WorldWideScience

Sample records for recovery key issues

  1. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    .... It held elections in October 2005, with a presidential run-off vote in November -- a key step in a post-conflict transition and peace-building process that began following its second civil war in a decade...

  2. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  3. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  4. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  5. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  6. Integrating Gender Issues in Recovery and Reconstruction Planning

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This note on integrating gender issues in recovery and reconstruction planning is the fifth in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in East Asia and Pacific region. There are number of key challenges that women face in different elements of post disaster risk reconstruction and recovery. This note addresses the following bottlenecks: a) housing, lan...

  7. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  8. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...

  9. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  10. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning the IS organisation, people management issues (organisational learning, educating senior management in IT, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, and end-user computing. This reflects the need for a balance of business, technical, and people skills in an IS executive. Non-critical issues were mostly related to systems development and the individual technologies which must be integrated and managed to ensure a responsive IT infrastructure. The study also reveals that some issues are much more important than problematic (disaster recovery, competitive advantage, information architecture, and IS alignment while others are much more problematic than important (end-user computing, IS role and contribution, and BPR. The former reflects a growing level of knowledge in handling these issues, while the latter reflects a continuing problem with them. The differences between this study and similar studies conducted in 1988 and 1992 show that there is a growing confidence in the IS executive's ability to manage the strategic issues, a continuing concern about providing a responsive IT infrastructure (especially communications, and a continuing concern with educating all 'customers' in the organisation in the effective use of IT, including senior management.

  11. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  12. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  13. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  14. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  15. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  16. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  17. Key Issues in Global Technological Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sbragia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify those issues that were present in global technological innovation projects carried out by Brazilian multinational companies and which performance criterions these undertakings met. We investigated 36 global technological innovation projects from Brazilian multinational enterprises through a web-survey. Findings show that these companies went beyond the traditional iron triangle to evaluate their technological efforts and considered additional performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction, business results, and preparation for the future. Results also show high degree of presence for issues emerging from the industry, moderate degree of presence for issues emerging from both the project and R&D activities, and low degree of presence for issues emerging from the headquarters, the subsidiaries, and the external environment. Further research is needed to find out if and how these issues influenced the performance of the global technological innovation projects studied.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.72

  18. Ten key issues in modern flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Jens; Ceylan, Sascha; Kirschning, Andreas

    2011-04-28

    Ten essentials of synthesis in the flow mode, a new enabling technology in organic chemistry, are highlighted as flashlighted providing an insight into current and future issues and developments in this field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES Key Schedule Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsow, Alex

    A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from decayed memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% decay, well over twice the decay capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% decay. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images decayed up to 60%.

  20. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  1. Key issues in the prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T P

    1997-01-01

    Obesity is a serious, chronic medical condition which is associated with a wide range of debilitating and life-threatening conditions. It imposes huge financial burdens on health care systems and the community at large. Obesity develops over time and once it has done so, is difficult to treat. Therefore, the prevention of weight gain offers the only truly effective means of controlling obesity. Very little research has directly addressed the issue of obesity prevention and previous efforts to prevent obesity amongst individuals, groups or whole communities have had very limited success. However, we have learned sufficient from past preventive activities to realise that the management of obesity will require a comprehensive range of strategies with actions that target those with existing weight problems, those at high risk of developing obesity as well as the community as a whole. The prevention and management of obesity in children should be considered a priority as there is a high risk of persistence into adulthood.

  2. Dating Violence among College Students: Key Issues for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…

  3. Information Systems Management: an Australian view of the key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating the key issues in IS management serve to better understand the concerns of IS managers and help to guide IS researchers in choosing IS management problems worthy of investigation. This paper presents results from a study of the key issues facing the IS managers of Australia's largest 300 organisations which is part of a three-yearly longitudinal study. In order to gain consensus on the relative importance of the key issues, a three-round Delphi method was applied. The results reveal that IS strategic planning continues to be the paramount issue in our industry, as are many issues associated with IS strategic planning, including responsiveness of the IT infrastructure, effective use of the data resource, IS for competitive advantage, and a comprehensive information architecture. A greater emphasis on quality is also revealed in highly rated issues such as effective use of the data resource, data integrity and quality assurance, and the quality of software development

  4. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the key issues facing health care providers in ... gral part of community-based health programmes ... health care services more accessible to everyone s. , .... health; villagers are often more willing to help meet the costs of services they value. 2.

  5. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The Key Strategic Issues List (KSIL) offers military and civilian researchers a ready reference of topics that are of particular interest to the Department of the Army and the Department of Defense...

  6. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically examines and evaluates inter alia Trade Unions as. Organisations and the key issues and problems of Internal Democracy within them. It transcends this analysis to assert that these core issues apply equally well to Political Organisations. Thus, from an ideological standpoint, Trade Unions play a great ...

  7. Workplace wellness programs in Canada: an exploration of key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2008-01-01

    Faced with the reality of rising health costs, Canadian employers are thinking beyond traditional notions of responsibility for employee health and have begun to embrace Workplace Wellness Programs (WWPs). This article investigates the critical issues of WWPs in the Canadian context from the perspective of key stakeholders. Using a combination of literature and key informant interviews, seven key themes are presented along with recommendations for wider implementation of WWPs in Canada.

  8. EDITORIAL: 'Key issues' articles in Reports on Progress in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laura H.

    2007-03-01

    The Editorial Board of Reports on Progress in Physics has commissioned a series of short articles from world leaders on key physics issues in their field. These essays may raise the key issues, or ask open questions or may even suggest wild ideas. Basically, they give world leading physicists the opportunity to write what they think about the key issues in their field, free from the usual requirement to provide the fair and balanced presentations of the subject normally found in articles in Reports on Progress in Physics. We believe that the readers of the journal will be interested to learn about these exciting ideas. Just as Hilbert's famous paper of 1900 set the agenda for the next century or more in mathematics, so we hope that this series of papers will define the key issues and open questions in physics for the 21st Century and that the articles will be widely cited and downloaded. The first of these articles—'Insights from simulations of star formation' by Richard B Larson (Yale University, USA)—is published in the current issue. We trust that readers will find this article and its successors in the series to appear through 2007 and beyond entertaining and stimulating.

  9. Key Issues and Research Agendas in Lone Wolf Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Hamm, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on recent contributions to the academic literature on lone wolf terrorism to critically examine key issues that are germane to the current state of play in this field of study. It finds that, overall, the recent academic literature still suffers from considerable problems

  10. Power quality event classification: an overview and key issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used for PQ events' classifications. Various artificial intelligent techniques which are used in PQ event classification are also discussed. Major Key issues and challenges in classifying PQ events are critically examined and outlined. Keywords: Power quality, PQ event classifiers, artificial intelligence techniques, PQ noise, ...

  11. Village health volunteers: key issues facing agencies in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...

  12. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  13. Global energy outlook. Key issue paper no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of this key issue paper are to outline the expected trends in energy and electricity demand and supply that will impact the future of nuclear power and to highlight new realities that are likely to affect the assessment and implementation of alternative reactor and fuel cycle strategies in the next five to six decades. 14 refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  15. Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…

  16. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  17. Key Recovery Using Noised Secret Sharing with Discounts over Large Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    JAJODIA , Sushil; Litwin , Witold; Schwarz , Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Encryption key loss problem is the Achilles's heel of cryptography. Key escrow helps, but favors disclosures. Schemes for recoverable encryption keys through noised secret sharing alleviate the dilemma. Key owner escrows a specifically encrypted backup. The recovery needs a large cloud. Cloud cost, money trail should rarefy illegal attempts. We now propose noised secret sharing schemes supporting discounts. The recovery request with discount code lowers the recovery complexity, easily by orde...

  18. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  19. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  20. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    ...), against two armed anti-Taylor rebel groups. It also destabilized neighboring states, which accepted Liberian refugees and, in some cases, hosted anti-Taylor forces and became targets of the Taylor regime...

  1. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade...

  2. A CEO View of Key Issues in Australian Information Systems Management - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research programme on key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by their chief executive officers (CEOs as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The results reported are based on a relatively low response rate (though perhaps reasonable for the target group so should be regarded as only exploratory. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (BPR, competitive advantage, information architecture, people management issues (organisational learning, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, effectiveness/productivity of IS, effectiveness of software development, and their own support systems (EIS/DSS. This reflects their interest in a wide range of issues, but all with an organisation-wide focus. Non-critical issues were mostly related to the individual technologies and the place and role of IS in the organisation. While the CEOs showed some agreement with their chief information officers (CIOs on issues such as the IT infrastructure, competitive advantage, and organisational learning some distinct differences exist, particularly in relation to the quality and effectiveness of systems and processes and also how CEOs and CIOs perceive each other.

  3. Key issues regarding digital libraries evaluation and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Rao; Fox, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    This is the second book based on the 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) approach to digital libraries (DLs). Leveraging the first volume, on Theoretical Foundations, we focus on the key issues of evaluation and integration. These cross-cutting issues serve as a bridge for those interested in DLs, connecting the introduction and formal discussion in the first book, with the coverage of key technologies in the third book, and of illustrative applications in the fourth book. These two topics have central importance in the DL field, allowing it to be treated scientifically as well as practically. In the scholarly world, we only really understand something if we know how to measure and evaluate it. In the Internet era of distributed information systems, we only can be practical at scale if we integrate across both systems and their associated content. Evaluation of DLs must take place atmultiple levels,so we can address the different entities and their associated measures. Thus, for digital obj...

  4. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  5. BENTO buffer development program in Finland - Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Korkiala-Tanttu, L.; Vaehaenen, M.; Koskinen, K.; Korkeakoski, P.; Haapala, K.

    2010-01-01

    key project in the programme. Another key part of development is the manufacturing of buffer components (MANU project), which is responsible of the manufacturing of buffer components for testing and final use in the repository. MANU covers the whole chain of events from raw material acquisition and management to manufacturing and emplacement of the final bentonite products. The development of design and manufacturing requires significant amount of research in order to define the processes that take place during buffer's lifespan from manufacturing to actual buffer function in deposition hole and evaluation of buffer performance. These processes need to be understood in order to define the essential design parameters that affect these processes. Therefore material research (MARE project) is essential requirement for successful design development. Modelling (MODE project) provides support for all other projects. It requires significant resources, comprehensive understanding of different modelling methods and approaches, intense supervision and coordination. The significant issues are issues, which have been identified by the BENTO programme group to be possibly significant for performance of the buffer. The significant issues that need to be resolved at present are as follows: 1. Buffer cementation; 2. Buffer mineral alteration; 3. Erosion of buffer; 4. Piping of inflows through the buffer; 5. Insufficient swelling pressure of the buffer in dry drift sections, effect on rock spalling; 6. Post-glacial erosion (loss of buffer from exposure to glacial melt waters); 7. Cement-bentonite interaction; 8. Iron-bentonite interaction; 9. Freezing and Thawing of buffer. (authors)

  6. Energy recovery as a key technology for future mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellbeck, Hans; Risse, Silvio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2011-07-01

    Internal and external combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications represent an essential, basic module for a functioning economy and society. In ensuring mobility worldwide by land and by sea, the combustion engine plays the dominant role. Customer requirements to be fulfilled are manifold. Accordingly a downward trend in the demand for or indeed the abandonment of the combustion engine in personal or freight transport is in the near future unforeseeable. With regard to the continuously increasing need for mobility subject to limited resources and rising environmental consciousness, the combustion engine and the means to improve its efficiency and sustainability are under intensive investigation. Along with the application of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, improvements in the system itself will be valuable to its future. More specifically, compared to many other techniques the recovery of energy losses resulting from the operation of these engines promises a very high degree of optimization. An overview of the current and predicted number of combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications is given at the beginning of the paper. Furthermore, a differentiation between personal and freight traffic must be made since there is not only a difference in their respective power requirements but also in their lifecycles. The energy losses through exhaust gases and coolants, for example, are quantified and rated in terms of their capabilities on the basis of certain fields of application and utilization profiles. With regard to additional specific boundary conditions, various concepts ranging from recuperation in theory to actual recovery in practice under conditions approximating actual production are analysed in different application scenarios for their efficiency, ecological benefit, and economy. Retroactive or synergistic effects which may follow from their integration into the complete system are considered precisely with the help of examples

  7. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  8. Environmental protection uranium recovery issues in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peake, R.T.; Cherepy, A.; Rosnick, R.; Schultheisz, D.; Setlow, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium recovery activities in the United States were at a standstill just a few years ago. Demand for processed uranium yellowcake has increased, as has its price, though the price is down since the Fukushima reactor accident. Interest in producing uranium has increased, too. Currently the most preferred, low-cost uranium extraction method in the United States is in-situ leach (ISL) recovery where the geohydrology is conducive to injection, mobilization and pumping. A number of applications for new ISL and conventional mills have recently been submitted or are expected to be submitted for licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings under the authority of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). These standards are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192). The NRC develops implementing regulations for 40 CFR Part 192 and then NRC or delegated States enforce the NRC and EPA regulations. Facilities regulated under 40 CFR Part 192 include conventional uranium and thorium mills as well as in-situ leach operations, which are considered to be 'milling underground' for regulatory purposes. However, there are no explicit standards for ISL operations in 40 CFR Part 192. In addition, EPA has determined that portions of the operations at uranium recovery operations, specifically the radon emissions from tailings impoundments, are covered by Section 112 of the Clean Air Act as a source of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA addresses these operations in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W. EPA is in the process of reviewing both 40 CFR Part 192 and 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart W for possible revision. This paper presents some of the issues related to uranium recovery that are being considered in the current regulatory review. (author)

  9. Trends between 1973 and 1988: Summary and key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The preceding chapters considered the evolution of activity, structure, energy intensity, and energy use between the early 1970s and 1988 for the manufacturing, transportation, residential, and service sectors. In this chapter, the author summarizes the changes that have taken place, and presents results of a cross-sectoral analysis of the effect of change in sectoral activity, structure, and energy intensity on energy use in the three largest OECD economies: the United States, Japan, and West Germany. He also addresses a number of key issues that have important implications for future energy use in the OECD countries and elsewhere. Between 1973 and 1988, final energy use in the five sectors studied (which account for around 90% of total energy use) grew by 3% in the United, States, 15% in Japan, and 3% in West Germany. Energy use in manufacturing declined by 10-20% in each country. Energy use for passenger travel grew by only 11% in the United States, but rose by 76% in Japan and by 56% in West Germany. There was moderate to strong growth in freight energy use in all three countries. There was very high growth in residential and services energy use in Japan, and moderate growth in these sectors in the United States and West Germany. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  11. Key issues of ultraviolet radiation of OH at high altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhuai; Wan, Tian; Jiang, Jianzheng; Fan, Jing [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gasdynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) emissions radiated by hydroxyl (OH) is one of the fundamental elements in the prediction of radiation signature of high-altitude and high-speed vehicle. In this work, the OH A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}→X{sup 2}Π ultraviolet emission band behind the bow shock is computed under the experimental condition of the second bow-shock ultraviolet flight (BSUV-2). Four related key issues are discussed, namely, the source of hydrogen element in the high-altitude atmosphere, the formation mechanism of OH species, efficient computational algorithm of trace species in rarefied flows, and accurate calculation of OH emission spectra. Firstly, by analyzing the typical atmospheric model, the vertical distributions of the number densities of different species containing hydrogen element are given. According to the different dominating species containing hydrogen element, the atmosphere is divided into three zones, and the formation mechanism of OH species is analyzed in the different zones. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and the Navier-Stokes equations are employed to compute the number densities of the different OH electronically and vibrationally excited states. Different to the previous work, the trace species separation (TSS) algorithm is applied twice in order to accurately calculate the densities of OH species and its excited states. Using a non-equilibrium radiation model, the OH ultraviolet emission spectra and intensity at different altitudes are computed, and good agreement is obtained with the flight measured data.

  12. Practical and Secure Recovery of Disk Encryption Key Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omote, Kazumasa; Kato, Kazuhiko

    In key-recovery methods using smart cards, a user can recover the disk encryption key in cooperation with the system administrator, even if the user has lost the smart card including the disk encryption key. However, the disk encryption key is known to the system administrator in advance in most key-recovery methods. Hence user's disk data may be read by the system administrator. Furthermore, if the disk encryption key is not known to the system administrator in advance, it is difficult to achieve a key authentication. In this paper, we propose a scheme which enables to recover the disk encryption key when the user's smart card is lost. In our scheme, the disk encryption key is not preserved anywhere and then the system administrator cannot know the key before key-recovery phase. Only someone who has a user's smart card and knows the user's password can decrypt that user's disk data. Furthermore, we measured the processing time required for user authentication in an experimental environment using a virtual machine monitor. As a result, we found that this processing time is short enough to be practical.

  13. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  14. Key Issues in the Application of Knowledge Management in Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendoza, George A

    2005-01-01

    .... This shift in paradigms has made knowledge the key resource as organizations shift their focus from natural resources to intellectual assets, heralding the use of a concept called Knowledge Management (KM...

  15. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoski, John

    2013-01-01

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  16. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  17. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction – Key Issues and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2009-01-01

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...

  18. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  19. Distributed Generation in Power Systems: An Overview and Key Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas

    2009-01-01

    quality, etc. However, depending on the system configuration and management, these advantages may not be true. Moreover, due to structural and managerial changes in the electricity supply industry motivated with introduction of completion, the role of small generations distributed in the low...... issues in the DG integration in power systems...

  20. The Work/Family Challenge: A Key Career Development Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnweiler, William M; Kahnweiler, Jennifer B.

    1992-01-01

    A few corporations are responding to the impact of family structural changes on workers' ability to balance their roles with flexible benefits and schedules and with training. Work/family issues are an integral part of career and life decision making and must be incorporated into the career development process. (SK)

  1. Photovoltaics for Buildings: Key Issues in Pursuit of Market Readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheila, J.; Hayter, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry is rapidly beginning to recognize the market potential of the buildings sector. New PV-for-buildings products have recently become commercially available, and numerous products that are under development will be introduced within the next 5 years. To ensure that these new products will be adopted and used in common building practices, the PV industry should recognize and address important buildings industry issues. These issues include building codes and standards, after-market servicing, education, and warranties and insurance policies. Photovoltaic systems are also still very expensive. The simplest method for increasing their value for a building is to decrease the building's electrical loads through energy efficiency and conservation. Meeting these goals can only be accomplished through partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), private industry, and public institutions

  2. The European protocol on organ transplant: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2009-09-01

    What is interesting in the philosophy of the European Protocol is the search of a balanced position which acknowledges the medical progress brought by organ transplants and considers the necessity to ensure that human dignity and individual freedom are respected. However, the principles adopted for such regulations at the European level leave on some major issues a great margin of appreciation to the domestic legislation. This is particularly true in areas such as defining death or consenting to organ transplants including the situation of minors and the role of the family. A last point should also be stressed regarding the European protocol: its lack of efficiency concerning a neglected but important issue: organ trafficking.

  3. 10 key indicators for the environment - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    Ten indicators of the environment are briefly presented, discussed and illustrated by graphs indicating their evolution since the 1990's: air (air pollution in urban environment), biodiversity (number of common bird species), resources (consumption of materials), water (river pollution by phosphates and nitrates), land occupation (soil artificialization), wastes (urban wastes), climate (carbon dioxide emissions), economy (jobs in the environmental sector), energy (share of renewable energies), and opinion (level of concern of French people regarding the different issues related to environment degradation)

  4. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas.

  5. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  6. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  7. Resolving Key Uncertainties in Subsurface Energy Recovery: One Role of In Situ Experimentation and URLs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, D.

    2013-12-01

    Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes

  8. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

      In recent years there has been a rising political attention on competence development both at national and international level. At European level in particular, since 2000, with the set of the Lisbon Agenda, different bodies representing the Union have been very productive in generating working...... papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  9. Knowledge management - A key issue for EnBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The motivation for knowledge management can be summarised with the words of EnBW CEO Prof. Claassen, 2002 'knowledge manager of the year' in Germany: 'Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing complexity of strategic planning and activities on the operational front, knowledge management is a key factor in the long-term success of our business.' Professional knowledge management motivates and supports employees, helping to create networks in which they can lay the foundations for the future success of the company. It must be emphasised that knowledge management is the responsibility of management, and EnBW has established a suitable framework consisting of different action levels and goals: 1) Normative level (corporate culture): creating a knowledge-aware and knowledge-friendly corporate culture 2) Strategic level (human resources): systematic gearing of internal intangible potentials towards future requirements. 3) Operational level (information/communication): making the required knowledge available in the necessary scope and quality, in the right place and at the right time. If knowledge management can generally be seen as basic requirement for successful companies, then it is even more important for nuclear operators. Today, nuclear energy is an important generating technology in Europe, for Germany and for EnBW with major future potential, but a technology that must be employed with great caution and attaching top priority to safe operation. For nuclear operators, the rule is always 'safety first'. But knowledge management implemented and used in the right way can also enhance both safety and competitive operation of the plants at the same time. In this connection, successful knowledge management plays a key role due to the complex interplay of many different disciplines within a demanding legal and regulatory framework, the paramount importance of collective past experience and the high demands on the expertise of the employees operating nuclear

  10. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  11. Tic disorders: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, John T; Ferrão, Ygor; Leckman, James F; Stein, Dan J; Singer, Harvey

    2010-06-01

    This study provides a focused review of issues that are relevant to the nosology of the tic disorders and presents preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The recommended changes are designed to clarify and simplify the diagnostic criteria, reduce the use of the residual category, tic disorder not otherwise specified, and are not intended to alter substantially clinical practice or the continuity of past and future research. Specific recommendations include: (1) a more precise definition of motor and vocal tics; (2) simplification of the duration criterion for the tic disorders; (3) revising the term "transient tic disorder" for those with tic symptoms of less than 12-month duration; (4) establishing new tic disorder categories for those with substance induced tic disorder and tic disorder due to a general medical condition; and (5) including a motor tic only and vocal tic only specifier for the chronic motor or vocal tic disorder category. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Some Key Issues for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Fallon, Brian A.; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This paper provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: 1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; 2) Potential disadvantages of adding a new criterion to reflect BDD compulsive behaviors seem to outweigh potential advantages, but adding such a criterion remains an option that can be considered; 3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; 4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV’s criterion C are suggested; 5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; 6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; 7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and 8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD’s delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate paper. PMID:20533368

  13. Body dysmorphic disorder: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Fallon, Brian A; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J

    2010-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. An Exploratory Qualitative Inquiry of Key Indicators on IT Disaster Recovery Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Disaster recovery planning is a crucial component to maintaining a business's economic stability. However, it is unclear how key performance indicators (KPIs) are perceived in the emergency medical service (EMS) industry during the disaster recover planning process. The problem addressed in this study was to understand KPIs and their components.…

  15. Key Geomechanics Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSEN, FRANCIS D.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of rock salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory compliance determinations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stand as testament to the widely held conclusion that salt provides excellent isolation properties. The WIPP saga began in the 1950s when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended a salt vault as a promising solution to the national problem of nuclear waste disposal. For over 20 years, the Scientific basis for the NAS recommendation has been fortified by Sandia National Laboratories through a series of large scale field tests and laboratory investigations of salt properties. These scientific investigations helped develop a comprehensive understanding of salt's 4 reformational behavior over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Sophisticated constitutive modeling, validated through underground testing, provides the computational ability to model long-term behavior of repository configurations. In concert with advancement of the mechanical models, fluid flow measurements showed not only that the evaporite lithology was essentially impermeable but that the WIPP setting was hydrologically inactive. Favorable mechanical properties ensure isolation of materials placed in a salt geological setting. Key areas of the geomechanics investigations leading to the certification of WIPP are in situ experiments, laboratory tests, and shaft seal design

  16. Key issues in the outlook for minerals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waring, T.; Love, G.; Hogan, J.; Gooday, P.

    1996-01-01

    The outlook for Australia's minerals and energy sector continues to be positive because of the flow-on effects of economic growth in the newly industrialized Asia. The East Asian share of mineral and energy commodities continues to expand reflecting the growing demand for consumer goods and new economic and social infrastructure. Uncertainties in the minerals and energy outlook include the future economic performance of the developed countries and the former Soviet Union, trade and environmental issues and the effects of changing technology on minerals and energy production and consumption. Encouraged by good prospects for exploration success and firmer markets, real exploration expenditure is forecast to continue to rise and the volume of Australian mine production is expected to rise by 14 percent between 1995-6 and 2000-1. Export earnings from mineral and energy commodities are expected to rise by $5.6 billion Australian (16 percent) from 1995-6 levels to reach $41.9 billion in real terms by 2000-1. (author). 2 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs

  17. Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, J W

    1997-01-01

    In the hot arid zones of the world, ecotoxicological research is in statu nascendi. In these zones, the major sources of contamination by toxicants are: (1) plant protection and vector control in wet zones; (2) large-scale crop protection campaigns in dry and ephemeral wet zones; (3) refuse and obsolete pesticides in dry zones; and (4) mining. Economic development in many of these zones requires an adequate knowledge of certain basic principles, i.e., where extrapolating existing knowledge does not apply. The vulnerability of ecosystems to contaminants is closely related to water flow. In dry areas, species are susceptible to factors that interfere with the ecophysiological properties regulating water loss. Most hot arid areas are found at low latitudes where temperatures show striking extremes both in time and space. Living organisms are physiologically resistant and/or show adaptive behavior to these temperature extremes. Very little is known about the effects of toxicants on these key resistant and adaptive functions, although by extrapolation a few assumptions can be made. The effects of hyperthermia, for instance, can be aggravated by GSH depleting substances, and the temporary disabling effects characteristic of many pesticides may prove fatal under these circumstances. Most wet areas show a spatial concentration of both human activity and wildlife. In mesic zones, the contamination of water represents a health risk to both humans and other living organisms. The vast majority of aquatic communities are those inhabiting temporary pools and streams. Their populations are characterized by short reproductive cycles and/or long dormant stages. Toxicants affecting growth in these areas have been shown to have a deleterious effect. In a synthesis of existing knowledge the most prominent gaps are identified and priorities for further research are made.

  18. Public engagement with CCS: barriers, key issues and ways forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenias, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Although Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is recognised as a crucial transition technology to a low-carbon world, it has not been popular with the public or some governments (e.g. the UK). Also, despite its use in industrial processes for decades, CCS remains and unfamiliar technology for most publics. It is therefore important to foster top-down and bottom-up acceptance of large scale CCS. In an exploratory round of interviews we canvassed the views of British, Dutch, German and Norwegian experts (N=13) with previous experience in public engagement with CCS. They identified barriers and drivers for CCS deployment and public engagement with CCS. Thematic analysis revealed a small number of recurrent issues, including: (a) lack of political leadership on CCS; (b) lack of public knowledge on relevant technologies and (c) difficulty communicating why CCS is necessary. Emphasis on these barriers varied with the level of experts' engagement with the public. More interestingly, although most experts agreed on the importance of public engagement, their views divided between 'why' engage and 'how' best to do this. In a subsequent expert survey (N=99) interview findings were reinforced: public support was seen as important for CCS roll-out (72%), though lower than political support and funding. The survey also showed that local public was expected to experience most risks, while global public will experience most benefits; whereas local business is seen to benefit more than global. Experts were overwhelmingly positive about CCS - risks outweigh benefits, and are confident that CCS will play a major role in climate change mitigation (along with reduced energy demand and renewables). These findings will be expanded on and triangulated in a follow-up public survey which will benefit those involved with public engagement with CCS.

  19. Fast and Memory-Efficient Key Recovery in Side-Channel Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Kizhvatov, Ilya; Manzoor, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    , this algorithm outputs the full combined keys in the optimal order – from more likely to less likely ones. OKEA uses plenty of memory by its nature though, which limits its practical efficiency. Especially in the cases where the side-channel traces are noisy, the memory and running time requirements to find...... the right key can be prohibitively high. To tackle this problem, we propose a score-based key enumeration algorithm (SKEA). Though it is suboptimal in terms of the output order of candidate combined keys, SKEA’s memory and running time requirements are more practical than those of OKEA. We verify...... the advantage at the example of a DPA attack on an 8-bit embedded software implementation of AES-128. We vary the number of traces available to the adversary and report a significant increase in the success rate of the key recovery due to SKEA when compared to OKEA, within practical limitations on time...

  20. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  1. Beaufort Sea oil spills state of knowledge review and identification of key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickins, David; Devenis, Peter; Buist, Ian; Belore, Randy; Trudel, K.; Potter, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic holds the world's largest remaining untapped gas reserves and some of its largest undeveloped oil reserves. A significant proportion of these reserves lie offshore, in the Arctic's shallow and biologically productive shelf seas. This paper describes the results of a recently-completed study commissioned by the environmental studies research funds to document the current state of knowledge with regard to counter-measures for oil spills that might result from exploration and production activities in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. It provides a brief overview of the main advances in the past 20 years and the state-of-the-art for each of the main categories of counter-measures. An additional goal of the study was to identify key issues of concern regarding planning and response to spills in the Beaufort, to provide a current reference document for use by industry, regulators and the public, and prepare a geographic database of coastal resources, vulnerabilities and sensitivities that may influence the choice of oil spill containment and recovery methods.

  2. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing and developing key supplier relationships : An introduction to the special issue, discussion and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, B.; van de Vijver, M.A.R.; Vos, G.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to this special issue on managing and developing key supplier relationships. Key suppliers are increasingly seen as strategic assets of buying companies which need careful nurturing to fully utilize their potential for value creation. The six articles of this

  4. International symposium on nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategy: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The key issue papers review the following issues: global energy outlook; present status and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; future fuel cycle and reactor strategies; safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; non-proliferation and safeguards aspects; international cooperation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. International symposium on nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategy: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The key issue papers review the following issues: global energy outlook; present status and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; future fuel cycle and reactor strategies; safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; non-proliferation and safeguards aspects; international cooperation. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Authenticated Blind Issuing of Symmetric Keys for Mobile Access Control System without Trusted Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile authentication can be used to verify a mobile user’s identity. Normally this is accomplished through the use of logon passwords, but this can raise the secret-key agreement problem between entities. This issue can be resolved by using a public-key cryptosystem, but mobile devices have limited computation ability and battery capacity and a PKI is needed. In this paper, we propose an efficient, non-PKI, authenticated, and blind issued symmetric key protocol for mobile access control systems. An easy-to-deploy authentication and authenticated key agreement system is designed such that empowered mobile devices can directly authorize other mobile devices to exchange keys with the server upon authentication using a non-PKI system without trusted parties. Empowered mobile users do not know the key value of the other mobile devices, preventing users from impersonating other individuals. Also, for security considerations, this system can revoke specific keys or keys issued by a specific user. The scheme is secure, efficient, and feasible and can be implemented in existing environments.

  7. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Rohde, J.; Gros, G.; Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Based on general safety approach, detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues such as: system design and use of PSA; integrity of the primary circuit; external hazards; severe accidents and containment design; radiological consequences of reference accidents and low pressure core melt accidents. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. (author)

  8. Evaluating nest supplementation as a recovery strategy for the endangered rodents of the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Simons, Theodore R.; Gardner, Beth; Maurer, Andrew S.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli) and Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola) are federally endangered subspecies endemic to the tropical hardwood hammocks of Key Largo, Florida. Woodrats are considered generalists in habitat and diet, yet a steady decline in natural stick nests and capture rates over the past several decades suggests that they are limited by the availability of nesting habitat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. The more specialized Key Largo cotton mouse appears to rely on old growth hammock, a habitat type that is rare following past land clearing. In 2004, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service started building supplemental nest structures to restore habitat quality and connectivity for these endangered rodents, but nest use requires evaluation. We used camera traps and occupancy models to evaluate the factors influencing woodrat and cotton mouse use of the supplemental nests. We detected woodrats at 65 and cotton mice at 175 of 284 sampled nest structures, with co-occurrence at 38 nests. Woodrat nest use followed a gradient from low nest use in the north to high nest use in the south, which might relate to the proximity of free-ranging domestic cat (Felis catus) colonies in residential developments. Cotton mouse nest use, however, was related positively to mature hammock and related negatively to disturbed areas (e.g. scarified lands). The two species occurred independently of each other. Stick-stacking behavior was observed at supplemental nests and, although it was correlated with detection of woodrats, it was not a strong predictor of their occurrence. We suggest that nest supplementation can be an important tool for species recovery as habitat quality continues to improve with succession.

  9. Several key issues on using 137Cs method for soil erosion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was to examine several key issues of using the cesium-137 method to estimate soil erosion rates in order to improve and standardize the method. Based on the comprehensive review and synthesis of a large body of published literature and the author’s extensive research experience, several k...

  10. Identification of Key Issues in Adopting a Web 2.0 E-Portfolio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gary F.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to identify key issues relating to best practice and sustainability in Web 2.0 as an e-Learning strategy for supporting e-portfolios in Higher Education. A practical guidelines framework was developed for best practices, which can be justified by the lack of available frameworks in the e-Learning literature. A…

  11. Issues in Moderation of National Curriculum Assessment at Key Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Les

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the issues of moderation of teacher judgments for accountability and moderation for achieving consistent assessments. Discusses the meaning of moderation, the need for moderating teacher judgments, approaches to moderation, methods of moderation, and most appropriate methods of moderation at Key Stage 3. Presents an approach to…

  12. New Doctoral Graduates in the Knowledge Economy: Trends and Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues at stake for national economies in increasing the number of PhDs to meet expected needs for human capital in science, technology and innovation using illustrations mainly from the European Commission's "Careers of Doctorate Holders" surveys on PhD labour market outcomes; it has been shown that PhD…

  13. Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section…

  14. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  15. Why the Indian subcontinent holds the key to global tiger recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Mondol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With only approximately 3,000 wild individuals surviving restricted to just 7% of their historical range, tigers are now a globally threatened species. Therefore, conservation efforts must prioritize regions that harbor more tigers, as well try to capture most of the remaining genetic variation and habitat diversity. Only such prioritization based on demographic, genetic, and ecological considerations can ensure species recovery and retention of evolutionary flexibility in the face of ongoing global changes. Although scientific understanding of ecological and demographic aspects of extant wild tiger populations has improved recently, little is known about their genetic composition and variability. We sampled 73 individual tigers from 28 reserves spread across a diversity of habitats in the Indian subcontinent to obtain 1,263 bp of mitochondrial DNA and 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses reveals that Indian tigers retain more than half of the extant genetic diversity in the species. Coalescent simulations attribute this high genetic diversity to a historically large population size of about 58,200 tigers for peninsular India south of the Gangetic plains. Furthermore, our analyses indicate a precipitous, possibly human-induced population crash approximately 200 years ago in India, which is in concordance with historical records. Our results suggest that only 1.7% (with an upper limit of 13% and a lower limit of 0.2% of tiger numbers in historical times remain now. In the global conservation context our results suggest that, based on genetic, demographic, and ecological considerations, the Indian subcontinent holds the key to global survival and recovery of wild tigers.

  16. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities

  17. Nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics key processes and characterization issues, and nanoscale effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alguero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the key issues in processing and characterization of nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, and provides a comprehensive description of their properties, with an emphasis in differentiating size effects of extrinsic ones like boundary or interface effects. Recently described nanoscale novel phenomena are also addressed. Organized into three parts it addresses key issues in processing (nanostructuring), characterization (of the nanostructured materials) and nanoscale effects. Taking full advantage of the synergies between nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, it covers materials nanostructured at all levels, from ceramic technologies like ferroelectric nanopowders, bulk nanostructured ceramics and thick films, and magnetoelectric nanocomposites, to thin films, either polycrystalline layer heterostructures or epitaxial systems, and to nanoscale free standing objects with specific geometries, such as nanowires and tubes at different levels of development. The book is developed from t...

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategies: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The international symposium ''Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategy: Adjusting to new Realities'' was organized to face the new realities in the nuclear fuel cycle and to consider options on how these new realities could be addressed. The Key Issue Papers treat the various subjects from both short and long term perspectives. In so doing, they address the likely development of all aspects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle up to the year 2050

  19. Key Issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Claude

    2002-01-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM1 project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories Design, Maintenance and Logistic Support, Outage Management. Most of the key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  20. Key issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2000-01-01

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories: Design; Maintenance and Logistic Support; Outage Management. Most key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  1. Key Determinant Derivations for Information Technology Disaster Recovery Site Selection by the Multi-Criterion Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lee Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster recovery sites are an important mechanism in continuous IT system operations. Such mechanisms can sustain IT availability and reduce business losses during natural or human-made disasters. Concerning the cost and risk aspects, the IT disaster-recovery site selection problems are multi-criterion decision making (MCDM problems in nature. For such problems, the decision aspects include the availability of the service, recovery time requirements, service performance, and more. The importance and complexities of IT disaster recovery sites increases with advances in IT and the categories of possible disasters. The modern IT disaster recovery site selection process requires further investigation. However, very few researchers tried to study related issues during past years based on the authors’ extremely limited knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to derive the aspects and criteria for evaluating and selecting a modern IT disaster recovery site. A hybrid MCDM framework consisting of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL and the Analytic Network Process (ANP will be proposed to construct the complex influence relations between aspects as well as criteria and further, derive weight associated with each aspect and criteria. The criteria with higher weight can be used for evaluating and selecting the most suitable IT disaster recovery sites. In the future, the proposed analytic framework can be used for evaluating and selecting a disaster recovery site for data centers by public institutes or private firms.

  2. The emerging role of Big Data in key development issues: Opportunities, challenges, and concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of academic literature, policy documents from government organizations and international agencies, and reports from industries and popular media on the trends in Big Data utilization in key development issues and its worthwhileness, usefulness, and relevance. By looking at Big Data deployment in a number of key economic sectors, it seeks to provide a better understanding of the opportunities and challenges of using it for addressing key issues facing the developing world. It reviews the uses of Big Data in agriculture and farming activities in developing countries to assess the capabilities required at various levels to benefit from Big Data. It also provides insights into how the current digital divide is associated with and facilitated by the pattern of Big Data diffusion and its effective use in key development areas. It also discusses the lessons that developing countries can learn from the utilization of Big Data in big corporations as well as in other activities in industrialized countries.

  3. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  4. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  5. Key considerations and safety issues for the stretch power uprate at Chinshan Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P., E-mail: u808966@taipower.com.tw [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    The Taiwan Power Company (TPC) has elected in recent years to implement the power uprate program as a key measure to improve the performance for TPC's nuclear power plants. The Measurement Uncertainty Recapture (MUR) power uprate for the TPC's three operating plants (reported in 16th PBNC) had been successfully implemented by July 2009. For the stretch power uprate (SPU) followed, the magnitude of uprate (~3%) is determined based on the available margins for original plant design, constant pressure approach (BWR) is adopted to simplify the evaluation, and major plant modifications are not considered. As the first application, the SPU safety analysis report (SAR) for the Chinshan plant was submitted to the ROCAEC in December 2010. A review task force was organized by the ROCAEC to perform a very thorough review. As the licensing bases are fully re-examined during the review process, many important issues have been identified and addressed. The key issues resolved include: conformance of SAR to ROCAEC's review guidance; re-examination of post-Fukushima comprehensive safety assessment; qualification of containment protective coatings; GL 96-06 (Assurance of Equipment Operability and Containment Integrity During DBA Conditions); credit for Containment Accident Pressure; issue for Annulus Pressurization Loads Evaluation. These issues required very extensive efforts to resolve. With the cooperative efforts by TPC and contractor (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research), however, all the issues were fully clarified and SAR was approved by ROCAEC on November 15, 2012. The first step SPU (2% OLTP) was successfully implemented in November 2012 at both units. (author)

  6. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  7. Non-equilibrium physics and evolution—adaptation, extinction, and ecology: a Key Issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussell, E; Vucelja, M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in nature constitute an immensely complex non-equilibrium process. We review the application of physical models of evolution, by focusing on adaptation, extinction, and ecology. In each case, we examine key concepts by working through examples. Adaptation is discussed in the context of bacterial evolution, with a view toward the relationship between growth rates, mutation rates, selection strength, and environmental changes. Extinction dynamics for an isolated population are reviewed, with emphasis on the relation between timescales of extinction, population size, and temporally correlated noise. Ecological models are discussed by focusing on the effect of spatial interspecies interactions on diversity. Connections between physical processes—such as diffusion, turbulence, and localization—and evolutionary phenomena are highlighted. (key issues reviews)

  8. Understanding Price Elasticities to Inform Public Health Research and Intervention Studies: Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  9. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  10. Quantum oscillations and key theoretical issues in high temperature superconductors from the perspective of density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    High temperature superconductivity in cuprate superconductors remains an unsolved problem in theoretical physics. The same statement can also be made about a number of other superconductors that have been dubbed novel. What makes these superconductors so elusive is an interesting question in itself. This paper focuses on the recent magnetic oscillation experiments and how they fit into the broader picture. Many aspects of these experiments can be explained by Fermi liquid theory; the key issue is the extent to which this is true. If true, the entire paradigm developed over the past three decades must be reexamined. A critical analysis of this issue has necessitated a broader analysis of questions about distinct ground states of matter, which may be useful in understanding other novel superconductors.

  11. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  12. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shinian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before author start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The author will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  13. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  14. Key technical issues associated with a method of pulse compression. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Key technical issues for angular multiplexing as a method of pulse compression in a 100 KJ KrF laser have been studied. Environmental issues studied include seismic vibrations man-made vibrations, air propagation, turbulence, and thermal gradient-induced density fluctuations. These studies have been incorporated in the design of mirror mounts and an alignment system, both of which are reported. A design study and performance analysis of the final amplifier have been undertaken. The pulse compression optical train has been designed and assessed as to its performance. Individual components are described and analytical relationships between the optical component size, surface quality, damage threshold and final focus properties are derived. The optical train primary aberrations are obtained and a method for aberration minimization is presented. Cost algorithms for the mirrors, mounts, and electrical hardware are integrated into a cost model to determine system costs as a function of pulse length, aperture size, and spot size

  15. Sexuality in old age: key issues, gender differences and future proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández-Rouco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better understanding this topic in old age are presented, with suggestions on how to improve wellbeing and care in regard to sexuality among the aging population.

  16. Key Issues in Modeling of Complex 3D Structures from Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of three-dimensional structures from video sequences has wide applications for intelligent video analysis. This paper summarizes the key issues of the theory and surveys the recent advances in the state of the art. Reconstruction of a scene object from video sequences often takes the basic principle of structure from motion with an uncalibrated camera. This paper lists the typical strategies and summarizes the typical solutions or algorithms for modeling of complex three-dimensional structures. Open difficult problems are also suggested for further study.

  17. Emergency management in health: key issues and challenges in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew C K; Phillips, Wendy; Challen, Kirsty; Goodacre, Steve

    2012-10-19

    Emergency planning in the UK has grown considerably in recent years, galvanised by the threat of terrorism. However, deficiencies in NHS emergency planning were identified and the evidence-base that underpins it is questionable. Inconsistencies in terminologies and concepts also exist. Different models of emergency management exist internationally but the optimal system is unknown. This study examines the evidence-base and evidence requirements for emergency planning in the UK health context. The study involved semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and opinion leaders. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a breadth of views from various agencies involved in emergency planning and response. Interviews were then analysed using a grounded approach using standard framework analysis techniques. We conducted 17 key informant interviews. Interviewees identified greater gaps in operational than technical aspects of emergency planning. Social and behavioural knowledge gaps were highlighted with regards to how individuals and organisations deal with risk and behave in emergencies. Evidence-based approaches to public engagement and for developing community resilience to disasters are lacking. Other gaps included how knowledge was developed and used. Conflicting views with regards to the optimal configuration and operation of the emergency management system were voiced. Four thematic categories for future research emerged:(i) Knowledge-base for emergency management: Further exploration is needed of how knowledge is acquired, valued, disseminated, adopted and retained.(ii) Social and behavioural issues: Greater understanding of how individuals approach risk and behave in emergencies is required.(iii) Organisational issues in emergencies: Several conflicting organisational issues were identified; value of planning versus plans, flexible versus standardized procedures, top-down versus bottom-up engagement, generic versus specific planning, and reactive versus

  18. eHealth in Wound Care,- overview and key issues to consider before implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Zena; Angel, Donna; Bjerregaard, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance on the methodo......Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance...... on the methodology for evaluation of eHealth solutions • An introduction to and discussion of the potential benefits of eHealth technologies in wound care, and the possible barriers to their implementation • Recommendations for ensuring a good implementation process and supporting involvement of wound care...... professionals in safeguarding that eHealth solutions meet the needs of the patients. Methodology The document sections lean on the structure and focus areas of the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine (MAST) which defines crucial items to evaluate an eHealth application. The content of the document is developed...

  19. Development of regulatory technologies of key issues of radiation sources in the medical and industrial fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Byung Soo; Ku, Bon Chul

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this research is to provide with rational bases to address the key issues raising up during the expansion of RI/RG usage in the medical and industrial fields, thus eventually contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of national regulatory systems. Related key issues that are introduced in the medical and industrial fields are analyzed and some outcomes are produced. The following results are attained. - Estimation Methodology Development of Regulatory Effects for the Use of Radioactive Substances, - Survey on Domestic Status of Nuclear Materials and Review on Domestic/Foreign Regulatory System for Nuclear Materials Regulation, - Comparative Analysis of KSTAR and Fusion Facilities of Advanced Countries, - Radiological Characteristics of Proton Therapy and Analysis of Foreign Cases and Systems, - Detection and Safety Analysis of Leak Radiation of High Energy Medical Generators, - Survey and Analysis on Usage and Requirements of Sealed Sources, - Incidents/Accidents Reporting System for RI-related Facilities, - Development of Audio-Visual Education Materials for Radiation Workers, - Development of Major Safety Procedures for Portable RIs, - Expansion of Existing DB for Radiation Devices including New Domestic Ones, - Survey of Foreign Status of Quality Maintenance System for Radiation equipment

  20. The challenge of spin–orbit-tuned ground states in iridates: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Schlottmann, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Effects of spin–orbit interactions in condensed matter are an important and rapidly evolving topic. Strong competition between spin–orbit, on-site Coulomb and crystalline electric field interactions in iridates drives exotic quantum states that are unique to this group of materials. In particular, the ‘J eff  =  ½’ Mott state served as an early signal that the combined effect of strong spin–orbit and Coulomb interactions in iridates has unique, intriguing consequences. In this Key Issues Review, we survey some current experimental studies of iridates. In essence, these materials tend to defy conventional wisdom: absence of conventional correlations between magnetic and insulating states, avoidance of metallization at high pressures, ‘S-shaped’ I–V characteristic, emergence of an odd-parity hidden order, etc. It is particularly intriguing that there exist conspicuous discrepancies between current experimental results and theoretical proposals that address superconducting, topological and quantum spin liquid phases. This class of materials, in which the lattice degrees of freedom play a critical role seldom seen in other materials, evidently presents some profound intellectual challenges that call for more investigations both experimentally and theoretically. Physical properties unique to these materials may help unlock a world of possibilities for functional materials and devices. We emphasize that, given the rapidly developing nature of this field, this Key Issues Review is by no means an exhaustive report of the current state of experimental studies of iridates.

  1. The sustainable use of tropical coastal resources - A key conservation issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, M W [IUCN-World Conservation Union, Gland (Switzerland)

    1993-01-01

    The three papers covered in this review form a series, addressing broadly the same issues in increasing detail. The paper by Carl Gustaf Lundin and Olof Linden, on 'Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource', takes a wide view of the coastal zones (the regions between the seaward margins of the continental shelves, in water depths of around 200 m and the landward edge of the coastal plains at a comparable altitude above mean sea level), and the nature of the pressures upon them. The paper by Magnus A.K. Ngoile and Chris J. Horrill, on 'Coastal ecosystems productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management', focuses very much on these same issues of use and pressure in the Eastern Africa Region. The paper by M.C.Oehman, A. Rajasuriya and O. Linden, on 'Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study' looks in some depth at the situation on three selected reef systems in the one country. All the papers address the key question of how the management of coastal resources should change, in order to avoid continuing degradation and the cost and impoverishment it is likely to bring. The three papers mentioned is published in this issue of Ambio, p. 461-480

  2. Keys to Recovery after Knee Replacement Surgery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  4. Direct waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials - chosen issues of the thermodynamic description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasiński, Piotr; Kolasińska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The effective waste heat recovery is one of the present-day challenges in the industry and power engineering. The energy systems dedicated for waste heat conversion into electricity are usually characterized by low efficiency and are complicated in the design. The possibility of waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials may be an interesting alternative to the currently used technologies. In particular, due to their material characteristics, conducting polymers may be competitive when compared with the power machinery and equipment. These materials can be used in a wide range of the geometries e.g. the bulk products, thin films, pristine form or composites and the others. In this article, the authors present selected issues related to the mathematical and thermodynamic description of the heat transfer processes in the thermoelectric materials dedicated for the waste heat recovery. The link of these models with electrical properties of the material and a material solution based on a conducting polymer have also been presented in this paper. (paper)

  5. Fertility preservation: A key survivorship issue for young women with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Angarita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation.

  6. Fertility Preservation: A Key Survivorship Issue for Young Women with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Ana Milena; Johnson, Cynae A.; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available, and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation. PMID:27200291

  7. Highlights from panel discussion on key issues for future developments in microwave processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gac, F.D.; Iskander, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on highlights from a panel discussion on Key Issues for Future Development in Microwave Processing. Although the panelists represented a mix of individuals from government, academia, and industry, only one aspect of industry was represented, namely microwave system manufacturers. For further panel discussions, it is recommended that the materials manufacturing (i.e., microwave user) sector also be represented. Three important points emerged from the panel discussion. The first deals with the credibility and usability of information, be it dielectric property measurements, experimental procedures, or microwave processing results. Second, a considerable communication and education gap continues to exist between the materials community and microwave engineers. Finally, a more realistic approach should be taken in identifying where microwave processing makes sense

  8. Thermal hydraulics of sodium-cooled fast reactors - key issues and highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, H.; Kamide, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper key issues and highlighted topics in thermal hydraulics are discussed in connection to the current Japan's sodium-cooled fast reactor development efforts. In particular, design study and related researches of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) are focused. Several innovative technologies, e.g., compact reactor vessel, two-loop system, fully natural circulation decay heat removal, and recriticality free core, have been investigated in order to reduce construction cost and to achieve higher level of reactor safety. Preliminary evaluations of innovative technologies to be applied to JSFR are on-going. Here, progress of design study is introduced. Then, research and development activities on the thermal hydraulics related to the innovative technologies are briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, S.; Johnson, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a great deal of research on renewable energy technologies. It is commonly thought that very little has come out of this research in terms of commercially interesting technologies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate that this perception is no longer correct; in the 1990s there has been a double-digit growth rate in the market for some renewable energy technologies. The consequent alteration in the energy system, is, however, a slow, painful and highly uncertain process. This process, we argue, needs to be studied using an innovation system perspective where the focus is on networks, institutions and firms' perceptions, competencies and strategies. The second objective of the paper is therefore to present the bare bones of such an analytical framework. A third objective is to identify a set of key issues related to the speed and direction of that transformation process which needs to be studied further. (author)

  10. MODERNIZING THE PRIVATE LAW. SOME KEY ISSUES IN THE RECENT DRAFT OF THE SPANISH COMMERCIAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decades were dominated by the idea that an authentic process to modernize the private law means generally the unification of it by renouncing the distinction between civil and commercial law. A few European countries and some American states or provinces followed this path of the unification. However, beyond the will to change and improve the system one may reflect if this kind of modernization is actually really proper. Of course, there are lots of reasons for unification and reasons against it. Is there a possible and real alternative to this wave of unification? The draft of the Spanish commercial code could be a beginning point in order to settle this controversy. For the first time, the lawmakers are trying to replace the actual code with a new modernized one without renouncing the above mentioned distinction. Without claiming that we have entirely analyzed the topic, we propose a brief critical presentation of the major key issue of the draft.

  11. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of selected methods for the recovery of encrypted WEP key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with some of the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) key decryption methods based on aircrack-ng software, which was embedded in Backtrack operating system (Linux distribution). The 64-bit (40-bit) and 128-bit (104- bit) key encrypted with RC4 cipher weakness was shown. Research methods were made in different network environments. In this work we compared different types of keys to check how strong the RC4 stream cipher can be. The 40-bit and 104-bit WEP key has been tested on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LAN using laptop with live-CD Linux operating system. A short analysis of key creation methods was performed to compare the amount of time necessary to decrypt random and nonrandom WEP keys.

  13. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture.

  14. Key issues in human resource planning for home support workers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Janice M; Knight, Lucy; Martin-Matthews, Anne; Légaré, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of research on recruitment and retention challenges for home support workers (HSWs) in Canada. Home support workers (HSWs) provide needed support with personal care and daily activities to older persons living in the community. Literature (peer reviewed, government, and non-government documents) published in the past decade was collected from systematic data base searches between January and September 2009, and yielded over 100 references relevant to home care human resources for older Canadians. Four key human resource issues affecting HSWs were identified: compensation, education and training, quality assurance, and working conditions. To increase the workforce and retain skilled employees, employers can tailor their marketing strategies to specific groups, make improvements in work environment, and learn about what workers value and what attracts them to home support work. Understanding these HR issues for HSWs will improve recruitment and retention strategies for this workforce by helping agencies to target their limited resources. Given the projected increase in demand for these workers, preparations need to begin now and consider long-term strategies involving multiple policy areas, such as health and social care, employment, education, and immigration.

  15. Future fuel cycle and reactor strategies. Key issue paper no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The scope of this paper includes those issues that are expected to remain or become important in the time period from 2015 to 2050. Events in this time frame are difficult to predict with any certainty, so the framework of this paper is necessarily somewhat speculative. The paper includes consideration of all facets of nuclear energy utilization, from ore extraction to final disposal of waste products. The paper first addresses the factors influencing the choice of reactor and fuel cycle. It then goes on to address the quantitatively largest category of reactor types expected to be important during the period; that is, thermal reactors burning uranium and plutonium fuel in various forms. The fast reactor type is then discussed both as stand-alone technology and as technology used in combination with thermal reactors. Thorium fuel use is discussed briefly. This paper is concentrated on the ``medium variant`` energy growth scenario identified in Key Issue Paper No. 1. The effects of either higher or lower growth could, of course, profoundly change the future development of the nuclear power industry. 31 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

  16. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  17. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  18. Plutonium: key issue in nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshisaki, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The technical report is a 1993 update on weapons-grade plutonium, a key issue in nuclear disarmament. Its vital significance would again be discussed during the fifth and the last Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for Nuclear Weapons which would end in 1995. Member States shall decide whether an indefinite or conditional extension of NPT is necessary for world peace and international security. Two Non-NPT States, Russia and U.S.A. are in the forefront working for the reduction of nuclear weapons through nuclear disarmament. Their major effort is focused on the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II or START I and II for world peace. The eventual implementation of START I and II would lead to the dismantling of plutonium from nuclear warheads proposed to be eliminated by both countries. This report gives three technical options to be derived from nuclear disarmament issues for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: (a) indefinite storage - there is no guarantee that these will not be used in the future (b) disposal as wastes - possible only in principle, because of lack of experience in mixing plutonium with high level wastes, and (c) source of energy - best option in managing stored weapons materials, because it satisfies non-proliferation objectives. It means fuel for energy in Light Water Reactors (LWR) or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). (author). 8 refs

  19. Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies. This report summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physi...

  20. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  1. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  2. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  3. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  4. Neuropathological biomarker candidates in brain tumors: key issues for translational efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainfellner, J A; Heinzl, H

    2010-01-01

    Brain tumors comprise a large spectrum of rare malignancies in children and adults that are often associated with severe neurological symptoms and fatal outcome. Neuropathological tumor typing provides both prognostic and predictive tissue information which is the basis for optimal postoperative patient management and therapy. Molecular biomarkers may extend and refine prognostic and predictive information in a brain tumor case, providing more individualized and optimized treatment options. In the recent past a few neuropathological brain tumor biomarkers have translated smoothly into clinical use whereas many candidates show protracted translation. We investigated the causes of protracted translation of candidate brain tumor biomarkers. Considering the research environment from personal, social and systemic perspectives we identified eight determinants of translational success: methodology, funding, statistics, organization, phases of research, cooperation, self-reflection, and scientific progeny. Smoothly translating biomarkers are associated with low degrees of translational complexity whereas biomarkers with protracted translation are associated with high degrees. Key issues for translational efficiency of neuropathological brain tumor biomarker research seem to be related to (i) the strict orientation to the mission of medical research, that is the improval of medical practice as primordial purpose of research, (ii) definition of research priorities according to clinical needs, and (iii) absorption of translational complexities by means of operatively beneficial standards. To this end, concrete actions should comprise adequate scientific education of young investigators, and shaping of integrative diagnostics and therapy research both on the local level and the level of influential international brain tumor research platforms.

  5. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  6. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  7. Key issues for determining the exploitable water resources in a Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Ferrer, Javier; Solera, Abel; Estrela, Teodoro; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier

    2015-01-15

    One of the major difficulties in water planning is to determine the water availability in a water resource system in order to distribute water sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the key issues for determining the exploitable water resources as an indicator of water availability in a Mediterranean river basin. Historically, these territories are characterized by heavily regulated water resources and the extensive use of unconventional resources (desalination and wastewater reuse); hence, emulating the hydrological cycle is not enough. This analysis considers the Jucar River Basin as a case study. We have analyzed the different possible combinations between the streamflow time series, the length of the simulation period and the reliability criteria. As expected, the results show a wide dispersion, proving the great influence of the reliability criteria used for the quantification and localization of the exploitable water resources in the system. Therefore, it is considered risky to provide a single value to represent the water availability in the Jucar water resource system. In this sense, it is necessary that policymakers and stakeholders make a decision about the methodology used to determine the exploitable water resources in a river basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.

  9. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O

    2011-01-01

    for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  10. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    study the thermodynamic costs of adaptation for cells to maintain an accurate memory. The statistical physics based approach described here should be useful in understanding design principles for cellular biochemical circuits in general. (key issues review)

  11. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  12. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  13. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  14. Key Issues on Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Un Chul

    2005-01-01

    Energy demand in East Asia casts a significant challenge to sustainable economy development and socio-political stability in the region which has experienced tensions throughout the history. The energy demand in this region has been dramatically increased since the start of reform in PRC. DPRK is another challenge. The current electricity consumption in DPRK is around 10% of that in ROK. If the economy of PRC continuously grows to the level of neighboring states and if the living standard of DPRK reaches that of ROK, the energy and electricity demand in the region will certainly be out of control unless the proper measures are taken into actions from today. The only feasible energy option is the nuclear one. PRC already proclaimed its ambitious plan to deploy more than 30 reactors in the near future. In addition, a couple of the South Eastern Asian states expressed their willingness to introduce nuclear power plants in the future. The increase in the use of nuclear energy is expected to bring up the nuclear renaissance in the region. However, without the proper mechanisms to supply fresh fuels and to manage spent nuclear fuels with full compliance of nuclear energy nonproliferation, the new development will inevitably cause the instability in the region. So far many interesting proposals on nuclear cooperation in East Asia were announced. Unfortunately, none of them works out properly yet, partly because the old proposals were too political. To restart the engine of the nuclear cooperation and nonproliferation in the region, it is necessary to find out what would be the common interests of the region not so much related to politics. In this paper, some key technical issues are addressed for future regional joint studies

  15. Recovery of the coral Montastrea annularis in the Florida Keys after the 1987 Caribbean ``bleaching event''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitt, William K.; Spero, Howard J.; Halas, John; White, Michael W.; Porter, James W.

    1993-07-01

    Many reef-building corals and other cnidarians lost photosynthetic pigments and symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) during the coral bleaching event in the Caribbean in 1987. The Florida Reef Tract included some of the first documented cases, with widespread bleaching of the massive coral Montastrea annularis beginning in late August. Phototransects at Carysfort Reef showed discoloration of >90% of colonies of this species in March 1988 compared to 0% in July 1986; however no mortality was observed between 1986 and 1988. Samples of corals collected in February and June 1988 had zooxanthellae densities ranging from 0.1 in the most lightly colored corals, to 1.6x106 cells/cm2 in the darker corals. Minimum densities increased to 0.5x106 cells/cm2 by August 1989. Chlorophyll- a content of zooxanthellae and zooxanthellar mitotic indices were significantly higher in corals with lower densities of zooxanthellae, suggesting that zooxanthellar at low densities may be more nutrientsufficient than those in unbleached corals. Ash-free dry weight of coral tissue was positively correlated with zooxanthellae density at all sample times and was significantly lower in June 1988 compared to August 1989. Proteins and lipids per cm2 were significantly higher in August 1989 than in February or June, 1988. Although recovery of zooxanthellae density and coral pigmentation to normal levels may occur in less than one year, regrowth of tissue biomass and energy stores lost during the period of low symbiont densities may take significantly longer.

  16. SARNET. Severe Accident Research Network - key issues in the area of source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, P.; Micaelli, J.C.; Haste, T.; Herranz, L.

    2005-01-01

    About fifty European organisations integrate in SARNET (Network of Excellence of the EU 6 th Framework Programme) their research capacities in resolve better the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) under hypothetical Severe Accident (SA) conditions. Wishing to maintain a long-lasting cooperation, they conduct three types of activities: integrating activities, spreading of excellence and jointly executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained by the network after the first year, giving more prominence to those from jointly executed research in the Source Term area. Integrating activities have been performed through different means: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident transient modelling, through development of PSA2 methodologies, through the setting of a structure for definition of evolving R and D priorities and through the development of a web-network of data bases that hosts experimental data. Such activities have been facilitated by the development of an Advanced Communication Tool. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering Severe Accident Analysis Methodology and Level 2 PSA have been set up, to be given in early 2006. A detailed text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology has been designed and agreed amongst SARNET members. A mobility programme for students and young researchers is being developed, some detachments are already completed or in progress, and examples are quoted. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions (like air ingress) for HBU and MOX fuel has been investigated. First modelling proposals for ASTEC have been made for oxidation of fuel and of ruthenium. Experiments on transport of highly volatile oxide ruthenium species have been performed. Reactor

  17. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  18. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  19. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  20. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  1. Examining Key Issues Underlying the Audit Commission Reports on SEN Policy Paper 1 (5th Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Beek, Chris; Richardson, Penny; Gray, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book is the first publication in the fifth series of seminars organised by the SEN Policy Options Steering Group to examine policy issues to do with special educational needs. The aim of the seminar was to examine in depth several underlying issues raised by the recent Audit Commission Reports on special educational needs. The seminar…

  2. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Present status and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles. Key issue paper no. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    For decades plutonium has been a key focus of international discussions of both non-proliferation and the future of the nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is intended to address the management of separated plutonium in the civil fuel cycle in the near term - until 2015 - describing both the technologies employed and the policies of key countries. This paper also addresses technology and policy for the management of weapons plutonium being declared excess to defence needs. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. DEPOT MAINTENANCE: Key Financial Issues for Consolidations at Pearl Harbor and Elsewhere Are Still Unresolved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In September 1999, we reported that the preliminary results of the ongoing Pearl Harbor pilot were mixed and recommended that the Departments of Defense and the Navy address unresolved issues related...

  4. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  5. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  6. The economics of biomedical waste irradiation: key issues influencing total cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Each application of gamma irradiation technology is different in one or more significant respects. Disinfection of biomedical wastes presents similar technical challenges to sterilization of medical supplies, but the economic issues are dramatically different. Regulatory requirements, site and technology approvals, waste separation/mixing, transportation, irradiator utilization, economies of scale, and end-product disposal can each have a prohibitive or enabling effect on whether irradiation of biomedical wastes makes good financial sense in a particular situation. This paper discusses each of these issues. (author)

  7. Several key issues on implementing delay line based TDCs using FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.

  8. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O; Malmström, P; Carlsson, C

    2011-07-01

    Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Key Issues in Empirically Identifying Chronically Low-Performing and Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the US Department of Education's key priorities is turning around the nation's persistently low-achieving schools, yet exactly how to identify low-performing schools is a task left to state policy makers, and a myriad of definitions have been utilized. In addition, exactly how to recognize when a school begins to turn around is not well…

  10. The Causes of Poverty: Thinking Critically about a Key Economic Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlin, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Economics is a central part of civic education. Students need to know about the Constitution and the party system, but active citizenship in the twenty-first century requires much more than the standard civics courses offer. Economic issues dominate public policy debates ranging from Social Security to immigration to international security. If…

  11. EFFICIENT OFFICIAL STATISTICS AS A KEY TO THE ISSUE OF POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Pashintseva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures implemented by the Federal State Statistics Service aimed at regular monitoring of the situation in the territory of the Russian Federation have been considered in the paper. Issues related to unemployment and investment activity by enterprises in the context of the financial and economic crisis have been analyzed.

  12. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  13. Assessing stakeholder's experience and sensitivity on key issues for the economic growth of organic aquaculture production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembo, Giuseppe; Jokumsen, Alfred; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    expressed by the participants revealed both competence and awareness, despite the complexity of the subject. Several ideas and useful suggestions emerged regarding unresolved technical issues. In addition, the need for a targeted communication strategy on the quality of organic aquaculture products...... and the necessity of fostering European/national programs to support the production and marketing of organic aquaculture products were highlighted...

  14. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  15. Non-proliferation and safeguards aspects. Key issue paper no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the current nuclear non-proliferation regime (Section 2) and the issues most likely to arise as the civil nuclear fuel cycle develops over the next 50 years (Section 3). Section 4 deals with fuel cycles and nuclear material inventories. 14 refs.

  16. Governance of Technical Education in India : Key Issues, Principles, and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Andreas; Cheong, Jannette

    2010-01-01

    Tertiary education, and in particular technical and engineering education, is critical to India's aspirations of strengthening its reputation as a major competitive player in the Global knowledge economy. The system is huge and complex, and there is a consensus that reforms are imperative. Issues of fair access and affordable participation in higher education are critical if India is to em...

  17. Can Competency-Based Training Fly?: An Overview of Key Issues for "Ab Initio" Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter; Hay, Stephen; Mavin, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based training (CBT) for pilots was formally introduced in 1999 by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) for training leading to the issue of aeroplane private and commercial pilot licences. This initiative followed the Australian government's introduction of CBT policy for vocational and workplace training in the late 1980's.…

  18. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosk, Urszula; Kuracki, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions…

  19. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  1. Strategic management and organizational behavior in dental education: reflections on key issues in an environment of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N

    2009-06-01

    With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.

  2. Liberia’s Post-War Development: Key Issues and U.S. Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    GNI) total: $634.4 million (2008) GNI per capita: $170 (2008) External debt: $1.7 billion (2010 ) Key exports: Rubber, timber, iron, cocoa , gold...for killers whose purpose is to remove various body organs for uses, including consumption , in traditional occult ceremonies that participants...accountability in relation to the extraction of timber, oil and gas, cocoa and other natural resources, including by strengthening implementation and monitoring

  3. BIOPROTA: international collaboration on key technical issues in biosphere aspects of long-term radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Kerrigan, E.L.; Degnan, P.

    2006-01-01

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative project which was set up to address key uncertainties in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. The project began in 2002 and has benefited from the knowledge and experience of organisations from Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Russia, Spain, Sweden, UK and the USA. This paper describes the BIOPROTA objectives and scope, the on-going work programme and methods of work. (author)

  4. Key Issues Concerning Biolog Use for Aerobic and Anaerobic Freshwater Bacterial Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley W.; Lind, Owen T.

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial heterotrophy in aquatic ecosystems is important in the overall carbon cycle. Biolog MicroPlates provide information into the metabolic potential of bacteria involved in carbon cycling. Specifically, Biolog EcoPlatesTM were developed with ecologically relevant carbon substrates to allow investigators to measure carbon substrate utilization patterns and develop community-level physiological profiles from natural bacterial assemblages. However, understanding of the functionality of these plates in freshwater research is limited. We explored several issues of EcoPlate use for freshwater bacterial assemblages including inoculum density, incubation temperature, non-bacterial color development, and substrate selectivity. Each of these has various effects on plate interpretation. We offer suggestions and techniques to resolve these interpretation issues. Lastly we propose a technique to allow EcoPlate use in anaerobic freshwater bacterial studies.

  5. Habitability during long-duration space missions - Key issues associated with a mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Isolation and confinement conditions similar to those of a long-duration mission to Mars are examined, focusing on 14 behavioral issues with design implications. Consideration is given to sleep, clothing, exercise, medical support, personal hygiene, food preparation, group interaction, habitat aesthetics, outside communications, recreational opportunities, privacy, waste disposal, onboard training, and the microgravity environment. The results are used to develop operational requirements and habitability design guidelines for interplanetary spacecraft.

  6. Strategic Research for S&T Planning Should Focus on Key Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Strategic planning for national and CAS mid- and long-term S&T development should avoid giving equal attention to every aspect of an issue, which can only lead to incremental progress.Instead, importance should be attached to priorities that will result in scientific, technical and engineering breakthroughs, said CAS President Lu Yongxiang, who is also vice-chairman of the national legislature, NPC.

  7. Licensing the next generation of reactors in the USA: Recent experience, key issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyr, K.D.; Crockett, S.F.; Burns, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has spent much effort on revising its procedures for reviewing nuclear power plant designs. Earlier procedures, instituted by the NRC's predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, permitted the resolution of important safety and environmental issues to be delayed until construction was underway. Moreover, the principal means of public participation in the resolution was through the medium of the courtroom trial. However, under new procedures, which have been upheld in the federal courts, nearly all safety and environmental issues are resolved before construction begins, and the public participates in the resolution of these issues without having to engage in a full-blown trial. The agency believes that safety and public participation are better served by the new procedures, and that the agency is thus well-positioned to review new designs. Nonetheless, the agency continues to seek improvements in its processes. This paper was presented in an earlier form by Mr. Burns at Nuclear Inter Jura 2005. (author)

  8. Enhancing chronic disease management: a review of key issues and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Kevin D; Williams, Paul; Andrews, Gavin J

    2007-11-01

    This paper highlights three selected issues and potential strategies towards meeting chronic disease management needs. First, the orientation of the biomedical science model often gives insufficient attention to chronic health care needs. A second issue is that the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may offer for some an opportunity to enhance their chronic disease management efforts. A third issue is that our understanding of this potential is limited, as many who use CAM do not disclose such use. With reference to proposed solutions/strategies, first, an improved focus to respect patient/client values and goals may encourage people to disclose their use of CAM. Second, a community-based participatory approach shows promise in enhancing communication plus helps integrate CAM within new models of chronic disease management. Lastly, those in public health could help facilitate such an approach plus be a monitor of CAM practices. Overall, this review provides a springboard for further research and practice in CAM and the management of chronic diseases.

  9. Fatca and its key provisions and the issues of its application in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sheppard Castillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the international tax evasion problem, the U.S. Congress issued the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act – Fatca. This Act aims to promote tax compliance among citizens and U.S. residents holding foreign bank accounts. To this effect, Fatca requires Foreign Financial Institutions to enter into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS to provide the IRS information about the identity and the status of the bank accounts held by US persons. Entities not willing to enter into an agreement with the IRS will be subject to a 30% withholding on U.S. sourced income regardless of whether the income is tax exempt. The application of this Act in our country brings a lot of concern regarding some issues, such us extraterritoriality, bank secrecy, the application of civil and criminal law. Since the effective date of implementation of Fatca is July 1, 2014, we understand that an official opinion concerning these issues and the possibilityto enter into an Intergovernmental Agreement with the U.S. government will be forthcoming in the following months.

  10. Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John

    2007-01-01

    Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade r...

  11. Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M.; McCann, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identificatio...

  12. Key technology for treating slack coal blockage in CBM recovery: A case study from multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of coal bed, slack coal production is inevitable in gas recovery sby water drainage. When coalbed methane (CBM wells are reentered after low energy exploitation and shut-in, the negative effect of slack coal production on productivity of CBM is irreversible. In this paper, the CBM occurrence characteristics and multi-lateral horizontal well trajectory in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, were analyzed. In the multi-lateral horizontal wells, the expected gas production rate could not be reached and the production rate after shut-in maintenance could not restore to the level before shut-in. The reason for these issues is that migration pathways in the reservoirs are blocked by slack coal deposits, while formation water and slack coal deposit accumulated at the troughs of horizontal sections enlarge the resistance for gas to flow into the bottom hole. Furthermore, three key technologies to deal with slack coal blockage were proposed. Firstly, CBM horizontal well trajectory should follow the principle of keeping the wellbores smooth and updip instead of being “wavy”, on the premise of guaranteeing CBM drilling rate. Secondly, the cavities of production wells, as an important part of multi-lateral horizontal wells, are capable of settling sand, and can be used for gas–liquid–solid separation. And thirdly, a tree-like horizontal well with its main hole set on stable seam top or floor, provides a stable well flushing passage for coal powder. This research provides a useful attempt in solving the problem of slack coal production in gas recovery by water drainage.

  13. Key issues concerning changes in the radiological protection system: some thoughts from the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) asked for contributions to the debate on future changes to the radiological protection system proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In response, the Board of the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) created a working group to deal specifically with this issue. It met on several occasions between April and July and its findings were presented at the IRPA Congress in May 2000. They were also published in the French journal Radioprotection and in the British Journal of Radiological Protection. To further its discussions, the Board of the SFRP decided to create a second working group which became operational in September 2001. It has around 20 members representing the major players in the radiological protection field in France: authorities, experts and professionals from the nuclear, medical and research fields as well as one association representative (the list of members can be found at the end of this document). The working group was set up to produce proposals relating to the key issues likely to be raised, particularly by the ICRP, concerning the development of new radiological protection recommendations. The members of the working group analysed the ICRP memorandum published in the June 2001 edition of the Journal of Radiological Protection and used their own experience to determine what these key issues would be. The following issues were discussed: General thoughts on the new radiological protection system proposed by the ICRP, Individual and collective approaches to the radiological risk, Comparison with chemical risk management, Radiological protection of the environment, Changes in exposure levels and units of measurement. This paper, which has been approved by the Board of the SFRP, gives the main conclusions of the working group on the key issues in these areas. It is intended to reflect the various opinions expressed during the groups

  14. Key Past and Present Hydrologic Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, Allen R.; McKenna, Sean A.; Davies, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998, the U.S; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be in compliance with applicable portions of regulations governing the permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. The step was accomplished after 24 years of effort by Sandia National Laboratories, extending from initial site selection, through extensive site characterization and under-ground experimentalization to evaluation and demonstration of regulatory compliance. The strong focus on regulatory compliance extended over approximately five years, culminating in DOE's submittal of a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in October, 1996. Specific lessons learned from the WIPP'S transition from site characterization/experimental research to a successful regulatory compliance application may be of general interest to participants in other repository problems. In summary, the three examples considered in this paper indicate that: It is critical that site-characterization and performance-assessment (PA) activities in a repository project advance through multiple iterative interactions. This is because there are parallel paths of evolution-within a projecy On one hand, there is a natural development in the conceptual understanding of the site and repository geology, hydrology, and geochemistry over time, as well as a normal increase in the roles of regulatory/safety issues relative to technical issues. On the other hand there is ongoing evolution in numerical-modeling, experimental, and PA techniques, as well as in understanding of the insights gained from these activities. However, even if conceptual models do not change, the modeling and documentation techniques and detailed logic supporting these models will change; as additional relevant information is collected within or outside the project. Some issues related to general site-characterization or site-suitability will remain of interest, even after initial

  15. Management of graphite material: a key issue for High Temperature Gas Reactor system (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeloie, C.; Marimbeau, P.; Robin, J.C.; Cellier, F.

    2005-01-01

    Graphite material is used in nuclear High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR, Fig.1) as moderator, thermal absorber and also as structural components of the core (Fig.2). This type of reactor was selected by the Generation IV forum as a potential high temperature provider for supplying hydrogen production plants and is under development in France in the frame of the AREVA ANTARES program. In order to select graphite grades to be used in these future reactors, the requirements for mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical properties must match the internal environment of the nuclear core, especially with regard to irradiation effect. Another important aspect that must be addressed early in design is the waste issue. Indeed, it is necessary to reduce the amount of nuclear waste produced by operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Preliminary assessment of the nuclear waste output for an ANTARES type 280 MWe HTGR over 60 year-lifetime gives an estimated 6000 m 3 of activated graphite waste. Thus, reducing the graphite waste production is an important issue for any HTGR system. First, this paper presents a preliminary inventory of graphite waste fluxes coming from a HTGR, in mass and volume, with magnitudes of radiological activities based on activation calculations of graphite during its stay in the core of the reactor. Normalized data corresponding to an output of 1 GWe.year electricity allows comparison of the waste production with other nuclear reactor systems. Second, possible routes to manage irradiated graphite waste are addressed in both the context of French nuclear waste management rules and by comparison to other national regulations. Routes for graphite waste disposal studied in different countries (concerning existing irradiated graphite waste) will be discussed with regard to new issues of large graphite waste from HTGR. Alternative or complementary solutions aiming at lowering volume of graphite waste to be managed will be presented. For example

  16. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  17. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosk Urszula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.

  18. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Tritium in the environment. The IRSN's opinion on key issues and on research and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report states the opinion of the IRSN on issues related to the behaviour of tritium in the environment, and to the associated risks. This report is based on a set of studies and researches performed on this radionuclide. Thus, the authors address the status of knowledge on the evolution of tritium released by nuclear activities (measurement techniques), the risk of bioaccumulation of tritium by living organisms within ecosystems (behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere, in soils, in ground plants, in continental and sea aquatic media), and the knowledge of risks due to tritium absorbed by living organisms (dose assessment, knowledge of tritium harmful effects and relative biological effectiveness)

  20. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Managing the nation's high-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    To date, no unified national plan has been adopted to develop and implement a comprehensive system of management and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Growing public concern about this problem has resulted in a number of recent efforts to develop a national high-level waste management policy. The 96th Congress strove to resolve the central issues, but ultimately failed to pass legislation, partly because of disagreements about the appropriate role of states in the siting of repositories for military waste. Outside government, a number of organizations convened representatives of diverse groups concerned with national high-level radioactive waste management to seek agreement on the major elements of national policy. One such organization was RESOLVE, Center for Environmental Conflict Resolution, which in May 1981 was merged into The Conservation Foundation. RESOLVE convened Forum II, a series of discussions among representatives of environmental, industrial, governmental, and citizen interest groups, in 1981 specifically to address the issues blocking Congressional agreement on high-level waste policy. This report contains the recommendations which resulted from these deliberations. Reprocessing, interim storage, respository development, and licensing requirements are addressed. Federal, state, and public participation in decision making are also discussed

  2. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra, I.R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Radiological equipment is not purpose-built for each individual application. Thus, not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of equipment and the quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also the performance, safety and reliability of equipment must feature in the requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. Similarly the continuing reliability of equipment in service is directly related to the quality of maintenance services. This is determined largely by the manner in which such services are procured. In the UK this issue has been considered by one of four Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes the complementary duties of contractors and customers. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system that is used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure to patients. (author)

  3. Imbalances in the development of European currency integration: key issues and recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Sahling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial and sovereign debt crises affected the Eurozone countries in different ways. The centre-periphery divide of the national economies exacerbated existing problems in the euro area. In this article an empirical analysis of the development of intra-European imbalances is provided. The analysis shows that the problem of internal imbalances remains unsolved. High unemployment and high public debt in Eurozone’s periphery reflects the internal imbalances. In some Northern countries the public debt ratios are becoming higher, too. Significant current account imbalances provide an important indicator of external imbalances. The co-existence of large current account surpluses in Germany and the Netherlands and deficits in Greece challenges the possibilities of deeper European integration. The provided analysis shows a reduction in external imbalances because of better performance of periphery current accounts. A real solution of European problems needs deeper macroeconomic policy cooperation between national authorities and European institutions. The article highlights the limits of European institutions in promoting common economic policy. It is necessary to boost competitiveness by coordinated structural reforms in the euro area; fiscal austerity policies are not enough to restore pre-crisis internal balance. For sustainable economic growth European investment projects should be implemented in the euro area. The recovery of national economies should be used to reduce the high public debt levels in both centre and periphery countries. In the absence of economic adjustment through the exchange rate in the euro area further improvement in European current accounts convergence is important for European economic integration.

  4. Adapting planning and scheduling concepts to an engineering perspective: Key issues and successful techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnegan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional approaches to engineering planning are slanted toward the formats and interests of downstream implementation, and do not always consider the form and criticality of the front-end engineering development process. These processes and scopes are less defined and more subjective than most construction and operations tasks, and require flexible scheduling methods. This paper discusses the characteristics and requirement of engineering schedules, presents concepts for approaching planning in this field, and illustrates simple methods for developing and analyzing engineering plans, and evaluating schedule performance. Engineering plans are structured into a schedule hierarchy which delineates appropriate control and responsibilities, and is governed by key evaluation and decision milestones. Schedule risk analysis considers the uncertainty of engineering tasks, and critical resource constraints. Methods to evaluate schedule performance recognize that engineers and managers are responsible for adequate planning and forecasting, and quality decisions, even if they cannot control all factors influencing schedule results

  5. Selection of a new nuclear unit for Slovakia: possibilities and key technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans for construction of new nuclear unit at Jaslovske Bohunice brings forward the issue of selection of reactor design. This paper compares technical characteristics (safety and operational) of pressurized water reactors that are at present available in the market, such as AP 1000 (WEC), EPR (AREVA), AES 2006 (ASE), APWR 1700 (Mitsubishi) and APR 1400 (Korea Hydro and Nuclear). Selected parameters that require close attention in future negotiations with potential suppliers are discussed in detail. Compared are parameters as type of the reactor, reactor output power, quantified level of safety, compliance with national legislature and international safety requirements, operational flexibility in meeting requirements of the grid, using of verified technology, measures for coping with severe accidents, resistance against extreme external conditions etc. (authors)

  6. Adapting oecd aquatic toxicity tests for use with manufactured nanomaterials: key issues and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Diamond, Stephen A.; Kennedy, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    . Scientifically based risk assessment for MNs necessitates development of reproducible, standardized hazard testing methods such as those provided by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Currently, there is no comprehensive guidance on how to best address testing issues specific to MN...... particulate, fibrous, or colloidal properties. This paper summarizes the findings from an expert workshop convened to develop a guidance document that addresses the difficulties encountered when testing MNs using aquatic and sediment OECD test guidelines. Critical components were identified by workshop...... participants that require specific guidance for MN testing: preparation of dispersions, dose metrics, the importance and challenges associated with maintaining and monitoring exposure levels, and the need for reliable methods to quantify MNs in complex media. To facilitate a scientific advance...

  7. Scoping key soil issues for the Suncor Voyageur Oil Sands Project EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doram, D.; Gulley, J. [Golder Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada); Fordham, C. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    An issue scoping process to focus the soil impact assessment undertaken in conjunction with Suncor Energy's Voyageur Project near Fort McMurray, Alberta, is described. Potential impacts to soils considered include disturbances from mining and in-situ developments, re-constructing soils to meet equivalent capability and predicting how soils will respond to acid deposition. The assessment also provides an opportunity to evaluate unique soil mitigation strategies at both the local and regional levels. New regulatory and soil reclamation challenges include developing soil salvage criteria for restoring the biodiversity which existed prior to the disturbance necessitated by the mining and in-situ operations and creating a suitable habitat for the caribou in the Firebag lease.

  8. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  9. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  10. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  11. Performance issues, downtime recovery and tuning in the Next Linear Collider (NLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Adolphsen, C.; Assmann, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) consists of several large subsystems, each of which must be operational and tuned in order to deliver luminosity. Considering specific examples, we study how the different subsystems respond to various perturbations such as ground motion, temperature changes, drifts of beam-position monitors etc., and we estimate the overall time requirements for tuning and downtime recovery of each subsystem. The succession of subsystem failures and recoveries as well as other performance degradations can be modeled as a Markov process, where each subsystem is characterized, e.g., by its failure rate and recovery time. Such a model allows the prediction of the overall NLC availability. Our mathematical description of a linear collider is benchmarked against the known performance of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  12. Origins of life: a problem for physics, a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The origins of life stands among the great open scientific questions of our time. While a number of proposals exist for possible starting points in the pathway from non-living to living matter, these have so far not achieved states of complexity that are anywhere near that of even the simplest living systems. A key challenge is identifying the properties of living matter that might distinguish living and non-living physical systems such that we might build new life in the lab. This review is geared towards covering major viewpoints on the origin of life for those new to the origin of life field, with a forward look towards considering what it might take for a physical theory that universally explains the phenomenon of life to arise from the seemingly disconnected array of ideas proposed thus far. The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

  13. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  14. Analysis of the key issues in establishing the Russian-based high technological companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reasons that prevent a competitive export-oriented Russian domestic development of the robot surgical complex from being industrially prototyped and serially released for the domestic and global market. The development is completed within the framework of a «priority project» which was also highlighted as of significant importance in the Forecast analysis of the scientific-technological development of Russia for the period of up until 2030 and in the road maps of the National technological initiative and other strategic documents. The project was financed by nearly all development funds and institutes in Russia. A conclusion is drawn that the key reason behind the significant increase in a life span of a high-tech market product is the absence of a target setting and a programme of coordinated actions from committed ministries and governmental agencies, as well as the lack of a large high tech company in Russia, capable of producing in industrial volumes the export-oriented products and ensure their global sales.

  15. Key Concepts in Education: Critical Issues beyond Definition and Discursive Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with the processes of digitization, medialization and the globalization of communications and lifeworlds, new topics, subject matters, conceptualizations and methods have been deve­loped in educational research and practice. On the one hand, from a diachronic perspective we can notice how new aspects of education (Bildung, upbringing (Erziehung, learning and communication have been addressed. On the other hand, from a synchronic perspective we can see a simultaneity of the non-simultaneous in terms of understandings, approaches, methodologies and forms of mediation and collaboration. Although more and more open initiatives and open educational resources (OER, as well as international collaborations and transnational intellectual networks, are being brought forward, epistemological aspects about using different key concepts are widely underestimated. The paper starts with: (1 an outline of selected understandings of education and literacy, followed by (2 a discussion of critical epistemological aspects by way of contrasting and correlating conceptual dimensions. Lastly, the contribution aims at (3 a sketch of polylogical design principles for educational knowledge organization.

  16. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  17. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  18. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  19. Key scientific issues in developing drinking water guidelines for perfluoroalkyl acids: Contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Gleason, Jessie A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a group of synthetic organic chemicals with industrial and commercial uses, are of current concern because of increasing awareness of their presence in drinking water and their potential to cause adverse health effects. PFAAs are distinctive among persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants because they are water soluble and do not break down in the environment. This commentary discusses scientific and risk assessment issues that impact the development of drinking water guidelines for PFAAs, including choice of toxicological endpoints, uncertainty factors, and exposure assumptions used as their basis. In experimental animals, PFAAs cause toxicity to the liver, the immune, endocrine, and male reproductive systems, and the developing fetus and neonate. Low-dose effects include persistent delays in mammary gland development (perfluorooctanoic acid; PFOA) and suppression of immune response (perfluorooctane sulfonate; PFOS). In humans, even general population level exposures to some PFAAs are associated with health effects such as increased serum lipids and liver enzymes, decreased vaccine response, and decreased birth weight. Ongoing exposures to even relatively low drinking water concentrations of long-chain PFAAs substantially increase human body burdens, which remain elevated for many years after exposure ends. Notably, infants are a sensitive subpopulation for PFAA's developmental effects and receive higher exposures than adults from the same drinking water source. This information, as well as emerging data from future studies, should be considered in the development of health-protective and scientifically sound guidelines for PFAAs in drinking water.

  20. Core message from PNC/H-3 and key issues for the next milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Sumio; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Yui, Mikazu; Mano, Tadashi

    1994-01-01

    The PNC/H-3 is the first progress report on the research and development of HLW geological disposal in Japan. This paper describes on overview of the performance assessment studies in the H-3 report and critical issues identified through the studies. Subsequently, the outline of the PNC's study plan for the post H-3 stage is introduced. The generic performance assessment studies in the H-3 report indicated that the performance of a massive engineered barrier system could be sufficient within a range of likely geological conditions in Japan. Sensitivity studies of the performance of the natural barrier system coupled with the strong engineered barrier indicated the importance of the investigation of geological barrier effects in the near-field. Studies in the H-3 indicated that the research approach which placed an emphasis on the near-field analyses was promising to confirm the technical feasibility of the HLW geologic disposal concept in Japan. In order to make the approach more promising and effective it is important to promote more detailed and comprehensive analyses of the near-field processes. The PNC's research and development of post H-3 stage before the year 2000 is focused on the detailed analyses of the near-field. A set of engineering scale laboratory experiments and in situ experiments at Tono and Kamaishi mines will play an important role for the post H-3 studies

  1. The crisis in access to essential medicines in India: key issues which call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kalantri, S P

    2013-01-01

    The government is planning to introduce free generic and essential medicines in public health facilities. Most people in India buy healthcare from the private sector, a compulsion that accounts for a high proportion of healthcare-related expenditure. To reduce the burden of healthcare costs, the government must improve availability and affordability of generic and essential medicines in the market. It can do so because India's large pharmaceutical industry is a major source of generic medicines worldwide. In this article, we discuss three factors that have impeded access to generic and essential medicines: (1) mistaken notions among policymakers, prescribers and patients about branded drugs and generic drugs in India; (2) high prices of medicines due to the progressive dismantling of the system of regulation of medicine prices, and (3) a drug approval and regulatory system that allows medicines (including fixed dose combinations) of doubtful efficacy, rationale, safety and public health relevance to dominate the market at the cost of access to affordable generic and essential medicines. The consequences of ill-health and wasted expenditure on drugs raise issues of public health ethics.Improving access to essential medicines in India is an urgent public health and ethical imperative. This should include improved public provisioning, a system of regulation of drug prices, and an evidence-based drug approval process.

  2. Conceptual design activities and key issues on LHD-type reactor FFHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Mitarai, O.; Imagawa, S.; Morisaki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuguchi, N.; Dolan, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Takahata, K.; Chikaraishi, H.; Yamada, S.; Seo, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, H.; Fukada, S.; Hashizume, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Mito, T.; Kaneko, O.; Mutoh, T.; Ohyabu, N.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of conceptual design activities on the LHD-type helical reactor FFHR is presented, mainly focusing on optimization studies on the reactor size and the proposal of a long-life blanket. A major radius of around 15 m is the present candidate under the constraints of the energy confinement achieved in LHD, a maximum magnetic field around 13 T with a current density around 30 A/mm 2 and a neutron wall loading around 1.5 MW/m 2 . R and D on super-conducting magnet systems of large scale, high field and high current-density are new challenging targets based on the LHD. The development of new design tools has been started aiming at establishing a virtual power plant (VPP) and a virtual reality system for 3D design assisting. Next design issues are mainly on engineering optimization of the first wall thickness, the detailed 3D blanket system, and unscheduled replacements of breeder blankets

  3. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Andrew, P.L.; Wu, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  4. Categorisation of Practices and Sources- A Key Issue in Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.; Vokal, B.; Petrovic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a radioactive sources inventory in countries with a nuclear programme usually comprises nearly all possible man-made sources available today, from sources related to nuclear power plants to calibration sources used for educational purposes. The risk based licensing process of radiation sources and exposures is a demanding task which could be internationally harmonised by introducing sources and practice related categorisation. The detailed categorisation of radioisotopes, replacing [1], was recently published [2]. The activity ratio (A/D ratio) is used as a basic parameter which is proportional to a risk involved in a use of a radioisotope. Radioisotopes as well as related practices are categorised. No categorisation of ionising sources related to electrical apparatus producing ionising radiation without radioisotopes has been given in literature. In addition, licensees usually perform many different activities with a specific source, so the categorisation of practice should be done, based on a risk involved with a specific practice. The risk is related to the probability of a specific event as well as to the consequences of that event. It is strongly related to the categorisation of source. The main issues related to a licensing process of sources and practices are presented. The review of possible categorisation of radioisotopes and related practices is given and a proposal of a combined harmonised approach of categorisation of sources and practices, based on risk, is given. (Author) 19 refs

  5. Parenting gifted and talented children: what are the key child behaviour and parenting issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R

    2008-09-01

    The literature on gifted and talented children is limited. Little is known about the types and nature of difficulties experienced by gifted and talented children, and even less known about parenting issues related to parenting a gifted and talented child. The aim of the present study was to describe children's behavioural and emotional adjustment, and the factors that contribute to children's difficulties, as well as to examine the styles of discipline used by parents of gifted and talented children and their level of confidence in managing specific parenting tasks. A survey of parents of gifted and talented children was conducted, with 211 parents meeting criteria for the study. For a community sample, in general gifted and talented children exhibit no more behavioural difficulties than do other children. But children in this sample seemed to show higher levels of emotional symptoms and peer problems. Children's behavioural and emotional difficulties were best predicted by parenting factors, particularly parental confidence. Parents reported that they were less likely to be permissive with their child, but they tended to use a more authoritarian style of parenting characterized by lecturing and a strong reaction to any problems. There are a number of implications for future research, clinical practice, and the development of parenting interventions for this group of parents.

  6. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra, I.R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of medical x-ray equipment and quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also its performance, safety and reliability must feature in requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. In the UK quality of maintenance services has been considered by one of our Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment in the National Health Service. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes complementary duties of contractors and customers. Radiograph reject analysis has indicated human error outweighs unsatisfactory equipment performance as the reason for rejecting poor radiographs. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure. (author)

  7. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  8. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  9. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  11. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  12. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  13. Computational issues in a stochastic finite horizon one product recovery inventory model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesmüller, G.P.; Scherer, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Inderfurth [OR Spektrum 19 (1997) 111] and Simpson [Operations Research 26 (1978) 270] have shown how the optimal decision rules in a stochastic one product recovery system with equal leadtimes can be characterized. Using these results we provide in this paper a method for the exact computation of

  14. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posy Bidwell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results: Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions: Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major

  15. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Posy; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Blacklock, Claire; Hayward, Gail; Willcox, Merlin; Peersman, Wim; Moosa, Shabir; Mant, David

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration--it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses) felt they had become 'de-skilled'. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major concerns over security, crime, and racial tensions are resolved

  16. Key issues in the persistence of poliomyelitis in Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Tara D; Aylward, R Bruce; Mwanza, Michael; Gasasira, Alex; Abanida, Emmanuel; Pate, Muhammed A; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2014-02-01

    The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32.1%, 95% CI 26.1-38.1) and bivalent OPV (29.5%, 20.1-38.4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19.4%, 16.1-22.8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43.2% (23.1-61.1) and 23.8% (5.3-44.9) compared with 18.0% (14.1-22.1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0.05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21

  17. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Key issues papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This volume contains the four Key Issues Papers prepared as background papers by international expert groups for the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991. The papers are on topics selected as the central themes of the symposium: energy and electricity supply and demand - implications for the global environment; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The four papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Alcohol & drug abuse: Revisiting employee assistance programs and substance use problems in the workplace: key issues and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda that includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs' effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures.

  19. Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M.; McCann, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs’ effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures. PMID:17914000

  20. Assessing non-metro recovery across two continents: issues and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Edward J; Fisher, Peter M J

    2017-07-01

    Rural and remote areas of countries such as Australia and the United States are less well-resourced and often poorer than their city counterparts. When a disaster strikes, therefore, their long-term recovery can be impeded by being situated 'over the horizon'. Nonetheless, they are likely to enjoy higher social capital, with 'locals' banding together to help restore economic and social life in the wake of a calamitous incident. At the same time, a repeat of extreme events, springing in part from alteration to the landscape through intense human occupation, threatens to derail sustainable recovery processes everywhere, suggesting that renewed emphasis needs to be placed on preparedness. Improved metrics are also required, spanning both pre- and post-disaster phases, to determine effectiveness. Moreover, a focus on the 'hardening' of towns offers a better return in limiting damage and potentially hastens the speed of recovery should these places later fall victim to extreme events. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2013-07-01

    Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of conversation mapping to frame key perceptual issues facing the general dental practice system in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R V; Dancer, J M; Smith, D; Campbell, S

    2009-06-01

    To demonstrate the use of a novel qualitative methodology namely conversation mapping, which can be used to capture differences in stakeholder perspectives and give a root definition of the problem in a complex policy area. The methodology is used in the context of the changes introduced in the English general dental practice system in April 2006, to investigate the key issues facing the system, as perceived by general dental practitioners (GDPs). From a broad trigger statement, three transformational statements were produced. Each participant recorded their contribution on a hard diagrammatic form as a 'map', with others responding with their own written comment, thus generating three conversation maps. Thematic analysis resulted in the generation of a preliminary model summarising key perceptual issues. The five emergent themes identified were: financing, dentists' wants/needs, the role of the public and patients, system goals and policy level decision making. Financing was identified as the core category to which all other categories were related. Conversation mapping, a methodology arising from a systems approach, can be used to develop a 'rich picture' of an oral health care system in order to define the core problem within this policy area. Findings suggest that GDPs identify the financing of the system as a fundamental source of problems within the general dental practice system. This appears to be at variance with the perception of policy makers, who report a more limited view, identifying the system of remuneration as the 'heart of the problem'.

  3. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  4. The impact of consumer awareness of water sector issues on willingness to pay and cost recovery in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The recovery of costs in water utilities is a key element in sustainability of both the provider and of the water resource itself. This paper examines the role played by consumer awareness in their willingness to pay for water supply in two cities in Zambia. Research conducted in Kitwe and Lusaka reveals that level of awareness, willingness to pay and cost recovery all vary directly. Whereas awareness may increase consumers’ willingness to pay, therefore assisting service provider’s cost recovery, the research presented here also reveals that factors such as ability to pay, affordability of bills, quality of water and of the service provided, as well as good business-consumer relations are important factors affecting a utility’s ability to recover its costs. If water utilities are to attain sustainability over the long-term, they will have to embark on and maintain consumer awareness programmes, raise the quality of service (e.g., through improved operation and maintenance), and develop and apply the right water tariff.

  5. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  6. KEY ISSUES OF CONCEPTS' FORMATION OF THE NETWORK OF RESOURCE CENTER OF DISTANCE EDUCATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of constructing a network of resource centers for Distance Education to meet the needs of general secondary schools is presented. Modern educational trends in the use of Internet services in education are viewed.  Main contradictions, solution of which helps to create a network of resource centers, are identified. The definition of key terms related to the range of issues are given. The basic categories of participants, who  implementation of e-learning and networking are oriented on. There are considered the basic tasks of  distance education resource centers' functioning and types of supporting: personnel, regulatory, informative, systematic and  technical etc. The review of possible models of implementation of  students' distance education is reviewed . Three options for business models of resource centers, depending on funding  sources are offered.

  7. Summary of Key Issues Raised in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Baker, Justin; Birnbaum, Michael L; Christensen, Helen; De Choudhury, Munmun; Mohr, David C; Muench, Fred; Schlosser, Danielle; Titov, Nick; Kane, John M

    2018-05-01

    Technology provides an unparalleled opportunity to remove barriers to earlier identification and engagement in services for mental and addictive disorders by reaching people earlier in the course of illness and providing links to just-in-time, cost-effective interventions. Achieving this opportunity, however, requires stakeholders to challenge underlying assumptions about traditional pathways to mental health care. In this Open Forum, the authors highlight key issues discussed in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) meeting-held October 13-14, 2016, in New York City-that are related to three identified areas in which technology provides important and unique opportunities to advance early identification, increase service engagement, and decrease the duration of untreated mental and addictive disorders.

  8. A perspective of some key issues related to the evolution of safeguards, the state level and regional concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, S.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is focused on the implementation of safeguards at present and the directions that they could be taken in the future. There are some key questions to be answered in the implementation of international safeguards that are aimed at helping to determine more clearly what safeguards will be more effective and efficient under the so called 'state-level concept' (SLC). A first and important step is to agree on a definition and scope of the SLC and to determine how the IAEA and relevant States could achieve a smooth transition from the historic criteria based safeguards systems to a new one based on the SLC that would be more flexible, but yet technically oriented and non-discriminatory. A second issue is to fully reflect on the factors that are influencing safeguards developments and that impact on their future shape. Some suggestions about enhancing safeguard implementation at present and in the future include first: a fresh look to the approach to safeguards cooperation: the IAEA has to revisit its activities to assist states in establishing good SSAC (State Systems of Accounting and Control), and secondly: investigating and promoting the development of concepts and technologies to share its verification capabilities with states and regional organizations. Another key consideration to the future of safeguards is the people. Adequate staff and the existence of appropriate training and education in safeguards are very important considerations to ensure effective and professional safeguards. Highly technically qualified staff in nuclear sciences is vital to build competence in safeguards in states, the IAEA, and regional organizations. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  9. Evidence of the Possible Harm of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Humans: Ongoing Debates and Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs can produce adverse effects, even at low doses that are assumed safe. However, systemic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on human studies, especially of EDCs with short half-lives, have demonstrated inconsistent results. Epidemiological studies have insuperable methodological limitations, including the unpredictable net effects of mixtures, non-monotonic dose-response relationships, the non-existence of unexposed groups, and the low reliability of exposure assessment. Thus, despite increases in EDC-linked diseases, traditional epidemiological studies based on individual measurements of EDCs in bio-specimens may fail to provide consistent results. The exposome has been suggested as a promising approach to address the uncertainties surrounding human studies, but it is never free from these methodological issues. Although exposure to EDCs during critical developmental periods is a major concern, continuous exposure to EDCs during non-critical periods is also harmful. Indeed, the evolutionary aspects of epigenetic programming triggered by EDCs during development should be considered because it is a key mechanism for developmental plasticity. Presently, living without EDCs is impossible due to their omnipresence. Importantly, there are lifestyles which can increase the excretion of EDCs or mitigate their harmful effects through the activation of mitohormesis or xenohormesis. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions should be evaluated as practical ways against EDCs in the real world.

  10. Development of safety-related regulatory requirements for nuclear power in developing countries. Key issue paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    2000-01-01

    In implementing a national nuclear power program, balanced regulatory requirements are necessary to ensure nuclear safety and cost competitive nuclear power, and to help gain public acceptance. However, this is difficult due to the technology-intensive nature of the nuclear regulatory requirements, the need to reflect evolving technology and the need for cooperation among multidisciplinary technical groups. This paper suggests approaches to development of balanced nuclear regulatory requirements in developing countries related to nuclear power plant safety, radiation protection and radioactive waste management along with key technical regulatory issues. It does not deal with economic or market regulation of electric utilities using nuclear power. It suggests that national regulatory requirements be developed using IAEA safety recommendations as guidelines and safety requirements of the supplier country as a main reference after careful planning, manpower buildup and thorough study of international and supplier country's regulations. Regulation making is not recommended before experienced manpower has been accumulated. With an option that the supplier country's regulations may be used in the interim, the lack of complete national regulatory requirements should not deter introduction of nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  11. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-07-08

    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  12. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  14. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  15. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  16. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. ► Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. ► Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. ► Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. ► Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  17. Familienfreundlichkeit als Zukunftsfrage in Unternehmen [Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required.Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. [german] Familienfreundlichkeit wird heute als wesentliche Zukunftsfrage für Unternehmen diskutiert und Investitionen in eine familienbewusste Personalpolitik gelten als zukunftsweisende Entscheidungen in Unternehmen. Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer zukunftsfähigen Personalpolitik in Zeiten zurückgehender Erwerbspersonenzahlen, eines zunehmenden Fachkräftemangels und der Alterung der Belegschaften. Familienfreundliche Arbeitsbedingungen werden

  18. The Future We Want: Key Issues on Sustainable Development in Higher Education after Rio and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a description of the achievements of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with a focus on higher education, and it describes some of the key issues which will guide sustainable development in the coming years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper initially…

  19. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  20. The integration of the risk in the governance of urban projects: a key issue for a resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. Tools and measures, structural or non-structural such as warning systems, barriers, etc do exist and could be a smart way to improve the resilience of the new urbanised areas. The technical solutions are available and efficient, but we notice that these tools are not much implemented. There is a lack of flood risk concern among the stakeholders and the inhabitants1. How landuse stakeholders could integrate the flood risk in the decision making process throughout the implementation of the urban project? Which type of governance favours an efficient development of good flood risk policy including prevention, protection and the management of the crisis? What is the "good" governance of the urban project e.g. enabling to take into account or not to forget the flood risk and to empower the (future) inhabitants? This inhabitants' empowerment includes the improvement of awareness (i.e. inhabitants being aware that they live in a flooded area) and the improvement of concern (i.e. inhabitants adopting the "right" behaviour when the risk occurs). In order to investigate how flood risk is or could be integrated in the project governance, we interviewed stakeholders (elected representatives, architects, property developers, etc.) and observed the integration or the vanishing of the risk throughout the project. In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site

  1. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William L

    2007-10-01

    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  2. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…

  3. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  4. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers’ knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The preservice teachers’ understanding of fundamental concepts (e.g., the difference between weather and climate, causes of recent global warming, etc.) increas...

  5. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  6. Strengthening and redesigning flood risk governance in Europe: an overview of seven key issues and how they are being dealt with in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegger Dries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.

  7. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group [Russian Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  8. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  9. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  10. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  11. Key issues to consider and innovative ideas on fall prevention in the geriatric department of a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Ky; Sherrington, Cathie; Naganathan, Vasi; Xu, Ying Hua; Chen, Jack; Ko, Anita; Kneebone, Ian; Cumming, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Falls in hospital are common and up to 70% result in injury, leading to increased length of stay and accounting for 10% of patient safety-related deaths. Yet, high-quality evidence guiding best practice is lacking. Fall prevention strategies have worked in some trials but not in others. Differences in study setting (acute, subacute, rehabilitation) and sampling of patients (cognitively intact or impaired) may explain the difference in results. This article discusses these important issues and describes the strategies to prevent falls in the acute hospital setting we have studied, which engage the cognitively impaired who are more likely to fall. We have used video clips rather than verbal instruction to educate patients, and are optimistic that this approach may work. We have also explored the option of co-locating high fall risk patients in a close observation room for supervision, with promising results. Further studies, using larger sample sizes are required to confirm our findings. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  12. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  13. Study on tritium recovery from breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, H.; Moritani, K.

    1997-01-01

    For the development of fusion reactor blanket systems, some of the key issues on the tritium recovery performance of solid and liquid breeder materials were studied. In the case of solid breeder materials, a special attention was focussed on the effects of irradiation on the tritium recovery performance, and tritium release experiments, luminescence measurements of irradiation defects and modeling studies were systematically performed. For liquid breeder materials, tritium recovery experiments from molten salt and liquid lithium were performed, and the technical feasibility of tritium recovery methods was discussed. (author)

  14. Fuel Behaviour in Transport after Dry Storage: a Key Issue for the Management of used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issard, Herve

    2014-01-01

    Interim used fuel dry storage has been developed in many countries providing an intermediate solution while waiting for evaluation and decisions concerning future use (such as recycling) or disposal sites. There is an important industrial experience feedback and excellent safety records. It appears that the duration of interim storage may become longer than initially expected. At the start of storage operations 40 years was considered sufficiently long to make a decision on either recycling or direct disposal of used nuclear fuel. Now it is said that storage time may have to be extended. Whatever the choice for the management of used fuel, it will finally have to be transported from the storage facility to another location, for recycling or final disposal. Bearing in mind the important principle that radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that undue burdens will not be imposed on future generations, there is no guarantee that the fuel characteristics can be maintained in perpetuity. On the other hand, transport accident conditions from applicable regulation (IAEA SSR-6) are very severe for irradiated materials. Therefore, in compliance with transport regulations, the safety analysis of the fuel in transport after storage is mandatory. This paper will give an overview of the current situation related to the used fuel behaviour in transport after dry storage. On this matter there are some elements of information already available as well as some gaps of knowledge. Several national R and D programs and international teams are presently addressing these gaps. A lot of R and D work has already been done. An objective of these R and D projects is to aid decision makers. It is important to fix a limit and not to multiply intermediate operations because it means higher costs and more uncertainties. The identified gaps concern the following issues especially for high burn-up (HBU) fuels: thermal model for casks, degradation process of fuel material, cladding creep

  15. Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

    1993-06-01

    Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

  16. Key issues surrounding the health impacts of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and other sources of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Cahn, Zachary; Kennedy, Rosemary; Liber, Alex C; Stoklosa, Michal; Henson, Rosemarie; Douglas, Clifford E; Drope, Jacqui

    2017-11-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco. To place ENDS in context, the authors begin by reviewing the trends in use of major nicotine-containing products. Because nicotine is the common core-and highly addictive-constituent across all tobacco products, its toxicology is examined. With its long history as the only nicotine product widely accepted as being relatively safe, nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) is also examined. A section is also included that examines snus, the most debated potential harm-reduction product before ENDS. Between discussions of NRT and snus, ENDS are extensively examined: what they are, knowledge about their level of "harm," their relationship to smoking cessation, the so-called gateway effect, and dual use/poly-use. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:449-471. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Public debates - key issue in the environmental licensing process for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan; Jelev, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    SN 'NUCLEARELECTRICA' S.A., the owner of Cernavoda NPP, organized, in 2001, several public consultations related to environmental impact of the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2, as required by the Romanian environmental law, part of project approval. Public consultations on the environmental assessment for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP - Unit 2 took place in 2001 between August 15 and September 21 in accordance with the provisions of Law No. 137/95 and Order No. 125/96. Romanian environmental legislation, harmonization of national environmental legislation with European Union, Romanian legislative requirements, information distributed to the public, issues raised and follow-up, they all are topics highlighted by this paper and they are addressing the environmental licensing process of the Cernavoda 2 NPP. The public consultation process described fulfils all the Romanian requirements for carrying out meaningful consultation with its relevant shareholders. The process also satisfies EDC (Export Development Corporation - Canada) requirements for public consultation and disclosure with relevant shareholders in the host country. SNN is fully committed to consulting as necessary with relevant shareholders throughout the construction and operation of the Project. Concerns of the public have been taken into account with the operations of Unit 1 and will continue to be addressed during the Unit 2 Project

  18. Information dissemination and training: two key issues for consolidating and strengthening the results of health telematic projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcarese, T; Boi, S; Gagliardi, R

    2000-01-01

    The concepts expressed in this paper concerns the activities to be developed within HEALTHLINE, a European project under the Telematics Application programme. HEALTHLINE is an umbrella project which takes initiatives and provides links to other international projects on health telematics. The projects involved are NIVEMES and RISE; they represent the starting point from which a common approach will be developed. The experience gained from these projects has highlighted two emerging requirements: information dissemination and training. To fulfil the needs of information, an Internet corner will be set up; it will allow citizens and health professionals to find and exchange information as well as to discuss themes concerning health care. Due to the most advanced technologies recently introduced, the Health care sector has had to modify its traditional ways of working to aid professionals in exploiting new training techniques and Health Care provision methods. HEALTHLINE will focus on training and on the development of the use of new tools and services. Furthermore, the project will exploit the training methodologies based on multimedia technology for developing training-on-the-job modules. The entire system, in its final stage, will consist of a network for co-operating training and information dissemination; European sites in the project will share information, training material and provide education and information on tele-health, medical and health-care issues to health care providers, beneficiaries and the general public.

  19. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Solodovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  20. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  1. Two books on dementia care: Risk Assessment and management for living well with dementia, and Key issues in evolving dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Manthorpe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk Assessment and Management for Living Well with Dementia. Charlotte L. Clarke, Heather Wilkinson, John Keady and Catherine E. Gibb. Foreword by Murna Downs. Part of the Bradford Dementia Group Good Practice Guides series. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2011, pp. 128, ISBN: 978-1-84905-005-0Key Issues in Evolving Dementia Care. International Theory-based Policy and Practice. Edited by Anthea Innes, Fiona Kelly and Louise McCabe. Foreword by Professor June Andrews. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2012, pp. 264, ISBN: 978-1-84905-242-9

  2. Prediction of concentration and model validation - key issues in assessment of long term safety for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    Post-closure safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories involve radioecological modelling for en,underground source term. In this paper we discuss critical aspects concerning process understanding and justification of simplified radioecological models used for such safety assessments. This study is part of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's (SSI) work on reviewing the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) most recent safety assessment, SR-Can. One of the most challenging tasks in assessments of environmental doses and risk from an underground repository is to estimate radionuclide activity concentrations in various geologic strata in the future. For example, little is known about transport pathways through the quaternary deposits to the discharge points in surface waters and other recipients in the biosphere. Traditionally simplified compartmental models are used in safety assessment to describe the fate of radio-nuclides in surface environment. The possibility to test such models against more detailed process models and site specific data is of key importance for confidence in the safety assessment. As part of SSI's review of SR-Can, alternative modelling approaches were developed to explore the importance of transport process descriptions in the assessment models. The modelling results were compared with the Landscape Dose Factors (LDFs) derived by SKB in SR-Can. LDFs is a new methodology adapted by SKB in SR-Can. The LDFs are defined in the units of Sv/y per Bq/y and express all the radiological information about individual epository sites and ecosystems as a single, radionuclide-specific, number that relates geosphere releases to radiological dose. Further, we suggest a method for validating model parameters using data from field tracer tests. In two companion papers we present the underlying model framework for pathway analyses and a newly developed numerical module within the numerical software Ecolego Toolbox. Transport models

  3. Ethical issues in the export, storage and reuse of human biological samples in biomedical research: perspectives of key stakeholders in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindana, Paulina; Molyneux, Catherine S; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael

    2014-10-18

    For many decades, access to human biological samples, such as cells, tissues, organs, blood, and sub-cellular materials such as DNA, for use in biomedical research, has been central in understanding the nature and transmission of diseases across the globe. However, the limitations of current ethical and regulatory frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa to govern the collection, export, storage and reuse of these samples have resulted in inconsistencies in practice and a number of ethical concerns for sample donors, researchers and research ethics committees. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives of and responses to the ethical issues arising from these research practices. We employed a qualitative strategy of inquiry for this research including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key research stakeholders in Kenya (Nairobi and Kilifi), and Ghana (Accra and Navrongo). The stakeholders interviewed emphasised the compelling scientific importance of sample export, storage and reuse, and acknowledged the existence of some structures governing these research practices, but they also highlighted the pressing need for a number of practical ethical concerns to be addressed in order to ensure high standards of practice and to maintain public confidence in international research collaborations. These concerns relate to obtaining culturally appropriate consent for sample export and reuse, understanding cultural sensitivities around the use of blood samples, facilitating a degree of local control of samples and sustainable scientific capacity building. Drawing on these findings and existing literature, we argue that the ethical issues arising in practice need to be understood in the context of the interactions between host research institutions and local communities and between collaborating institutions. We propose a set of 'key points-to-consider' for research institutions, ethics committees and funding agencies to address these issues.

  4. Key process issues in Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP): translation of an evidence-based model into clinical practice and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Salwen, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Our "desired outcome" in writing this article was to present not only key process issues stemming from the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; McCullough, 2000), but to highlight those therapy maneuvers that we, a "seasoned" clinician/supervisor and a clinical trainee, find most useful in delivering treatment and in conducting supervision. We strongly believe that it is only through the translation of evidence-based therapeutic models, such as CBASP, into effective training that a true integration of science and practice can be obtained. Thus, the congruence of trainer's and trainee's views on what constitute top process issues in therapy is important in evaluating the reliability of a therapy model; with this in mind, we focus on three process issues, as follows: (1) problems are anchored to the "here and now" and to specific situational outcomes; (2) patients are encouraged to identify the role they play in affecting their distressing outcomes and to take responsibility for "fixing" them; and (3) the therapist planfully engages in the process of change via disciplined personal involvement. Research and theory supporting these maneuvers are presented, in conjunction with clinical examples. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, Laurence; Moro-Goubely, Anne-Gaelle; Berthoin, Guillaume; Mathery, Christian; Galio, Pierre; Heyberger-Paroisse, Agnes

    2014-06-01

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  6. Key Issue: Enhancing Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Teachers are leaders when they function in professional communities to affect student learning; contribute to school improvement; inspire excellence in practice; and empower stakeholders to participate in educational improvement" (Childs-Bowen, Moller, & Scrivner, 2000, p. 28). Enhancing teacher leadership can help schools and districts reach the…

  7. 美国多元文化教育课程改革之核心问题%Key Issues in the Curriculum Transformation of American Multicultural Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱姝

    2016-01-01

    知识建构是美国多元文化教育课程改革的核心。五种知识类型综合发挥作用促进美国多元文化教育的课程改革。提出权力共享模式可作为美国多元文化教育课程知识选择的途径。%This article makes a review of the Canon debate on the curriculum transformation in the United States and points out that knowledge construction is the key issue in the curriculum transformation in American multicultural education. American multicultural curriculum has been transformed to comprehensively integrate five types of knowledge. It also gives a summary of the approach to transforming American multicultural education and makes a discussion on its implication for our curriculum reform.

  8. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C Ap

    2017-08-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint.

  9. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J.; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C. Ap

    2017-01-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls’ and boys’ drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children’s drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children’s drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint. PMID:28904595

  10. Critical Issues and Key Points from the Survey to the Creation of the Historical Building Information Model: the Case of Santo Stefano Basilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, C.; Dubbini, M.; Ricci, P. C.; Rivola, R.; Giannini, M.; Capra, A.

    2017-05-01

    The new era of designing in architecture and civil engineering applications lies in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach, based on a 3D geometric model including a 3D database. This is easier for new constructions whereas, when dealing with existing buildings, the creation of the BIM is based on the accurate knowledge of the as-built construction. Such a condition is allowed by a 3D survey, often carried out with laser scanning technology or modern photogrammetry, which are able to guarantee an adequate points cloud in terms of resolution and completeness by balancing both time consuming and costs with respect to the request of final accuracy. The BIM approach for existing buildings and even more for historical buildings is not yet a well known and deeply discussed process. There are still several choices to be addressed in the process from the survey to the model and critical issues to be discussed in the modeling step, particularly when dealing with unconventional elements such as deformed geometries or historical elements. The paper describes a comprehensive workflow that goes through the survey and the modeling, allowing to focus on critical issues and key points to obtain a reliable BIM of an existing monument. The case study employed to illustrate the workflow is the Basilica of St. Stefano in Bologna (Italy), a large monumental complex with great religious, historical and architectural assets.

  11. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  12. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  13. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for

  14. Procedural Issues regarding the Audit of the Management and Control of EU Funds, in Terms of Specific Key Requirements of the New Funding Period 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selișteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In practice, planning the audit of management and control for each operational program and for the whole programming period, will perform during substantiation audit strategy, based on analysis and risk assessment, made at the entities involved in implementing the operational program. In what follows, we propose an assessment guidelines for the 2014- 2020 programming period, especially in terms of explanation addressed key requirements that must be used, explaining the evaluation criteria for each key requirement, providing guidance for drawing conclusions for each key requirement by each authority and finally making recommendations for establishing general conclusions regarding the management and control.

  15. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Paul; Baldwin, Helen

    2013-01-30

    The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. 'human capital', provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a 'normal' life i.e. 'social and physical

  16. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  17. Analysis of Variance of the Effects of a Project’s Location on Key Issues and Challenges in Post-Disaster Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkarnaen Ismail

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After a disaster, the reconstruction phase is driven by immediate challenges. One of the main challenges in the post-disaster period is the way that reconstruction projects are implemented. Reconstruction cannot move forward until some complex issues are settled. The purposes of this research are to highlight the issues and challenges in post-disaster reconstruction (PDR projects and to determine the significant differences between the issues and challenges in different locations where PDR projects are carried out. The researchers collected data within international non-governmental organisations (INGOs on their experience of working with PDR projects. The findings of this research provide the foundation on which to build strategies for avoiding project failures; this may be useful for PDR project practitioners in the future.

  18. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  19. New Approaches for Analyzing Two Key and Related Issues in Faculty Salaries: Compression and Cost of Living. IR Applications, Volume 26, June 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    In the university setting, the issue of faculty morale typically has been linked to a variety of perceived inequities, including inequities in faculty salary. New approaches for analyzing two different, but related, types of inequity are proposed. One approach addresses whether salary compression, often perceived by faculty to exist, actually does…

  20. The recovery imperative: a critical examination of mid-life women's recovery from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Australia, like other countries in neo-liberal democracies, is grappling with the gendered health 'problem' of depression. More concerning is the issue of recovery and relapse, with depression being the third largest cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY). In addition, advanced liberal discourses of health position recovery as an exercise of individual responsibility to return to a functioning and productive norm and prevent recurrence. This moral enterprise of health articulates a 'recovery imperative' which overlooks the gendered context which may have created the conditions for women's depression and may in turn impede their recovery. Drawing on insights from governmentality and feminist post-structuralism, the article critically examines the effects of normalized recovery discourses on women's subjectivities. Data for the study were collected between 2005 and 2007 through in-depth interviews with 31 mid-life Australian women. Three key themes; 'in' recovery, 'eight out of ten' recovered, and recovering the authentic self, illustrate how the 'recovery imperative' may be implicated in perpetuating the cycle of recovery and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-help is key to recovery

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    31. oktoobril Kopenhaagenis toimunud Balti- ja Põhjamaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti Euroopa majandusolukorrast. Peaminister Andrus Ansip rääkis ka Eesti hiljutistest kogemustest majanduskriisist väljatulemisel

  2. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  3. Comparability and Usability: Key issues in the design of internet forms for New Zealand’s 2006 Census of Populations and Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Potaka

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing internet questionnaires to collect data that will ultimately be comparable with the data collected from paper questionnaires can present a number of challenges for developers. This paper discusses the design and development of internet forms for use in a mixed-mode Census in New Zealand in 2006. Using experiences from the design and testing of prototype forms, it describes design features intended to take full advantage of the capabilities of the internet mode, while preserving the qualities of paper based responding to help prevent mode effects. The discussion also highlights the role of usability testing as a key tool in evaluating the success of those design strategies and ensuring that the forms would be simple and easy to use.

  4. Key Ethical Issues Discussed at CDC-Sponsored International, Regional Meetings to Explore Cultural Perspectives and Contexts on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C; Barrett, Drue H; Ortmann, Leonard W; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J

    2016-05-17

    Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key ethical principles discussed in the WHO's guidance

  5. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  6. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  7. Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocana, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm 2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

  8. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  9. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  10. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  11. Carbon dioxide emissions from non-energy use of fossil fuels. Summary of key issues and conclusions from the country analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Martin; Neelis, Maarten; Gielen, Dolf; Olivier, Jos; Simmons, Tim; Theunis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    statistics and estimation methods for CO 2 emissions from non-energy use. The articles in this special issue contribute to reaching these goals

  12. Integrating a post-column makeup pump into preparative supercritical fluid chromatography systems to address stability and recovery issues during purifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Lakshmikant; Naidu, Harshavardhan; Asokan, Kathiravan; Shaik, Khaja Mohiddin; Kaspady, Mahammed; Arunachalam, Piramanayagam; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Mathur, Arvind; Sarabu, Ramakanth

    2017-08-18

    Purification of many pharmaceutical compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has always been challenging because of degradation of compound during the isolation step in the presence of acidic or basic modifiers in the mobile phase. Stability of such acid or base-sensitive compounds could be improved by post-column addition of a solvent containing base or acid modifier as counter ion through a make-up pump respectively to neutralize the compound fraction without affecting the resolution. One such case study has been presented in this work where the stability of a base-sensitive compound was addressed by the addition of acidic co-solvent through the make-up pump. Details of this setup and the investigation of degradation of the in-house base-sensitive compound are discussed in this paper. In addition, poor retentivity and low recovery of many non-polar compounds in SFC eluting under low co-solvent percentage is another major concern. Even though the desired separation could be achieved with low percentage of co-solvent, it's difficult to get the proper recovery after purification due to precipitation of the sample and significant aerosol formation inside the cyclone. We have demonstrated the first-time use of a post-column make-up pump on SFC 350 system to introduce additional solvent prior to cyclone to avoid the precipitation, reduce the aerosol formation and thus improve the recovery of non-polar compounds eluting under less than 10% of co-solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues in radioactive mixed waste compliance with RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act]: Some examples from ongoing operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, D.L.; Smith, T.H.; Clements, T.L. Jr.; Hodge, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive mixed waste is subject to regulation under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The regulation of such waste is the responsibility of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or the Department of Energy (DOE), depending on whether the waste is commercially generated or defense-related. The recent application of the RCRA regulations to ongoing operations at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described in greater detail. 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management. Theme 2: Task 7: Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-01-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs

  15. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management Theme 2: Task 7:Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-07-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs.

  16. Why service recovery fails : tensions among customer, employee, and process perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Stefan; Bowen, David Earl; Johnston, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The keys to effective service recovery are familiar to many throughout industry and academia. Nevertheless, overall customer satisfaction after a failure has not improved, and many managers claim their organizations cannot respond to and fix recurring problems quickly enough. Why does service recovery so often fail and what can managers do about it? This paper aims to address these issues.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The objective is to produce an interdisciplinary summary ...

  17. Key issues in european reactor seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicognani, G.; Martelli, A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper focuses on the main problems which have arisen in FBR design in Europe due to seismic conditions. Its first part, derived from the final report of a CEC-Belgonucleaire study contract, clarifies how ''real'' is the seismic problem for each site. Then, the second and main part deals with the studies carried out in the european countries on the relevant subjects, typical of FBRs or related to specific needs of single FBRs: these studies, for which contributions were provided by ENEA, CEA, NNC and INTERATOM, concern mainly the numerical and experimental analysis of the core, the reactor vessel, the shut-down system and the reactor building of FBRs under construction or in advanced design phase. Attention is also paid to the studies started for future purposes, the feed-backs on the design due to seismic conditions, and the instructions for future reactors

  18. Key figures for the environment - Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Commented graphs and data tables give an overview of several indicators regarding the environment in France in 2014. A first part addresses natural media and biodiversity by commenting several indicators related to climate and greenhouse effect, air pollution and pollutants, water pollution (underground waters, rivers, rivers flowing to the sea, marine environment), soil pollution by organic materials and soil erosion, and biodiversity (birds, protected areas, humid zones). The second part addresses natural resource management and use: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, consumption of biological resources (forests, fishery resources), and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: environmental concerns and expectations of French people, forest fire risks and natural risks, public actions to be performed and environmental concern of the French population, jobs and expenses in the environmental sector, evolution of transport modes, practices in agriculture and in industry. Some brief European comparisons are proposed, as well as a glossary

  19. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  20. Danish offshore wind - Key environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Danish experience from the past 15 years shows that offshore wind farms, if placed right, can be engineered and operated without significant damage to the marine environment and vulnerable species. The comprehensive environmental monitoring programmes of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm confirm that, under the rieght conditions, even big wind farms pose low risk to birds, mammals and fish, even though there will be changes in the living conditions of some species by an increase in habitat heterogeneity. The monitoring also shows that appropriate siting of offshore wind farms is an essential precondition for ensuring limited impact on nature and the environment, and that careful spatial planning is necessary to avoid damaging cumulative impacts. Due consideration to limiting the impacts on nature together with positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms in local communities and challenging energy policy objectives at national and international levels mean that prospects look bright for future offshore expansion. (au)

  1. Public information. Key issue paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power was welcomed from the outset because it promised highly economic and convenient energy, especially electricity. Even today, nuclear projects espoused by developing nations can stimulate enthusiasm and national pride. However, public unease concerning nuclear power safety was magnified by the accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986. The perceived problem of transport and long term storage of nuclear waste has added to public concerns, as has the risk of the possible proliferation of nuclear weapons. Public information strategies must recognize and seek to address these fears by pointing to the many cumulative years of trouble-free nuclear operations and by stressing the strict rules and oversight designed to protect workers and the public from accidents and radioactive releases. It is against this background that the following material has been compiled. It comes from a variety of sources and reflects the experience mainly of industrialized countries that have national nuclear programs. It is important to underline that it is descriptive rather than prescriptive in nature for two reasons: first, the IAEA is essentially a forum for pooling collective knowledge in this as in other fields; and secondly, the IAEA would not presume to offer a universal formula, since national circumstances vary according to specific political, demographic, social and other factors. Hence only certain parts of this paper may be of direct relevance to any given national situation. (author)

  2. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Taliban militants on the one hand, and an indigenous Swati movement on the other, as part of a “pragmatic” strategy “to turn our native populations...November 15, 2009. 96 Late May reports suggested that Swati insurgent leader Fazlullah was killed in a clash with police in Afghanistan’s Nuristan...perpetrators to justice. Yet, at month’s end, Prime Minister Gilani met with Indian Prime Minister Singh on the sidelines of a regional summit in Bhutan

  3. MUCOLYTICS FOR CHILDREN: DIFFICULT ISSUES, KEY SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzed the most common questions of mucolytic agents selection asked by clinicians. The various clinical effects of N-acetyl cysteine and indications for different forms of this drug, especially in infants, are discussed in the article. Indications and contraindications of acetyl cysteine usage for treatment of dry and productive cough in combination with other medicines in the first 24 hours of acute respiratory tract infections, accompanied by adherent bronchial discharge, are listed. The causes of the pulmonary«swamping» and measures of prevention of this condition are shown.

  4. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  5. Key figures on the environment - Issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    This publication proposes data, graphs, maps and tables illustrating through various parameters and indicators the status and the evolution of different aspects of the environment. It first addresses natural media and biodiversity: climate, greenhouse effect, air, waters, soils and biodiversity. The second part addresses the management and use of natural resources: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, biological resource consumption, and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: public opinion, risks, economy, transports, and agriculture. It also proposes a comparative view between European countries

  6. Key issues considered at LNG 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years, deregulation of the gas markets throughout the world has changed the way LNG projects can be brought into realisation. Gone are the days when large consortia of buyers could aggregate demand into quantities that made an LNG project economic. Today's market is typified by buyers requesting greater flexibility in volumes, shorter contract terms and reduced exposure to take-or-pay clauses. This means that the onus is on the producer to aggregate volume to make a large project viable, and to find flexible supply options as demand increases. As a result, there is an increasing ability to source LNG from excess capacity around the world, as has been demonstrated with the extended shutdown of the Arun LNG plant in Indonesia. Although some flexibility exists for the supply of LNG, it is unlikely that a world market where LNG is freely traded will develop. LNG projects will still require long-term contracts to ensure project financing. Furthermore, the 'LNG world' will remain separated into two regions the Atlantic and Asia-Pacific basins with only small amounts of 'spot' trading occurring between them. This is primarily due to the increased shipping costs associated with the global movement of LNG, and thus the ability to compete with closer sources of LNG and pipeline gas. Australia's position and its challenges in the LNG market is analysed

  7. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    main manifestations and implications of these conflicts are examined in the next section ... with invasive or alien species. This special ... the majority of potential pest species. ... Production of goods: food, durable materials and industrial products, ... well as a remarkably stable life support system that has allowed human.

  8. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  9. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  10. SUPRA - Enhanced upset recovery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Ledegang, W.; Field, J.; Smaili, H.; Roza, M.; Fucke, L.; Nooij, S.; Goman, M.; Mayrhofer, M.; Zaichik, L.E.; Grigoryev, M.; Biryukov, V.

    2012-01-01

    The SUPRA research project - Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation - has been funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program to enhance the flight simulation envelope for upset recovery simulation. Within the project an extended aerodynamic model, capturing the key aerodynamics during and

  11. Recovery Time for Sports Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Recovery Time for Sports Concussions En español Send us your comments Scientists look ... an athlete to return to play after a concussion. Paul Burns/Blend Images/Thinkstock A brain injury- ...

  12. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  13. The work programme of NERIS in post-accident recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Andronopoulos, S; Camps, J; Duranova, T; Gallego, E; Gering, F; Isnard, O; Maître, M; Murith, C; Oughton, D; Raskob, W

    2018-01-01

    NERIS is the European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery. Created in 2010 with 57 organisations from 28 different countries, the objectives of the platform are to: improve the effectiveness and coherency of current approaches to preparedness; identify further development needs; improve 'know how' and technical expertise; and establish a forum for dialogue and methodological development. The NERIS Strategic Research Agenda is now structured with three main challenges: (i) radiological impact assessments during all phases of nuclear and radiological events; (ii) countermeasures and countermeasure strategies in emergency and recovery, decision support, and disaster informatics; and (iii) setting up a multi-faceted framework for preparedness for emergency response and recovery. The Fukushima accident has highlighted some key issues for further consideration in NERIS research activities, including: the importance of transparency of decision-making processes at local, regional, and national levels; the key role of access to environmental monitoring; the importance of dealing with uncertainties in assessment and management of the different phases of the accident; the use of modern social media in the exchange of information; the role of stakeholder involvement processes in both emergency and recovery situations; considerations of societal, ethical, and economic aspects; and the reinforcement of education and training for various actors. This paper emphasises the main issues at stake for NERIS for post-accident management.

  14. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  15. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  16. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  17. Key Issues and Challenges in Estimating the Cost of Capital for Energy Network Utilities in Emerging Markets(Gelişmekte Olan Ülkelerde Enerji Şebeke Şirketleri İçin Sermaye Maliyetinin Tahminindeki Ana Konu ve Sorunlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÖZEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the cost of capital in emerging markets presents greater difficulties because these markets have relatively illiquid capital markets and higher levels of sovereign risk, economic uncertainties, and political risks. Experience shows that in estimating cost of capital, energy regulators in emerging countries usually depend on the work and recommendations of their staff and/or outside consultancy services. Since the ultimate decision is made by regulators, they need to understand the challenges and key issues in estimating a fair and reasonable cost of capital for energy utilities. The article introduces and discusses the key issues and challenges that regulators have to deal with when estimating cost of capital. Unfortunately, there is no agreement among academics, regulators, bankers, and other practitioners on how to address the key issues and challenges in determining the cost of capital in emerging economies. This makes capital cost estimation even more difficult in emerging economies.

  18. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  19. Critical issues for the early introduction of commercial fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Tomoaki

    1996-01-01

    Critical issues for the realization of commercial fusion reactor are discussed on the basis of a prediction of power source composition in the next century. The key issue is rather a relaxation in the construction site condition than a competitive cost in comparison with the nuclear fission power plant. It seems a logical conclusion that the competitor of the fusion plant in the cost will be a future CCT (Clean Coal Technology) and/or LNG plant loaded with a CO 2 recovery system. (author)

  20. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  1. Education Studies: Issues & Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Derek; Mufti, Emmanuel; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    This major text for Education Studies students provides a critical account of key issues in education today. The text features: (1) A critical analysis of key issues in Education Studies to encourage students' thinking about education in the broadest terms; (2) Themed sections with introductions to link the issues discussed in each chapter; (3)…

  2. RECOVERY STRATEGIES FOR SERVICE FAILURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Andreea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, services represent the most important sector of the economy both in terms of economic performance and labor utilization. Becoming essential part of today society, they are considered the basis of a healthy economy, fact that has increased the importance of services and the research in the field.T hrough this work we intend to address a number of issues that require clarification and are relevant to this sector. Increased competition and customers higher demands lead to difficulties in service delivery, so managers of service organizations must work hard towards developing appropiate strategies that can lead to improved customers satisfaction and to increased efficiency. Because it is inevitably for service providers to face situations in which service failure occurs and their customers are not satisfied, understanding the nature of service failures and the ways in which an organization can recover after a failure are considered key factors for achieving customer satisfaction. Since the data suggests that over 50% of customers who are facing problems are not satisfied with the way they were resolved, we consider appropriate to approach this topic. We intend to draw attention to service providers to the importance of proper management of service failure. They can find ways to recover from these failures and even to turn them into some very pleasant situations that can contribute to customer loyalty. This paper begins by highlighting the various features specific to services which contribute to the increased chances of failure, it continues by presenting the concepts of service failure and service recovery and then it presents some links that exist between service recovery and other aspects of providing services that are demonstrated in the literature. We hope that this paper will significantly contribute to the knowledge and development of the sector under analysis and will highlight some practices that will lead to improved

  3. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  4. Optimal grazing management strategies: evaluating key concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, overstocking will override key management initiatives, such as effective recovery periods, leading to rangeland degradation. Thus, in variable climates, stocking rate should be set conservatively to allow easier adaptation of animal numbers to rainfall variability from year to year. We suggest several key concepts that ...

  5. Key issues in highly efficient p erovskite solar cells%高效率钙钛矿太阳电池发展中的关键问题∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭东; 陈汉; 毕恩兵; 韩礼元

    2015-01-01

    钙钛矿太阳电池的迅速发展为解决未来能源问题带来一线曙光。但是,钙钛矿太阳电池在高效率电池器件的可重现性、稳定性以及性能评估等方面还面临着很多问题,严重制约其今后的发展。本文综述了钙钛矿太阳电池面世以来发生的重要进展,以及存在的几个关键性问题。从器件基本结构和基本工作原理出发,本文重点讨论了光吸收层的光谱和形貌等性质对器件性能和可重现性的影响,阐明了电子传输层和空穴阻隔层的重要作用,论述了空穴传输层的相关进展以及其对器件稳定性的影响。通过对以上关键问题的讨论和总结,本文对钙钛矿太阳电池未来的研究发展进行了展望。%Preparation of Perovskite solar cell, an emerging low-cost photovoltaic technology in rapid development, has provided a ray of hope to solve the energy problem. However, its low reproducibility and stability limit the wide application of this potential technology. In this review, we summarize the recent progress with a focused discussion on some key issues in the development of perovskite solar cells. Starting from the analysis of basic structure and working principles, we first discuss the perovskite-based light harvesting layer and the general strategy to control its spectrum response. We also demonstrate the effect of film morphology on the device performance and the reproducibility which requires very uniform thin films. Then we discuss the major function of electron transporting layer and hole blocking layer, and point out the importance of compact hole blocking layer with less nano-scaled pinholes. For the hole transporting layer, we focus the discussion on the stability problem induced by widely used dopants that can improve the hole conductivity in the hole transporting layer while the dopants’ deliquescent behavior also can induce the decomposition of perovskite-based light harvesting layer with a

  6. Accelerating Innovation that Enhances Resource Recovery in the Wastewater Sector: Advancing a National Testbed Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelcic, James R; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Cornejo, Pablo K; Fisher, Aaron; Simon, A J; Snyder, Seth W; Zhang, Qiong; Rosso, Diego; Huggins, Tyler M; Cooper, William; Moeller, Jeff; Rose, Bob; Schottel, Brandi L; Turgeon, Jason

    2017-07-18

    This Feature examines significant challenges and opportunities to spur innovation and accelerate adoption of reliable technologies that enhance integrated resource recovery in the wastewater sector through the creation of a national testbed network. The network is a virtual entity that connects appropriate physical testing facilities, and other components needed for a testbed network, with researchers, investors, technology providers, utilities, regulators, and other stakeholders to accelerate the adoption of innovative technologies and processes that are needed for the water resource recovery facility of the future. Here we summarize and extract key issues and developments, to provide a strategy for the wastewater sector to accelerate a path forward that leads to new sustainable water infrastructures.

  7. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  8. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  9. Key issues affecting quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in prostate cancer: an analysis conducted in 2128 patients with initial psychometric assessment of the prostate cancer symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Gralla, Richard J; Jones, Randy A; Hollen, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based quality of life (QL) questionnaires require the identification of issues of importance to patients. The primary aim of this study was to inform providers on patient-expressed issues while enhancing the content validity of instruments assessing QL and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in prostate cancer. The study provided additional psychometric properties for the new PRO and QL instrument, the Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS). An anonymous web-based survey of 2128 patients with prostate cancer was conducted with patients rating 18 QL items on a five-point scale. Most respondents (74%) were aged 55-74 years, had early stage disease at diagnosis (81%) and were diagnosed within 2 years of the survey (81%). The top five-rated issues were: overall QL, ability to perform normal activities, maintaining independence, ability to sleep and not being a burden. These items were ranked as either 'very important' or 'important' by at least 88% of patients. None of the most highly ranked issues were symptoms. Instead, the highest ranked items were global issues reflecting the impact of symptoms on patients. In addition to the enhanced content validity findings, good reliability results and initial support for construct validity are reported for the PCSS. This is the largest survey providing patient-expressed background for content validity for QL and PRO measures. The findings of this study should aid development of newer practical questionnaires, such as the PCSS, which can be adapted to electronic platforms enhancing rapid and accurate PRO and QL evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  11. Recovery of PMOSFET NBTI under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Yang Yi; Cao Cheng; He Wen-Long; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a serious reliability issue, and the interface traps and oxide charges play an important role in the degradation process. In this paper, we study the recovery of NBTI systemically under different conditions in the P-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET), explain the various recovery phenomena, and find the possible processes of the recovery. (paper)

  12. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  13. Evaluation of Delisting Criteria and Rebuilding Schedules for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook, Fall Chinook and Sockeye Salmon : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 10 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Neeley, Doug

    1993-06-01

    We develop a framework for distinguishing healthy and threatened populations, and we analyze specific criteria by which these terms can be measured for threatened populations of salmon in the Snake River. We review reports and analyze existing data on listed populations of salmon in the Snake River to establish a framework for two stages of the recovery process: (1) defining de-listing criteria, and (2) estimating the percentage increase in survival that will be necessary for recovery of the population within specified time frames, given the de-listing criteria that must be achieved. We develop and apply a simplified population model to estimate the percentage improvement in survival that will be necessary to achieve different rates of recovery. We considered five main concepts identifying de-listing criteria: (1) minimum population size, (2) rates of population change, (3) number of population subunits, (4) survival rates, and (5) driving variables. In considering minimum population size, we conclude that high variation in survival rates poses a substantially greater probability of causing extinction than does loss of genetic variation. Distinct population subunits exist and affect both the genetic variability of the population and the dynamics of population decline and growth. We distinguish between two types of population subunits, (1) genetic and (2) geographic, and we give examples of their effects on population recovery.

  14. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  15. Use of Artificial Propagation and Supplementation for Rebuilding Salmon Stocks Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 5 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, Jim; Watson, Bruce

    1993-06-01

    Conventional hatcheries, supplementation, and habitat protection are management activities located on a production continuum. At one end of the continuum is the conventional hatchery which attempts to separate artificially propagated fish from naturally reproducing populations. On the other end of the continuum is natural production. Supplementation which attempts to increase natural production through the use of artificial propagation lies somewhere between natural production and conventional hatcheries on the continuum. The use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species is controversial. Guidance on the use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species comes from three sources: The Endangered Species Act (ESA), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) policies and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) guidelines.

  16. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  17. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  18. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Biological Terrorism Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    number of people (particularly the elderly, very young, and immunocompromised ) may become ill from an exposure as small as 2 to 4 spores (based of...Gastrointestinal anthrax requires spores to be ingested. If untreated, mortality also is very high, but with antibiotic treatment mortality rates are low...anthrax cases (although in fewer numbers). Prophylaxis ( antibiotics ) and vaccines are available for most strains of Bacillus anthracis. The

  19. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Radiological Terrorism Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    measurements are made, these are collected electronically4 and automatically exported to local operation centers and incident command posts where the...economic, natural and built environments and a move to self-sufficiency, sustainability and resilience.” As can be seen in Figure 3-11, some long-term...Transportation and access routes Bridges Streets and thoroughfares Sidewalks and walkways Release of property from radiologically controlled areas

  20. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  1. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  2. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  3. Special Issue Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  4. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  5. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...

  6. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  7. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  8. Safety culture issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren Persson, K.

    1999-01-01

    indicators, the symptoms and significance of shortcomings and degradation in the safety management processes and safety culture and hence failed to take effective corrective actions at an early stage. Key performance issues such as critical oversight, self assessment processes and effective corrective action programmes were not fully appreciated by senior management even after performance deficiencies were identified by the regulator and other external agencies. The seeming inability of the regulator to influence this senior management level, especially at the early stages of safety performance degradation was a major contributing factor in the continuation of the performance decline to the point that regulatory intervention became a necessity. Recovery processes commonly used a new utility senior management team to kick-start the change process and corresponding regulatory resource increases focused on monitoring the recovery. A comprehensive recovery plan and an interactive relationship with the regulator were deemed essential for a successful recovery. A review of the developing safety culture was a factor considered necessary to ensure sustainability. Public involvement in the regulatory monitoring process helped restore their confidence in the regulator, utility and plant management. The group recommended IAEA continue work to develop guidance for senior corporate management and regulators in this area (author) (ml)

  9. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  10. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  11. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  12. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  13. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  14. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  15. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  16. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  17. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  18. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  19. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  20. Key data for climate. France and the World. Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes figures, tables, graphs and maps which illustrate climate change (greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, greenhouse gas tanks, fluxes and concentrations), emissions of greenhouse gases (at the world, European and French levels), emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy production in the world, the sector-based distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy combustion, energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors). Then, it presents the climate policies: Kyoto protocol, the emission permit market, Kyoto protocol project mechanisms, other initiatives aimed at emission reduction, the European trading scheme (EU ETS), carbon price in the EU ETS, French climate policy

  1. Regional chiefs meet to discuss key issues / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Stockholmis toimunud Põhja- ja Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti energiajulgeolekust, praegusest majandusolukorrast ja detsembris toimuva ÜRO kliimakonverentsi ettevalmistustest. Andrus Ansip rõhutas uue rahvusvahelise kliimalepingu tähtsust

  2. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  3. Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitonyak, Jennifer S.; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Health reform promotes the delivery of patient-centered care. Occupational therapy’s rich history of client-centered theory and practice provides an opportunity for the profession to participate in the evolving discussion about how best to provide care that is truly patient centered. However, the growing emphasis on patient-centered care also poses challenges to occupational therapy’s perspectives on client-centered care. We compare the conceptualizations of client-centered and patient-centered care and describe the current state of measurement of client-centered and patient-centered care. We then discuss implications for occupational therapy’s research agenda, practice, and education within the context of patient-centered care, and propose next steps for the profession. PMID:26356651

  4. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of \\text{Re}>{{10}4} , and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  5. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...

  6. Medicaid and Managed Care: Key Data, Trends, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with income below 133% of the federal I poverty level, reaching an estimated 16 million uninsured people, ... reflect diverse priorities across states, such as improving birth outcomes, ... relative to FFS payment rates. A recent national study found that the impact ...

  7. Inverse statistical physics of protein sequences: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Simona; Feinauer, Christoph; Figliuzzi, Matteo; Monasson, Rémi; Weigt, Martin

    2018-03-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins undergo important changes in their amino acid sequences, while their three-dimensional folded structure and their biological function remain remarkably conserved. Thanks to modern sequencing techniques, sequence data accumulate at unprecedented pace. This provides large sets of so-called homologous, i.e. evolutionarily related protein sequences, to which methods of inverse statistical physics can be applied. Using sequence data as the basis for the inference of Boltzmann distributions from samples of microscopic configurations or observables, it is possible to extract information about evolutionary constraints and thus protein function and structure. Here we give an overview over some biologically important questions, and how statistical-mechanics inspired modeling approaches can help to answer them. Finally, we discuss some open questions, which we expect to be addressed over the next years.

  8. Offshore Wind Power Experiences, Potential and Key Issues for Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    were 1,800 €/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 €/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. €/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design......, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill.€/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.€/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35% . In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs...

  9. Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Nanette; Borseth, Ann; Bruno, David; Byers, Donna; Cain, Dan; Christoff, Joseph A; Coffey, Carole; Cothern, Lynn; Cross, Tracey; D'Agostino, Davi

    2007-01-01

    ... I: More Comprehensive U.S. Strategy Needed to Achieve Goals and Address Challenges in Iraq; Enclosure II: U.S. Commitments Involve Significant Resources, but DoD Cost Reports and Budgets Limit Transparency...

  10. Key issues in nutrition. Supplementation through adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S

    1987-05-01

    A varied and balanced diet is usually adequate to meet the energy, protein, vitamin, and mineral requirements of adults and the elderly. However, some high-risk groups may require supplementation or special dietary recommendations. Some examples are persons on a weight-loss diet, alcoholics, premenopausal women, women taking oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women not taking estrogen, and patients with diminished immunity or cancer. An understanding of the nutritional needs of adult and elderly patients is vital if the primary care physician is to answer their questions and help them maintain good health through dietary adjustment or supplementation.

  11. Key figures of energy in Brittany. Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Ronan; Briot, Vincent; Dusuzeau, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    This publication presents and comments maps, graphs and tables of data related to energy in Brittany. More precisely, it addresses the following topics: regional energy assessment for 2013, final energy consumption, consuming sectors (building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery), regional energy production, renewable energy production (global assessment, ground-based wind energy, wood, household waste incineration plants, bio-gas, photovoltaic solar energy, thermal solar energy, marine energies, hydroelectricity), energy supply, transport and distribution, heat networks, electricity, natural gas, energy-related CO 2 emissions

  12. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  13. KEY ISSUES REVIEW: Insights from simulations of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard B.

    2007-03-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604)

  14. Nuclear power for developing countries. Key issue paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Khan, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Is there a rationale for developing countries to adopt nuclear power? This paper explores this rationale and the suitability of nuclear power for developing countries by surveying the prerequisites for and implications of developing a nuclear power program: infrastructure availability, economics and finance, environment, the needs for technology transfer, the regulatory and institutional frameworks required and the awareness of public concerns. (author)

  15. U.S. Army War College: Key Strategic Issues List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    soldier? 6. Leadership, Personnel Management, and Culture: a. What is the future of telecommuting in the Army and its implications on performance...FTAs) beneficial to all sectors of society? How can nations seek ways to benefit creatively and create sustainable long-term growth using FTA’s...Developing imaginative leaders who are able to produce creative solutions to complex problems. (USASOC G-3X) c. Study the impact of service members not

  16. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides......In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases...... (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal...

  17. Technology transfer and national participation. Key issue paper no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Y.F.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear technology was developed in industrialized countries and largely remains in a few industrialized countries. Non-nuclear countries today find it necessary to import this technology. Some aspects of technology transfer: legal and institutional structure; different type of agreements; arrangements; and national participation are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Key issues in body armour: threats, materials and design

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will examine the mechanics and materials of body armour in military, police and some security related applications to protect the wearer from penetrative threats. These threats will include battlefield threats such as shell fragments and high velocity bullets, and threats to law enforcement personnel such as handgun bullets and knives. Regardless of whether the threat is a high velocity bullet, or a knife, the essential requirements of body armour are the same; first an interacti...

  19. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  20. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico?legal requirements by the professional registratio...

  1. 146 Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    explicit purpose of goals, through division of labour and functions, and through a hierarchy of ... Union is non democratic, attention should be given to their goals and practices. The rational .... Oppressor/oppressed divide. Inspite of over eight ...

  2. Key issues in achieving an integrative perspective on stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Life scientists using the toolkits of molecular biology and genomics ... these impacts, or improve agricultural productivity and ... “Does it work in nature, in .... may represent an inevitable but transient balance between ongoing ...

  3. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    post “operational or strategic event,” compare the pre-event modeled outcome to the post- event ground truth . Considering the elements of PMESII...Personnel Management, and Culture: 1. What is the future of telecommuting in the Army and its implications on performance and productivity? 2. On...requirements. VI. Underground Facilities as a National Security Challenge: 1. The construction and employment of Hard and Deeply Buried Targets (HDBTs

  4. Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    All nations have been confronted with the energy crisis due to depletion of finite fossil fuels reserves, which results an increasing global demand of biofuels for energy security, economic stability and reduction in climate change effects, and generate the opportunity to explore new biomass...

  5. International co-operation. Key issue paper no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In accordance with guidance provided by the Steering Group, this report assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of international co-operation relating to the nuclear fuel cycle, with a view toward identifying any needed new forms or arrangements for co-operation. In more specific terms, the Steering Committee`s guidance identified the following questions: Is the existing international framework sufficient for: the safe and secure operation of the fuel cycle; the economic and orderly development of the world`s nuclear energy systems (or their phase-out should this take place); international co-operation in R and D; international co-operation in industrial activities? Are there places where these requirements overlap or interact so as to impede activities which are desirable? Can new forms of co-operation be foreseen which would make it easier to implement any of the fuel cycle options in a safe, secure and responsible way? Are there other new forms of international co-operation which would affect the fuel cycle, e.g. regional institutions; international plutonium management regime and/or storage? Finally: What is the appropriate role of IAEA in any of these?.

  6. Ten Key Issues in Lexicography for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birger Enevold; Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    and recommendations for theoretical and practical lexicographical work. The gist of the concluding discussion is that lexicography is a general term for a research discipline and a professional activity. Theoretical lexicography has as its objective to develop principles and guidelines that help practitioners...... to produce lexicographical tools that fulfil the needs of specific types of users in specific types of situations in the real world. Furthermore, the theoretical branch of lexicography has to be measured on the basis of the methods used to achieve the objective, and these methods may be purely...

  7. Key issues in theoretical and functional pneumatic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. G.; Yang, D. Y.; Liu, W. M.; Liu, T. T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the energy release of the pneumatic engine in different thermodynamic processes, the isothermal process is the highest power output process, while adiabatic process is the lowest energy output process, and the energy release of the pneumatic engine is a multi-state thermodynamic process between them. Therefore heat exchanging should be increased between the pneumatic engine and the outer space, the gas expansion process in the cylinder should be as close as possible to the isothermal process. Heat exchange should be increased between the cylinder and the external spaces. Secondly, the fin structure is studied to increase the heat exchanging between the cylinder body and the outside space. The upper part has fin structures and the lower cylinder has no fin structure, this structure improved the working efficiency of pneumatic engine. Finally the cam and the hydraulic bottle of pneumatic engines are designed. Simulation and theoretical calculation are used to the analysis of the whole structure, which lay the foundation for the manufacturing and design of the pneumatic engines.

  8. Assessment of some key issues that affect the acceptance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated how technological integration affects Building Information Modelling (BIM) acceptance. Quantitative research design was used, whereby survey was employed using questionnaire as a means of data collection. A total of 190 questionnaires were distributed to the professionals in the Nigerian ...

  9. working towards an african peacekeeping capability: key issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    regular media reports to the effect that “[t]he African Union Mission in Sudan in its ... crises. In May 1997, African leaders agreed that such a Force should be ..... of refugees and internally displaced persons and humanitarian assistance; to assist ... Darfur province. Soon media coverage became progressively critical. Media.

  10. Climate, air and energy - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled international objectives (Kyoto protocol), European objectives (directives related to energy efficiency and renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes) and French national (plans, laws) and sector-based objectives (for buildings, transports, agriculture, renewable energies, industry, office building and local communities, air quality), this publication presents and comments numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding energy consumptions and intensities (primary and final energy), greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, emissions of pollutants and air quality in France and in European countries, but also the implementation of various plans and tools (Agenda 21 for example), the creation of specific public bodies, jobs and markets related to renewable energies in France. The other chapters propose detailed data related to energy consumption or production, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on for different sectors: housing, tertiary sector, transport, industry, agriculture and forest, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, individuals

  11. Key Senators Issue Call for `Meaningful' Climate Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Senate currently considering national energy legislation, Senators John McCain (R-Arizona) and Joseph Lieberman (D-Connecticut) plan to offer a modified version of their bipartisan, proposed Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) as an amendment. The amendment would establish a market driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances to reduce emission. It would also provide for a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change in order to identify and understand past instances of abrupt change; and would establish a national greenhouse gas data base.

  12. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  13. Bahrain: Key Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    After years of instability during the 1990s, Bahrain has entered an era of political reform and development, but there are still simmering tensions between ruling Sunni Muslims and the Shiite majority...

  14. Key Issues for Seamless Integrated Chemistry–Meteorology Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online coupled meteorology–atmospheric chemistry models have greatly evolved in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modeling community, these integrated models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modeling, as they can con...

  15. Danish offshore wind. Key environmental issues - a follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    This follow-up to the Danish environmental monitoring programme on large-scale offshore wind power builds on the result of the former programme of 2006 and focuses on updated knowledge on harbour porpoises, water birds and fish communities, and on the cumulative effects of wind farms. The scientific quality of the projects in this follow-up has been assessed by experts from the International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology (IAPEME), who have commented on the results in an independent evaluation which is reproduced in this publication. (LN)

  16. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  17. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  18. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  19. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  20. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  1. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  2. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  3. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  4. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  5. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units

  6. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity...... with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case...

  7. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  8. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  9. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  10. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  11. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  12. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  13. Relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery: The mediating role of perceptions of service recovery in the cell phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kruger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In an industry characterised by fierce competition, cell phone network providers find it increasingly difficult to retain their customers after service failure. It is therefore essential for cell phone network providers to offer effective service recovery when they attempt to restore customer satisfaction following service failure. As it has been argued that relationships between customers and service providers should be considered a key determinant of the service recovery required to restore post-recovery attitudes and behavioural intentions, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between South African cell phone customers’ relationship intentions, their perceptions of service recovery and their satisfaction following service recovery. Personal in-home interviews were conducted to collect data from 605 cell phone customers residing in the Johannesburg metropolitan area. In addition to the significant positive relationships found between cell phone users’ relationship intentions, perceived service recovery and satisfaction after service recovery, this study found that perceived service recovery played a mediating role in the relationship between relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery. The study concludes that, although a direct relationship exists between relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery, perceived service recovery plays an additional indirect complementary role in this relationship. It is recommended that, in addition to focusing their relationship efforts on customers with relationship intentions, cell phone network providers also offer positively perceived service recovery to these customers, as this would lead to greater satisfaction following service recovery.

  14. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  15. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  16. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  17. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  18. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  19. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  20. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  1. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  2. Ventilation design for new plutonium recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.J.; Amos, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issued revised guidelines on ''Minimum Design Criteria for New Plutonium Facilities.'' With these criteria as guidelines, a new Plutonium Recovery Facility is being designed and constructed at the AEC Rocky Flats Plant. The methods by which the confinement of contamination and air treatment are being handled in this facility are described. (U.S.)

  3. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  4. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  5. Organisational Pattern Driven Recovery Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Valentina Di; Presenza, Domenico; Riccucci, Carlo

    The process of reaction to system failures and security attacks is strongly influenced by its infrastructural, procedural and organisational settings. Analysis of reaction procedures and practices from different domains (Air Traffic Management, Response to Computer Security Incident, Response to emergencies, recovery in Chemical Process Industry) highlight three key requirements for this activity: smooth collaboration and coordination among responders, accurate monitoring and management of resources and ability to adapt pre-established reaction plans to the actual context. The SERENITY Reaction Mechanisms (SRM) is the subsystem of the SERENITY Run-time Framework aimed to provide SERENITY aware AmI settings (i.e. socio-technical systems with highly distributed dynamic services) with functionalities to implement applications specific reaction strategies. The SRM uses SERENITY Organisational S&D Patterns as run-time models to drive these three key functionalities.

  6. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  7. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  9. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  11. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Cloud Service Considering Fault Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Tan, Feng; Dai, Yuan-Shun; Guo, Suchang

    In cloud computing, cloud service performance is an important issue. To improve cloud service reliability, fault recovery may be used. However, the use of fault recovery could have impact on the performance of cloud service. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary study on this issue. Cloud service performance is quantified by service response time, whose probability density function as well as the mean is derived.

  13. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  14. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie

    2017-11-01

    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerated recovery after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kut, Mustafa Sinan; Yurtseven, Nurgul; Cimen, Serdar; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat

    2002-01-01

    The accelerated-recovery approach, involving early extubation, early mobility, decreased duration of intensive care unit stay, and decreased duration of hospitalization has recently become a controversial issue in cardiac surgery. We investigated timing of extubation, length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospitalization in 225 consecutive cardiac surgery patients. Of the 225 patients, 139 were male and 86 were female; average age was 49.73 +/- 16.95 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 127 patients; 65 patients underwent aortic and/or mitral or pulmonary valvular operations; 5 patients underwent valvular plus coronary artery operations; and in 28 patients surgical interventions for congenital anomalies were carried out. The accelerated-recovery approach could be applied in 169 of the 225 cases (75.11%). Accelerated-recovery patients were extubated after an average of 3.97 +/- 1.59 hours, and the average duration of stay in the intensive care unit was 20.93 +/- 2.44 hours for these patients. Patients were discharged if they met all of the following criteria: hemodynamic stability, cooperativeness, ability to initiate walking exercises within wards, lack of pathology in laboratory investigations, and psychological readiness for discharge. Mean duration of hospitalization for accelerated-recovery patients was 4.24 +/- 0.75 days. Two patients (1.18%) who were extubated within the first 6 hours required reintubation. Four patients (2.36%) who were sent to the wards returned to intensive care unit due to various reasons and 6 (3.55%) of the discharged patients were rehospitalized. Approaches for decreasing duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization may be applied in elective and uncomplicated cardiac surgical interventions with short duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, without risking patients. Frequencies of reintubation, return to intensive care unit, and rehospitalization are quite

  16. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  17. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  18. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  19. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  20. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  1. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  2. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  3. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  4. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  5. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  6. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  7. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  8. Recovery as a Lived Experience Discipline: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Recovery is government mandated and a core facet of mental health reform. However, Recovery implementation in this country (Australia) has been inhibited by a lack of education of, and understanding from, clinicians. A grounded theory study was undertaken to explore the potential and existing role of lived experience practitioners in assisting meaningful implementations of Recovery within the Australian mental health sector. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 people employed to work from a lived experience perspective. The findings suggest participants have experienced and observed significant barriers to the implementation of Recovery-focused practice while operating in lived experience roles. Three main issues emerged: (1) Recovery co-opted, (2) Recovery uptake, and (3) Recovery denial. For a genuine Recovery-focused mental health system to be developed, lived experience practitioners must be enabled to take their role as Recovery experts and leaders. Lived experience practitioners are the logical leaders of Recovery implementation due to their own internal experience and understandings of Recovery and the wider lived experience movement's development and championing of the concepts.

  9. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  10. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  11. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  12. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  13. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  14. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  15. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  16. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  17. The recovery paradigm - a model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David W; Lubman, Dan I

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol and drug disorders remain major health and social problems in Australia, contributing enormously to the global burden of disease and the everyday practice of primary care. A recent growth in recovery research and recovery focused policies are starting to have an impact in Australia, with implications for how we attempt to resolve these problems. In this article we discuss recent international findings in recovery research, and explore their implications for primary care. Research indicates that over half of dependent substance users will eventually achieve stable recovery. Key predictors of recovery are active engagement in the community and immersion in peer support groups and activities. Recovery requires a twin track approach: enabling and supporting individual recovery journeys, while creating environmental conditions that enable and support a 'social contagion' of recovery, in which recovery is transmitted through supportive social networks and dedicated recovery groups, such as mutual aid.

  18. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  19. Radiation response issues for infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalma, Arne H.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers describe the most important radiation response issues for infrared detectors. In general, the two key degradation mechanisms in infrared detectors are the noise produced by exposure to a flux of ionizing particles (e.g.; trapped electronics and protons, debris gammas and electrons, radioactive decay of neutron-activated materials) and permanent damage produced by exposure to total dose. Total-dose-induced damage is most often the result of charge trapping in insulators or at interfaces. Exposure to short pulses of ionization (e.g.; prompt x rays or gammas, delayed gammas) will cause detector upset. However, this upset is not important to a sensor unless the recovery time is too long. A few detector technologies are vulnerable to neutron-induced displacement damage, but fortunately most are not. Researchers compare the responses of the new technologies with those of the mainstream technologies of PV HgCdTe and IBC Si:As. One important reason for this comparison is to note where some of the newer technologies have the potential to provide significantly improved radiation hardness compared with that of the mainstream technologies, and thus to provide greater motivation for the pursuit of these technologies.

  20. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  1. Coherent one-way quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Thoma, Yann; Zbinden, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) consists in the exchange of a secrete key between two distant points [1]. Even if quantum key distribution systems exist and commercial systems are reaching the market [2], there are still improvements to be made: simplify the construction of the system; increase the secret key rate. To this end, we present a new protocol for QKD tailored to work with weak coherent pulses and at high bit rates [3]. The advantages of this system are that the setup is experimentally simple and it is tolerant to reduced interference visibility and to photon number splitting attacks, thus resulting in a high efficiency in terms of distilled secret bits per qubit. After having successfully tested the feasibility of the system [3], we are currently developing a fully integrated and automated prototype within the SECOQC project [4]. We present the latest results using the prototype. We also discuss the issue of the photon detection, which still remains the bottleneck for QKD.

  2. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  3. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  5. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  6. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  7. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  8. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  9. Il governo della performance dei processi di business : dai Key Performance Indicators ai Key Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beretta; Saverio Bozzolan

    2013-01-01

    The recent paper issued by COSO ["Developing Key Risk Indicators to Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management" (Coso, 2010)] is the starting point of this article whose aim is to discuss the relevance of the business process dimension in the design and implementation of Key Risk Indicators. The Authors analyze the reasons of the systematic underestimation of the business process dimension in the COSO papers and debate the implications that the explicit consideration of the business process dimens...

  10. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  11. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in ... Key Words: African identity, hermeneutics and culture, ... Even the quest to overcome the hegemony of Western ..... African philosophers to rethink the principles, concepts, attitudes ... there is a certain openness to new possibilities at the.

  13. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  14. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  15. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  16. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  17. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  18. Aligning oversize/overweight fees with agency costs : critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project provides an elementary analysis of issues and a proposed framework for the state to evaluate cost recovery options : due to OSOW operations. The authors provide a review of current permitting practices, provide a sampling of fee structur...

  19. Service users' expectations of treatment and support at the Community Mental Health Centre in their recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Ruud, Torleif; Borg, Marit

    2017-09-01

    Focus on service users' needs, coping and empowerment, user involvement, and comprehensiveness are supposed to be key elements of the Community Mental Health Centres in Norway. Taking a user-oriented approach means acknowledging the individual's own expectations, aims and hopes. However, studies that have investigated service users' expectations of treatment and support at Community Mental Health Centres are hard to find. The aim of the study was therefore to explore service users' expectations at the start of treatment at a Community Mental Health Centre. Within a collaborative framework, taking a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, ten service users participated in in-depth interviews about their expectations, hopes and aims for treatment and recovery. The participants sought help due to various mental health issues that had interfered with their lives and created disability and suffering. A data-driven stepwise approach in line with thematic analysis was used. The study was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The following four main themes representing participants' expectations at the start of treatment were elicited: hope for recovery, developing understanding, finding tools for coping and receiving counselling and practical assistance. Participants' expectations about treatment were tightly interwoven with their personal aims and hopes for their future life, and expectations were often related to practical and financial problems, the solution of which being deemed necessary to gain a safe basis for recovery in the long run. The transferability of the results may be limited by the small number of participants. The study emphasises how important it is that service users' personal aims and expectations guide the collaborative treatment process. In addition to providing treatment aimed at improving symptoms, Community Mental Health Centres should take a more comprehensive approach than today by providing more support with family issues

  20. The Northridge earthquake: community-based approaches to unmet recovery needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, R; Stanford, L

    1998-03-01

    The 1994 Northridge, California earthquake has proven to be one of the most costly disasters in United States history. Federal and state assistance programmes received some 681,000 applications from victims for various forms of relief. In spite of the flow of US$11 billion in federal assistance into Los Angeles and Ventura counties, many victims have failed to obtain adequate relief. These unmet needs relate to the vulnerability of particular class and ethnic groups. In response to unmet needs, a number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have become involved in the recovery process. This paper, based on evidence collected from hundreds of in-depth interviews with the people involved, examines the activities of several community-based organisations (CBOs) and other NGOs as they have attempted to assist vulnerable people with unmet post-disaster needs. We discuss two small ethnically diverse communities in Ventura County, on the periphery of the Los Angeles metropolitan region. The earthquake and resultant disaster declaration provided an opportunity for local government and NGOs to acquire federal resources not normally available for economic development. At the same time the earthquake created political openings in which longer-term issues of community development could be addressed by various local stakeholders. A key issue in recovery has been the availability of affordable housing for those on low incomes, particularly Latinos, the elderly and farm workers. We discuss the successes and limitations of CBOs and NGOs as mechanisms for dealing with vulnerable populations, unmet needs and recovery issues in the two communities.