectangular tubular truss, the punching shear force of the concrete filled joint with PBR is approximately 43% larger than that of the joint without PBR. Fatigue performance of the joint installed with PBR was improved, which was found through analysis of the stress concentration factor of joint. The PBR installed in the joints mitigated the stress concentration factor in the chord face. Therefore, the advantages of this new type of bridge are demonstrated, including the convenience of construction using rectangular truss, innovative concept of structural design and better global and local performances.


    S. T. Aksentiev


    Full Text Available The paper gives description of physical pattern of liquid screen interaction that are injected from the internal walls of a rectangular channel with gas flow. Criterion dependences for determination of intersection coordinates of external boundaries with longitudinal channel axis and factor of liquid screen head resistance.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Rectangular Tubes with Protrusions

    Yonghui Xie


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics and heat transfer performances in rectangular tubes with protrusions are numerically investigated in this paper. The thermal heat transfer enhancement of composite structures and flow resistance reduction of non-Newtonian fluid are taken advantage of to obtain a better thermal performance. Protrusion channels coupled with different CMC concentration solutions are studied, and the results are compared with that of smooth channels with water flow. The comprehensive influence of turbulence effects, structural effects, and secondary flow effects on the CMC’s flow in protrusion tubes is extensively investigated. The results indicate that the variation of flow resistance parameters of shear-thinning power-law fluid often shows a nonmonotonic trend, which is different from that of water. It can be concluded that protrusion structure can effectively enhance the heat transfer of CMC solution with low pressure penalty in specific cases. Moreover, for a specific protrusion structure and a fixed flow velocity, there exists an optimal solution concentration showing the best thermal performance.

  3. CFD study on inlet flow blockage accidents in rectangular fuel assembly

    Fan, Wenyuan, E-mail:; Peng, Changhong, E-mail:; Guo, Yun, E-mail:


    Highlights: • 3D CFD and Relap5 simulations on inlet flow blockage are performed. • Transient effects are investigated by dynamic mesh technique. • Similar flow and power redistributions are predicted in both methods. • Local effects of the blockage are captured by CFD method and analyzed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional transient CFD simulation of 90% inlet flow blockage accidents in rectangular fuel assembly is performed, using the dynamic mesh technique. One-dimensional steady calculation is done for comparison, using Relap5 code. Similar mass flow rate redistributions and asymmetric power redistributions of the plate in the blocked scenario are obtained. No boiling is predicted in both simulations, however, CFD approach provides more in-depth investigations of flow transients and the thermal-hydraulic interaction. The development of flow blockage transients is so fast that the rapid redistribution of mass flow rates occurs in only 0.015 s after the formation of the blockage. As a sequence of the inlet flow blockage, jet-flows and reversed flows occur in the blocked channel. This leads to complex temperature distributions of coolants and fuel plates, in which, the highest coolant temperature no longer occurs around the channel outlet. The present study shows the advantage and significance of the application of three-dimensional transient CFD technique in investigating flow blockage accidents.

  4. Experimental study on convective boiling heat transfer in narrow-gap annulus tubes

    LI Bin; ZHAO Jian-Fu; ZHOU Fang-De; TANG Ze-Mei; HU Wen-Rui


    Since convective boiling or highly subcooled single-phase forced convection in micro-channels is an effective cooling mechanism with a wide range of applications, more experimental and theoretical studies are required to explain and verify the forced convection heat transfer phenomenon in narrow channels. In this experimental study, we model the convective boiling behavior of water with low latent heat substance Freon 113 (R-113), with the purpose of saving power consumption and visualizing experiments. Both heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were measured in subcooled and saturated concentric narrow gap forced convection boiling. Data were obtained to qualitatively identify the effects of gap size, pressure, flow rate and wall superheat on boiling regimes and the transition between various regimes. Some significant differences from unconfined forced convection boiling were found,and also, the flow patterns in narrow vertical annulus tubes have been studied quantitatively.

  5. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías


    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  6. Numerical calculations of the thermal deformations of the rectangular minichannel walls

    Piasecka Magdalena


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the thermal deformations of the walls of a rectangular minichannel. The distribution of temperature on the walls and the local coefficients of heat transfer between the heated wall and the boiling fluid were determined on the basis of the experimental data. The thermal deformations were examined for two vertical walls: a heated Hastelloy X plate and an unheated stainless steel plate. The heat conduction and displacement equations were solved numerically using Ansys Workbench software. The distributions of temperature and the thermal deformations of the walls were obtained by appropriately combining the software modules with the mathematical description of the physical phenomena occurring in the minichannel and introducing the boundary conditions and the experimental data. It was found that, for the predetermined thermal conditions and the assumed thicknesses of the minichannel walls, thermal deformations can be omitted from further analysis. However, it is important to note that, if the geometrical dimensions of the minichannel had been different, the difference in the temperature along the minichannel length would have resulted in changes in the minichannel shape, i.e. its local narrowing, a reduction in the heat transfer efficiency, and, finally, a local change in the fluid flow rate.

  7. 76 FR 57953 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...


    ... duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Turkey. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and... antidumping duty order covering light- walled rectangular pipe and tube from Turkey. See Preliminary Results... involved in the transaction. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and...

  8. A Narrow View of Reading Promotes Comprehension

    Alan G Kamhi


      In sum, embracing the narrow view of reading will promote differentiated assessment of reading and content-specific knowledge that will not only eliminate the reading crisis, but also focus attention...

  9. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    Chu, Junhao


    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  10. Narrow deeply bound K- atomic states

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.


    Using optical potentials fitted to a comprehensive set of strong interaction level shifts and widths in K- atoms, we predict that the K- atomic levels which are inaccessible in the atomic cascade process are generally narrow, spanning a range of widths about 50-1500 keV over the entire periodic table. The mechanism for this narrowing is different from the mechanism for narrowing of pionic atom levels. Examples of such `deeply bound' K- atomic states are given, showing that in many cases these states should be reasonably well resolved. Several reactions which could be used to form these `deeply bound' states are mentioned. Narrow deeply bound states are expected also in overlinep atoms.


    Pu QI; Gouting LIANG; Zangying SUN; Honghai QI


    In normal fluvial processes the river channel is determined by river flows while the movement of river flows is contained by river channels. The relationship between the river morphology and its bend curvature shows that rivers with large bend curvatures always have narrow and deep channels and those with shallow and wide channels are always straight. The plan form of a river reaches is determined by the cross-sectional morphology. A meandering river reach may be developed under various water-sediment conditions as long as the narrow and deep channels are formed.

  12. Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator

    S Das


    Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity configuration and type-II phase matching have been discussed for generating tunable narrow linewidth radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation process.

  13. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger


    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...

  14. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    G.E. Totten


    Full Text Available Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning of the upper teeth on the lower teeth. Wires that are subjected to incisor torque require high resistance and stiffness. For this, wires of rectangular austenitic stainless steel are used due to high modulus of elasticity and good corrosion resistance in the oral environment. Because of the rectangular geometry, wire production requires process development suitable for industrial scale manufacture with geometric characteristics and mechanical properties better adapted to the use conditions.Findings: To obtain wires with such characteristics, a rolling mill was developed for the production of rectangular wires by a rolling process with the objective of reducing cost of the cold drawing process that is currently used which utilize complex and expensive wire-drawing dies. In addition to the rolling process itself, wire deformation, microhardness, tension and bend tests were also performed.Research limitations/implications: A rolling-mill was built that successfully produced dental wires within acceptable tolerances and physical/mechanical properties.These wires exhibited excellent hardness and tensile strength, although slightly less than analogous commercial wires. It is expected that this problem are corrected by using initial wires with a higher hardness, since this property is directly related with the tensile strength.Originality/value: In these tests, wire geometry, surface finish and mechanical properties were successfully adapted for use in orthodontic

  15. Transient Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid-Metal Flows in a Rectangular Channel with a Moving Conducting Wall


    use of liquid metals for current collectors in homopolar motors and generators has led to the design of machines of superior performance. The steady...In some applications of homopolar generators it becomes necessary not only to start and stop the machines but also to operate them under oscillating...conditions. This could be the case in an application where a homopolar generator behaves as an extremely high energy capacitor. Therefore, one is

  16. Experimental study of subsonic microjet escaping from a rectangular nozzle

    Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.; Mukhin, K. A.


    The first experiments on the subsonic laminar microjets escaping from the nozzles of rectangular shape are carried out. The nozzle size is 83.3x3823 microns. Reynolds number calculated by the nozzle height and the average flow velocity at the nozzle exit ranged from 58 to 154. The working gas was air at room temperature. The velocity decay and velocity fluctuations along the center line of the jet are determined. The fundamental difference between the laminar microjets characteristics and subsonic turbulent jets of macro size is shown. Based on measurements of velocity fluctuations it is shown the presence of laminar-turbulent transition in microjets and its location is determined.

  17. Resonant Response of Rectangular AFM Cantilever in Liquid

    CHEN Yu-Hang; HUANG Wen-Hao


    Dynamic characteristics of atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers can be influenced by their working media.We perform an experimental study on the resonant responses of rectangular AFM cantilevers with different sizes immersed in various viscous fluids. The measured resonance frequencies in liquids are used to validate several theoretical models. Comparison shows the analytical model proposed by Sader [J. Appl. Phys. 84 (1998) 64] can give the best agreement with the experimental results with the maximum relative error nearly 16% for all the cantilevers in different liquids. The ratio between the resonant frequencies in air and water is almost independent of the cantilever length, which is consistent with the theoretical analyses.

  18. A Novel Rectangular Element for Piezoelectric Laminated Plates

    ZHOU Yong; WANG Xing-wei; SUN Ya-fei


    Based on the classical laminated plate theory, a novel finite element formulation is presented for modeling the static response of laminated composites containing distributed piezoelectric ceramic subjected to electric loadings. A four-node rectangular composite element with an additional voltage freedom per piezoelectric layer is implemented for the analysis. The element can predict more accurately the bending response of the structure because of its new displacement radixes. Numerical examples ere performed and the calculated data compare very well with existing results in the literatures.

  19. Rectangular and Circular Antenna Design on Thick Substrate

    kumar, Harsh


    Millimeter wave technology being an emerging area is still very undeveloped. A substantial research needs to be done in this area as its applications are numerous. In the present endeavor, a rectangular patch antenna is designed on thick substrate and simulated using SONNET software, also a novel analysis technique is developed for circular patch antenna for millimeter wave frequency. The antenna is designed at 39 GHz on thick substrate and has been analyzed and simulated.The results of the theoretical analysis are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  20. A New Fuzzy System Based on Rectangular Pyramid

    Jiang, Mingzuo; Yuan, Xuehai; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Jiaxia


    A new fuzzy system is proposed in this paper. The novelty of the proposed system is mainly in the compound of the antecedents, which is based on the proposed rectangular pyramid membership function instead of t-norm. It is proved that the system is capable of approximating any continuous function of two variables to arbitrary degree on a compact domain. Moreover, this paper provides one sufficient condition of approximating function so that the new fuzzy system can approximate any continuous function of two variables with bounded partial derivatives. Finally, simulation examples are given to show how the proposed fuzzy system can be effectively used for function approximation. PMID:25874253

  1. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis


    is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non......The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...

  2. Numerical prediction of wave impact loads on multiple rectangular beams

    Mayer, Stefan; Nielsen, Kristian Bendix; Hansen, E.A.


    corresponding to a wave impact scenario in the experimental database of Sterndorff [2002]. For the case of wave impact on a single structural element the numerical results show good agreement with measured force time histories. In the computations featuring two beams, the prediction of the shadowing effect......Wave impact on one and two structural beams with rectangular cross section is simulated with a two-dimensional finite volume method, solving the unsteady Euler equations and employing a VOF-type method for the description of the free surface. Four different test series are carried out, each...

  3. Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending

    Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining


    Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.

  4. 3-D LDA study of a rectangular jet

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Tatterson, Gary B.; Swan, David H.


    The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at an axial Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry. The flow field survey resulted in mean velocity vector field plots and contour plots of the Reynolds stress tensor components. This paper presents contour plots in the planes of the jet minor and major axes at different axial locations. These data contribute substantially to currently available data of jet flow fields and will provide a valuable database for three-dimensional modeling.

  5. Coupling effects in bilayer thick metal films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays

    Li Yuan


    Full Text Available The coupling effects in bilayer thick metal (silver films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain technique. Many interesting light phenomena are observed as the distance between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays varies. Coupling effects are found to play very important roles on the optical and electronic properties of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays: antisymmetric coupling between surface plasmon polaritons near the top and bottom film plane, and antisymmetric coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances near the two long sides of the rectangular hole, are probably excited in each layer of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays; antisymmetric and symmetric magnetic coupling probably occur between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays.

  6. Dean Instability in Double-Curved Channels

    Debus, J -D; Herrmann, H J


    We study the Dean instability in curved channels using the lattice Boltzmann model for generalized metrics. For this purpose, we first improve and validate the method by measuring the critical Dean number at the transition from laminar to vortex flow for a streamwise curved rectangular channel, obtaining very good agreement with the literature values. Taking advantage of the easy implementation of arbitrary metrics within our model, we study the fluid flow through a double-curved channel, using ellipsoidal coordinates, and study the transition to vortex flow in dependence of the two perpendicular curvature radii of the channel. We observe not only transitions to 2-cell vortex flow, but also to 4-cell and even 6-cell vortex flow, and we find that the critical Dean number at the transition to 2-cell vortex flow exhibits a minimum when the two curvature radii are approximately equal.

  7. Application of Rectangular Integral to Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Transients in Complex Pipeline Systems

    万五一; 毛欣炜; 崔秀红


    The hydraulic oscillation of surge tank was analyzed through numerical simulation.A rectangular integral scheme was established in order to improve the numerical model.According to the boundary control equation of surge tank, the rectangular integral scheme omits the second-order infinitesimal and simplifies the solving process.An example was provided to illustrate the rectangular integral scheme, which is compared with the traditional trapezoid integral scheme.Appropriate numerical solutions were gained th...

  8. Laminar Flow in Rectangular Channels. Part I: Entry analysis. Part II: Numerical Solution for a Square Channel.


    streamlinepa t te rn is unchanged. In the sur face bound~ry layers the secondary motion Isacce ntua ted or reduced as depicted in Fig. B . It I. evident f...stable even for relatively large values of A~ Finally, the pressure gradient in (11. 2) 18 updated by Newton extrapolation such that the mass flu x condi t

  9. Numerical Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Performance of Rectangular Heat Sink with Compound Heat Transfer Enhancement Structures

    Di Zhang


    Full Text Available Modern gas turbine blade is operating at high temperature which requires abundant cooling. Considering both heat transfer rate and pumping power for internal passages, developing efficient cooling passages is of great importance. Ribbed channel has been proved as effective heat transfer enhancement technology for considerable heat transfer characteristics; however, the pressure loss is impressive. Dimple and protrusion are frequently considered as new heat transfer augmentation tools for their low friction loss in recent years. Numerical simulations are adopted to investigate the thermal performance of rectangular channel with compound heat transfer enhancement structures with ribs, dimples, and protrusions. Among all configurations, the nondimensional dimple/protrusion depths are 0.2. The results present the flow structures of all channel configurations. The Nu/Nu0 distributions of channel section are discussed for each case. The pressure penalty f/f0 and the thermal performance TP are also considered as important parameters for heat transfer enhancement. It can be concluded that the optimal structure of the compound heat transfer enhancement structure is rib + protrusion (D = 6 mm + dimple (D = 15 mm.

  10. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  11. Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

    Ali, M.


    Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases.

  12. Oscillation of cylinders of rectangular cross section immersed in fluid

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Willcox, Michelle; Sader, John E.


    The ability to calculate flows generated by oscillating cylinders immersed in fluid is a cornerstone in micro- and nanodevice development. In this article, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the hydrodynamic load experienced by an oscillating rigid cylinder, of arbitrary rectangular cross section, that is immersed in an unbounded viscous fluid. We also consider the formal limit of inviscid flow for which exact analytical and asymptotic solutions are derived. Due to its practical importance in application to the atomic force microscope and nanoelectromechanical systems, we conduct a detailed assessment of the dependence of this load on the cylinder thickness-to-width ratio. We also assess the validity and accuracy of the widely used infinitely-thin blade approximation. For thin rectangular cylinders of finite thickness, this approximation is found to be excellent for out-of-plane motion, whereas for in-plane oscillations it can exhibit significant error. A database of accurate numerical results for the hydrodynamic load as a function of the thickness-to-width ratio and normalized frequency is also presented, which is expected to be of value in practical application and numerical benchmarking.

  13. Solution of non-rectangular plates with macroelement method

    Delyavskyy, Mykhaylo; Rosinski, Krystian


    New approach to static analysis of thin non-rectangular arbitrarily loaded plates, called the macroelement method, has been developed in this paper. Macroelement is a rectangular plate which entirely contains real plate. The mathematical model of macroelement was built. The equilibrium equations are performed for macroelement and boundary conditions are written on the line corresponding to contour of real plate in the nodes which are zero points of trigonometric functions, included in the macroelement model. The load is applied only to separate nodes on the surface of real plate, whereas the complement of a plate to macroelement is unloaded. Analysis of construction is reduced to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. The method provides better accuracy compared to finite element method and requires less equations. There is trapeze plate clamped at inclined edge and simply supported at opposite one considered in this paper. The other edges of the plate are free. Uniformly distributed load on the surface of real plate is taken into account.

  14. Simplified nonlinear theory of the dielectric loaded rectangular Cerenkov maser

    Zhao Ding; Ding Yao-Gen


    To rapidly and accurately investigate the performance of the dielectric loaded rectangular Cerenkov maser,a simplified nonlinear theory is proposed,in which the variations of wave amplitude and wave phase are determined by two coupled first-order differential equations.Through combining with the relativistic equation of motion and adopting the forward wave assumption,the evolutions of the forward wave power,the power growth rate,the axial wave number,the accumulated phase offset,and the information of the particle movement can be obtained in a single-pass calculation.For an illustrative example,this method is used to study the influences of the beam current,the gap distance between the beam and the dielectric surface,and the momentum spread on the forward wave.The variations of the saturated power and the saturation length with the working frequency for the beams with different momentum spreads have also been studied.The result shows that the beam-wave interaction is very sensitive to the electron beam state.To further verify this simplified theory,a comparison with the result produced from a rigorous method is also provided,we find that the evolution curves of the forward wave power predicted by the two methods exhibit excellent agreement.In practical applications,the developed theory can be used for the design and analysis of the rectangular Cerenkov maser.

  15. Numerical investigation of flow past a row of rectangular rods

    S.Ul. Islam


    Full Text Available A numerical study of uniform flow past a row of rectangular rods with aspect ratio defined as R = width/height = 0.5 is performed using the Lattice Boltzmann method. For this study the Reynolds number (Re is fixed at 150, while spacings between the rods (g are taken in the range from 1 to 6. Depending on g, the flow is classified into four patterns: flip-flopping, nearly unsteady-inphase, modulated inphase-antiphase non-synchronized and synchronized. Sudden jumps in physical parameters were observed, attaining either maximum or minimum values, with the change in flow patterns. The mean drag coefficient (Cdmean of middle rod is higher than the second and fourth rod for flip-flopping pattern while in case of nearly unsteady-inphase the middle rod attains minimum drag coefficient. It is also found that the Strouhal number (St of first, second and fifth rod decreases as g increases while that of other two have mixed trend. The results further show that there exist secondary interaction frequencies together with primary vortex shedding frequency due to jet in the gap between rods for 1 ⩽ g ⩽ 3. For the average values of Cdmean and St, an empirical relation is also given as a function of gap spacing. This relation shows that the average values of Cdmean and St approach to those of single rectangular rod with increment in g.

  16. A Rectangular Planar Spiral Antenna for GIS Partial Discharge Detection

    Xiaoxing Zhang


    Full Text Available A rectangular planar spiral antenna sensor was designed for detecting the partial discharge in gas insulation substations (GIS. It can expediently receive electromagnetic waves leaked from basin-type insulators and can effectively suppress low frequency electromagnetic interference from the surrounding environment. Certain effective techniques such as rectangular spiral structure, bow-tie loading, and back cavity structure optimization during the antenna design process can miniaturize antenna size and optimize voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR characteristics. Model calculation and experimental data measured in the laboratory show that the antenna possesses a good radiating performance and a multiband property when working in the ultrahigh frequency (UHF band. A comparative study between characteristics of the designed antenna and the existing quasi-TEM horn antenna was made. Based on the GIS defect simulation equipment in the laboratory, partial discharge signals were detected by the designed antenna, the available quasi-TEM horn antenna, and the microstrip patch antenna, and the measurement results were compared.

  17. Effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant

    Papautsky, Ian; Gale, Bruce K.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Ameel, Timothy A.; Frazier, A. Bruno


    In this paper, the effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant are described. The behavior of fluids was studied using surface micromachined rectangular metallic pipette arrays. Each array consisted of 5 or 7 pipettes with widths varying from 150 micrometers to 600 micrometers and heights ranging from 22.71 micrometers to 26.35 micrometers . A downstream port for static pressure measurement was used to eliminate entrance effects. A controllable syringe pump was used to provide flow while a differential pressure transducer was used to record the pressure drop. The experimental data obtained for water for flows at Reynolds numbers below 10 showed an approximate 20% increase in the friction constant for a specified driving potential when compared to macroscale predictions from the classical Navier-Stokes theory. When the experimental data are studied as a function of aspect ratio, a 20% increase in the friction constant is evident at low aspect ratios. A similar increase is shown by the currently available experimental data for low Reynolds number (flows of water.

  18. Thin-film flow in helically wound shallow channels of arbitrary cross-sectional shape

    Arnold, D. J.; Stokes, Y. M.; Green, J. E. F.


    We consider the steady, gravity-driven flow of a thin film of viscous fluid down a helically wound shallow channel of arbitrary cross-sectional shape with arbitrary torsion and curvature. This extends our previous work [D. J. Arnold et al., "Thin-film flow in helically-wound rectangular channels of arbitrary torsion and curvature," J. Fluid Mech. 764, 76-94 (2015)] on channels of rectangular cross section. The Navier-Stokes equations are expressed in a novel, non-orthogonal coordinate system fitted to the channel bottom. By assuming that the channel depth is small compared to its width and that the fluid depth in the vertical direction is also small compared to its typical horizontal extent, we are able to solve for the velocity components and pressure analytically. Using these results, a differential equation for the free surface shape is obtained, which must in general be solved numerically. Motivated by the aim of understanding flows in static spiral particle separators used in mineral processing, we investigate the effect of cross-sectional shape on the secondary flow in the channel cross section. We show that the competition between gravity and inertia in non-rectangular channels is qualitatively similar to that in rectangular channels, but that the cross-sectional shape has a strong influence on the breakup of the secondary flow into multiple clockwise-rotating cells. This may be triggered by small changes to the channel geometry, such as one or more bumps in the channel bottom that are small relative to the fluid depth. In contrast to the secondary flow which is quite sensitive to small bumps in the channel bottom, the free-surface profile is relatively insensitive to these. The sensitivity of the flow to the channel geometry may have important implications for the design of efficient spiral particle separators.

  19. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J


    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  20. An above-barrier narrow resonance in 15F

    F. de Grancey


    Full Text Available Intense and purified radioactive beam of post-accelerated 14O was used to study the low-lying states in the unbound 15F nucleus. Exploiting resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with a thick target, the second excited state, a resonance at ER=4.757(6(10 MeV with a width of Γ=36(5(14 keV was measured for the first time with high precision. The structure of this narrow above-barrier state in a nucleus located two neutrons beyond the proton drip line was investigated using the Gamow Shell Model in the coupled channel representation with a 12C core and three valence protons. It is found that it is an almost pure wave function of two quasi-bound protons in the 2s1/2 shell.

  1. An above-barrier narrow resonance in $^{15}$F

    De Grancey, F; Santos, F de Oliveira; Davinson, T; Sorlin, O; Angélique, J C; Assié, M; Berthoumieux, E; Borcea, R; Buta, A; Celikovic, I; Chudoba, V; Daugas, J M; Dumitru, G; Fadil, M; Grévy, S; Kiener, J; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A; Michel, N; Mrazek, J; Negoita, F; Okolowicz, J; Pantelica, D; Pellegriti, M G; Perrot, L; Ploszajczak, M; Randisi, G; Ray, I; Roig, O; Rotaru, F; Laurent, M G Saint; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Stefan, I; Stodel, C; Subotic, K; Tatischeff, V; Thomas, J C; Ujic, P; Wolski, R


    Intense and purified radioactive beam of post-accelerated $^{14}$O was used to study the low-lying states in the unbound $^{15}$F nucleus. Exploiting resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with a thick target, the second excited state, a resonance at E$\\_R$=4.757(6)(10)~MeV with a width of $\\Gamma$=36(5)(14)~keV was measured for the first time with high precision. The structure of this narrow above-barrier state in a nucleus located two neutrons beyond the proton drip line was investigated using the Gamow Shell Model in the coupled channel representation with a $^{12}$C core and three valence protons. It is found that it is an almost pure wave function of two quasi-bound protons in the $2s\\_{1/2}$ shell.

  2. Passage times of confined cancer cells and deformable particles flowing through a microfluidic channel

    Khan, Zeina; Kamyabi, Nabiollah; Hussain, Fazle; Vanapalli, Siva

    Circulating tumor cells, the primary cause of cancer metastasis, have to navigate through tight extracellular matrix and capillaries. Unfortunately, understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions between cells and narrow vessel walls is lacking. Using a microfluidic channel of rectangular cross-section, we investigate cell hydrodynamic behavior by measuring cell confinement, passage time through the microchannel, and excess pressure drop. Testing with highly and lowly aggressive cancer cells shows that passage time may not always be indicative of cancer cell aggressiveness as the relationship among passage time, friction and rheology is complex. Transport of deformable particles including droplets of varying viscosity and interfacial tension, as well as elastic particles of different elastic moduli, reveals that passage times depend on particle size and, contrary to prior claims, on viscosity but not on elastic modulus. We also find that particle viscosity and not modulus controls the friction force and lubrication film thickness, suggesting that cancer cell viscosity rather than elasticity controls cell transport on short time-scales.

  3. Test of the universality of the three-body Efimov parameter at narrow Feshbach resonances.

    Roy, Sanjukta; Landini, Manuele; Trenkwalder, Andreas; Semeghini, Giulia; Spagnolli, Giacomo; Simoni, Andrea; Fattori, Marco; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni


    We measure the critical scattering length for the appearance of the first three-body bound state, or Efimov three-body parameter, at seven different Feshbach resonances in ultracold ^{39}K atoms. We study both intermediate and narrow resonances, where the three-body spectrum is expected to be determined by the nonuniversal coupling of two scattering channels. Instead, our observed ratio of the three-body parameter with the van der Waals radius is approximately the same universal ratio as for broader resonances. This unexpected observation suggests the presence of a new regime for three-body scattering at narrow resonances.

  4. Reciprocal space-time and momentum-space singularities in the narrow resonance approximation

    Green, M B


    A general scheme is proposed which makes explicit the relationship between the singularities of off-shell amplitudes in position-space and momentum-space in the narrow resonance approximation. In some ways this may be viewed as a duality scheme for amplitudes involving external quarks, in which narrow resonances in certain channels build the Fourier transform of power singularities in x/sup 2/(x/sup mu / being a position vector). This scheme is made precise by dual string off-shell amplitudes. (11 refs).

  5. On Narrow Nucleon Excitation N*(1685)

    Kuznetsov, V; Thuermann, M


    We collected notes and simple estimates about putative narrow nucleon N*(1685) - the candidate for the non-strange member of the exotic anti-decuplet of baryons. In particular, we consider the recent high precision data on eta photoproduction off free proton obtained by the Crystal Ball Collaboration at MAMI. We show that it is difficult to describe peculiarities of these new data in the invariant energy interval of W ~ 1650-1750 MeV in terms of known wide resonances. Using very simple estimates, we show that the data may indicate an existence of a narrow N*(1685) with small photocoupling to the proton.

  6. Numerical Study of the Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Four-Electrode Rectangular Electrochemical Cell

    Sun, Zhanyu; Agafonov, Vadim; Rice, Catherine; Bindler, Jacob


    Two-dimensional numerical simulation is done on the buoyancy-driven flow in a four-electrode rectangular electrochemical cell. Two kinds of electrode layouts, the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) and the cathode-anode-anode-cathode (CAAC) layouts, are studied. In the ACCA layout, the two anodes are placed close to the channel outlets while the two cathodes are located between the two anodes. The CAAC layout can be converted from the ACCA layout by applying higher electric potential on the two middle electrodes. Density gradient was generated by the electrodic reaction I3^-+2e^- =3I^-. When the electrochemical cell is accelerated axially, buoyancy-driven flow occurs. In our model, electro-neutrality is assumed except at the electrodes. The Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and the Nernst-Planck equations are employed to model the momentum and mass transports, respectively. It is found that under a given axial acceleration, the electrolyte density between the two middle electrodes determines the bulk flow through the electrochemical cell. The cathodic current difference is found to be able to measure the applied acceleration. Other important electro-hydrodynamic characteristics are also discussed.

  7. Heat transfer in thin, compact heat exchangers with circular, rectangular, or pin-fin flow passages

    Olson, D. A.


    Heat transfer and pressure drop have been measured of three thin, compact heat exchangers in helium gas at 3.5 MPa and higher, with Reynolds numbers of 450 to 36,000. The flow geometries for the three heat exchanger specimens were: circular tube, rectangular channel, and staggered pin fin with tapered pins. The specimens were heated radiatively at heat fluxes up to 77 W/sq cm. Correlations were developed for the isothermal friction factor as a function of Reynolds number, and for the Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number and the ratio of wall temperature to fluid temperature. The specimen with the pin fin internal geometry had significantly better heat transfer than the other specimens, but it also had higher pressure drop. For certain conditions of helium flow and heating, the temperature more than doubled from the inlet to the outlet of the specimens, producing large changes in gas velocity, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. These changes in properties did not affect the correlations for friction factor and Nusselt number in turbulent flow.

  8. Simulation analysis of rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling wave amplifiers for THz sources

    Changbiao Wang


    Full Text Available Nonlinear simulation results for a 220-GHz rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling-wave amplifier are presented. Simulations are used to check a linear theory that is developed by phenomenological introduction of an effective dielectric parameter for electron beam channel, and it is found that the rf power gains from Pierce three-wave theory and particle simulations are in reasonable agreement. It is shown that the rf power gain during initial beam-wave interaction is positive; the falling on the initial rf power profile, which has been thought to be the rf power transferred to the beam for bunching buildup (negative gain effect, is probably resulting from numerical errors. Beam-wave interaction mechanism is analyzed by examining the evolution of beam bunching centers. Influences of various parameters on amplifier performance are examined, and transverse space-charge effect is analyzed. A symmetric excitation scheme for rf couplers is proposed, and rf field jumps on the common intersection line of vacuum, dielectric, and metal wall, which were found in rf simulations, are explained theoretically.

  9. Experimental investigation of enhanced heat transfer for fined circular tube heat exchanger with rectangular fins

    LI Yong-xing; YANG Dong; CHEN Ting-kuan


    Presents a set of data for flow and heat transfer of finned-tube bundle under the condition of high air flow velocity. Air flow and heat transfer over a 4 ×4 ( columns × rows) finned-tube heat exchanger with rectangular fins was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel with constant wall temperatures condition. The air flow velocity based on the minimum flow cross-section area over flow channel ranged from 13.8 to 50. 2 m/s,the heat transfer rate ranged from 21.8 to 47. 1 kW, and the air temperatures increase ranged from 10. 9 to 19. 8°C. The present results were compared with results calculated from correlations proposed by CSPE. For air flow velocity less than 25 m/s, these two results of heat transfer agreed well with each other, whereas for larger velocity, our test data disagreed with the CSPE correlations. For the friction factor, present data are much higher than the predicted results in the whole range. Finally, correlations for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are proposed based on the experimental results.

  10. Round versus rectangular: Does the plot shape matter?

    Iserloh, Thomas; Bäthke, Lars; Ries, Johannes B.


    Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. Extensive discussions at the Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 in Trier and the Splinter Meeting at EGU 2013 "Rainfall simulation: Big steps forward!" lead to the opinion that the rectangular shape is the more suitable plot shape compared to the round plot. A horizontally edging Gerlach trough is installed for sample collection without forming unnatural necks as is found at round or triangle plots. Since most research groups did and currently do work with round plots at the point scale (<1m²), a precise analysis of the differences between the output of round and square plots are necessary. Our hypotheses are: - Round plot shapes disturb surface runoff, unnatural fluvial dynamics for the given plot size such as pool development especially directly at the plot's outlet occur. - A square plot shape prevent these problems. A first comparison between round and rectangular plots (Iserloh et al., 2015) indicates that the rectangular plot could indeed be the more suitable, but the rather ambiguous results make a more elaborate test setup necessary. The laboratory test setup includes the two plot shapes (round, square), a standardised silty substrate and three inclinations (2°, 6°, 12°). The analysis of the laboratory test provide results on the best performance concerning undisturbed surface runoff and soil/water sampling at the plot's outlet. The analysis of the plot shape concerning its influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable. Reference

  11. Narrow-Band Applications of Communications Satellites.

    Cowlan, Bert; Horowitz, Andrew

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages of "narrow-band" applications of communications satellites for education. It begins by discussing the general controversy surrounding the use of satellites in education, by placing the concern within the larger context of the general debate over the uses of new technologies in education, and by…

  12. Narrow vision after view-broadening travel.

    Melo, Mariana de Mendonça; Ciriano, Jose P Martinez; van Genderen, Perry J J


    Loss of vision is a threatening presentation of disease. We describe a case of acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement in a 26-year-old male traveler who presented with narrow vision after a journey to Indonesia. Although the patient used mefloquine at time of presentation, we were unable to retrieve sound data incriminating mefloquine in this rare eye disorder.

  13. Incompressible Laminar Flow Over a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavity


    This paper investigates unsteady incompressible flow over cavities,Previous research in in compressible cavity-flow has included flow inside and past a 2-dimensional cavity,and flow inside a 3-dimensional cavity,driven by a moving lid.The present research is focused on incompressible flow past a 3-dimensional open shallow cavity.This involves the complex interaction etween the external flow and the re-circulating flow within the cavity.In particular,computation was performed on a 3-dimensonal shallow rectangular cavity with a laminar boundary layer at the cavity and a Reynolds number of 5,000 and 10,000,respectively,A CFD approach,based on the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation for 3-dimensional incompressible flow,was used in the study.Typical results of the computation are presented.Theses results reveal the highly unsteady and complex vortical structures at high Reynolds numbers.

  14. Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Orthotropic Membranes in Large Deflection

    Zheng Zhou-Lian


    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the research on the vibration of orthotropic membrane, which commonly applied in the membrane structural engineering. We applied the large deflection theory of membrane to derive the governing vibration equations of orthotropic membrane, solved it, and obtained the power series formula of nonlinear vibration frequency of rectangular membrane with four edges fixed. The paper gave the computational example and compared the two results from the large deflection theory and the small one, respectively. Results obtained from this paper provide some theoretical foundation for the measurement of pretension by frequency method; meanwhile, the results provide some theoretical foundation for the research of nonlinear vibration of membrane structures and the response solving of membrane structures under dynamic loads.

  15. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  16. Vibrations of cantilevered shallow cylindrical shells of rectangular planform

    Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.


    A cantilevered, shallow shell of circular cylindrical curvature and rectangular planform exhibits free vibration behavior which differs considerably from that of a cantilevered beam or of a flat plate. Some numerical results can be found for the problem in the previously published literature, mainly obtained by using various finite element methods. The present paper is the first definitive study of the problem, presenting accurate non-dimensional frequency parameters for wide ranges of aspect ratio, shallowness ratio and thickness ratio. The analysis is based upon shallow shell theory. Numerical results are obtained by using the Ritz method, with algebraic polynomial trial functions for the displacements. Convergence is investigated, with attention being given both to the number of terms taken for each co-ordinate direction and for each of the three components of displacement. Accuracy of the results is also established by comparison with finite element results for shallow shells and with other accurate flat plate solutions.

  17. Anisotropy of water droplets on single rectangular posts.

    Semprebon, C; Mistura, G; Orlandini, E; Bissacco, G; Segato, A; Yeomans, J M


    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies of the anisotropy of water drops deposited on single rectangular posts of mesoscopic size sculpted on different materials. Drops of different volume deposited on the top face of the posts assume an elongated shape along the post direction. Systematic investigations show that while the angle measured along the direction parallel to the post does not change, the one measured across them increases monotonically with the drop volume. The difference in these two angles is found to be proportional to the contact line eccentricity even for very elongated drops, regardless of the post size and material. Results obtained with the lattice Boltzmann method are consistent with these observations and indicate useful trends on the evolution of the drop shape with the system main parameters. We argue that drops deposited on single posts having a very sharp profile represent an ideal model system to investigate anisotropic wetting.

  18. Spatial impulse response of a rectangular double curved transducer

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten


    Calculation of the pressure field from transducers having both a convex and a concave surface geometry is a complicated assignment that often is accomplished by subdividing the transducer surface into smaller flat elements of which the spatial impulse response is known. This method is often seen...... applied to curved transducers because an analytical solution is un-known. In this work a semi-analytical algorithm for the exact solution to a first order in diffraction effect of the spatial impulse response of rectangular shaped double curved transducers is presented. The algorithm and an approximation...... approximations ranging from 0.03 % to 0.8 % relative to a numerical solution for the spatial impulse response. It is shown that the presented algorithm gives consistent results with Field II for a linear flat, a linear focused, and a convex non-focused element. Best solution was found to be 0.01 % with a three...

  19. Closed form solutions for free vibrations of rectangular Mindlin plates

    Yufeng Xing; Bo Liu


    A new two-eigenfunctions theory, using the amplitude deflection and the generalized curvature as two fundamental eigenfunctions, is proposed for the free vibration solutions of a rectangular Mindlin plate. The three classical eigenvalue differential equations of a Mindlin plate are reformulated to arrive at two new eigenvalue differential equations for the proposed theory. The closed form eigensolutions, which are solved from the two differential equations by means of the method of separation of variables are identical with those via Kirchhoff plate theory for thin plate, and can be employed to predict frequencies for any combinations of simply supported and clamped edge conditions. The free edges can also be dealt with if the other pair of opposite edges are simply supported. Some of the solutions were not available before. The frequency parameters agree closely with the available ones through pb-2 Rayleigh-Ritz method for different aspect ratios and relative thickness of plate.

  20. The refined theory of transversely isotropic piezoelectric rectangular beams

    GAO; Yang; WANG; Minzhong


    The problem of deducing one-dimensional theory from two-dimensional theory for a transversely isotropic piezoelectric rectangular beam is investigated. Based on the piezoelasticity theory, the refined theory of piezoelectric beams is derived by using the general solution of transversely isotropic piezoelasticity and Lur'e method without ad hoc assumptions. Based on the refined theory of piezoelectric beams, the exact equations for the beams without transverse surface loadings are derived, which consist of two governing differential equations: the fourth-order equation and the transcendental equation. The approximate equations for the beams under transverse loadings are derived directly from the refined beam theory. As a special case, the governing differential equations for transversely isotropic elastic beams are obtained from the corresponding equations of piezoelectric beams. To illustrate the application of the beam theory developed, a uniformly loaded and simply supported piezoelectric beam is examined.

  1. Efficiency of the unit cell in rectangular finned tube arrangements

    Buzzoni, Luca; Dall' Olio, Roberto; Spiga, Marco [Bologna Univ., DIENCA, Bologna (Italy)


    This paper is aimed at presenting an investigation concerning the efficiency of the single unit in finned air-cooled heat exchangers with staggered and in-line bundles of rectangular ducts, where a hot process fluid flows inside extended-surface tubes and atmospheric air is circulated outside, over the extended surface. The differential energy equation is numerically solved by a finite difference technique, in order to determine the spatial temperature profiles, then the fin efficiency and the augmentation factor are calculated by a simple numerical integration. The results show that the temperature distribution and the fin performance depend on four dimensionless parameters (m,{beta},p{sub x},p{sub y}), the first accounting for the heat transfer condition, the other ones accounting for the geometry of the extended surface (tube aspect ratio and pitches). Several tables are presented, allowing the efficiency of the extended surface to be deduced as a function of the thermal and geometric parameters. (Author)

  2. Mechanisms of rectangular groove-induced multiple-microdroplet coalescences

    Shen, Feng; Li, Yi; Wang, Guiren; Liu, Zhaomiao


    The mechanism of microdroplet coalescence is a fundamental issue for droplet-based microfluidics. We developed an asymmetric expansion (a rectangular groove) along one side of a microchannel to achieve multiple-microdroplet trapping, collision, and coalescence. Compared with reported symmetric expansions, this asymmetric groove could easily trap microdroplets and control two or three microdroplet coalescences precisely without a requirement for temporal and spatial synchronization. To reveal the mechanisms of multiple-droplet coalescences in a groove, we observed five different coalescence patterns under different flow conditions. Moreover, we characterized the flow behavior quantitatively by simulating the velocity vector fields in both the microdroplets and continuous phase, finding good agreement with experiments. Finally, a map of coalescence forms with different capillary numbers (0.001droplet-based microfluidic devices.

  3. Stability Analysis of Nonuniform Rectangular Beams Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Seval Pinarbasi


    Full Text Available The design of slender beams, that is, beams with large laterally unsupported lengths, is commonly controlled by stability limit states. Beam buckling, also called “lateral torsional buckling,” is different from column buckling in that a beam not only displaces laterally but also twists about its axis during buckling. The coupling between twist and lateral displacement makes stability analysis of beams more complex than that of columns. For this reason, most of the analytical studies in the literature on beam stability are concentrated on simple cases: uniform beams with ideal boundary conditions and simple loadings. This paper shows that complex beam stability problems, such as lateral torsional buckling of rectangular beams with variable cross-sections, can successfully be solved using homotopy perturbation method (HPM.

  4. Vibrations of cantilevered shallow cylindrical shells of rectangular planform

    Leissa, A. W.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, A. J.


    A cantilevered, shallow shell of circular cylindrical curvature and rectangular planform exhibits free vibration behavior which differs considerably from that of a cantilevered beam or of a flat plate. Some numerical results can be found for the problem in the previously published literature, mainly obtained by using various finite element methods. The present paper is the first definitive study of the problem, presenting accurate non-dimensional frequency parameters for wide ranges of aspect ratio, shallowness ratio and thickness ratio. The analysis is based upon shallow shell theory. Numerical results are obtained by using the Ritz method, with algebraic polynomial trial functions for the displacements. Convergence is investigated, with attention being given both to the number of terms taken for each co-ordinate direction and for each of the three components of displacement. Accuracy of the results is also established by comparison with finite element results for shallow shells and with other accurate flat plate solutions.

  5. The influence of tip clearance and Prandtl number on turbulent forced convection heat transfer of rectangular fins

    Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin


    The turbulent forced convection heat transfer of rectangular fins in a duct was investigated by varying the tip clearance and Pr. Mass transfer experiments using a H2SO4-CuSO4 electroplating system were performed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfers. FLUENT 6.3 was used for calculations. Turbulent models were tested and the Reynolds Stress Model was chosen, which showed a 1.15 % discrepancy with the existing correlation for a simple tube flow when Pr = 2, but 13 % when Pr = 2014. For a more complex fin channel, the discrepancy increased up to 30 %. The optimal tip clearances, corresponding to maximum heat transfer rates, did not vary with Pr, which is explained using the temperature contours. The results were also compared with the laminar case where Pr influenced the optimal tip clearance.

  6. Comparison of negative refractive index materials with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes.

    Ku, Zahyun; Brueck, S R J


    Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) at near infrared wavelengths (~2 mum) are fabricated with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes penetrating through metal/dielectric/metal films. All three NIM structures exhibit similar figures of merit; however, the transmission is higher for the NIM with rectangular holes as a result of an improved impedance match with the substrate-superstrate (air-glass) combination.

  7. A Multi-Objective Approach to Visualize Proportions and Similarities Between Individuals by Rectangular Maps

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing the proportions and the similarities attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one individual, th...

  8. On Mathematical Optimization for the Visualization of Frequencies and Adjacencies as Rectangular Maps

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero


    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a frequency distribution and an adjacency relation attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one ...

  9. Quantitative study of rectangular waveguide behavior in the THz.

    Rowen, Adam M.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement


    This report describes our efforts to quantify the behavior of micro-fabricated THz rectangular waveguides on a configurable, robust semiconductor-based platform. These waveguides are an enabling technology for coupling THz radiation directly from or to lasers, mixers, detectors, antennas, and other devices. Traditional waveguides fabricated on semiconductor platforms such as dielectric guides in the infrared or co-planar waveguides in the microwave regions, suffer high absorption and radiative losses in the THz. The former leads to very short propagation lengths, while the latter will lead to unwanted radiation modes and/or crosstalk in integrated devices. This project exploited the initial developments of THz micro-machined rectangular waveguides developed under the THz Grand Challenge Program, but instead of focusing on THz transceiver integration, this project focused on exploring the propagation loss and far-field radiation patterns of the waveguides. During the 9 month duration of this project we were able to reproduce the waveguide loss per unit of length in the waveguides and started to explore how the loss depended on wavelength. We also explored the far-field beam patterns emitted by H-plane horn antennas attached to the waveguides. In the process we learned that the method of measuring the beam patterns has a significant impact on what is actually measured, and this may have an effect on most of the beam patterns of THz that have been reported to date. The beam pattern measurements improved significantly throughout the project, but more refinements of the measurement are required before a definitive determination of the beam-pattern can be made.

  10. Estimating the magnetization distribution within rectangular rock samples

    Reis, A. L. A.; Oliveira, V. C.; Yokoyama, E.; Bruno, A. C.; Pereira, J. M. B.


    Over the last decades, scanning magnetic microscopy techniques have been increasingly used in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism. Different from standard paleomagnetic magnetometers, scanning magnetic microscopes produce high-resolution maps of the vertical component of the magnetic induction field (flux density) on a plane located over the sample. These high-resolution magnetic maps can be used for estimating the magnetization distribution within a rock sample by inversion. Previous studies have estimated the magnetization distribution within rock samples by inverting the magnetic data measured on a single plane above the sample. Here we present a new spatial domain method for inverting the magnetic induction measured on four planes around the sample in order to retrieve its internal magnetization distribution. We have presumed that the internal magnetization distribution of the sample varies along one of its axes. Our method approximates the sample geometry by an interpretation model composed of a one-dimensional array of juxtaposed rectangular prisms with uniform magnetization. The Cartesian components of the magnetization vector within each rectangular prism are the parameters to be estimated by solving a linear inverse problem. Our method automatically deals with the averaging of the measured magnetic data due to the finite size of the magnetic sensor, preventing the application of a deconvolution before the inversion. Tests with synthetic data show the performance of our method in retrieving complex magnetization distributions even in the presence of magnetization heterogeneities. Moreover, they show the advantage of inverting the magnetic data on four planes around the sample and how this new acquisition scheme improves the estimated magnetization distribution within the rock sample. We have also applied our method to invert experimentally measured magnetic data produced by a highly magnetized synthetic sample that was manufactured in the laboratory. The

  11. Modular design of long narrow scintillating cells for ILC detector

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Maloney, J.; Rykalin, V.; /Northern Illinois U.; Schellpfeffer, J.; /Fermilab


    The experimental results for the narrow scintillating elements with effective area about 20 cm{sup 2} are reported. The elements were formed from the single piece of scintillator and were read out via wavelength shifting fibers with the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiodes on both ends of each fiber. The formation of the cells from the piece of scintillator by using grooves is discussed. The cell performance was tested using the radioactive source by measuring the PMT current and a single rate after amplifier and discrimination with threshold at about three photo electrons in each channel and quad coincidences (double coincidences between sensors on each fiber and double coincidences between two neighboring fibers). This result is of high importance for large multi-channel systems, i.e. module may be used as an active element for calorimeter or muon system for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector because cell effective area can be smoothly enlarged or reduced (to 4 cm{sup 2} definitely).

  12. Experimental study of non-rectangular piano key weir discharge coefficient

    Saleh I. Khassaf, Mohamed B. Al-Baghdadi


    Full Text Available Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the hydraulic behaviour of non-rectangular piano key weir where either the side wall angle or the side wall inclination angle is greater than zero. Five physical models were prepared: one standard type-A rectangular model, and four non-rectangular models designed in similar dimensions to the rectangular one. Tests were conducted in a 15m long, 0.3m wide and 0.45 m deep rectangular glass-walled experimental flume. Effects of side wall angle and side wall inclination angle on discharge coefficient were investigated, so that the head-discharge relationship for each model is achieved. It was concluded that changing those angle to about 10° has negative effect on discharge capacity, while changing them around 5° can increase the capacity when appropriate change in the inlet and outlet keys widths ratio.

  13. Analysis of junior high school students' difficulty in resolving rectangular conceptual problems

    Utami, Aliksia Kristiana Dwi; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar


    Geometry is one part of the mathematics that must be learned in school and it has important effects on the development of creative thinking skills of learners, but in fact, there are some difficulties experienced by the students. This research focuses on analysis difficulty in resolving rectangular conceptual problems among junior high school students in every creative thinking skills level. This research used a descriptive method aimed to identify the difficulties and cause of the difficulties experienced by five students. The difficulties are associated with rectangular shapes and related problems. Data collection was done based on students' work through test, interview, and observations. The result revealed that student' difficulties in understanding the rectangular concept can be found at every creative thinking skills level. The difficulties are identifying the objects rectangular in the daily life except for a rectangle and square, analyzing the properties of rectangular shapes, and seeing the interrelationships between figures.

  14. New method for solving the bending problem of rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions

    Liu Xin Min


    Full Text Available A new method is used to solve the rectangular plate bending problem with mixed boundary conditions. The method overcomes the complicated derivation of the classical solution by Fourth-order differential problem into integrating question. Under uniform loading rectangular plate bending problem with one side fixed the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate, one side simply supported the opposite side half simply supported half fixed the other two sides free rectangular plate is systematically solved. According to the actual boundary conditions of the rectangular plate, the corresponding characteristic equation can easily be set up. It is presented deflection curve equation and the numerical calculation. By compared the results of the equation to the finite element program, we are able to demonstrate the correctness of the method. So the method not only has certain theoretical value, but also can be directly applied to engineering practice.

  15. An Experimental Study on Flow Boiling CHF Characteristics of Partially Narrowed Tube

    Song, Sub Lee; Kim, Yong Jin; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To prevent release of radioactive material into environment, multiple barriers are main concept of nuclear safety which consist of nuclear fuel pellet, fuel cladding, reactor vessel, and containment building. All parts should maintain their integrities even in severe accident condition. Among them, fuel cladding is mainly focused in this paper. In normal operation condition of nuclear power plant, cladding keeps its integrity. In severe accident condition, especially for propagation consequence of LOCA (Loss of coolant accident), coolant in reactor vessel can be disappeared and then nuclear fuel rod will be exposed into atmosphere without coolant. Then the residual heat of nuclear fuel cannot be removed, the surface temperature of cladding will be increased. There is a possibility of cladding rupture without any management. In those circumstances, some studies showed that fuel cladding will be deformed in ballooning shape before cladding rupture. The ballooning of fuel cladding means narrowing of subchannel simultaneously. The flow path is partially narrowed through the subchannel, so it can affects on flow and thermal characteristics obviously. Furthermore, the significantly narrowed subchannel can totally block the coolant by re-flooding from safety injection. Critical heat flux, CHF is an important thermal hydraulic phenomenon because it can cause a rupture of the heating surface with dramatic temperature increase. The CHF of fuel cladding is also very important because it is directly related to release of radioactive material. There are not many studies on thermal hydraulic characteristics of partially narrowed channel like deformed nuclear fuel rod in accident condition. In this study, CHF characteristics of partially narrowed channel modeled from deformed nuclear fuel cladding were experimentally investigated. The result of CHF experiment for partially narrowed channel was reported. The trends of CHF point was found dependent on blockage ratio, the point of

  16. Decay of a narrow and high spin {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg resonance

    Salsac, M.-D. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France)], E-mail:; Haas, F.; Courtin, S. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Algora, A. [INR, Debrecen (Hungary); Beck, C. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Beghini, S. [Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Behera, B.R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Chapman, R. [University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Corradi, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dombradi, Z. [INR, Debrecen (Hungary); Farnea, E. [Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Jenkins, D.G. [University of York, York (United Kingdom); Latina, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Lebhertz, D. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Lenzi, S. [Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Liang, X. [University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Marginean, N. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Montagnoli, G. [Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy)] (and others)


    The {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg reaction has been studied at the Legnaro Tandem at a CM bombarding energy of 45.7 MeV where a narrow and high spin resonance has been reported previously. The decay of the resonance into the inelastic and fusion-evaporation channels has been investigated. The ON and OFF resonance decay yields have been measured using, for the inelastic channels, the fragment spectrometer PRISMA and the {gamma} array CLARA, and, for the fusion-evaporation channels, the Si array EUCLIDES and the {gamma} array GASP. Strong resonant effects have been observed in the inelastic channels involving the 2{sub 1}{sup +} and 4{sub 1}{sup +} states of the {sup 24}Mg ground state band. Weaker effects are also seen in certain fusion-evaporation channels. The properties of the studied resonance are in agreement with molecular model predictions. It is also proposed that the narrow and high spin {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg resonance corresponds to the formation of a fast rotating and highly prolate deformed {sup 48}Cr after a Jacobi shape transition and just before fission.

  17. Powerful narrow linewidth random fiber laser

    Ye, Jun; Xu, Jiangming; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu


    In this paper, we demonstrate a narrow linewidth random fiber laser, which employs a tunable pump laser to select the operating wavelength for efficiency optimization, a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a section of single mode fiber to construct a half-open cavity, and a circulator to separate pump light input and random lasing output. Spectral linewidth down to 42.31 GHz is achieved through filtering by the FBG. When 8.97 W pump light centered at the optimized wavelength 1036.5 nm is launched into the half-open cavity, 1081.4 nm random lasing with the maximum output power of 2.15 W is achieved, which is more powerful than the previous reported results.

  18. Exciton absorption in narrow armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Monozon, B. S.; Schmelcher, P.


    We develop an analytical approach to the exciton optical absorption for narrow gap armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR). We focus on the regime of dominant size quantization in combination with the attractive electron-hole interaction. An adiabatic separation of slow and fast motions leads via the two-body Dirac equation to the isolated and coupled subband approximations. Discrete and continuous exciton states are in general coupled and form quasi-Rydberg series of purely discrete and resonance type character. The corresponding oscillator strengths and widths are derived. We show that the exciton peaks are blue-shifted, become broader and increase in magnitude upon narrowing the ribbon. At the edge of a subband the singularity related to the 1D density of states is transformed into finite absorption via the presence of the exciton. Our analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods including numerical approaches. Estimates of the expected experimental values are provided for realistic AGNR.

  19. Narrow optical filtering with plasmonic nanoshells

    Martynov, Y B; Tanachev, I A; Gladyshev, P P


    Narrow optical band pass filters are widely used in systems with optical processing of information, color displays development and optical computers. We show that such ultra filters can be created by means of nanoparticles which consist of a dielectric sphere and a metallic shell. The components can be adjusted such that there is a remarkable transparency at the desired wavelength range, while a strong absorption takes place outside of this region.

  20. Code optimizations for narrow bitwidth architectures

    Bhagat, Indu


    This thesis takes a HW/SW collaborative approach to tackle the problem of computational inefficiency in a holistic manner. The hardware is redesigned by restraining the datapath to merely 16-bit datawidth (integer datapath only) to provide an extremely simple, low-cost, low-complexity execution core which is best at executing the most common case efficiently. This redesign, referred to as the Narrow Bitwidth Architecture, is unique in that although the datapath is squeezed to 16-bits...

  1. Band Gap Narrowing in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Gupta, Tapan Kumar

    Two analytic models for transport and band gap narrowing in heavily doped (N_{rm D} > 10^{20} cm^ {-3}) silicon have been set up and verified through measurements on n^{+} -p junction devices. The first model is based on calculation of the ratio of the charge present in the emitter of the n^{+} region of the junction to that of the charge present in the absence of band gap shrinkage. Fermi-Dirac statistics are employed and are found to have a significant effect at this doping level. The second model is based on current transport of minority carriers in the n^{+} region. In this model only two parameters need to be known, the diffusion coefficient and the diffusion length for minority carriers, to calculate the band gap narrowing. An empirical relation between band gap narrowing and donor concentration has also been established based on experimental values of diffusion coefficient and mobility. These models have been verified by several different experimental techniques including surface photovoltage, open circuit voltage decay, photoconductivity decay and modulation reflection spectroscopy. The results indicate that, in the impurity range above about 10^{20} cm^{-3}, Fermi-Dirac statistics must be invoked in order to achieve a satisfactory fit with experimental data.

  2. 76 FR 774 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...


    ... light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit...) (Preliminary Results). In the Preliminary Results, we invited parties to comment. See Preliminary Results,...

  3. 77 FR 1915 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...


    ..., 2010. \\1\\ See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Final Results of... antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico.\\1\\ This administrative...

  4. 78 FR 1199 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...


    .... We also did not receive a request for a hearing. \\1\\ See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From... intermediate company(ies) involved in the transaction. \\2\\ See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results...

  5. 78 FR 54864 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...


    ... order. \\2\\ See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results and...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular...

  6. 75 FR 61127 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...


    ... duty order on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and... antidumping duty order covering light- walled rectangular pipe and tube from Turkey. See Preliminary Results...-specific rate for an intermediary involved in the transaction. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order:...

  7. 75 FR 57456 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...


    ... duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period January 20, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of...

  8. 76 FR 9547 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...


    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico. See.... (Regiopytsa). See ``Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Light- Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from... February 10, 2011. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit...

  9. 77 FR 5240 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...


    ... should the order be revoked. See Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final... within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan, 77 FR 3497... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan:...

  10. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique

  11. Performance of Multicarrier CDMA Rake System over Rayleigh Fading Channel

    SONG Li-xin; HUANG Tian-shu; DING Yao-ming


    Based on the theory of multicarrier (MC) technique and the Rake receiver, a multicarrier DSCDMA Rake system is proposed, where a data sequence multiplied by a spreading sequence modulates multiple carriers. The receiver provides a Rake for each subcarrier, and the outputs of the Rakes are combined by a maximal-ratio combiner. The average probability of error of the system is derived from an uncorrelated subcarrier and frequency-selective fading channel model. The system performances are evaluated over Rayleigh fading channel with an exponential multipath intensity profile(MIP) and with a rectangular MIP, respectively,when multipath interference is present. It is found that this kind of model has larger superiority in an exponential MIP than in a rectangular MIP.

  12. Weighted OFDM for wireless multipath channels

    Prasad, Ramjee; Nikookar, H.


    In this paper the novel method of "weighted OFDM" is addressed. Different types of weighting factors (including Rectangular, Bartlett, Gaussian. Raised cosine, Half-sin and Shanon) are considered. The impact of weighting of OFDM on the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is investigated by means...... of simulation and is compared for the above mentioned weighting factors. Results show that by weighting of the OFDM signal the PAPR reduces. Bit error performance of weighted multicarrier transmission over a multipath channel is also investigated. Results indicate that there is a trade off between PAPR...... reduction and bit error performance degradation by weighting....

  13. Weighted OFDM for wireless multipath channels

    Prasad, Ramjee; Nikookar, H.


    In this paper the novel method of "weighted OFDM" is addressed. Different types of weighting factors (including Rectangular, Bartlett, Gaussian. Raised cosine, Half-sin and Shanon) are considered. The impact of weighting of OFDM on the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is investigated by means...... of simulation and is compared for the above mentioned weighting factors. Results show that by weighting of the OFDM signal the PAPR reduces. Bit error performance of weighted multicarrier transmission over a multipath channel is also investigated. Results indicate that there is a trade off between PAPR...

  14. Numerical Simulation of Bragg Reflection Based on Linear Waves Propagation over A Series of Rectangular Seabed

    Chih-Chung WEN; Li-Hung TSAI


    A numerical model, Evolution Equation of Mild-Slope Equation (EEMSE) developed by Hsu et al. (2003), was applied to study the Bragg reflection of water waves over a series of rectangular seabed. Three key parameters of the Bragg reflection including the peak coefficient of primary Bragg reflection, its corresponding relative wavelength, and the bandwidth, have shown to be effective in describing the characteristics of the primary Bragg reflection. The characteristics of the Bragg reflection were investigated under the various conditions comprising number, height, and spacing interval of a series of rectangular seabed. The results reveal that the peak of Bragg reflection increases with the increase of rectangular seabed height and number, the bandwidth and the shift value of the Bragg reflection depend on the increase of the rectangular seabed height as well as the decrease of rectangular seabed number, and the relative rectangular seabed spacing in the rang of 3 and 4 could produce higher Bragg reflection. Finally, a correlative and regressive analysis is performed by use of the calculated data. Based on the results of the analysis, empirical equations were established. Our study results can provide an appropriate choice of a series of rectangular seabed field for a practical design.

  15. Response of endlessly long shipping channel due to earthquake

    Kotrasová Kamila


    Full Text Available Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquid. The fluid develops hydrodynamic pressure on walls and bottom of tank during an earthquake. This paper provides theoretical background for specification of impulsive and convective actions of fluid in rectangular endlessly long shopping channel container by using analytical methods. This article contains description of methods for solution of response of vertical containment with fluid on the soil, which is subject to horizontal seismic loads.

  16. Tapered Simplified Modal Method for Analysis of Non-rectangular Gratings

    Li, Shuai; Barbastathis, George


    The Simplified Modal Method (SMM) provides a quick and intuitive way to analyze the performance of gratings of rectangular shapes. For non-rectangular shapes, a version of SMM has been developed, but it applies only to the Littrow-mounting incidence case and it neglects reflection. Here, we use the theory of mode-coupling in a tapered waveguide to improve SMM so that it applies to non-rectangular gratings at arbitrary angles of incidence. Moreover, this new 'Tapered Simplified Modal Method' (TSMM) allows us to properly account for reflected light. We present here the analytical development of the theory and numerical simulations, demonstrating the validity of the method.

  17. Radio-Frequency Characteristics of a Printed Rectangular Helix Slow-Wave Structure

    FU Cheng-Fang; WEI Yan-Yu; WANG Wen-Xiang; GONG Yu-Bin


    A new type of printed rectangular he/ix slow-wave structure (SWS) is investigated using the field-matching method and the electromagnetic integral equations at the boundaries. The radio-frequency characteristics including the dispersion equation and the coupling impedance for transverse antisymmetric (odd) modes of this structure are analysed. The numerical results agree well with the results obtained by the EM simulation software HFSS. It is shown that the dispersion of the rectangular helix circuit is weakened, the phase velocity is reduced after filling the dielectric materials in the rectangular helix SWS. As a planar slow-wave structure, this structure has potential applications in compact TWTs.

  18. The refined theory of deep rectangular beams for symmetrical deformation


    Based on elasticity theory, various one-dimensional equations for symmetrical deformation have been deduced systematically and directly from the two-dimensional theory of deep rectangular beams by using the Papkovich-Neuber solution and the Lur’e method without ad hoc assumptions, and they construct the refined theory of beams for symmetrical deformation. It is shown that the displacements and stresses of the beam can be represented by the transverse normal strain and displacement of the mid-plane. In the case of homogeneous boundary conditions, the exact solutions for the beam are derived, and the exact equations consist of two governing differential equations: the second-order equation and the transcendental equation. In the case of non-homogeneous boundary conditions, the approximate governing differential equations and solutions for the beam under normal loadings only and shear loadings only are derived directly from the refined beam theory, respectively, and the correctness of the stress assumptions in classic extension or compression problems is revised. Meanwhile, as an example, explicit expressions of analytical solutions are obtained for beams subjected to an exponentially distributed load along the length of beams.

  19. Effect of Tabs on a Rectangular Nozzle Studied


    In a continuing research program, jets from nozzles of different geometries are being investigated with the aim of increasing mixing and spreading in those flows. Flow fields from nozzles with elliptic, rectangular, and other more complex cross-sectional shapes are being studied in comparison to circular nozzles over a wide Mach number range. As noted by previous researchers, noncircular jets usually spread faster than circular jets. Another technique being investigated to increase jet spreading even further for a given nozzle is the use of "tabs" to generate vortices. A typical tab is a triangular-shaped protrusion placed at the nozzle exit, with the base of the triangle touching the nozzle wall and the apex leaning downstream at 45 to the stream direction. This geometry was determined by a parametric study to produce the optimum effect for a given area blockage. The tabs can increase jet spreading significantly. The underlying mechanism traces to a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices originating from each tab. These vortex pairs persist in the flow; and with the appropriate number and strength, they can increase spreading.

  20. Efficient computation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber

    Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, David A.


    We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight section. Working with a realistic longitudinal bunch form of r.m.s. length 10.4 μ m and a charge of 100 pC we conclude that the radiated power is quite small (28 W at a 1 MHz repetition rate), and all radiated energy is absorbed in the walls within 7 m along the straight section.

  1. LEDA 074886: A remarkable rectangular-looking galaxy

    Graham, Alister W; Forbes, Duncan A; Lisker, Thorsten; Moore, Ben; Janz, Joachim


    We report the discovery of an interesting and rare, rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of -17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2R_{e,disk} = 12 arcsec = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported V_rot/sigma ~ 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-one) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this `emerald cut galaxy' having very boxy isophotes with a_4/a = -0.05 to -0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both `wet' and `dry' galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.

  2. Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines

    Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.

  3. Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian


    As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.

  4. Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.


    Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.

  5. Magnetic forces produced by rectangular permanent magnets in static microsystems.

    Gassner, Anne-Laure; Abonnenc, Mélanie; Chen, Hong-Xu; Morandini, Jacques; Josserand, Jacques; Rossier, Joel S; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Girault, Hubert H


    Finite element numerical simulations were carried out in 2D geometries to map the magnetic field and force distribution produced by rectangular permanent magnets as a function of their size and position with respect to a microchannel. A single magnet, two magnets placed in attraction and in repulsion have been considered. The goal of this work is to show where magnetic beads are preferentially captured in a microchannel. These simulations were qualitatively corroborated, in one geometrical case, by microscopic visualizations of magnetic bead plug formation in a capillary. The results show that the number of plugs is configuration dependent with: in attraction, one plug in the middle of the magnets; in repulsion, two plugs near the edges of the magnets; and with a single magnet, a plug close to the center of the magnet. The geometry of the magnets (h and l are the height and length of the magnets respectively) and their relative spacing s has a significant impact on the magnetic flux density. Its value inside a magnet increases with the h/l ratio. Consequently, bar magnets produce larger and more uniform values than flat magnets. The l/s ratio also influences the magnetic force value in the microchannel, both increasing concomitantly for all the configurations. In addition, a zero force zone in the middle appears in the attraction configuration as the l/s ratio increases, while with a single magnet, the number of maxima and minima goes from one to two, producing two focusing zones instead of only one.

  6. Attenuation in Rectangular Waveguides with Finite Conductivity Walls

    K. C. Yeong


    Full Text Available We present a fundamental and accurate approach to compute the attenuation of electromagnetic waves propagating in rectangular waveguides with finite conductivity walls. The wavenumbers kx and ky in the x and y directions respectively, are obtained as roots of a set of transcendental equations derived by matching the tangential component of the electric field (E and the magnetic field (H at the surface of the waveguide walls. The electrical properties of the wall material are determined by the complex permittivity ε, permeability μ, and conductivity σ. We have examined the validity of our model by carrying out measurements on the loss arising from the fundamental TE10 mode near the cutoff frequency. We also found good agreement between our results and those obtained by others including Papadopoulos’ perturbation method across a wide range of frequencies, in particular in the vicinity of cutoff. In the presence of degenerate modes however, our method gives higher losses, which we attribute to the coupling between modes as a result of dispersion.

  7. Laminar flow of micropolar fluid in rectangular microchannels

    Shangjun Ye; Keqin Zhu; Wen Wang


    Compared with the classic flow on macroscale, flows in microchannels have some new phenomena such as the friction increase and the flow rate reduction. Papautsky and co-workers explained these phenomena by using a micropolar fluid model where the effects of micro-rotation of fluid molecules were taken into account. But both the curl of velocity vector and the curl of micro-rotation gyration vector were given incorrectly in the Cartesian coordinates and then the micro-rotation gyration vector had only one component in the (z)-direction. Besides, the gradient term of the divergence of micro-rotation gyration vector was missed improperly in the angular moment equation. In this paper. the governing equations for laminar flows of micropolar fluid in rectangular microchannels are reconstructed. The numerical results of velocity profiles and micro-rotation gyrations are obtained by a procedure based on the Chebyshev collocation method. The micropolar effects on velocity and micro-rotation gyration are discussed in detail.

  8. Mixing of two different electrolyte solutions in electromagnetic rectangular mixers

    Meimei WEN; Chang Nyung KIM; Yue YAN


    This study proposes a new electromagnetic rectangular mixer, and numerically examines the mixing characteristics of two different electrolyte solutions in the device under a uniform magnetic field. The mixer consists of a conduit with electrodes equipped on its top and bottom walls. The difference in the electric potentials applied to the sets of electrodes induces the current. The combi- nation of the induced current and magnetic field yields Lorentz force, resulting in the fluid motion for pumping and mixing of the two different fluids. The numerical simulation is carried out with the use of commercial software CFX. The present numerical model is validated by an existing numerical work. The effect of different variables on mixing efficiency is investigated in many different cases with two different heights of the duct and various input voltages of the electrodes. The current simulation results indicate that the mixing performance can be enhanced by using multiple sets of electrodes and applying higher input voltages (absolute values) to the electrodes.

  9. Pool boiling on rectangular fins with tunnel-pore structure

    Pastuszko A.


    Full Text Available Complex experimental investigations were conducted in the area of pool boiling heat transfer on extended surfaces with internal tunnels limited by perforated foil. The experiments were carried out for water and R-123 at atmospheric pressure. The tunnel surfaces were fabricated from 0.05 – 0.1 mm thick perforated copper foil (pore diameters: 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mm sintered with mini-fins formed by 5 and 10 mm high rectangular fins and horizontal inter-fin surface. The effect of the main fin height, pore diameters and tunnel pitch on nucleate pool boiling was examined. Substantial enhancement of heat transfer coefficient was observed for the investigated surfaces. The highest increase in the heat transfer coefficient was obtained for the 10 mm high fins – about 50kW/m2K for water and 15 kW/m2K for R-123. The investigated surfaces showed boiling heat transfer coefficients similar to those of existing tunnel-pore structures.

  10. Metamaterial absorbers realized in an X-band rectangular waveguide

    Huang Yong-Jun; Wen Guang-Jun; Li Jian; Zhong Jing-Ping; Wang Ping; Sun Yuan-Hua; O.Gordon; Zhu Wei-Ren


    In this paper,we demonstrate six types of metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) by measuring their absorptivities in an X-band (8-12 GHz) rectangular waveguide.Some of the MMAs have been demonstrated previously by using the free space measurement method,and the others are proposed firstly in this paper.The measured results show that all of the six MMAs exhibit high absorptivities above 98%,which have similar absorbing characteristics to those measured in the free space.The numerically obtained surface current densities for each MMA show that the absorbing mechanism is the same as that under the free space conditions.Such a demonstration method is superior to the conventional free space measurement method due to the small-scale test samples required,the simple measure device,and its low cost.Most importantly,the proposed method opens a way to enable MMAs to be used in microwave applications such as matched terminations.

  11. Finite-difference calculation of traveltimes based on rectangular grid

    李振春; 刘玉莲; 张建磊; 马在田; 王华忠


    To the most of velocity fields, the traveltimes of the first break that seismic waves propagate along rays can be computed on a 2-D or 3-D numerical grid by finite-difference extrapolation. Under ensuring accuracy, to improve calculating efficiency and adaptability, the calculation method of first-arrival traveltime of finite-difference is derived based on any rectangular grid and a local plane wavefront approximation. In addition, head waves and scattering waves are properly treated and shadow and caustic zones cannot be encountered, which appear in traditional ray-tracing. The testes of two simple models and the complex Marmousi model show that the method has higher accuracy and adaptability to complex structure with strong vertical and lateral velocity variation, and Kirchhoff prestack depth migration based on this method can basically achieve the position imaging effects of wave equation prestack depth migration in major structures and targets. Because of not taking account of the later arrivals energy, the effect of its amplitude preservation is worse than that by wave equation method, but its computing efficiency is higher than that by total Green's function method and wave equation method.

  12. Diversity of acoustic streaming in a rectangular acoustofluidic field.

    Tang, Qiang; Hu, Junhui


    Diversity of acoustic streaming field in a 2D rectangular chamber with a traveling wave and using water as the acoustic medium is numerically investigated by the finite element method. It is found that the working frequency, the vibration excitation source length, and the distance and phase difference between two separated symmetric vibration excitation sources can cause the diversity in the acoustic streaming pattern. It is also found that a small object in the acoustic field results in an additional eddy, and affects the eddy size in the acoustic streaming field. In addition, the computation results show that with an increase of the acoustic medium's temperature, the speed of the main acoustic streaming decreases first and then increases, and the angular velocity of the corner eddies increases monotonously, which can be clearly explained by the change of the acoustic dissipation factor and shearing viscosity of the acoustic medium with temperature. Commercialized FEM software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to implement the computation tasks, which makes our method very easy to use. And the computation method is partially verified by an established analytical solution.

  13. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)


    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  14. Global viscous overstabilities in narrow rings

    Longaretti, Pierre-Yves; French, Richard G.; Nicholson, Philip D.


    Local viscous overstabilities have been the focus of a number of theoretical analyses in the last decades due to the rôle they are believed to play in the creation of the small scale structure of broad ring systems (Saturn, Uranus). Global viscous overstabilities have also been investigated in the 1980s and 1990s as a potential source of narrow ring eccentricities (Longaretti and Rappaport, 1995, Icarus, 116, 376).An important feature of global viscous overstabilities is that they produce slow relative librating or circulating motions of narrow ring edges; they may also produce slowly librating or circulating components of edge modes. This process is potentially relevant to explain the occurrence of unusually large apsidal shifts observed in some saturnian ringlets and may also explain the existence of the free m=2 B ring edge mode that is slowly circulating with respect to the component forced by Mimas.The time-scale of such motions is primarily controlled by the ring self-gravity and can be analytically quantified in a two-streamline analysis which yields a characteristic libration/circulation frequency Ωl = (n/π)(Mr/Mp)(a/δa)2H(q2) where n is the mean motion, Mr the ringlet or pertubed region mass, Mp the planet mass, a the semi-major axis, δa the narrow ringlet or pertubed region width and H(q2) a dimensionless factor of order unity that depends on the streamline compression parameter q. The related time-scale is of the order of a few years to a few tens of years depending on the surface density and ringlet/perturbed region geometry. Preliminary data analyzes indicate that the Maxwell and Huyghens ringlets are probably librating with periods consistent with this two-streamline estimate.The talk will briefly present the physics of global viscous overstabilities as well as more detailed applications to narrow rings, and if time permits, to edge modes.

  15. Start features of supersonic chemical laser (SCL) channel operating with pressure recovery system (PRS)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Malkov, V. M.


    The particularity of start process of rectangular laser channel in comparison with star of wind tunnel - the state of understart - is discovered. The higher pressure level is realized in laser cavity as result of this phenomena and it brings to laser power decrease.

  16. Convección Mixta en Cavidades Rectangulares con Entrada y Salida de Fluido Mixed Convection in Rectangular Cavities with Inlet and Outlet of Fluid

    R. Brito


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determina el campo de velocidades, de temperatura, y el número de Nusselt medio (Nu h en la superficie isotérmica vertical del interior de una cavidad rectangular semiabierta. Las ecuaciones de conservación se resuelven usando el método de elementos finitos. Los resultados numéricos mostraron que cuanto mayor el número de Reynolds o de Grashof, mayores fueron los flujos de transferencia de calor obtenidos para la superficie isotérmica caliente. Para valores bajos de Reynolds (Re, el número de Nusselt (Nu h obtenido se encontraba muy próximo a los resultados obtenidos del número de Nusselt (Nu h, para el caso de problemas de convección natural en una cavidad rectangular cerrada. Se concluye que a partir de los parámetros térmicos y geométricos estudiados, es posible mejorar el rendimiento del enfriamiento en el interior de la cavidad rectangular semiabiertaThis study determines the velocity and temperature fields as well as the average Nusselt number (Nu h on a vertical isothermic wall inside a partially open rectangular cavity. The conservation equations are solved using a finite element method. The numerical results show that the higher the Reynolds and Grashof numbers, the greater is the heat transfer on the isothermal hot wall. For low Reynolds numbers (Re, the Nusselt numbers (Nu h obtained in the present work were close to those found for natural convection in a rectangular closed cavity. From the thermal and geometric parameters studied, it is concluded that it is possible to improve the efficiency of cooling of the interior of a partially open rectangular cavity

  17. Mechanosensitive Channels

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  18. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo


    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  19. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Prasad Palimar


    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  20. The Narrow Line Region of Ark 564

    Contini, M; Viegas, S M M; Contini, Marcella; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Viegas, Sueli


    The continuum and emission-line spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 is used to investigate, for the first time, the physical conditions and structure of its narrow line region (NLR). For this purpose, composite models, accounting for the coupled effect of photoionization and shocks, are employed. The emission-line spectrum of Ark 564, which ranges from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared, shows a rich forbidden line spectrum. Strong emphasis is given to the study of the coronal line region. The diversity of physical conditions deduced from the observations requires multi-cloud models to reproduce the observed lines and continuum. We find that a combination of high velocity (Vs = 1500 km/s) shock-dominated clouds as well as low velocity (Vs = 150 km/s) radiation-dominated clouds explains the coronal lines, while the optical low-ionization lines are mainly explained by shock-dominated clouds. The results for Ark 564 are compared with those obtained for other Seyfert galaxies previously analyze...

  1. An Analytic Study on the Effect of Alginate on the Velocity Profiles of Blood in Rectangular Microchannels Using Microparticle Image Velocimetry

    Pitts, Katie L.; Fenech, Marianne


    It is desired to understand the effect of alginic acid sodium salt from brown algae (alginate) as a viscosity modifier on the behavior of blood in vitro using a micro-particle image velocimetry (µPIV) system. The effect of alginate on the shape of the velocity profile, the flow rate and the maximum velocity achieved in rectangular microchannels channels are measured. The channels were constructed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a biocompatible silicone. Porcine blood cells suspended in saline was used as the working fluid at twenty percent hematocrit (H = 20). While alginate was only found to have minimal effect on the maximum velocity and the flow rate achieved, it was found to significantly affect the shear rate at the wall by between eight to a hundred percent. PMID:24023655

  2. Determination of capacitance of the coaxial line with the yoke in a rectangular screen

    A. V. Talaluev


    Full Text Available The equations for calculating the capacity of the coaxial line with a magnetic core, off-center of the rectangular screen. The results of experimental verification of these relations.

  3. Analysis of a cylindrical-rectangular microstrip structure with an airgap

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Cheng, Yuan-Tung; Row, Jeen-Sheen


    The resonance problem of the cylindrical-rectangular microstrip structure with an airgap between the substrate layer and the ground conducting cylinder is studied by using a rigorous full-wave approach and a moment method calculation.

  4. On the existence of guided acoustic waves at rectangular anisotropic edges.

    Pupyrev, Pavel D; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Nikodijevic, Aleksandar; Mayer, Andreas P


    The existence of acoustic waves with displacements localized at the tip of an isotropic elastic wedge was rigorously proven by Kamotskii, Zavorokhin and Nazarov. This proof, which is based on a variational approach, is extended to rectangular anisotropic wedges. For two high-symmetry configurations of rectangular edges in elastic media with tetragonal symmetry, a criterion is derived that allows identifying the boundary between the regions of existence for wedge modes of even and odd symmetry in regions of parameter space, where even- and odd-symmetry modes do not exist simultaneously. Furthermore, rectangular edges with non-equivalent surfaces are analyzed, and it is shown that at rectangular edges of cubic elastic media with one (110) surface and one (001) surface, a tip-localized guided wave always exists, apart from special cases that are characterized.


    Shi Rong; Li Xiaofeng; Li Zaiming


    The adaptive reconstruction for the lost information of the rectangular image area is very important for the robust transmission and restoration of the image. In this paper, a new reconstruction method based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain has been put forward. According to the low pass character of the human visual system and the energy distribution of the DCT coefficients on the rectangular boundary, the DCT coefficients of the rectangular image area are adaptively selected and recovered. After the Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT), the lost information of the rectangular image area can be reconstructed. The experiments have demonstrated that the subjective and objective qualities of the reconstructed images are enhanced greatly than before.

  6. Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu


    A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.

  7. Numerical investigation of quasi-periodic flow and vortex structure in a twin rectangular subchannel geometry using detached eddy simulation

    Home, D., E-mail:; Lightstone, M.F.


    Highlights: • Dynamics of the subchannel gap vortex street was captured using the DES-SST model. • Gap vortical structures were qualified as eddy zones with low pressure cores. • Gap vortex formation is due to interaction between the low and high speed fluids. • Quasi-periodic gap flow was associated with an inflectional velocity profile. - Abstract: The hybrid Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS)/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology was used to investigate the flow dynamics and associated gap vortex structure in compound rectangular channels for isothermal flows. The specific form of the hybrid URANS/LES approach that was used is the Strelets (2001) version of the Shear Stress Transport (SST) based Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). The DES-SST model was used to study quasi-periodic flow across a gap connecting two rectangular sub-channels on which extensive experiments were conducted by Meyer and Rehme (1994). It was found that the DES-SST model was successful in predicting the characteristics of the flow field in the vicinity of the gap region. The span-wise velocity contours, velocity vector plots, and time traces of the velocity components showed the expected cross flow mixing between the sub-channels through the gap. The dynamics of the flow field were quantitatively described through temporal auto-correlations, spatial cross-correlations and power spectral functions. The numerical predictions were in general agreement with the experiments. Predictions from the model were used to identify different flow mixing patterns. As expected, the simulation predicted the formation of a gap vortex street which results in a quasi-periodic flow through the gap. Coherent structures were identified in the flow field to be comprised of eddies, shear zones and streams. Eddy structures with high vorticity and low pressure cores were found to exist near the vicinity of the gap edge region. A three dimensional vorticity field was identified and found to

  8. The coefficientof hydraulic friction of laminar open flows in smooth channels

    Borovkov Valeriy Stepanovich; Medzveliya Manana Levanovna


    The article examines the dependence of the hydraulic friction coefficient of open laminar uniform streams on the relative width of channels with smooth bottom. The article presents the functional dependence that describes the hydraulic resistance in open channels with smooth bottoms.The experiments were carried out in a rectangular tray (6000×100×200). Aqueous solutions of glycerol were used as working fluids. The superficial tension and liquid density for the used liquids changed a little. T...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts

    Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hua, T.Q. [Fusion Power Program, Technology Development Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Araseki, Hideo [Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko-shi, 270-11 (Japan)


    This paper describes four benchmark problems to validate magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer computer codes. The problems include rectangular duct geometry with uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields, with and without surface heat flux, and various rectangular cross-sections. Two of the problems are based on experiments. Participants in this benchmarking activity come from three countries: Russia, USA and Japan. The solution methods to the problems are described. Results from the different computer codes are presented and compared. (orig.).

  10. Investigation of the Herschel-Quincke tube concept in a rectangular lined duct


    In this research an innovative combination of the Herschel-Quincke tubes and traditional liners is proposed for application in noise reduction of aircraft engines. The approach consists of installing Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tubes on lined rectangular ducts. An analytical model was developed to predict the effects of HQ tubes applied to rectangular lined ducts. The technique involves assuming the tube-duct interfaces as finite piston sources. These sources couple the acoustic field inside the du...

  11. Inverstigation on the Separated Turbulent Flow Field in Dual Rectangular Jets

    TANFa-sheng; LIUJie-wei; 等


    In the present paper,the flow field of dual rectangular jets was numerically simulated by solving the full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations,where the RNG κ-ε model and the finite volume method were used.The flow structure in dual rectangular jets and the effects of the velocity were investigated.The numerical results agree qualitatively with the experimental data.

  12. Electrostatic force on the rectangular shield wall of a strip transmission line



    For a strip transmission line shielded by rectangular walls,the Green's function is helpful to construct the variation expression of the electrostatic energy.Thomson theorem is employed to determine the charge distribution on the strip.The electrostatic force on each side of the rectangular shield wall is achieved by using the principle of virtual work.The results is easy to be obtained by computerized calculation.


    Shiquan Zhang; Xiaoping Xie; Yumei Chen


    In this paper, we consider lower order rectangular finite element methods for the singularly perturbed Stokes problem. The model problem reduces to a linear Stokes problem when the perturbation parameter is large and degenerates to a mixed formulation of Poisson's equation as the perturbation parameter tends to zero. We propose two 2D and two 3D nonconforming rectangular finite elements, and derive robust discretization error estimates. Numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results.

  14. Numerical solutions of singular integral equations for planar rectangular interfacial crack in three dimensional bimaterials

    XU Chun-hui; QIN Tai-yan; Nao-Aki Noda


    Stress intensity factors for a three dimensional rectangular interfacial crack were considered using the body force method. In the numerical calculations, unknown body force densities were approximated by the products of the fundamental densities and power series; here the fundamental densities are chosen to express singular stress fields due to an interface crack exactly. The calculation shows that the numerical results are satisfied. The stress intensity factors for a rectangular interface crack were indicated accurately with the varying aspect ratio, and bimaterial parameter.


    Deyue Zhang; Fuming Ma; Heping Dong


    We develop a finite element method with rectangular perfectly matched layers (PMLs) for the wave scattering from two-dimensional cavities. The unbounded computational domain is truncated to a bounded one by using of a rectangular perfectly matched layer at the open aperture. The PML parameters such as the thickness of the layer and the fictitious medium property are determined through sharp a posteriori error estimates. Numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the competitive behavior of the proposed method.

  16. Development of narrow gap welding technology for extremely thick steel

    Imai, K.; Saito, T.; Okumura, M.

    In the field of extremely thick steel, various narrow gap welding methods were developed on the basis of former welding methods and are used in practice. It is important to develop and improve automatic narrow gap welding, J edge preparation by gas cutting, the prevention of welding defects, wires for narrow gap welding and so on in order to expand the scope of application of the method. Narrow gap welding technologies are described, based on new concepts developed by Nippon Steel Corporation.

  17. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Deb Nath, S. K.; Peyada, N. K.


    In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  18. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    Deb Nath S.K.


    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013 and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012. To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  19. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    Saghir, Shahid


    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear static and dynamic behavior of rectangular microplates under small and large actuating forces. In the first part, we present and compare various approaches to develop reduced order models for the nonlinear von-Karman rectangular microplates actuated by nonlinear electrostatic forces. The reduced-order models aim to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of the plate under small and large actuation forces. A fully clamped microplate is considered. Different types of basis functions are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method to discretize the governing equations. First we investigate the convergence with the number of modes retained in the model. Then for validation purpose, a comparison of the static results is made with the results calculated by a nonlinear finite element model. The linear eigenvalue problem for the plate under the electrostatic force is solved for a wide range of voltages up to pull-in. In the second part, we present an investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of a fully clamped microplate. We investigate the effect of different non-dimensional design parameters on the static response. The forced-vibration response of the plate is then investigated when the plate is excited by a harmonic AC load superimposed to a DC load. The dynamic behavior is examined near the primary and secondary (superharmonic and subharmonic) resonances. The microplate shows a strong hardening behavior due to the cubic nonlinearity of midplane stretching. However, the behavior switches to softening as the DC load is increased. Next, near-square plates are studied to understand the effect of geometric imperfections of microplates. In the final part of the dissertation, we investigate the mechanical behavior of

  20. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  1. Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python

    Sommer, Philipp


    The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.

  2. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Kang, Eun Young


    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  3. Quantum transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanocolumns

    Lueth, H.; Bloemers, C.; Richter, T.; Wensorra, J.; Estevez Hernandez, S.; Petersen, G.; Lepsa, M.; Schaepers, T.; Marso, M.; Indlekofer, M.; Calarco, R.; Demarina, N.; Gruetzmacher, D. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1) and Juelich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Research Center Juelich (Germany)


    InN nanowires were grown by plasma-assisted MBE in a bottom-up approach, while InAs nanocolumns were prepared top-down by electron beam lithography. Both types of narrow-gap semiconductor nanocolumns exhibit a surface accumulation with a cylinder-like 2 DEG as conduction channel. In magnetoconductance measurements at low temperatures with the magnetic field parallel to the column axis the InN wires exhibit magnetoconductance oscillations with a repetition period of a magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. For the InAs columns the observed magnetoconductance oscillations have a period of half the flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}/2. The interpretation is based on the different surface perfectness of both types of columns. The InN wires with an almost perfect crystallinity allow transport through coherent angular momentum states within the surface 2 DEG which yields a {phi}{sub 0} periodicity. The InAs column surfaces exhibit a high amount of surface defects arising from the preparation and only diffusive, phase conserving transport through the 2 DEG is possible, which allows Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak interferences with a period {phi}{sub 0}/2. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Single phase channel flow forced convection heat transfer

    Hartnett, J.P.


    A review of the current knowledge of single phase forced convection channel flow of liquids (Pr > 5) is presented. Two basic channel geometries are considered, the circular tube and the rectangular duct. Both laminar flow and turbulent flow are covered. The review begins with a brief overview of the heat transfer behavior of Newtonian fluids followed by a more detailed presentation of the behavior of purely viscous and viscoelastic Non-Newtonian fluids. Recent developments dealing with aqueous solutions of high molecular weight polymers and aqueous solutions of surfactants are discussed. The review concludes by citing a number of challenging research opportunities.

  5. The Narrow Line Region of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A; Pastoriza, M G; Donzelli, C J


    This work studies the optical emission line properties and physical conditions of the narrow line region (NLR) of seven narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1). Our results show that the flux carried out by the narrow component of H-beta is, on average, 50% of the total line flux. As a result, the [OIII] 5007/H-beta ratio emitted in the NLR varies from 1 to 5, instead of the universally adopted value of 10. This has strong implications for the required spectral energy distribution that ionizes the NLR gas. Photoionization models that consider a NLR composed of a combination of matter-bounded and ionization-bounded clouds are successful at explaining the low [OIII] 5007/H-beta ratio and the weakness of low-ionization lines of NLS1s. Variation of the relative proportion of these two type of clouds nicely reproduce the dispersion of narrow line ratios found among the NLS1 sample. Assuming similar physical model parameters of both NLS1s and the normal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, we show that the observed differences...

  6. Narrow-Bicliques: Cryptanalysis of Full IDEA

    Khovratovich, D.; Leurent, G.; Rechberger, C.


    We apply and extend the recently introduced biclique framework to IDEA and for the first time describe an approach to noticeably speed-up key-recovery for the full 8.5 round IDEA.We also show that the biclique approach to block cipher cryptanalysis not only obtains results on more rounds, but also...... improves time and data complexities over existing attacks. We consider the first 7.5 rounds of IDEA and demonstrate a variant of the approach that works with practical data complexity. The conceptual contribution is the narrow-bicliques technique: the recently introduced independent-biclique approach...... the practical use of IDEA in any way, yet the techniques are practically verified to a large extent....

  7. Robotic chair at steep and narrow stairways

    Imazato, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu


    A robotic chair is developed to support mobility of elderly and disabled people living in the house where steep and narrow stairways are installed. In order to deal with such mobility problem the developed robotic chair has a compact original configuration. The robotic chair vertically moves by actuation of electric cylinders and horizontally moves by push-pull operation given by a care-giver. In order to navigate safely every action of the chair is checked by the operator. Up-and-down motions of the robotic chair on the stairway are executed through combinations of motor and cylinder actuations. Performance of the robotic chair was evaluated through two kinds of experiments. The excellent ability of the robotic chair could be confirmed through these experiments.

  8. Narrow-angle astrometry with PRIMA

    Sahlmann, J; Mérand, A; Zimmerman, N; Abuter, R; Chazelas, B; Delplancke, F; Henning, T; Kaminski, A; Köhler, R; Launhardt, R; Mohler, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Reffert, S; Schmid, C; Schuhler, N; Schulze-Hartung, T


    The Extrasolar Planet Search with PRIMA project (ESPRI) aims at characterising and detecting extrasolar planets by measuring the host star's reflex motion using the narrow-angle astrometry capability of the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. A first functional demonstration of the astrometric mode was achieved in early 2011. This marked the start of the astrometric commissioning phase with the purpose of characterising the instrument's performance, which ultimately has to be sufficient for exoplanet detection. We show results obtained from the observation of bright visual binary stars, which serve as test objects to determine the instrument's astrometric precision, its accuracy, and the plate scale. Finally, we report on the current status of the ESPRI project, in view of starting its scientific programme.

  9. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps

    Gu, Bo; Maekawa, Sadamichi


    We propose a method to realize diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with p - and n -type carriers by choosing host semiconductors with a narrow band gap. By employing a combination of the density function theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate such semiconductors using Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , which has a band gap of 0.2 eV. In addition, we found a nontoxic DMS Mn-doped BaZn2Sb2 , of which the Curie temperature Tc is predicted to be higher than that of Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , the Tc of which was up to 230 K in a recent experiment.

  10. Tissue characterization by using narrow band imaging

    Gono, Kazuhiro


    NBI (Narrow Band Imaging) was first introduced in the market in 2005 as a technique enabling to enhance image contrast of capillaries on a mucosal surface(1). It is classified as an Optical-Digital Method for Image-Enhanced Endoscopy(2). To date, the application has widely spread not only to gastrointestinal fields such as esophagus, stomach and colon but also the organs such as bronchus and bladder. The main target tissue of NBI enhancement is capillaries. However, findings of many clinical studies conducted by endoscopy physicians have revealed that NBI observation enables to enhance more other structures in addition to capillaries. There is a close relationship between those enhanced structures and histological microstructure of a tissue. This report introduces the tissue microstructures enhanced by NBI and discusses the possibility of optimized illumination wavelength in observing living tissues.

  11. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel networks

    H Prashanth Reddy; M Hanif Chaudhry; Jasim Imran


    Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually varied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric characteristics of the main channel and floodplains. To overcome these limitations, an algorithm is presented in this paper to compute steady, gradually varied flow in an open-channel network with compound cross sections. As compared to the presently available methods, the methodology is more general and suitable for application to compound and trapezoidal channel cross sections in series channels, tree-type or looped networks. In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in channel geometry are presented to avoid the occurrence of multiple critical depths. The occurrence of only one critical depth in a compound cross section with modified geometry is demonstrated for a tree-type channel network.

  12. Stability of flowing open fluidic channels

    Jue Nee Tan


    Full Text Available Open fluidic systems have a distinct advantage over enclosed channels in that the fluids exposed nature makes for easy external interaction, this finds uses in introduction of samples by adding liquid droplets or from the surrounding gaseous medium. This work investigates flowing open channels and films, which can potentially make use of the open section of the system as an external interface, before bringing the sample into an enclosed channel. Clearly, in this scenario a key factor is the stability of the flowing open fluid. The open channels investigated include a straight open channel defined by a narrow strip of solid surface, the edges of which allow large contact angle hysteresis, and a wider structure allowing for multiple inputs and outputs. A model is developed for fluid flow, and the findings used to describe the process of failure in both cases.

  13. Automatic Narrow-Deep Feature Recognition for Mould Manufacturing

    Zheng-Ming Chen; Kun-Jin He; Jing Liu


    There usually exist narrow-long-deep areas in mould needed to be machined in special machining. To identify the narrow-deep areas automatically, an automatic narrow-deep feature (NF) recognition method is put forward accordingly. First, the narrow-deep feature is defined innovatively in this field and then feature hint is extracted from the mould by the characteristics of narrow-deep feature. Second, the elementary constituent faces (ECF) of a feature are found on the basis of the feature hint. By means of extending and clipping the ECF, the feature faces are obtained incrementally by geometric reasoning. As a result, basic narrow-deep features (BNF) related are combined heuristically. The proposed NF recognition method provides an intelligent connection between CAD and CAPP for machining narrow-deep areas in mould.

  14. Positron Channeling

    Badikyan, Karen


    The possibility of channeling the low-energy relativistic positrons around separate crystallographic axes with coaxial symmetry of negative ions in some types of crystals is shown. The process of annihilation of positrons with electrons of medium was studied in detail.

  15. Brands & Channels

    Alice Yang


    @@ "Brands" and "Channels" are the two most important things in Ku-Hai Chen's eyes when doing business with Main-land China. Ku-Hai Chen, Executive Director of the International Trade Institute of Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), flies frequently between Chinese Taipei and Mainland China, and was in Beijing earlier this month for his seminar.

  16. An analytical model for predicting dryout point in bilaterally heated vertical narrow annuli

    AYE Myint; TIAN Wen-Xi; JIA Dou-Nan; LI Zhi-Hui; LI Hao


    Based on the droplet-diffusion model by Kirillov and Smogalev (1969, 1972), a new analytical model of dryout point prediction in the steam-water flow for bilaterally and uniformly heated narrow annular gap was developed. Comparisons of the present model predictions with experimental results indicated that a good agreement in ac curacy for the experimental parametric range (pressure from 0.8 to 3.5 MPa, mass flux of 60.39 to 135.6 kg·m-2·s-1 and heat flux of 5 to 50 kW·m-2). Prediction of dryout point was experimentally investigated with deionized water upflowing through narrow annular channel with 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm gap heated by AC power supply.

  17. Ideal Channel Field Effect Transistors


    transistors and composite channel InAlAs/InGaAs/lnP/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ), which have taken the full advantage of the matched...lattice constant (or pseudomorphic growth). However, for the most popular wide bandgap semiconductor GaN and SiC, the lattice mismatch between GaN ...critical thickness of InN on GaN is about one monolayer. To marry the advantages offered by both narrow bandgap and wide bandgap semiconductors, we

  18. Electromagnetic penetration through narrow slots in conducting surfaces and coupling to structures on the shadow side

    Reed, E.K.; Butler, C.M. (Clemson Univ., SC (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)


    Electromagnetic field penetration through a curved narrow slot in a planar conducting surface and coupling to a curved, loaded thin wire on the shadow side are determined in the time domain (TD) and the frequency domain (FD) by integral equation methods. Coupled integral equations are derived and solved numerically for the equivalent magnetic current in the slot and the electric current on the wire, from which the field that penetrates the slotted surface is determined. One employs a piecewise linear approximation of the unknown currents and performs equation enforcement by pulse testing. The resulting TD equations are solved by a scheme incorporating a finite-difference approximation for a second partial time derivative which allows one to solve for the unknown currents at a discrete time instant t + 1 in terms of the known excitation and currents calculated at a discrete time instant t and earlier. The FD equations are solved by the method of moments. A hybrid time-domain integral equation -- finite-difference time-domain solution technique is described whereby one solves for the field which penetrates a slotted cavity-backed surface. One models the fields in the exterior region and in the slot with integral operators and models the fields inside the cavity with a discretized form of Maxwell's equations. Narrow slots following various contours were chemically etched in thin bass sheets and an apparatus was fabricated to measure shadow-side fields, electric current on a thin wire on the shadow side, and, separately, fields inside a rectangular cavity which backed the slotted brass sheet. The experimentation was conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on a frequency-domain test range employing a monocone source over a large ground plane. One observes very good agreement among the experimental and theoretical results.

  19. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello


    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  20. Human sperm cells swimming in micro-channels

    Denissenko, Petr; Smith, David; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson


    The migratory abilities of motile human spermatozoa in vivo are essential for natural fertility, but it remains a mystery what properties distinguish the tens of cells which find an egg from the millions of cells ejaculated. To reach the site of fertilization, sperm must traverse narrow and convoluted channels, filled with viscous fluids. To elucidate individual and group behaviors that may occur in the complex three-dimensional female tract environment, we examine the behavior of migrating sperm in assorted micro-channel geometries. Cells rarely swim in the central part of the channel cross-section, instead traveling along the intersection of the channel walls (`channel corners'). When the channel turns sharply, cells leave the corner, continuing ahead until hitting the opposite wall of the channel, with a distribution of departure angles, the latter being modulated by fluid viscosity. If the channel bend is smooth, cells depart from the inner wall when the curvature radius is less than a threshold value clo...