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  1. ANALISIS PERBEDAAN CITRA MRI BRAIN PADA SEKUENT1SE DAN T1FLAIR

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    Nursama Heru Apriantoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available MRI adalah bagian dari ilmu kedokteran untuk mediagnosa kelainan organ dengan memanfaatkan medan magnet dan pergerakan proton atom hidrogen. Salah satu pemeriksaan MRI adalah pemeriksaan brain. Pemeriksaan MRI brain dapat dilakukan T1 weighted image Spin Echo (T1 SE atau T1 Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (T1 FLAIR. Kajian dilakukan untuk menentukan perbedaan T1 SE dan T1 FLAIR dari segi citra berdasarkan nilai Rasio Signal terhadap Noise (SNR dengan MRI GE Type Signa HD xt 1.5 Tesla. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif.  20 pasien  telah diambil pada pemeriksaan MRI brain pada potongan axial, dengan parameter T1 SE potongan axial dengan parameter Time Repetition (TR 700 ms, Time Echo (TE 20 ms, Field of View (FOV 240 mm, Slice Thickness 5,0 mm, Spacing 1,0 mm, Number of Excitations (NEX 1, Phase 224, dan total slice 20. T1 FLAIR  parameter TR 3000 ms, TE 13,9 ms, TI 920 ms, FOV 240 mm, slice thickness 5,0 mm, spacing 1,0 mm,   NEX 1, phase 224, dan total slice 20. SNR dihitung pada anatomi brain meliputi CSF (Cerebro Spinal Fluid, White Matter dan Gray Matter. Hasil penelitian kedua sequence tersebut menunjukkan bahwa sequence T1 SE lebih baik daripada sequence T1 FLAIR.

  2. Comparison of 3D double inversion recovery and 2D STIR FLAIR MR sequences for the imaging of optic neuritis: pilot study

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    Hodel, Jerome; Bocher, Anne-Laure; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Outteryck, Olivier; Zephir, Helene; Vermersch, Patrick [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Lambert, Oriane [Fondation Ophtalmologique Rothschild, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Villejuif (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)

    2014-12-15

    We compared the three-dimensional (3D) double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) short tau inversion recovery (STIR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for the detection of optic nerve signal abnormality in patients with optic neuritis (ON). The study group consisted of 31 patients with ON (44 pathological nerves) confirmed by visual-evoked potentials used as the reference. MRI examinations included 2D coronal STIR FLAIR and 3D DIR with 3-mm coronal reformats to match with STIR FLAIR. Image artefacts were graded for each portion of the optic nerves. Each set of MR images (2D STIR FLAIR, DIR reformats and multiplanar 3D DIR) was examined independently and separately for the detection of signal abnormality. Cisternal portion of optic nerves was better delineated with DIR (p < 0.001), while artefacts impaired analysis in four patients with STIR FLAIR. Inter-observer agreement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) on 3D DIR (κ = 0.96) compared with STIR FLAIR images (κ = 0.60). Multiplanar DIR images reached the best performance for the diagnosis of ON (95 % sensitive and 94 % specific). Our study showed a high sensitivity and specificity of 3D DIR compared with STIR FLAIR for the detection of ON. These findings suggest that the 3D DIR sequence may be more useful in patients suspected of ON. (orig.)

  3. MRI in seven cases of tacrolimus (FK-506) encephalopathy: utility of FLAIR and diffusion-weighted imaging

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    Furukawa, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Terae, S.; Chu, B.C.; Kaneko, K.; Kamada, H.; Miyasaka, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We assessed the utility of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) images in investigation of tacrolimus (FK-506) encephalopathy, and to see whether we could predict its cause from clinical and imaging data. In seven patients with presumed FK-506 toxicity the areas involved on MRI were similar to those in cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. The abnormal signal was most evident on FLAIR in all cases. In three of four patients who underwent DWI, no diffusion abnormalities were detected; in the remaining patient, increased diffusion was seen in the deep white matter bilaterally on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, consistent with the findings on T2-weighted spin-echo and FLAIR images. Five of the six patients for whom we had clinical data showed sudden changes in electrolyte or fluid equilibrium due to diarrhoea, a polyuria or oliguria one day before or on the day of onset of the central nervous system disturbances. We speculate that FK-506 encephalopathy is triggered by the disturbance of the electrolyte and/or fluid equilibrium, given a certain serum level of FK-506. (orig.)

  4. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

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    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  5. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

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    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  6. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

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    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.

  7. Diagnosis of retrodiscal tissue in painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity.

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    Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (Pjoints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.

  8. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

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    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  9. Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR images in moyamoya disease

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    Fujiwara, Hirokazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokazu_fujiwara@ybb.ne.jp; Momoshima, Suketaka [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: There are a few reports on leptomeningeal high signal intensity (LMHI: ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images in moyamoya disease, but the feature of this finding has not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize LMHI on FLAIR images in moyamoya disease and to assess usefulness of this finding in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease in conventional MR imaging. Material and methods: MR imaging of 28 patients with moyamoya disease was retrospectively reviewed. The grade of LMHI on FLAIR images was classified as 'absent,' 'minimal,' 'moderate' and 'marked.' Fifty-four hemispheres of 28 patients (2 patients had unilateral disease) were assessed for the frequency of visualization and distribution of LMHI. The correlations between LMHI on FLAIR images, moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images and MR angiography findings were also analyzed. Results: Moderate and marked LMHI was seen in 31 out of 54 hemispheres (57%). LMHI was seen more prominently in the frontal and parietal lobes than in the temporal and occipital lobes. Although there was a tendency for LMHI on FLAIR images to be prominent in groups with moderate and marked moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images, there was no significant correlation. More prominent LMHI was observed in the hemispheres in which cortical branches of the middle cerebral arteries were poorly visualized on MR angiography. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on FLAIR images is predominantly seen in the frontal and parietal lobes. Because this sign can be seen in patients with unremarkable moyamoya vessels, LMHI is a useful sign in conventional MR imaging for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease.

  10. Detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage: Comparison of combined FLAIR/SWI versus CT

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    Verma, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail: rajeev.verma@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Kottke, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.kottke@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Andereggen, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.andereggen@insel.ch [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Weisstanner, Christian, E-mail: christian.weisstanner@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zubler, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.zubler@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Gralla, Jan, E-mail: jan.gralla@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Kiefer, Claus, E-mail: claus.kiefer@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Slotboom, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.slotboom@insel.ch [University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Support Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare the utility of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) with the established diagnostic techniques CT and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in their detecting capacity of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and further to compare the combined SWI/FLAIR MRI data with CT to evaluate whether MRI is more accurate than CT. Methods: Twenty-five patients with acute SAH underwent CT and MRI within 6 days after symptom onset. Underlying pathology for SAH was head trauma (n = 9), ruptured aneurysm (n = 6), ruptured arteriovenous malformation (n = 2), and spontaneous bleeding (n = 8). SWI, FLAIR, and CT data were analyzed. The anatomical distribution of SAH was subdivided into 8 subarachnoid regions with three peripheral cisterns (frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital, sylvian), two central cisterns and spaces (interhemispheric, intraventricular), and the perimesencephalic, posterior fossa, superior cerebellar cisterns. Results: SAH was detected in a total of 146 subarachnoid regions. CT identified 110 (75.3%), FLAIR 127 (87%), and SWI 129 (88.4%) involved regions. Combined FLAIR and SWI identified all 146 detectable regions (100%). FLAIR was sensitive for frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital and Sylvian cistern SAH, while SWI was particularly sensitive for interhemispheric and intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions: By combining SWI and FLAIR, MRI yields a distinctly higher detection rate for SAH than CT alone, particularly due to their complementary detection characteristics in different anatomical regions. Detection strength of SWI is high in central areas, whereas FLAIR shows a better detection rate in peripheral areas.

  11. Detection of optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis by MRI using a fat-saturated short-echo fast FLAIR sequence

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    Hickman, S.J. [Inst. of Neurology, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Dept. of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Brex, P.A.; Silver, N.C.; Barker, G.J.; Miller, D.H. [Inst. of Neurology, Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Brierley, C.M.H.; Compston, D.A.S. [Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scolding, N.J. [Inst. of Clinical Neurosciences, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Moseley, I.F. [Lysholm Radiological Dept., National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Plant, G.T. [Dept. of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    We describe an MRI technique for quantifying optic nerve atrophy resulting from a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. We imaged 17 patients, with a median time since onset of optic neuritis of 21 months (range 3-81 months), using a coronal-oblique fat-saturated short-echo fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (sTE fFLAIR) sequence. The mean cross-sectional area of the intraorbital portion of the optic nerves was calculated by a blinded observer from five consecutive 3 mm slices from the orbital apex forwards using a semiautomated contouring technique and compared with data from 16 controls. The mean optic nerve area was 11.2mm{sup 2} in the affected eye of the patients, 12.9mm{sup 2} in the contralateral eye (P = 0.006 compared to the affected eye) and 12.8mm{sup 2} in controls (P = 0.03 compared to the affected eyes). There was a significant negative correlation between disease duration and the size of the affected optic nerve (r = -0.59, P = 0.012). The measurement coefficient of variation was 4.8 %. The sTE fFLAIR sequence enables measurement of optic nerve area with sufficient reproducibility to show optic nerve atrophy following a single episode of unilateral optic neuritis. The correlation of increasing optic nerve atrophy with disease duration would be consistent with ongoing axonal loss in a persistently demyelinated lesion, or Wallerian degeneration following axonal damage during the acute inflammatory phase. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI for intracranial tumors in comparison with post-contrast T1W spin-echo MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to have higher sensitivity for detecting leptomeningeal disease compared with contrast- enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE T1WI). However, currently there are no studies showing the potential value of clinical applications of contrast-enhanced FLAIR (CE FLAIR) sequence in diagnosing intracranial tumors in a larger group of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CE FLAIR in comparison with CE T1WI for intracranial tumors and to provide more information for clinical diagnosis and therapy.Methods One hundred and four consecutive cases of intracranial tumors referred for CE brain MRI were analyzed with regard to FLAIR and T1WI pre- and post-administration of Gd-DTPA. The CE FLAIR and CE T1WI were evaluated independently by two radiologists for the number of examinations with one or more enhanced lesions, the number and location of enhanced lesions per examination, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) of lesions, as well as the size and extent of the enhanced lesions. Results In 98 of 104 cases, enhanced lesions were seen both on the FLAIR and T1W images. More lesions were seen on CE T1WI (n=120) than those on CE FLAIR sequence (n=117), but no differences of statistical significance were found between the two sequences (P>0.05). Four lesions were revealed only on the CE FLAIR images whereas 7 lesions were only found on CE T1WI. Enhanced lesions located in the cerebral hemisphere or the forth ventricle were revealed much more on CE T1WI than on CE FLAIR images. However, CE FLAIR images may be useful in showing superficial abnormalities and those located in the sulcus or lateral ventricle. The CER and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on CE T1WI was significantly higher (t=7.10,P=0.00;t=9.67,P=0.00, respectively), but grey matter/white matter contrast was lower (t=2.46,P=0.02) than those on CE

  13. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

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    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

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    Varella, Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos; Santiago, Joselita Ferreira Carvalho; Carrete, Henrique; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira de; Canzian, Mauro; Amado, Débora; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2011-02-01

    We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  15. [Three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 3T MRI in sudden deafness: its findings and relationship with the prognosis].

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    Qian, Yin-feng; Wu, Ji-chun; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Yong-qiang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate inner ear of patients with sudden deafness with three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) MRI, and the relationship between the results of 3D FLAIR and the prognosis. Twenty-three patients with sudden deafness received 3D FLAIR at 3T MRI, and the signals of inner ear were recorded. Hearing levels were evaluated at initial visit and after treatment. The relationship between 3D FLAIR findings and hearing prognosis was evaluated. Eight patients with sudden deafness showed high signals in the affected cochlea on 3D FLAIR, the others of affected cochlea and all of contralateral cochlea showed no signal on 3D FLAIR. The age, sex, affected side, period to initial visit and initial audiogram had no difference between cochlea no signal group and high signal group. The average auditory threshold (x±s) in cochlea high signal group (90±21) dB HL was significant higher than that in cochlea no signal group (60±28) dB HL, Psudden deafness showed high signal in affected side vestibule on 3D FLAIR, and the hearing of whom had no change after treatment. 3D FLAIR can show high signal in affected inner ear in sudden deafness patients, and which is related to a poor hearing prognosis.

  16. Contrast-enhanced FLAIR in the early diagnosis of infectious meningitis

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    Splendiani, Alesssandra; Puglielli, Edoardo; Amicis, Rosanna De; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, L' Aquila (Italy); Necozione, Stefano [University of L' Aquila, Department of Statistic, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the accuracy of MRI in the early diagnosis of infectious meningitis with emphasis on the value of gadolinium-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Twenty-seven patients with clinical suspicion of infectious meningitis were included. MRI was performed within 3 h of clinical evaluation. For all patients, T1-weighted spin-echo, dual-echo T2-weighted fast-spin-echo and FLAIR sequences were performed, followed by gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo and FLAIR sequences. Final diagnosis was based on the clinical findings and the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, obtained by lumbar puncture after the MRI. Infectious meningitis was confirmed in 12 patients. In all of these patients of the plain studies, FLAIR was positive in only four patients. MRI gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR showed abnormal meningeal enhancement in all 12 patients, while gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo was positive only in six cases. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. It is concluded that MRI could have an important role in the early screening for infectious meningitis, provided a gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR sequence is used. (orig.)

  17. Automated Segmentation of Hyperintense Regions in FLAIR MRI Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Kline, Timothy L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2016-12-01

    We present a deep convolutional neural network application based on autoencoders aimed at segmentation of increased signal regions in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging images. The convolutional autoencoders were trained on the publicly available Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) data set, and the accuracy was evaluated on a data set where 3 expert segmentations were available. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to provide the ground truth for comparison, and Dice coefficient, Jaccard coefficient, true positive fraction, and false negative fraction were calculated. The proposed technique was within the interobserver variability with respect to Dice, Jaccard, and true positive fraction. The developed method can be used to produce automatic segmentations of tumor regions corresponding to signal-increased fluid-attenuated inversion recovery regions.

  18. Intracranial Hypertension as an Acute Complication of Aseptic Meningoencephalitis with Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement on FLAIR MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E. Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 19-year-old woman who developed intracranial hypertension as an unusual clinical complication of severe aseptic meningoencephalitis probably due to a diminished cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption capacity or leptomeningeal transudation as a consequence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. These severe inflammatory changes were accompanied by prominent leptomeningeal contrast enhancement best visualized on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging. In such a prolonged course, a continuous lumbar drainage might be a temporary option to provide rapid symptom relief to the patient.

  19. Quantification of traumatic meningeal injury using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Williford, Joshua P.; Cota, Martin R.; MacLaren, Judy M.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Latour, Lawrence L.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic meningeal injury is a novel imaging marker of traumatic brain injury, which appears as enhancement of the dura on post-contrast T2-weighted FLAIR images, and is likely associated with inflammation of the meninges. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI provides a better discrimination of abnormally perfused regions. A method to properly identify those regions is presented. Images of seventeen patients scanned within 96 hours of head injury with positive traumatic meningeal injury were normalized and aligned. The difference between the pre- and last post-contrast acquisitions was segmented and voxels in the higher class were spatially clustered. Spatial and morphological descriptors were used to identify the regions of enhancement: a) centroid; b) distance to the brain mask from external voxels; c) distance from internal voxels; d) size; e) shape. The method properly identified thirteen regions among all patients. The method failed in one case due to the presence of a large brain lesion that altered the mask boundaries. Most false detections were correctly rejected resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 92.9% and 93.6%, respectively.

  20. Hyperintense Acute Reperfusion Marker on FLAIR in Posterior Circulation Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of blood brain barrier injury in posterior circulation infarction as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR.From a MRI report database we identified patients with posterior circulation infarction who underwent MRI, including perfusion-weighted images (PWI, within 12 hours after onset and follow-up MRI within 24 hours and analyzed diffusion-weighted images (DWI, PWI, FLAIR, and MR angiography (MRA. On FLAIR images, the presence of HARM was noted by using pre-specified criteria (focal enhancement in the subarachnoid space and/or the ventricles.Overall 16 patients (median age of patients 68.5 (IQR 55.5-82.75 years with posterior circulation infarction were included. Of these, 13 (81.3% demonstrated PCA occlusion, and 3 (18.7% patients BA occlusion on MRA. Initial DWI demonstrated ischemic lesions in the thalamus (68.8%, splenium (18.8%, hippocampus (75%, occipital lobe (81.3%, mesencephalon (18.8%, pons (18.8%, and cerebellum (50%. On follow-up MRA recanalization was noted in 10 (62.5% patients. On follow-up FLAIR images, HARM was observed in 8 (50% patients. In all of these, HARM was detected remote from the acute ischemic lesion. HARM was more frequently observed in patients with vessel recanalization (p = 0.04, minor infarction growth (p = 0.01, and smaller ischemic lesions on follow-up DWI (p = 0.05.HARM is a frequent finding in posterior circulation infarction and associated with vessel recanalization, minor infarction growth as well as smaller infarction volumes in the course. Neuroradiologists should be cognizant of the fact that HARM may be present on short interval follow-up FLAIR images in patients with acute ischemic infarction who initially underwent MRI and received intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agents.

  1. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos Varella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10 were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE -MTS group (p<0.001, suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05 demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  2. 3D-Flair sequence at 3T in cochlear otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Francesco; De Cori, Sara; Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Montanaro, Domenico; De Marchi, Daniele; Frijia, Francesca; Canapicchi, Raffaello [Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Neuroradiology Unit, Pisa (Italy); Fortunato, Susanna; Forli, Francesca; Berrettini, Stefano [University of Pisa, ENT Audiology Phoniatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy); Chiappino, Dante [Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Department of Radiology, Massa (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the capability of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) sequences in detecting signal alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with otosclerosis. 3D-FLAIR before and after (-/+) gadolinium (Gd) administration was added to the standard MR protocol and acquired in 13 patients with a clinical/audiological diagnosis of severe/profound hearing loss in otosclerosis who were candidates for cochlear implantation and in 11 control subjects using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The MRI signal of the fluid-filled cochlea was assessed both visually and calculating the signal intensity ratio (SIR = signal intensity cochlea/brainstem). We revealed no endocochlear signal abnormalities on T1-weighted -/+ Gd images for either group, while on 3D-FLAIR we found bilateral hyperintensity with enhancement after Gd administration in eight patients and bilateral hyperintensity without enhancement in one patient. No endocochlear signal abnormalities were detected in other patients or the control group. Using 3-T MRI equipment, the 3D-FLAIR -/+ Gd sequence is able to detect the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) breakdown responsible for alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with cochlear otosclerosis. We believe that 3D-FLAIR +/- Gd is an excellent imaging modality to assess the intra-cochlear damage in otosclerosis patients. (orig.)

  3. MRI assessment of relapsed glioblastoma during treatment with bevacizumab: Volumetric measurement of enhanced and FLAIR lesions for evaluation of response and progression—A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, Josef, E-mail: josef.pichler@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pachinger, Corinna, E-mail: pachingercorinna@gmx.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pelz, Manuela, E-mail: mauela.pelz@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Kleiser, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.kleiser@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metric that is useful for therapy monitoring in patients with relapsed glioblastoma (GBM) during treatment with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). We evaluated the feasibility of tumour volume measurement with our software tool in clinical routine and tried to establish reproducible and quantitative parameters for surveillance of patients on treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. Materials and methods: In this retrospective institutional pilot study, 18 patients (11 men, 7 women; mean age 53.5) with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and irinotecan every two weeks as second line therapy. Follow up scans were assessed every two to four months. Data were collected on a 1.5 T MR System (Siemens, Symphony) with the standard head coil using our standardized tumour protocol. Volumetric measurement was performed with a commercial available software stroketool in FLAIR and T1-c imaging with following procedure: Pre-processing involved cutting noise and electing a Gaussian of 3 × 3 to smooth images, selecting a ROI (region of interest) in healthy brain area of the contra lateral side with quantifying the intensity value, adding 20% to this value to define the threshold level. Only values above this threshold are left corresponding to the tumour lesion. For the volumetric measurement the detected tumour area was circuited in all slices and finally summing up all values and multiplied by slice thickness to get the whole volume. Results: With McDonalds criteria progression was indicated in 14 out of 18 patients. In contrast, volumetric measurement showed an increase of contrast enhancement of >25%, defined as threshold for progression, in 11 patients (78%) and in 12 patients (85%) in FLAIR volume, respectively. 6 patients revealed that volumes in MRI increased earlier than the last scan, which was primarily defined as the date of progression with McDonald criteria, changing PFS after re-evaluation of

  4. Increased global and local efficiency of human brain anatomical networks detected with FLAIR-DTI compared to non-FLAIR-DTI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Li

    Full Text Available Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI, the only non-invasive technique for probing human brain white matter structures in vivo, has been widely used in both fundamental studies and clinical applications. Many studies have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography approaches to explore the topological properties of human brain anatomical networks by using the single tensor model, the basic model to quantify DTI indices and tractography. However, the conventional DTI technique does not take into account contamination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which has been known to affect the estimated DTI measures and tractography in the single tensor model. Previous studies have shown that the Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR technique can suppress the contribution of the CSF to the DW-MRI signal. We acquired DTI datasets from twenty-two subjects using both FLAIR-DTI and conventional DTI (non-FLAIR-DTI techniques, constructed brain anatomical networks using deterministic tractography, and compared the topological properties of the anatomical networks derived from the two types of DTI techniques. Although the brain anatomical networks derived from both types of DTI datasets showed small-world properties, we found that the brain anatomical networks derived from the FLAIR-DTI showed significantly increased global and local network efficiency compared with those derived from the conventional DTI. The increases in the network regional topological properties derived from the FLAIR-DTI technique were observed in CSF-filled regions, including the postcentral gyrus, periventricular regions, inferior frontal and temporal gyri, and regions in the visual cortex. Because brain anatomical networks derived from conventional DTI datasets with tractography have been widely used in many studies, our findings may have important implications for studying human brain anatomical networks derived from DW-MRI data and tractography.

  5. Comparison of 3D cube FLAIR with 2D FLAIR for multiple sclerosis imaging at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzig, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Fesl, G. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Burke, M. [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3 D) MRI sequences allow improved spatial resolution with good signal and contrast properties as well as multiplanar reconstruction. We sought to compare Cube, a 3 D FLAIR sequence, to a standard 2 D FLAIR sequence in multiple sclerosis (MS) imaging. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in the clinical routine on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. 12 patients with definite MS were included. Lesions with MS-typical properties on the images of Cube FLAIR and 2 D FLAIR sequences were counted and allocated to different brain regions. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Results: With 384 the overall number of lesions found with Cube FLAIR was significantly higher than with 2 D FLAIR (N = 221). The difference was mostly accounted for by supratentorial lesions (N = 372 vs. N = 216) while the infratentorial lesion counts were low in both sequences. SNRs and CNRs were significantly higher in CUBE FLAIR with the exception of the CNR of lesion to gray matter, which was not significantly different. Conclusion: Cube FLAIR showed a higher sensitivity for MS lesions compared to a 2 D FLAIR sequence. 3 D FLAIR might replace 2 D FLAIR sequences in MS imaging in the future. (orig.)

  6. MRI增强T1WI BRAVO与T2WI FLAIR CUBE诊断脑膜炎性病变的对比研究%Comparative study on contrast-enhanced T1WI BRAVO and T2WI FLAIR CUBE MRI in diagnosis of meningeal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆祝; 翟建; 陈远军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value and significance of simple applying MR contrast-enhanced T1 weighted imaging(brain volume, BRAVO)and T2WI FLAIR CUBE sequence or combined use of the two tech-niques to diagnosis of meningeal diseases .Methods:Fifty cases with menin-geal diseases undergone diagnosis in our hospital between Oct .2010 and May 2012 were included ,and another 35 healthy volunteers were recruited as con-trols.The total subjects were alternatively subjected to scanning with contrast-enhanced T1WI BRAVO and T2WI FLAIR CUBE sequence by turn for exam-ining the image properties of meningeal lesions at different sequence .The sensitivity and specificity were compared regarding the single application and combined use of the two techniques to diagnosis of the meningeal disease . Results:Of the 50 cases,21 were revealed as viral meningoencephalitis ,16 as tuberculous meningitis and 13 as suppurative meningitis .Enhanced T2WI FLAIR CUBE sequence was superior to T 1WI BRAVO sequence in detecting viral meningitis and suppruative meningitis ,yet reversely in diagnosis of tu-berculous meningitis.Either enhanced T2WI FLAIR CUBE,T1WIBRAVO or plain T2 WI FLAIR showed no difference in detecting the suppurative menin-gitis.The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 54.00%,64.00% and 85.70%and 88.60%for meningeal lesions by single enhanced T 1WI BRA-VO and T2WI FLAIR CUBE sequence ,whereas combined use of the two had boosted the sensitivity and specificity to 78.00% and 80.00%,respectively. Conclusion:Each single contrast-enhanced sequence has its strong point in detecting the meningeal lesions , yet combined use the two enhanced se-quences described above can greatly improve the detection rate and sensitivity of MRI for such entity .%  目的:评价MRI增强T1WI BRAVO(T1WI FLAIR容积扫描)、增强T2WI FLAIR CUBE(T2WI FLAIR容积扫描)两种扫描序列及其联合应用在脑膜炎性病变诊断中的意义及临床应用

  7. FLAIR lesion segmentation: Application in patients with brain tumors and acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: ornaaize@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jonas-Kimchi, Tali, E-mail: talijk@tlvmc.gov.il [Radiology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Myers, Vicki, E-mail: vicki_myers@hotmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hallevi, Hen, E-mail: hen.hallevi@gmail.com [Neurology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    Background: Lesion size in fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is an important clinical parameter for patient assessment and follow-up. Although manual delineation of lesion areas considered as ground truth, it is time-consuming, highly user-dependent and difficult to perform in areas of indistinct borders. In this study, an automatic methodology for FLAIR lesion segmentation is proposed, and its application in patients with brain tumors undergoing therapy; and in patients following stroke is demonstrated. Materials and methods: FLAIR lesion segmentation was performed in 57 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets obtained from 44 patients: 28 patients with primary brain tumors; 5 patients with recurrent-progressive glioblastoma (rGB) who were scanned longitudinally during anti-angiogenic therapy (18 MRI scans); and 11 patients following ischemic stroke. Results: FLAIR lesion segmentation was obtained in all patients. When compared to manual delineation, a high visual similarity was observed, with an absolute relative volume difference of 16.80% and 20.96% and a volumetric overlap error of 24.87% and 27.50% obtained for two raters: accepted values for automatic methods. Quantitative measurements of the segmented lesion volumes were in line with qualitative radiological assessment in four patients who received anti-anogiogenic drugs. In stroke patients the proposed methodology enabled identification of the ischemic lesion and differentiation from other FLAIR hyperintense areas, such as pre-existing disease. Conclusion: This study proposed a replicable methodology for FLAIR lesion detection and quantification and for discrimination between lesion of interest and pre-existing disease. Results from this study show the wide clinical applications of this methodology in research and clinical practice.

  8. Usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images in optic neurits : Comparison with fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Yeon; Son, Seok Hyun; Eun, Choong Ki; Han, Sang Suk [Inje Univ., College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare the usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery-fluid attenuated inversion recovery(SPIR-FLAIR) images in the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve in optic neuritis with that of fat-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery(SPIR) or short inversion time inversion recovery(STIR) images. Two radiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 16 lesions in 14 patients (M:F=7:7; mean age, 40 years) in whom optic neuritis had been clinically diagnosed. All subjects underwent both SPIR-FLAIR and fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to evaluate the optic nerve, coronal images perpendicular to its long axis were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve, the radiologists preferred imaging sequences, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. 'High signal intensity' was defined as the subjective visual evaluation of increased signal intensity compared with that of the contralateral optic nerve or that of white matter. The mean detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve was 90% for combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images, and 59% for fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In all cases in which the signal intensity observed on SPIR-FLAIR images was normal, that on fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of SPIR-FLAIR to those of fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In the diagnosis of optic neuritis using MRI, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images were more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve than fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. For the evaluation of optic neuritis, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR imaging is superior to fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging.

  9. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  10. Anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) as an indicator of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison of double inversion recovery, FLAIR and T2W MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Emiko; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mori, Nobuyuki [Tenri Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tenri, Nara (Japan); Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kyoto (Japan); Mikuni, Nobuhiro [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kunieda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Susumu [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Paul, Dominik [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the diagnostic capability of anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) for determining seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by comparing different MR sequences. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Three 3D sequences (double inversion recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)) and two 2D sequences (FLAIR and T2WI) were acquired at 3 T. Signal changes in the anterior temporal white matter of 21 normal volunteers were evaluated. ATLAS laterality was evaluated in 21 TLE patients. Agreement of independent evaluations by two neuroradiologists was assessed using {kappa} statistics. Differences in concordance between ATLAS laterality and clinically defined seizure focus laterality were analysed using McNemar's test with multiple comparisons. Pre-amygdala high signals (PAHS) were detected in all volunteers only on 3D-DIR. Inter-evaluator agreement was moderate to almost perfect for each sequence. Correct diagnosis of seizure laterality was significantly more frequent on 3D-DIR than on any other sequences (P {<=} 0.031 for each evaluator). The most sensitive sequence for detecting ATLAS laterality was 3D-DIR. ATLAS laterality on 3D-DIR can be a good indicator for determining seizure focus localization in TLE. (orig.)

  11. Anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) as an indicator of seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison of double inversion recovery, FLAIR and T2W MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Emiko; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Mori, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Paul, Dominik; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic capability of anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) for determining seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by comparing different MR sequences. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Three 3D sequences (double inversion recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)) and two 2D sequences (FLAIR and T2WI) were acquired at 3 T. Signal changes in the anterior temporal white matter of 21 normal volunteers were evaluated. ATLAS laterality was evaluated in 21 TLE patients. Agreement of independent evaluations by two neuroradiologists was assessed using κ statistics. Differences in concordance between ATLAS laterality and clinically defined seizure focus laterality were analysed using McNemar's test with multiple comparisons. Pre-amygdala high signals (PAHS) were detected in all volunteers only on 3D-DIR. Inter-evaluator agreement was moderate to almost perfect for each sequence. Correct diagnosis of seizure laterality was significantly more frequent on 3D-DIR than on any other sequences (P ≤ 0.031 for each evaluator). The most sensitive sequence for detecting ATLAS laterality was 3D-DIR. ATLAS laterality on 3D-DIR can be a good indicator for determining seizure focus localization in TLE.

  12. Blood-Labyrinth Barrier Permeability in Menière Disease and Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Findings on Delayed Postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdaman, M N; Ishiyama, G; Ishiyama, A; Peng, K A; Kim, H J; Pope, W B; Sepahdari, A R

    2016-06-02

    Menière disease and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss can have overlapping clinical presentation and may have similar pathophysiology. Prior studies using postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MR imaging suggest abnormal blood-labyrinth barrier permeability in both conditions, but the 2 diseases have not been directly compared by using the same imaging techniques. We hypothesized that delayed postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MR imaging would show differences in blood-labyrinth barrier permeability between Menière disease and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with unilateral Menière disease (n = 32) and unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (n = 11) imaged with delayed postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MR imaging were retrospectively studied. Signal intensities of the medulla and perilymph of the cochlear basal turns of both ears in each patient were measured in a blinded fashion. Cochlea/medulla ratios were calculated for each ear as a surrogate for blood-labyrinth barrier permeability. The ears were segregated by clinical diagnosis. Cochlea/medulla ratio was higher in symptomatic ears of patients with Menière disease (12.6 ± 7.4) than in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (5.7 ± 2.0) and asymptomatic ears of patients with Menière disease (8.0 ± 3.1), indicating increased blood-labyrinth barrier permeability in Menière disease ears. The differences in cochlea/medulla ratio between symptomatic and asymptomatic ears were significantly higher in Menière disease than in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Asymptomatic ears in patients with Menière disease showed higher cochlea/medulla ratio than symptomatic and asymptomatic ears in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Increased cochlea/medulla ratio indicates increased blood-labyrinth barrier permeability in Menière disease compared with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Increased cochlea/medulla ratio in asymptomatic ears of

  13. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  14. Functional MRI of Language Processing and Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Méndez Orellana (Carolina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ My thesis describe the utility of implementing fMRI to investigate how the language system is reorganized in brain damaged patients. Specifically for aphasia research fMRI allows to show how specific language treatment methods have the potential to enhance language

  15. The application of low field MRI FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy%低场磁共振FLAIR序列在皮层下动脉硬化性脑病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉明; 王超; 韩明; 邵宝富

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨低场强磁共振成像(MRI)液体衰减反转恢复(FLAIR)序列在皮层下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)影像诊断中的应用价值.方法 对65例SAE进行常规快速自旋回波(FSE)序列T2WI和FLAIR序列扫描,分析SAE在FSE及FLAIR序列中的影像表现,比较2种成像序列对SAE病变的显示效果,应用x2检验比较常规FSE序列T2WI及FLAIR序列图像中SAE病灶显示满意度和分级诊断的变化.结果 SAE MRI表现为侧脑室前后角、体部周围、放射冠、半卵圆中心边缘模糊片状稍长T1、长T2异常信号,FLAIR序列病灶表现为高信号.FLAIR序列成像比FSE序列T2WI对SAE病灶显示满意(P<0.05),但对病变的分级诊断无明显差异(p>0.05).结论 低场强条件下采用FLAIR序列诊断SAE,其效果比常规FSE序列优越,FLAIR序列可以作为一个常规序列以减少漏诊.

  16. Upfront boost Gamma Knife "leading-edge" radiosurgery to FLAIR MRI-defined tumor migration pathways in 174 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: a 15-year assessment of a novel therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Christopher M; Kim, Brian S; Chen, Peter V; Plunkett, Marianne E; Mackintosh, Ralph; Mathews, Marlon S; Casserly, Ryan M; Mendez, Gustavo A; Furman, Daniel J; Smith, Garrett; Oh, Nathan; Caraway, Chad A; Sanathara, Ami R; Dillman, Robert O; Riley, Azzurra-Sky; Weiland, David; Stemler, Lian; Cannell, Ruslana; Abrams, Daniela Alexandru; Smith, Alexa; Owen, Christopher M; Eisenberg, Burton; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is composed of cells that migrate through the brain along predictable white matter pathways. Targeting white matter pathways adjacent to, and leading away from, the original contrast-enhancing tumor site (termed leading-edge radiosurgery [LERS]) with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a boost to standard therapy could limit the spread of glioma cells and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS Between December 2000 and May 2016, after an initial diagnosis of GBM and prior to or during standard radiation therapy and carmustine or temozolomide chemotherapy, 174 patients treated with radiosurgery to the leading edge (LE) of tumor cell migration were reviewed. The LE was defined as a region outside the contrast-enhancing tumor nidus, defined by FLAIR MRI. The median age of patients was 59 years (range 22-87 years). Patients underwent LERS a median of 18 days from original diagnosis. The median target volume of 48.5 cm(3) (range 2.5-220.0 cm(3)) of LE tissue was targeted using a median dose of 8 Gy (range 6-14 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. RESULTS The median overall survival was 23 months (mean 43 months) from diagnosis. The 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year actual overall survival rates after LERS were 39%, 26%, 16%, 10%, and 4%, respectively. Nine percent of patients developed treatment-related imaging-documented changes due to LERS. Nineteen percent of patients were hospitalized for management of edema, 22% for resection of a tumor cyst or new tumor bulk, and 2% for shunting to treat hydrocephalus throughout the course of their disease. Of the patients still alive, Karnofsky Performance Scale scores remained stable in 90% of patients and decreased by 1-3 grades in 10% due to symptomatic treatment-related imaging changes. CONCLUSIONS LERS is a safe and effective upfront adjunctive therapy for patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Limitations of this study include a single-center experience and single-institution determination of the

  17. Contrast-enhanced flair imaging in the evaluation of infectious leptomeningeal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore) and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: parurad@hotmail.com; Sitoh, Y.-Y. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Anand, Pooja [Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng (Singapore); Chua, Violet [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Hui, Francis [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore)

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images with contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images for infectious leptomeningitis. Materials and methods: We studied twenty-four patients with a clinical suspicion of infectious meningitis with unenhanced FLAIR, contrast-enhanced T1 weighted and contrast-enhanced FLAIR MR sequences. Twelve patients had cytologic and biochemical diagnosis of meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination obtained 48 h before or after the MR study. Sequences were considered positive if abnormal signal was seen in the subarachnoid space (cistern or sulci) or along pial surface. Results: Twenty-seven examinations in 24 patients were performed. Of the 12 patients (thirteen studies) in whom cytology was positive, unenhanced FLAIR images were positive in six cases (sensitivity 46%), contrast-enhanced FLAIR images were positive in 11 (sensitivity 85%), and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MR images were positive in 11 patients (sensitivity 85%). Of the 12 patients (14 studies) in whom cerebrospinal fluid study was negative, unenhanced FLAIR images were negative in 13, contrast-enhanced FLAIR images were negative in 11, and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MR images were negative in eight. Thus, the specificity of unenhanced FLAIR, contrast-enhanced FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images was 93, 79 and 57%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that post-contrast FLAIR images have similar sensitivity but a higher specificity compared to contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images for detection of leptomeningeal enhancement. It can be a useful adjunct to post-contrast T1 weighted images in evaluation of infectious leptomeningitis.

  18. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study; Anormalidade de sinal na imagem por RM do polo temporal na epilepsia do lobo temporal com esclerose hipocampal: um estudo pela sequencia inversao recuperacao com supressao da agua livre (FLAIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrete Junior, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Americo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Marcia Targas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, {chi}{sup 2} test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)

  19. Automated segmentation of MS lesions in FLAIR, DIR and T2-w MR images via an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason E.; Matlock, Kevin; Pal, Ranadip; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a vital tool in the diagnosis and characterization of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions can be imaged with relatively high contrast using either Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) or Double Inversion Recovery (DIR). Automated segmentation and accurate tracking of MS lesions from MRI remains a challenging problem. Here, an information theoretic approach to cluster the voxels in pseudo-colorized multispectral MR data (FLAIR, DIR, T2-weighted) is utilized to automatically segment MS lesions of various sizes and noise levels. The Improved Jump Method (IJM) clustering, assisted by edge suppression, is applied to the segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MS lesions, if present, into a subset of slices determined to be the best MS lesion candidates via Otsu's method. From this preliminary clustering, the modal data values for the tissues can be determined. A Euclidean distance is then used to estimate the fuzzy memberships of each brain voxel for all tissue types and their 50/50 partial volumes. From these estimates, binary discrete and fuzzy MS lesion masks are constructed. Validation is provided by using three synthetic MS lesions brains (mild, moderate and severe) with labeled ground truths. The MS lesions of mild, moderate and severe designations were detected with a sensitivity of 83.2%, and 88.5%, and 94.5%, and with the corresponding Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.7098, 0.8739, and 0.8266, respectively. The effect of MRI noise is also examined by simulated noise and the application of a bilateral filter in preprocessing.

  20. Fast Reference-Based MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Weizman, Lior; Ben-Basaht, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In some cases, a previously acquired image can serve as a reference image, that may exhibit similarity to the image being acquired. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient. In this paper we present a general framework for utilizing reference images for fast MRI. We take into account that the reference image may exhibit low similarity with the acquired image and develop an iterative weighted approach for reconstruction, which tunes the weights according to the degree of similarity. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the method in three different clinical MRI scenarios: SNR improvement in high resolution brain MRI, utilizing similarity between T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)...

  1. 突发性聋患者内耳三维液体衰减反转恢复成像在预后评估中的价值%Three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 3T MRI in sudden deafness: its findings and relationship with the prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱银锋; 吴继春; 张诚; 余永强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨突发性聋患者内耳在三维液体衰减反转恢复(fluid attenuated inversion recovery,FLAIR)成像上的表现及其与疗效间关系.方法 23例突发性聋患者行三维FLAIR成像,观察内耳在FLAIR上的表现,并测定入院和治疗后的平均听阈,分析内耳信号与治疗结果之间关系.结果23例患者中8例患侧耳蜗在FLAIR上呈高信号,15例患侧及全部健侧耳蜗无信号.就诊时患侧耳蜗无信号组患者平均((x)±s,下同)听阈(听力级,下同)为(80±24) dB,耳蜗高信号组平均听阈为(92±18)dB,差异无统计学意义(t=1.245,P>0.05);治疗后两组的平均听阈分别为(60±28)dB和(90±21)dB,有效率分别为60.0%和12.5%,差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).7例伴有眩晕患者中5例患侧半规管在FLAIR上呈高信号,此5例均治疗无效.结论三维FLAIR可显示突发性聋患者内耳淋巴液改变,呈高信号时疗效及预后差.%Objective To investigate inner ear of patients with sudden deafness with threedimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery(3 D FLAIR) MRI,and the relationship between the results of 3D FLAIR and the prognosis.Methods Twenty-three patients with sudden deafness received 3D FLAIR at 3T MRI,and the signals of inner ear were recorded.Hearing levels were evaluated at initial visit and after treatment.The relationship between 3D FLAIR findings and hearing prognosis was evaluated.Results Eight patients with sudden deafness showed high signals in the affected cochlea on 3D FLAIR,the others of affected cochlea and all of contralateral cochlea showed no signal on 3D FLAIR.The age,sex,affected side,period to initial visit and initial audiogram had no difference between cochlea no signal group and high signal group.The average auditory threshold (~ ± s) in cochlea high signal group (90 ± 21 ) dB HL was significant higher than that in cochlea no signal group (60 ±28) dB HL,P <0.05 at patients' discharge.After treatment,in cochlea no

  2. Hyperintense ipsilateral cortical sulci on FLAIR imaging in carotid stenosis: ivy sign equivalent from enlarged leptomeningeal collaterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mukundan, Govind; Shahi, Kavian; Chan, Hung; Tajlil, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging provides high contrast between hyperintense lesions and normal tissue. Hyperintense structures in convexity sulci are commonly linked to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid composition, whether blood, protein, or infection. A patient with hemispheric transient ischemic attacks from severe carotid stenosis had hyperintense convexity sulci on FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging, interpreted as possible prior hemorrhage, making the patient ineligible for carotid stent reconstruction. Retrospective analysis revealed that hyperintense sulci were dilated leptomeningeal collaterals. In severe arterial disease causing cerebral hypoperfusion, dilated leptomeningeal vessels should be considered a cause for serpiginous hyperintense structures on FLAIR imaging, similar to the "ivy sign" described in moya-moya patients.

  3. Paediatric PNET: pre-surgical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Emmanuel, J.V. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Seow, W.T. [Department of Neurosurgery, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Lou, J. [Pediatric Medicine, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Teo, H.E. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Lim, C.C.T. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore) and Diagnostic Radiology, Yong Loo Lin Medical School, National University of Singapore (Singapore)]. E-mail: tchoyoson_lim@nni.com.sg

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To describe the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), in particular the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumour dissemination. Material and methods: Twelve patients with PNETs were reviewed: nine with medulloblastoma and three with supratentorial PNETs (SPNETs). The MRI examination included contrast-enhanced intracranial and spinal MRI, and in some patients, gradient recalled echo, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI, and MRS. Results: All PNETs were either hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted images. Ten of the 12 tumours were either isointense or hypointense on T2-weighted images, and 11 were isointense on FLAIR images. Patients with SPNETs had large, vascular and haemorrhagic tumours. On DWI, all PNETs were hyperintense and had restricted apparent diffusion coefficient. MRS (two patients with medulloblastoma and one with a SPNET), showed elevated choline, decreased N-acetyl aspartate, and a small taurine peak in all three patients. Intraspinal tumour dissemination, visible as uniform or nodular enhancement coating the conus medullaris, was detected in six of 12 patients, two of whom also had intracranial dissemination. Conclusion: PNETs have a characteristic imaging appearance on FLAIR, DWI and MRS, which may help in differentiating these highly cellular neoplasms from other tumours. There is CSF tumour dissemination in a high proportion of patients, and spinal imaging is important for disease staging and to formulate treatment protocols.

  4. MRI texture heterogeneity in the optic nerve predicts visual recovery after acute optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Tissue heterogeneity may be a potential measure of functional outcome in ON patients and advanced analysis of the texture in standard MRI could provide insights into mechanisms of injury and recovery in patients with similar disorders.

  5. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study Anormalidade de sinal na imagem por RM do pólo temporal na epilepsia do lobo temporal com esclerose hipocampal: um estudo pela seqüência inversão recuperação com supressão da água livre (FLAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Carrete Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. METHOD: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. RESULTS: Ninety (75% of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, chi2 test. The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30% out of 90 patients. In 63 (70% patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018, but without association with duration of epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved.OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência e o envolvimento regional da anormalidade de sinal do pólo temporal (APT em pacientes com esclerose hipocampal (EH utilizando seqüência inversão recuperação com supressão da água (FLAIR por RM, e correlacioná-la com a história. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas as imagens coronais FLAIR dos pólos temporais de 120 pacientes com EH e de 30 indivíduos normais, para avaliar a demarcação entre substâncias branca e cinzenta. RESULTADOS: Noventa (75% dos 120 pacientes tinham APT associada. Houve prevalência do lado esquerdo (p=0.04, chi2 teste na relação entre APT e o lado da EH. A zona ântero-medial estava acometida em 27 (30% destes pacientes. Em 63 (70% pacientes também a zona lateral estava acometida. Pacientes com APT apresentaram início da epilepsia quando mais jovens (p=0.018, porém sem associação com a sua duração. CONCLUSÃO: A seqüência FLAIR mostra haver ATP em 3/4 dos pacientes com EH

  6. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm{sup 2} were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of T2 and FLAIR imaging for target delineation in high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FLAIR and T2 weighted MRIs are used based on institutional preference to delineate high grade gliomas and surrounding edema for radiation treatment planning. Although these sequences have inherent physical differences there is limited data on the clinical and dosimetric impact of using either or both sequences. Methods 40 patients with high grade gliomas consecutively treated between 2002 and 2008 of which 32 had pretreatment MRIs with T1, T2 and FLAIR available for review were selected for this study. These MRIs were fused with the treatment planning CT. Normal structures, clinical tumor volume (CTV and planning tumor volume (PTV were then defined on the T2 and FLAIR sequences. A Venn diagram analysis was performed for each pair of tumor volumes as well as a fractional component analysis to assess the contribution of each sequence to the union volume. For each patient the tumor volumes were compared in terms of total volume in cubic centimeters as well as anatomic location using a discordance index. The overlap of the tumor volumes with critical structures was calculated as a measure of predicted toxicity. For patients with MRI documented failures, the tumor volumes obtained using the different sequences were compared with the recurrent gross tumor volume (rGTV. Results The FLAIR CTVs and PTVs were significantly larger than the T2 CTVs and PTVs (p Conclusions Although both T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences are used to define high grade glial neoplasm and surrounding edema, our results show that the volumes generated using these techniques are different and not interchangeable. These differences have bearing on the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and highly conformal treatment as well as on future clinical trials where the bias of using one technique over the other may influence the study outcome.

  8. Fast implementation for compressive recovery of highly accelerated cardiac cine MRI using the balanced sparse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Samuel T; Ahmad, Rizwan; Jin, Ning; Craft, Jason; Serafim da Silveira, Juliana; Xue, Hui; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2017-04-01

    Sparsity-promoting regularizers can enable stable recovery of highly undersampled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), promising to improve the clinical utility of challenging applications. However, lengthy computation time limits the clinical use of these methods, especially for dynamic MRI with its large corpus of spatiotemporal data. Here, we present a holistic framework that utilizes the balanced sparse model for compressive sensing and parallel computing to reduce the computation time of cardiac MRI recovery methods. We propose a fast, iterative soft-thresholding method to solve the resulting ℓ1-regularized least squares problem. In addition, our approach utilizes a parallel computing environment that is fully integrated with the MRI acquisition software. The methodology is applied to two formulations of the multichannel MRI problem: image-based recovery and k-space-based recovery. Using measured MRI data, we show that, for a 224 × 144 image series with 48 frames, the proposed k-space-based approach achieves a mean reconstruction time of 2.35 min, a 24-fold improvement compared a reconstruction time of 55.5 min for the nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and the proposed image-based approach achieves a mean reconstruction time of 13.8 s. Our approach can be utilized to achieve fast reconstruction of large MRI datasets, thereby increasing the clinical utility of reconstruction techniques based on compressed sensing. Magn Reson Med 77:1505-1515, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Usefulness of contrast enhanced FLAIR imaging for predicting the severity of meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Gukmyoung; Lee, Mu Suk; Ko, Su Yeon; Hwang, Im-Kyung

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether contrast enhanced fluid attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR) imaging can be used to predict the severity of meningitis based on leptomeningeal enhancement (LE) score and cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity (CSF-SI) on CE-FLAIR. We retrospectively analyzed data collected from 43 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital due to meningitis. Clinical factors including initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, CSF glucose ratio, log CSF protein, log CSF WBC, and prognosis were evaluated. The LE score was semi-quantitatively scored, and we evaluated CSF-SI ratio at the interpeduncular or quadrigerminal cisterns on CE-FLAIR. We evaluated the differences in clinical variables, LE scores and CSF-SI ratios between the recovery and the complication group. We assessed the correlation between clinical variables, LE scores and CSF-SI ratios. The values of log CSF protein, CSF-SI ratio, and LE score were significantly higher in the complication group (p value meningitis by using LE scores and CSF-SI ration on CE-FLAIR imaging.

  10. Conventional and Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Evaluation of Methanol Poisoning. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, A.; Nakstad, P.Hj.; Dullerud, R.; Haakonsen, M. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Hovda, K.E.; Jacobsen, D. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Medicine

    2003-11-01

    Cerebral lesions were studied in 2 methanol-poisoned patients using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1 patient, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) was also performed. In this patient, conventional MRI showed symmetrical, bilateral increased signal in the lentiform nuclei, involving predominantly putamina, but also extending into the corona radiata, centrum semiovale and subcortical white matter. DWI showed decreased diffusion, which most probably reflects cytotoxic edema. In the other patient, fluid attenuated-inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted images showed hyperintensity in the putamina, characteristic of post-necrotic changes.

  11. Automatic iterative segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases in FLAIR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo G L; Ferrari, Ricardo J

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS) and affects more than 2 million people worldwide. The segmentation of MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very important task to assess how a patient is responding to treatment and how the disease is progressing. Computational approaches have been proposed over the years to segment MS lesions and reduce the amount of time spent on manual delineation and inter- and intra-rater variability and bias. However, fully-automatic segmentation of MS lesions still remains an open problem. In this work, we propose an iterative approach using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases to automatically segment MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images. Our technique resembles a refinement approach by iteratively segmenting brain tissues into smaller classes until MS lesions are grouped as the most hyperintense one. To validate our technique we used 21 clinical images from the 2015 Longitudinal Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation Challenge dataset. Evaluation using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), True Positive Ratio (TPR), False Positive Ratio (FPR), Volume Difference (VD) and Pearson's r coefficient shows that our technique has a good spatial and volumetric agreement with raters' manual delineations. Also, a comparison between our proposal and the state-of-the-art shows that our technique is comparable and, in some cases, better than some approaches, thus being a viable alternative for automatic MS lesion segmentation in MRI.

  12. Feasibility of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging as a prognostic factor in patients with sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Jung, Su Young; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun; Lee, So Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of high signal on three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D FLAIR MRI) as one of the prognostic factors in recovery of sudden idiopathic hearing loss. A retrospective study was conducted using patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden idiopathic hearing loss from January 2008 to December 2010. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in for this study. High-intensity signal in the inner ear on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI was observed in 31 patients (25.8%; FHS) and labyrinthine enhancement was not observed in another 89 patients (FNS; 74.2%). There was no significant difference in patients' characteristics between two groups except final hearing. Final puretone average of the FHS group was 49.4 dB, significantly worse than FNS group's 36.7 dB (p = 0.037 hearing was related to initial hearing, accompanying dizziness, and abnormal auditory brainstem response result by multiple regression analysis. However, presence of high-intensity signal on precontrast 3D FLAIR MRI did not affect final hearing significantly. Significant difference due to the presence of dizziness in final hearing was observed in whole patients and in the FHS group, whereas no significant difference in final hearing was observed in FNS group. (p = 0.063 > 0.05). From these findings, the presence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI is a subfactor related to dizziness rather than a single poor prognostic factor and the absence of high-intensity signal on 3D FLAIR MRI can possibly imply relative good prognosis.

  13. Flair MR imaging in the Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage : comparison with CT and T1-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Youn; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Oh, Tae Kyung; Kim, Ho Kyun [College of Medicine, Jnje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To compare the findings of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging in the detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with those of precontrast CT and T1-weighted MR imaging. In 13 patients (14 cases) with SAH, FLAIR MR images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT (10 patients, 11 cases) and T1-weighted MR images (9 cases). SAH was confirmed on the basis of high density along the subarachnoid space, as seen on precontrast CT, or lumbar puncture. MR imaging was performed on a 1.0T unit. FLAIR MR and CT images were obtained during the acute stage(less than 3 days after ictus) in 10 and 9 cases, respectively, during the subacute stage (4-14 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively, and during the chronic stage (more than 15 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively. CT was performed before FLAIR MR imaging, and the interval between CT and FLAIR ranged from 24 hours (6 cases) to 2-3 (2 cases) or 4-7 days (3 cases). In each study, the conspicuity of visualization of SAH was graded as excellent, good, fair, or negative at five locations (sylvian fissure, cortical sulci, anterior basal cistern, posterior basal cistern, and perimesencephalic cistern). In all cases, subarachnoid hemorrhages were demonstrated as high signal intensity areas on FLAIR images. The detection rates for SAH on CT and T1-weighted MR images were 100% (11/11) and 89% (8/9), respectively. FLAIR was superior to T1-weighted imaging in the detection of SAH at all sites except the anterior basal cistern (p less than 0.05) and superior to CT in the detection of SAH at the cortical sulci (p less than 0.05). On FLAIR MR images, subarachnoid hemorrhages at all stages are demonstrated as high signal intensity areas; the FLAIR MR sequence is thus considered useful in the detection of SAH. In particular FLAIR is more sensitive than CT for the detection of SAH in the cortical sulci. (author)

  14. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Signal intensity of ipsilateral labyrinthine lymph fluid has been reported to increase in most cases with vestibular schwannoma (VS) on 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The purpose of this study was twofold, (1) to evaluate if endolymphatic space can be recognized in the patients with VS on non-contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR images and (2) to know if the vertigo in the patients with VS correlates to vestibular endolymphatic hydrops. From the introduction of 32-channel head coil at 3 T in May 2008 to June 2010, 15 cases with unilateral VS were identified in the radiology report database. The two cases without a significant signal increase on 3D FLAIR were excluded. Resting 13 cases were retrospectively analyzed in regard to the recognition of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule and to the correlation between the patients' symptoms and endolymphatic hydrops. In all cases, vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Cochlear endolymphatic space can be identified only in one case with significant hydrops. Vestibular hydrops was identified in four cases. Among these four cases, three had vertigo, and one had no vertigo. In those nine cases without hydrops, two had vertigo, and seven did not have vertigo. No significant correlation between vertigo and vestibular hydrops was found. Vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. In some patients with VS, vestibular hydrops is seen; however, endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule might not be the only responsible cause of vertigo in the patients with VS. (orig.)

  15. Recovery of directed intracortical connectivity from fMRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Matthieu; Ritter, Petra; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    The brain exhibits complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. In particular, its baseline activity at rest has a specific structure: imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI, EEG and MEG) show that cortical areas experience correlated fluctuations, which is referred to as functional connectivity (FC). The present study relies on our recently developed model in which intracortical white-matter connections shape noise-driven fluctuations to reproduce FC observed in experimental data (here fMRI BOLD signal). Here noise has a functional role and represents the variability of neural activity. The model also incorporates anatomical information obtained using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which estimates the density of white-matter fibers (structural connectivity, SC). After optimization to match empirical FC, the model provides an estimation of the efficacies of these fibers, which we call effective connectivity (EC). EC differs from SC, as EC not only accounts for the density of neural fibers, but also the concentration of synapses formed at their end, the type of neurotransmitters associated and the excitability of target neural populations. In summary, the model combines anatomical SC and activity FC to evaluate what drives the neural dynamics, embodied in EC. EC can then be analyzed using graph theory to understand how it generates FC and to seek for functional communities among cortical areas (parcellation of 68 areas). We find that intracortical connections are not symmetric, which affects the dynamic range of cortical activity (i.e., variety of states it can exhibit).

  16. Increase in FLAIR Signal of the Fluid Within the Resection Cavity as Early Recurrence Marker: Also Valid for Brain Metastases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bette, Stefanie; Gempt, Jens; Wiestler, Benedikt; Huber, Thomas; Specht, Hanno; Meyer, Bernhard; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Increase in FLAIR signal of the fluid within the resection cavity is described as a highly specific and early sign for tumor recurrence in gliomas. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of FLAIR signal increase in partially or completely resected brain metastases. Materials and Methods 209 cases of surgery for brain metastases were assessed. 41 cases with at least two follow-up MRIs were retrospectively included in this study. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the FLAIR signal intensity of the fluid within the resection cavity was performed in the MRI examination at recurrent disease/last contact and in the previous MRI examination. Results 3 of 6 cases with local tumor recurrence showed a FLAIR signal increase (sensitivity 50.0 %, specificity 100.0 %). In one case, this sign was observed even about 3 months before tumor recurrence. The specificity of FLAIR signal increase for overall tumor recurrence (local and distant) was also 100.0 %, but with a lower sensitivity of 13.0 %. Quantitative analysis showed significant differences for signal intensity of the resection cavity as well as for the change of signal intensity of the resection cavity in cases with or without local tumor recurrence. Conclusion An increase in FLAIR signal of the fluid within the resection cavity might be a highly specific and early sign of local tumor recurrence/tumor progression also for brain metastases. Key points: · An increase in FLAIR signal intensity of the fluid within the resection cavity is also observed in previously resected brain metastases.. · The pathophysiology of this sign might be due to a cell-proliferative process.. Citation Format · Bette S, Gempt J, Wiestler B et al. Increase of the FLAIR Signal of the Fluid within the Resection Cavity as Early Recurrence Marker: Also Valid for Brain Metastases?. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 63 - 70. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Protoneus-sequence: extended fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging without and with contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasel, Christian [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.nasel@perfusion.at

    2005-08-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (=flair imaging) is widely used as primary screening sequence in various investigation protocols, due to its high lesion contrast and sensitivity in detection of parenchymatous and leptomeningeal disease. An additional increase of sensitivity for detection of lesions may be achieved by contrast-enhanced flair imaging. Based on flair imaging a dual-echo inversion recovery imaging sequence (=proton echo usage [=protoneus] - sequence) was developed, which could significantly extend the possibilities of conventional flair imaging.

  18. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with the number of T2 MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comini-Frota, E.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, D.H. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Miranda, E.C. [Ecoar Diagnostic Center, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brum, D.G. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Kaimen-Maciel, D.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Donadi, E.A. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, A.L. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-11-23

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38), 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5) of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5) and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33), 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640]) compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test) and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02) with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42). We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS.

  19. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophicfactor correlate with the number of T2 MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Comini-Frota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38, 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5 of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5 and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33, 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640] compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02 with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42. We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS.

  20. Visual recovery after perinatal stroke evidenced by functional and diffusion MRI: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudan-Frei Sonja

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After perinatal brain injury, clinico-anatomic correlations of functional deficits and brain plasticity remain difficult to evaluate clinically in the young infant. Thus, new non-invasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed in young infants. Case Presentation The visual system recovery in an infant with perinatal stroke is assessed by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI. All experiments were done at 1.5T. A first DTI experiment was performed at 12 months of age. At 20 months of age, a second DTI experiment was performed and combined with an ER-fMRI experiment with visual stimuli (2 Hz visual flash. At 20 months of age, ER-fMRI showed significant negative activation in the visual cortex of the injured left hemisphere that was not previously observed in the same infant. DTI maps suggest recovery of the optic radiation in the vicinity of the lesion. Optic radiations in the injured hemisphere are more prominent in DTI at 20 months of age than in DTI at 12 months of age. Conclusion Our data indicate that functional cortical recovery is supported by structural modifications that concern major pathways of the visual system. These neuroimaging findings might contribute to elaborate a pertinent strategy in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation.

  1. FLAIR signal increase of the fluid within the resection cavity after glioma surgery: generally valid as early recurrence marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bette, Stefanie; Gempt, Jens; Huber, Thomas; Delbridge, Claire; Meyer, Bernhard; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have indicated that a signal intensity increase of the fluid within the resection cavity on FLAIR images may predict tumor recurrence after glioma surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the increase in FLAIR signal intensity in a large patient cohort and in subgroups to assess its prognostic value for early tumor recurrence in glioma patients. METHODS A total of 212 patients (213 cases) who had undergone surgery for an intracranial glioma (WHO Grade IV [n = 103], WHO Grade III [n = 57], and WHO Grade II [n = 53]) were included in this retrospective study. FLAIR signal within the resection cavity at the time of tumor recurrence/last contact and on the previous MRI study was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Appearance of FLAIR signal increase was studied over time using Kaplan-Meier estimates in subgroups. RESULTS Patients with WHO Grade II glioma and connection of the resection cavity to CSF who did not undergo radiotherapy did not regularly develop this sign and were excluded from further analysis. For the remaining 87 cases, FLAIR signal intensity increase was observed in 27 cases. Recurrent disease was found in 26 of these 27 cases, resulting in a specificity of 80.0%, a sensitivity of 31.7%, and positive and negative predictive values of 96.3% and 6.7%, respectively. In 4 cases this sign had been observed prior (range 2.8-8.5 months) to tumor recurrence defined by standard criteria. Quantitative analysis underlined the results of qualitative analysis, but it did not add a diagnostic value. CONCLUSIONS Signal intensity increase of the fluid within the resection cavity on FLAIR images is a rare but highly specific and early sign for tumor recurrence/tumor progression in completely and incompletely resected high-grade glioma without connection of the resection cavity to CSF and with radiotherapy.

  2. Cerebral reorganization as a function of linguistic recovery in children: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkana, Odelia; Frost, Ram; Kramer, Uri; Ben-Bashat, Dafna; Hendler, Talma; Schmidt, David; Schweiger, Avraham

    2011-02-01

    Characterizing and mapping the relationship between neuronal reorganization and functional recovery are essential to the understanding of cerebral plasticity and the dynamic processes which occur following brain damage. The neuronal mechanisms underlying linguistic recovery following left hemisphere (LH) lesions are still unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the extent of brain lateralization of linguistic functioning in specific regions of interest (ROIs) is correlated with the level of linguistic performance following recovery from acquired childhood aphasia. The study focused on a rare group of children in whom lesions occurred after normal language acquisition, but prior to complete maturation of the brain. During fMRI scanning, rhyming, comprehension and verb generation activation tasks were monitored. The imaging data were evaluated with reference to linguistic performance measured behaviorally during imaging, as well as outside the scanner. Compared with normal controls, we found greater right hemisphere (RH) lateralization in patients. However, correlations with linguistic performance showed that increased proficiency in linguistic tasks was associated with greater lateralization to the LH. These results were replicated in a longitudinal case study of a patient scanned twice, 3 years apart. Additional improvement in linguistic performance of the patient was accompanied by increasing lateralization to the LH in the anterior language region. This, however, was the result of a decreased involvement of the RH. These findings suggest that recovery is a dynamic, ongoing process, which may last for years after onset. The role of each hemisphere in the recovery process may continuously change within the chronic stage.

  3. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Alex; Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Habich, Sonia; Groden, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this paper are to assess collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion by MRI-based approaches (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms) and investigate its relation to ischemic lesion size and growth. In 28 patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and 10 patients with basilar artery (BA) occlusion, MRI findings were analyzed, with emphasis on distal FVH and collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms. In PCA occlusion, distal FVH was observed in 18/29 (62.1 %), in BA occlusion, in 8/10 (80 %) cases. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms was graded 1 in 8 (27.6 %) patients, 2 in 1 (3.4 %) patient, 3 in 12 (41.4 %) patients, and 4 in 8 (27.6 %) patients with PCA occlusion and 0 in 1 (10 %) patient, 2 in 3 (30 %) patients, 3 in 1 (10 %) patient, and 4 in 5 (50 %) patients with BA occlusion. FVH grade showed neither correlation with initial or follow-up diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesion size nor DWI-perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) mismatch ratio. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial DWI lesion size and moderately with the DWI-(PWI) mismatch ratio. The combination of distal FVH and collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial as well as follow-up DWI lesion size and highly with the DWI-PWI mismatch ratio. In posterior circulation occlusion, FVH is a frequent finding, but its prognostic value is limited. Dynamic 4D angiograms are advantageous to examine and graduate collateral blood flow. The combination of both parameters results in an improved characterization of collateral blood flow and might have prognostic relevance. (orig.)

  4. Ivy signs on FLAIR images before and after STA-MCA anastomosis in patients with Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ideguchi, Reiko; Enokizono, Mikako; Uetani, Masataka (Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan)), e-mail: qqtt37gd9@forest.ocn.ne.jp; Morikawa, Minoru (Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)); Ogawa, Yoji (Dept. of Radiology, Hanwa Daini Senboku Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Nagata, Izumi (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan))

    2011-04-15

    Background: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging is one of the features of Moyamoya disease. However, the correlation between ivy sign and cerebral perfusion status has not been fully evaluated. Purpose: To characterize ivy sign on FLAIR images in Moyamoya disease and compare this finding with hemodynamic alterations on perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT) obtained before and after bypass surgery. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis were included in the study. The presence of ivy sign on FLAIR images was classified as 'negative', 'minimal' and 'positive'. We evaluated the relationship between ivy sign and findings of SPECT, including cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) before and after surgery. Results: Minimal or positive ivy sign was seen in 13 (81%) of 16 patients, and 21 (66%) of 32 hemispheres. CVR in the areas with positive or minimal ivy sign was lower than that in the areas with negative ivy sign. After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy sign disappeared or decreased in all 21 hemispheres demonstrating ivy sign. SPECT demonstrated apparent hemodynamic improvement in areas demonstrating disappearance or decrease of ivy sign. Conclusion: Ivy sign on FLAIR image is seen in areas with decreased cerebral perfusion. The sign is useful for non-invasive assessment of cerebral hemodynamic status before and after surgery

  5. Electrodermal Recording and fMRI to Inform Sensorimotor Recovery in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Bradley J.; McIlroy, William E.; Mraz, Richard; Staines, W. Richard; Black, Sandra E.; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) appears to be useful for investigating motor recovery after stroke. Some of the potential confounders of brain activation studies, however, could be mitigated through complementary physiological monitoring. Objective To investigate a sensorimotor fMRI battery that included simultaneous measurement of electrodermal activity in subjects with hemiparetic stroke to provide a measure related to the sense of effort during motor performance. Methods Bilateral hand and ankle tasks were performed by 6 patients with stroke (2 subacute, 4 chronic) during imaging with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI using an event-related design. BOLD percent changes, peak activation, and laterality index values were calculated in the sensorimotor cortex. Electrodermal recordings were made concurrently and used as a regressor. Results Sensorimotor BOLD time series and percent change values provided evidence of an intact motor network in each of these well-recovered patients. During tasks involving the hemiparetic limb, electrodermal activity changes were variable in amplitude, and electrodermal activity time-series data showed significant correlations with fMRI in 3 of 6 patients. No such correlations were observed for control tasks involving the unaffected lower limb. Conclusions Electrodermal activity activation maps implicated the contralesional over the ipsilesional hemisphere, supporting the notion that stroke patients may require higher order motor processing to perform simple tasks. Electrodermal activity recordings may be useful as a physiological marker of differences in effort required during movements of a subject’s hemiparetic compared with the unaffected limb during fMRI studies. PMID:18784267

  6. Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Maggioni, Eleonora [IRCCS Scientific Institute E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Barba, Carmen [Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy); Guerrini, Renzo [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)

  7. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging in the evaluation of primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (HUP), Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) would be helpful in characterizing primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) from other pediatric brain tumors. We expected that the compact cellular nature and the relatively small extracellular space of this tumor would affect the signal intensity on both pulse sequences relative to the more sparsely cellular glial tumors that have larger extracellular spaces. Eighteen pediatric patients with PNET were examined on a 1.5 T MRI with routine imaging plus FLAIR and compared with 28 patients with non-PNET. DWI was also performed in 7 PNET and 18 non-PNET. Seventy-eight percent of PNET were isointense to gray matter on FLAIR while 82 % of non-PNET were hyperintense and only one was isointense (3 %). Diffusion was abnormally restricted in all 7 PNET examined (100 %) but was restricted in non-PNET in only 1 out of 18 (6 %) patients who had DWI. The differences in the histologic architecture between PNET and non-PNET are reflected in both FLAIR imaging and in DWI. (orig.)

  9. Differentiation between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in patients with glioblastoma during bevacizumab therapy: A longitudinal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bokstein, Felix, E-mail: felixb@tlvmc.gov.il [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T., E-mail: deborahblumenthal@gmail.com [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: Ornaaizenstein@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad, E-mail: giladliberman@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W., E-mail: bencorn@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Treatment with bevacizumab is associated with substantial radiologic response in patients with glioblastoma (GB). However, following this initial response, changes in T{sub 2}-weighted MRI signal may develop, suggesting an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression. The aim of this study was to differentiate between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in GB patients. Methods and materials: Fourteen patients with GB were longitudinally scanned, before and during intravenous bevacizumab therapy (5/10 mg/kg every 2-weeks). A total of 40 MR scans including conventional, diffusion, dynamic susceptibility contrast, dynamic contrast enhancement imaging, and MR-spectroscopy (MRS) were analyzed. Classification of non-enhancing fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) area was performed based on mean diffusivity, cerebral blood volume and flow maps, and further characterized using multiple MRI parameters. Results: The non-enhancing FLAIR lesion area was classified into: vasogenic-edema, characterized by reduced perfusion and increased FLAIR values; or tumor-infiltrative area, characterized by increased perfusion. Tumor-infiltrative area demonstrated a higher malignant pattern on MRS compared to areas of vasogenic-edema. Substantial reductions of the enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted (58 ± 10%) and hyperintense FLAIR (53 ± 9%) lesion volumes were detected mainly during the first weeks of therapy, with a shift to an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression thereafter, as detected by an increase in tumor-infiltrative area in the majority of patients, which correlated with progression-free survival (week 8: r = −0.86, p = 0.003, week 16: r = −0.99, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Characterization of non-enhancing hyperintense FLAIR lesion area in GB patients can provide an MR-based biomarker, indicating a shift to an infiltrative progression pattern, and may improve therapy response assessment in patients following bevacizumab therapy.

  10. Contrast enhancement of intracranial lesions at 1.5 T: comparison among 2D spin echo, black-blood (BB) Cube, and BB Cube-FLAIR sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, SungWoon; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Hyodo, Tomoko; Imaoka, Izumi; Kumano, Seishi; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan); Wakayama, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Mitsuharu [GE Healthcare Japan, MR Applications and Workflow, Asia Pacific, Hino, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of T1W black-blood Cube (BB Cube) and T1W BB Cube fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (BB Cube-FLAIR) sequences for contrast-enhanced brain imaging, by evaluating flow-related artefacts, detectability, and contrast ratio (CR) of intracranial lesions among these sequences and T1W-SE. Phantom studies were performed to determine the optimal parameters of BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR. A clinical study in 23 patients with intracranial lesions was performed to evaluate the usefulness of these two sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions compared with the conventional 2D T1W-SE sequence. The phantom study revealed that the optimal parameters for contrast-enhanced T1W imaging were TR/TE = 500 ms/minimum in BB Cube and TR/TE/TI = 600 ms/minimum/300 ms in BB Cube-FLAIR imaging. In the clinical study, the degree of flow-related artefacts was significantly lower in BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR than in T1W-SE. Regarding tumour detection, BB Cube showed the best detectability; however, there were no significant differences in CR among the sequences. At 1.5 T, contrast-enhanced BB Cube was a better imaging sequence for detecting brain lesions than T1W-SE or BB Cube-FLAIR. (orig.)

  11. Contribution of the left and right inferior frontal gyrus in recovery from aphasia: a functional MRI study in stroke patients with preserved hemodynamic responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, C.A.M.M.; Vink, M.; van Zandvoort, M.J.E.; van der Worp, H.B.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Kappelle, L.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The relative contribution of dominant and non-dominant language networks to recovery from aphasia is a matter of debate. We assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to what extent the left and right hemispheres are associated with recovery from aphasia after stroke. fMRI with three

  12. Phase-Sensitive Inversion-Recovery MRI Improves Longitudinal Cortical Lesion Detection in Progressive MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaff Harel

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR to double inversion recovery (DIR have demonstrated that use of PSIR improves cross-sectional in vivo detection of cortical lesions (CL in multiple sclerosis. We studied the utility of PSIR in detection/characterization of accrual of CL over time in a 1-year longitudinal study in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS compared to DIR. PSIR and DIR images were acquired with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 25 patients with PPMS and 19 healthy controls at baseline, and after 1 year in 20 patients with PPMS. CL were classified as intracortical, leucocortical or juxtacortical. Lesion counts and volumes were calculated for both time points from both sequences and compared. Correlations with measures of physical and cognitive disability were determined as well as new CL counts and volumes. Compared to DIR, PSIR led to detection of a higher number of CL involving a larger proportion of patients with PPMS both cross-sectionally (p = 0.006, 88% and longitudinally (p = 0.007, 95%, and led to the reclassification of a third of CL seen on DIR at each time point. Interestingly, PSIR was more sensitive to new CL accumulation over time compared to DIR. PSIR is a promising technique to monitor cortical damage and disease progression in patients with PPMS over a short-term follow-up.

  13. MRI of neuronal recovery after low-dose methamphetamine treatment of traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liang Ding

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of low dose methamphetamine treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI in rats by employing MRI, immunohistology, and neurological functional tests. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to TBI using the controlled cortical impact model. The treated rats (n = 10 received an intravenous (iv bolus dose of 0.42 mg/kg of methamphetamine at eight hours after the TBI followed by continuous iv infusion for 24 hrs. The control rats (n = 10 received the same volume of saline using the same protocol. MRI scans, including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, were performed one day prior to TBI, and at 1 and 3 days post TBI, and then weekly for 6 weeks. The lesion volumes of TBI damaged cerebral tissue were demarcated by elevated values in T2 maps and were histologically identified by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The fractional anisotropy (FA values within regions-of-interest (ROI were measured in FA maps deduced from DTI, and were directly compared with Bielschowsky's silver and Luxol fast blue (BLFB immunohistological staining. No therapeutic effect on lesion volumes was detected during 6 weeks after TBI. However, treatment significantly increased FA values in the recovery ROI compared with the control group at 5 and 6 weeks after TBI. Myelinated axons histologically measured using BLFB were significantly increased (p<0.001 in the treated group (25.84±1.41% compared with the control group (17.05±2.95%. Significant correlations were detected between FA and BLFB measures in the recovery ROI (R = 0.54, p<0.02. Methamphetamine treatment significantly reduced modified neurological severity scores from 2 to 6 weeks (p<0.05 and foot-fault errors from 3 days to 6 weeks (p<0.05 after TBI. Thus, the FA data suggest that methamphetamine treatment improves white matter reorganization from 5 to 6 weeks after TBI in rats compared with saline treatment, which may contribute to the observed functional

  14. Signal Intensities in Preoperative MRI Do Not Reflect Proliferative Activity in Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of high-grade meningiomas in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is important for optimized surgical strategy and best possible resection. Numerous studies investigated subjectively determined morphological features as predictors of tumor biology in meningiomas. The aim of this study was to identify the predictive value of more reliable, quantitatively measured signal intensities in MRI for differentiation of high- and low-grade meningiomas and identification of meningiomas with high proliferation rates, respectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-six patients (56 World Health Organization [WHO] grade I, 9 WHO grade II, and 1 WHO grade I were included in the study. Preoperative MRI signal intensities (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR], T1 precontrast, and T1 postcontrast as genuine and normalized values were correlated with Ki-67 expression in tissue sections of resected meningiomas. Differences between the groups (analysis of variance and Spearman rho correlation were computed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Mean values of genuine signal intensities of meningiomas in FLAIR, T1 native, and T1 postcontrast were 323.9 ± 59, 332.8 ± 67.9, and 768.5 ± 165.3. Mean values of normalized (to the contralateral white matter signal intensities of meningiomas in FLAIR, T1 native, and T1 postcontrast were 1.5 ± 0.3, 0.8 ± 0.1, and 1.9 ± 0.4. There was no significant correlation between MRI signal intensities and WHO grade or Ki-67 expression. Signal intensities did not differ significantly between WHO grade I and II/III meningiomas. Ki-67 expression was significantly increased in high-grade meningiomas compared with low-grade meningiomas (P < 0.01. Objectively measured values of MRI signal intensities (FLAIR, T1 precontrast, and T1 postcontrast enhancement did not distinguish between high-grade and low-grade meningiomas. Furthermore, there was no association between MRI signal intensities and Ki-67 expression

  15. MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI does not use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions rarely ...

  16. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  17. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: MRI demonstration of persistent small cerebral infarcts after clinical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O.; Cramon, D.Y. von [Day-Care Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany); Wittig, I. [Day-Care Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Wiggins, C.J. [Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Abnormalities in the brain of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are infrequent on MRI, often reversible and mainly limited to symptomatic stages of the disease. We report a case in which high-resolution MRI demonstrated multiple persistent small cortical infarcts after clinical remission. High-resolution MRI investigations may detect clinically latent but permanent brain damage, and complement clinical judgement in guiding therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  18. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi [Nagoya University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics, Nagakute (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  19. Characterizing relationships of DTI, fMRI, and motor recovery in stroke rehabilitation utilizing brain-computer interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Leo M; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of the structural integrity of white matter tracts and cortical activity to motor functional outcomes in stroke patients is of particular interest in understanding mechanisms of brain structural and functional changes while recovering from stroke. This study aims to probe these underlying mechanisms using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fMRI measures. We examined the structural integrity of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) using DTI and corticomotor activity using motor-task fMRI in stroke patients who completed up to 15 sessions of rehabilitation therapy using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology. We hypothesized that (1) the structural integrity of PLIC and corticomotor activity are affected by stroke; (2) changes in structural integrity and corticomotor activity following BCI intervention are related to motor recovery; (3) there is a potential relationship between structural integrity and corticomotor activity. We found that (1) the ipsilesional PLIC showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values when compared to the contralesional PLIC; (2) lower ipsilesional PLIC-FA values were significantly associated with worse motor outcomes (i.e., ipsilesional PLIC-FA and motor outcomes were positively correlated.); (3) lower ipsilesional PLIC-FA values were significantly associated with greater ipsilesional corticomotor activity during impaired-finger-tapping-task fMRI (i.e., ipsilesional PLIC-FA and ipsilesional corticomotor activity were negatively correlated), with an overall bilateral pattern of corticomotor activity observed; and (4) baseline FA values predicted motor recovery assessed after BCI intervention. These findings suggest that (1) greater vs. lesser microstructural integrity of the ipsilesional PLIC may contribute toward better vs. poor motor recovery respectively in the stroke-affected limb and demand lesser vs. greater cortical activity respectively from the ipsilesional motor cortex; and that (2

  20. Ultra-low energy storage ring at FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Carsten P., E-mail: c.p.welsch@liverpool.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute and the University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Papash, A. I.; Gorda, O. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Harasimowicz, J. [Cockcroft Institute and University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Karamyshev, O.; Karamysheva, G. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Newton, D. [Cockcroft Institute and University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Panniello, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Putignano, M.; Siggel-King, M. R. F. [Cockcroft Institute and University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smirnov, A. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The Ultra-low energy electrostatic Storage Ring (USR) at the future Facility for Low-energy Antiproton and Ion Research (FLAIR) will provide cooled beams of antiprotons in the energy range between 300 keV down to 20 keV and possibly less. The USR has been completely redesigned over the past three years. The ring structure is based on a 'split achromat' lattice that allows in-ring experiments with internal gas jet target. Beam parameters might be adjusted in a wide range: from very short pulses in the nanosecond regime to a Coasting beam. In addition, a combined fast and slow extraction scheme was developed that allows for providing external experiments with cooled beams of different time structure. Detailed investigations of the USR, including studies into the ring's long term beam dynamics, life time, equilibrium momentum spread and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with an internal target were carried out. New tools and beam handling techniques for diagnostics of ultra-low energy ions at beam intensities less than 10{sup 6} were developed by the QUASAR Group. In this paper, progress on the USR project will be presented with an emphasis on the expected beam parameters available to the experiments at FLAIR.

  1. Cortical reorganization associated lower extremity motor recovery as evidenced by functional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; You, Sung H; Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Hallett, Mark; Lee, Mi Young; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2005-01-01

    Recovery mechanisms supporting upper extremity motor recovery following stroke are well established, but cortical mechanism associated with lower extremity motor recovery is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess cortical reorganization associated with lower extremity motor recovery in a hemiparetic patient. Six control subjects and a 17 year-old woman with left intracerebral hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation rupture were evaluated. The motor function of the paretic (left) hip and knee had recovered slowly to the extent of her being able to overcome gravity for 10 months after the onset of stroke. However, her paretic upper extremity showed no significant motor recovery. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 1.5 Tesla was used to determine the acutual location of cortical activation in the predefined regions of interest. Concurrently, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in combination with a novel 3D-fiber reconstruction algorithm was utilized to investigate the pattern of the corticospinal pathway connectivity between the areas of the motor stream. All subjects' body parts were secured in the scanner and performed a sequential knee flexion-extension with a predetermined angle of 0-60 degrees at 0.5 Hz. Controls showed anticipated activation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and the descending corticospinal fibers stemming from motor cortex. In contrast to control normal subjects, the stroke patient showed fMRI activation only in the unaffected (right) primary SM1 during either paretic or nonparetic knee movements. DTT fiber tracing data showed that the corticospinal tract fibers were found only in the unaffected hemisphere but not in the affected hemisphere. Our results indicate that an ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected (right) motor cortex to the paretic (right) leg was present in this patient. This study raises the potential that the contralesional (ipsilateral) SM1 is involved in cortical

  2. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  3. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of endoscopic endonasal and bifrontal craniotomy approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas: A matched pair analysis of outcomes and frontal lobe changes on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, John R; Carvalho, Felipe; Vaz Guimaraes Filho, Francisco; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Koutourousiou, Maria; Su, Shirley; Vescan, Allan D; Witterick, Ian J; Zadeh, Gelareh; Wang, Eric W; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Gardner, Paul A; Gentili, Fred; Snyderman, Carl H

    2015-11-01

    We compare the outcomes and postoperative MRI changes of endoscopic endonasal (EEA) and bifrontal craniotomy (BFC) approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). All patients who underwent either BFC or EEA for OGM were eligible. Matched pairs were created by matching tumor volumes of an EEA patient with a BFC patient, and matching the timing of the postoperative scans. The tumor dimensions, peritumoral edema, resectability issues, and frontal lobe changes were recorded based on preoperative and postoperative MRI. Postoperative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity and residual cystic cavity (porencephalic cave) volume were compared using univariable and multivariable analyses. From a total of 70 patients (46 EEA, 24 BFC), 10 matched pairs (20 patients) were created. Three patients (30%) in the EEA group and two (20%) in the BFC had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (p=0.61). Gross total resections were achieved in seven (70%) of the EEA group and nine (90%) of the BFC group (p=0.26), and one patient from each group developed a recurrence. On postoperative MRI, there was no significant difference in FLAIR signal volumes between EEA and BFC approaches (6.9 versus 13.3 cm(3); p=0.17) or in porencephalic cave volumes (1.7 versus 5.0 cm(3); p=0.11) in univariable analysis. However, in a multivariable analysis, EEA was associated with less postoperative FLAIR change (p=0.02) after adjusting for the volume of preoperative edema. This study provides preliminary evidence that EEA is associated with quantifiable improvements in postoperative frontal lobe imaging.

  5. MR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging as routine brain T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakia, Yutaka; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Koichi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ueda, Jun; Fujita, Norihiko

    1999-11-01

    We tried to investigate if magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging can be used as a routine brain screening examination instead of spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Three hundred and ninety-four patients with clinically suspected brain diseases were randomly selected and examined with both brain MR FLAIR and T2-weighted imaging on the axial plane. These two imaging techniques were evaluated by two neuroradiologists as to which imaging was better for routine brain T2-weighted imaging. In 123 of 394 cases (31%), FLAIR imaging was superior to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Especially in cases with inflammatory diseases, traumatic diseases and demyelinating diseases, FLAIR imaging was particularly useful. Small lesions bordering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often detected only by FLAIR imaging. In 259 cases (66%), including 147 normal cases (37%), they were equally evaluated. Only in 12 cases (3%) was conventional T2-weighted imaging superior to FLAIR imaging. Cerebrovascular lesions like cerebral aneurysm and Moyamoya disease could not be detected on FLAIR images because these structures were obscured by a low signal from the CSF. Also, because old infarctions tend to appear as low signal intensity on FLAIR images, the condition was sometimes hard to detect. Finally, FLAIR imaging could be used as routine brain T2-weighted imaging instead of conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging if these vascular lesions were watched.

  6. Correlation between MRI findings and long-term outcome in patients with severe brain trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierallini, A.; Pantano, P.; Fantozzi, L.M.; Bonamini, M. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. di Roma (Italy); Vichi, R.; Zylberman, R.; Pisarri, F. [Hospital San Giovanni Battista, SMOM, Roma (Italy); Colonnese, C. [IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Bozzao, L. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. di Roma (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Our aim was to relate MRI findings in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to clinical severity and long-term outcome. We studied 37 patients with severe TBI, who were submitted to clinical assessment for disability and cognition and to MRI 60-90 days after trauma. Clinical assessment was also performed 3, 6 and 12 months later. The number and volume of lesions in various cerebral structures were calculated semiautomatically from FLAIR and fast field-echo images. Possible correlations between total and regional lesion volume and clinical deficits were then investigated. The frontal and temporal lobes were most frequently involved. Total lesion volume on FLAIR images correlated significantly with clinical outcome, whereas that on FFE images did not. Regional analysis showed that FLAIR lesion volume in the corpus callosum correlated significantly with scores on disability and cognition scales at the first clinical assessment. FLAIR lesion volume in the frontal lobes correlated significantly with clinical scores 1 year later. (orig.)

  7. Prognostic Value of Labyrinthine 3D-FLAIR Abnormalities in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J I; Yoon, R G; Lee, J H; Park, J W; Yoo, M H; Ahn, J H; Chung, J W; Park, H J

    2016-12-01

    According to recent research, modern MR imaging can detect the presense of abnormalities on labyrinthine. Our aim was to report the patterns and prognostic role of abnormal findings on labyrinthine imaging in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. This study comprised 113 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and underwent 3T MR imaging, including pre-/postcontrast 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted imaging. We analyzed abnormalities on MR imaging and correlated them with audiometric results. Thirty-one (27%) patients showed abnormal findings on labyrinthine MR imaging in the affected ear. The initial/final hearing levels of the MRI+ group (91 ± 25/73 ± 27 dB hearing loss) were significantly worse than those of the MRI- group (69 ± 30/48 ± 24 dB hearing loss). The incidence of abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging was significantly lower (3 of 40, 8%) in 40 patients with initial mild-to-moderate hearing loss than in those with profound hearing loss (16 of 34, 47%). Considering hearing improvement by the Siegel criteria, the rate of complete or partial recovery was significantly higher in the MRI- group (34%) than in the MRI+ group (10%). In patients with initial severe or profound hearing loss, the MRI- group showed greater hearing improvement (38 ± 21 dB) than the MRI+ group (23 ± 22 dB). Abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging were found in 27% of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The initial hearing loss was worse in the MRI+ group than in the MRI- group. In patients with initial severe and profound hearing loss, the presence of abnormalities on labyrinthine MR imaging indicated a poor prognosis. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M;

    2011-01-01

    Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...

  9. Rapid initial reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium after reperfused first myocardial infarction suggests recovery of the peri-infarction zone: one-year follow-up by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Henrik; Hedström, Erik; Heiberg, Einar; Wagner, Galen S; Pahlm, Olle; Arheden, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    The time course and magnitude of infarct involution, functional recovery, and normalization of infarct-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes after acute myocardial infarction (MI) are not completely known in humans. We sought to explore these processes early after MI and during infarct-healing using cardiac MRI. Twenty-two patients with reperfused first-time MI were examined by MRI and ECG at 1, 7, 42, 182, and 365 days after infarction. Global left ventricular function and regional wall thickening were assessed by cine MRI, and injured myocardium was depicted by delayed contrast-enhanced MRI. Infarct size by ECG was estimated by QRS scoring. The reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium occurred predominantly during the first week after infarction (64% of the 1-year reduction). Furthermore, during the first week the amount of nonhyperenhanced myocardium increased significantly (Pinfarction. Also, the time course and magnitude for reduction of hyperenhanced myocardium were associated with normalization of infarct-related ECG changes.

  10. Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha M Mehemed

    Full Text Available Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

  11. Differentiation of true-progression from pseudoprogression in glioblastoma treated with radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide by GLCM texture analysis of conventional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhongping; Yang, Ruimeng; Zhu, Yanjie; Jiang, Xinqing

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with pathologically confirmed glioblastoma who had received concurrent CCRT with TMZ underwent conventional MRI including T1-weighted imaging(T1WI), T2-weighted imaging(T2WI), fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR)and contrast-enhanced T1WI(T1Ce). Five GLCM texture maps of contrast, energy, entropy, correlation and homogeneity were generated for each MRI series. Of the aforementioned 5 texture features, the most significant features were contrast and correlation on T2WI with areas under ROC curve of 0.883 and 0.892, respectively, and they had the same sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 86.4%, PPV of 100% and NPV of 76.9% in differentiation true progression from pseudoprogression.

  12. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD): a study of 25 Brazilian patients using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Claudia C.; Lucato, Leandro T.; Martin, Maria G.M. [School of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Lucio G.; Resende, Maria B.D.; Carvalho, Mary S.; Marie, Suely K.N.; Reed, Umbertina C. [School of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jinkins, J.Randy [Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Department of Radiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is characterized clinically by hypotonia and muscular weakness and, on imaging studies, by white matter (WM) abnormality. To evaluate MRI findings in Brazilian patients with merosin-deficient CMD. Twenty-five patients were evaluated using MRI. Three patients presented with partial merosin deficiency and 22 with total merosin deficiency. Follow-up examinations were done in 7 cases. T1- and T2-weighted images were performed in all examinations, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) was performed in 15. Enhanced images were done in 11 cases. The WM involvement was classified according to location and severity. From 1991 to 2004, 32 MRI examinations were performed. Severe involvement was found in 23 patients in the frontal and temporal lobes, in 18 patients in the parietal lobes, and in 7 patients in the occipital lobes. The brain stem (n=5), cerebellum (n=6), internal capsules (n=1), and external capsules (n=5) were also affected. One patient had occipital pachygyria, and one had cerebellar vermian hypoplasia. No gadolinium enhancement was noted. Follow-up MRI showed no interval change (n=4), progression (n=1), or improvement of the findings (n=2). (orig.)

  13. Sodium inversion recovery MRI of the knee joint in vivo at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Inati, Souheil; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2010-11-01

    The loss of proteoglycans (PG) in the articular cartilage is an early signature of osteoarthritis (OA). The ensuing changes in the fixed charge density in the cartilage can be directly linked to sodium concentration via charge balance. Sodium ions in the knee joint appear in two pools: in the synovial fluids or joint effusion where the ions are in free motion and bound within the cartilage tissue where the Na+ ions have a restricted motion. The ions in these two compartments have therefore different T1 and T2 relaxation times. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a fluid-suppressed 3D ultrashort TE radial sodium sequence by implementing an inversion recovery (IR) preparation of the magnetization at 7T. This method could allow a more accurate and more sensitive quantification of loss of PG in patients with OA. It is shown that adiabatic pulses offer significantly improved performance in terms of robustness to B1 and B0 inhomogeneities when compared to the hard pulse sequence. Power deposition considerations further pose a limit to the RF inversion power, and we demonstrate in simulations and experiments how a practical compromise can be struck between clean suppression of fluid signals and power deposition levels. Two IR sequences with different types of inversion pulses (a rectangular pulse and an adiabatic pulse) were tested on a liquid phantom, ex vivo on a human knee cadaver and then in vivo on five healthy volunteers, with a (Nyquist) resolution of ∼3.6 mm and a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼30 in cartilage without IR and ∼20 with IR. Due to specific absorption rate limitations, the total acquisition time was ∼17 min for the 3D radial sequence without inversion or with the rectangular IR, and 24:30 min for the adiabatic IR sequence. It is shown that the adiabatic IR sequence generates a more uniform fluid suppression over the whole sample than the rectangular IR sequence.

  14. Adherence to MRI protocol consensus guidelines in multiple sclerosis: an Australian multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Michael; Josey, Lawrence; Lucas, Robyn; Dear, Keith; Taylor, Bruce V; Coulthard, Alan; Chapman, Caron; Coulthard, Alan; Dear, Keith; Dwyer, Terry; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Lucas, Robyn; McMichael, Tony; Pender, Michael P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Taylor, Bruce; Valery, Patricia; van der Mei, Ingrid; Williams, David

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus guidelines for MRI in MS exist to define correct sequence type and imaging technique, but it is not clear to what extent they are followed. This study reviewed MRI studies performed on Australian individuals presenting with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD) for adherence to published guidelines and discussed practical implementation of MS guidelines in light of recent updates. The Ausimmune study was a prospective case control study of Australian participants presenting with FCD from 2003 to 2006. Baseline cranial and spinal cord MRI studies of 226 case participants from four separate Australian regions were reviewed. MRI sequences were classified according to anatomical location, slice plane, tissue weighting and use of gadolinium-containing contrast media. Results were compared with the 2003 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol for the diagnosis of MS. The composition of core cranial MRI sequences performed varied across the 226 scans. Of the studies, 91% included sagittal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cranial axial T2-weighted, axial FLAIR and axial proton density-weighted sequences were performed in 88%, 60% and 16% (respectively) of scans. Only 25% of the studies included a T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence. Concordance with the guidelines in all sequences was very low (2). Only a small number of MRI investigations performed included all of the sequences stipulated by consensus guidelines. This is likely due to poor awareness in the imaging community of the guidelines and the rationale behind certain sequences. Radiologists with a sub

  15. High signal in cerebrospinal fluid mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage on FLAIR following acute stroke and intravenous contrast medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechambre, S D; Duprez, T; Grandin, C B; Lecouvet, F E; Peeters, A; Cosnard, G

    2000-08-01

    We describe five cases of high signal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fast-FLAIR images 24-48 h after onset of stroke. All the patients had undergone perfusion-weighted MRI within 6 h of the onset of the symptoms. The CSF was far brighter than the cortical gyri. The high signal was diffusely around both cerebral hemispheres in two cases and around one hemisphere in two others; it was focal, around the acute ischaemic lesion, in one. CT was normal in all cases. The CSF high signal was transient, decreasing in extent and intensity with time and resolving completely within 3-6 days. It was not associated with worsening of the clinical state or poor outcome. Our explanation of this phenomena is hypothetical: we speculate that it could be due to disruption of the blood-brain barrier resulting in leakage of protein, gadolinium chelates, or both in to the subarachnoid space. It should not be confused with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

  16. Medical image of the week: MRI of Wernicke's encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 61 year old male presented to the ED with altered mental status after being found down at home with several beer cans around him. He was noted to have horizontal nystagmus on hospital day 2 and a MRI was performed. MRI showed bilateral thalamic enhancement (Figure 1, arrows on flair imaging consistent with Wernicke’s encephalopathy. His thiamine dose was increased with improvement in his mental status.

  17. Cyclosporine-related reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, J.M. [Dept. of Neuroimaging, King`s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 (United Kingdom)]|[Magnetic Resonance Centre, U.M.D.S. and Guy`s and St. Thomas` Hospitals N.H.S. Trust, St. Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Howlett, D.C.; Cox, T.C.S.; Bingham, J.B. [Magnetic Resonance Centre, U.M.D.S. and Guy`s and St. Thomas` Hospitals N.H.S. Trust, St. Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    Three patients aged 48, 11 and 40 years, two of whom were recent recipients of renal transplants and one of a bone marrow transplant, developed seizures, with cortical blindness in two cases. All were immunosuppressed with cyclosporine and were hypertensive at the onset of symptoms. MRI showed predominantly posterior signal changes in all three cases. The abnormalities were more conspicuous on fast FLAIR images than on conventional T2-weighted spin-echo images. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  18. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  19. Diagnostic impact of integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI in cerebral staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschl, Cornelius; Nensa, Felix; Grueneisen, Johannes; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Sawicki, Lino M; Heusch, Philipp; Gramsch, Carolin; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Quick, Harald H; Forsting, Michael; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Background Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) systems are increasingly being available and used for staging examinations. Brain metastases (BM) are frequent in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and decisive for treatment strategy. Purpose To assess the diagnostic value of integrated 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D glucose (18F-FDG) PET/MRI in initial staging in patients with NSCLC for BM in comparison to MRI alone. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients were prospectively enrolled for an integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI examination. The 3 T MRI protocol included a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition GRE sequence (MPRAGE). Two neuroradiologists evaluated the datasets in consensus regarding: (i) present lesions; (ii) size of lesions; and (iii) number of lesions detected in MRI alone, compared to the PET component when reading the 18F-FDG PET/MRI. Results Based on MRI alone, BM were detected in 15 out of the 83 patients, comprising a total of 39 metastases. Based on PET alone, six patients out of the 83 patients were rated positive for metastatic disease, revealing a total of 15 metastases. PET detected no additional BM. The size of the BM correlated positively with sensitivity of detection in PET. Conclusion The sensitivity of PET in detection of BM depends on their size. 18F-FDG PET/MRI does not lead to an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in cerebral staging of NSCLC patients, as MRI alone remains the gold standard.

  20. A multimodal MRI approach to identify and characterize microstructural brain changes in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Ece; Ingo, Carson; Tritanon, Oranan; Magro-Checa, Cesar; Smith, Alex; Smith, Seth; Huizinga, Tom; van Buchem, Mark A.; Ronen, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement and results in neurological and psychiatric (NP) symptoms in up to 40% of the patients. To date, the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) poses a challenge due to the lack of neuroradiological gold standards. In this study, we aimed to better localize and characterize normal appearing white matter (NAWM) changes in NPSLE by combining data from two quantitative MRI techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI). 9 active NPSLE patients (37 ± 13 years, all females), 9 SLE patients without NP symptoms (44 ± 11 years, all females), and 14 healthy controls (HC) (40 ± 9 years, all females) were included in the study. MTI, DTI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were collected from all subjects on a 3 T MRI scanner. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) maps and white matter lesion maps based on the FLAIR images were created for each subject. MTR and DTI data were then co-analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and a cumulative lesion map to exclude lesions. Significantly lower MTR and FA and significantly higher AD, RD and MD were found in NPSLE compared to HC in NAWM regions. The differences in DTI measures and in MTR, however, were only moderately co-localized. Additionally, significant differences in DTI measures, but not in MTR, were found between NPSLE and SLE patients, suggesting that the underlying microstructural changes detected by MD are linked to the onset of NPSLE. The co-analysis of the anatomical distribution of MTI and DTI measures can potentially improve the diagnosis of NPSLE and contribute to the understanding of the underlying microstructural damage. PMID:26106559

  1. A multimodal MRI approach to identify and characterize microstructural brain changes in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement and results in neurological and psychiatric (NP symptoms in up to 40% of the patients. To date, the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE poses a challenge due to the lack of neuroradiological gold standards. In this study, we aimed to better localize and characterize normal appearing white matter (NAWM changes in NPSLE by combining data from two quantitative MRI techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI. 9 active NPSLE patients (37 ± 13 years, all females, 9 SLE patients without NP symptoms (44 ± 11 years, all females, and 14 healthy controls (HC (40 ± 9 years, all females were included in the study. MTI, DTI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images were collected from all subjects on a 3 T MRI scanner. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR, mean diffusivity (MD, fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, axial diffusivity (AD maps and white matter lesion maps based on the FLAIR images were created for each subject. MTR and DTI data were then co-analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and a cumulative lesion map to exclude lesions. Significantly lower MTR and FA and significantly higher AD, RD and MD were found in NPSLE compared to HC in NAWM regions. The differences in DTI measures and in MTR, however, were only moderately co-localized. Additionally, significant differences in DTI measures, but not in MTR, were found between NPSLE and SLE patients, suggesting that the underlying microstructural changes detected by MD are linked to the onset of NPSLE. The co-analysis of the anatomical distribution of MTI and DTI measures can potentially improve the diagnosis of NPSLE and contribute to the understanding of the underlying microstructural damage.

  2. The Role of the Cognitive Control System in Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia: A Multiple Single-Case fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Michael; Di Pietro, Marie; Gaytanidis, Chrisovalandou; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia in bilingual patients is a therapeutic challenge since both languages can be impacted by the same lesion. Language control has been suggested to play an important role in the recovery of first (L1) and second (L2) language in bilingual aphasia following stroke. To test this hypothesis, we collected behavioral measures of language production (general aphasia evaluation and picture naming) in each language and language control (linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks), as well as fMRI during a naming task at one and four months following stroke in five bilingual patients suffering from poststroke aphasia. We further applied dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analyses to the connections between language and control brain areas. Three patients showed parallel recovery in language production, one patient improved in L1, and one improved in L2 only. Language-control functions improved in two patients. Consistent with the dynamic view of language recovery, DCM analyses showed a higher connectedness between language and control areas in the language with the better recovery. Moreover, similar degrees of connectedness between language and control areas were found in the patients who recovered in both languages. Our data suggest that engagement of the interconnected language-control network is crucial in the recovery of languages. PMID:27965899

  3. Early Beneficial Effect of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition on BBB Permeability as Measured by MRI Countered by Impaired Long-Term Recovery After Stroke in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rohit; Taheri, Saeid; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Estrada, Eduardo Y.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Proteolytic disruption of the extracellular matrix with opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to MMPs occurs in reperfusion injury after stroke. MMP inhibition blocks the early disruption of the BBB, but the long-term consequences of short-term MMP inhibition are not known. Recently, a method to quantify BBB permeability by graphical methods was described that provides a way to study both early disruption of the BBB and long-term effects on recovery in the same animal. We used a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, BB1101, to determine both the usefulness of the MRI method for treatment studies and the long-term effects on recovery. MRI studies were performed in control (N=6) and drug treated (N=8) groups on a dedicated 4.7T MRI scanner. Adult WKY rats had a 2 hr MCAO and an MRI study after 3 hrs of reperfusion, which consisted of T2 and diffusion-weighted technique. Additionally, a rapid T1 mapping protocol was also implemented to acquire one pre-Gd-DTPA baseline data set followed by post injection data sets at 3 min intervals for 45 min. The same animal was imaged again at 48 hrs for lesion size estimation. Data was post processed pixel-wise to generate ADC and permeability coefficient maps. Treatment with BB-1101 significantly reduced BBB permeability at 3 hrs, but failed to reduce lesion size at 48 hrs. Behavioral studies showed impairment in recovery in treated rats. MRI allowed for the monitoring of multiple parameters in the same animal. Our studies showed that BB-1101 was an excellent inhibitor of the BBB damage. However, results show that BB-1101 may be responsible for significant deterioration in neurological status of treated animals. While these preliminary results suggest that BB-1101 is useful in reducing early BBB leakage due to reperfusion injury in stroke, further studies will be needed to determine whether the later detrimental effects can be eliminated by shorter time course of drug delivery. PMID:17700631

  4. Lesion segmentation from multimodal MRI using random forest following ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Ghose, Soumya; Rose, Stephen; Salvado, Olivier; Connelly, Alan; Campbell, Bruce; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Gagan; Christensen, Soren; Carey, Leeanne

    2014-09-01

    Understanding structure-function relationships in the brain after stroke is reliant not only on the accurate anatomical delineation of the focal ischemic lesion, but also on previous infarcts, remote changes and the presence of white matter hyperintensities. The robust definition of primary stroke boundaries and secondary brain lesions will have significant impact on investigation of brain-behavior relationships and lesion volume correlations with clinical measures after stroke. Here we present an automated approach to identify chronic ischemic infarcts in addition to other white matter pathologies, that may be used to aid the development of post-stroke management strategies. Our approach uses Bayesian-Markov Random Field (MRF) classification to segment probable lesion volumes present on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. Thereafter, a random forest classification of the information from multimodal (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) MRI images and other context-aware features (within the probable lesion areas) was used to extract areas with high likelihood of being classified as lesions. The final segmentation of the lesion was obtained by thresholding the random forest probabilistic maps. The accuracy of the automated lesion delineation method was assessed in a total of 36 patients (24 male, 12 female, mean age: 64.57±14.23yrs) at 3months after stroke onset and compared with manually segmented lesion volumes by an expert. Accuracy assessment of the automated lesion identification method was performed using the commonly used evaluation metrics. The mean sensitivity of segmentation was measured to be 0.53±0.13 with a mean positive predictive value of 0.75±0.18. The mean lesion volume difference was observed to be 32.32%±21.643% with a high Pearson's correlation of r=0.76 (p<0.0001). The lesion overlap accuracy was measured in terms of Dice similarity coefficient with a mean of 0.60±0.12, while the contour

  5. A Feasibility Study of Quantifying Longitudinal Brain Changes in Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Encephalitis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Stereology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S.; Das, Kumar; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Parkes, Laura M.; Burnside, Girvan; Griffiths, Michael; Kopelman, Michael; Roberts, Neil; Solomon, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe volume and total oedema volumes in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as a preliminary to a trial of corticosteroid therapy. Methods The study analysed serially acquired magnetic resonance images (MRI), of patients with acute HSV encephalitis who had neuroimaging repeated within four weeks of the first scan. We performed volumetric measurements of the left and right temporal lobes and of cerebral oedema visible on T2 weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images using stereology in conjunction with point counting. Results Temporal lobe volumes increased on average by 1.6% (standard deviation (SD 11%) in five patients who had not received corticosteroid therapy and decreased in two patients who had received corticosteroids by 8.5%. FLAIR hyperintensity volumes increased by 9% in patients not receiving treatment with corticosteroids and decreased by 29% in the two patients that had received corticosteroids. Conclusions This study has shown it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe and total oedema volumes in HSV encephalitis and suggests a potential resolution of swelling in response to corticosteroid therapy. These techniques could be used as part of a randomized control trial to investigate the efficacy of corticosteroids for treating HSV encephalitis in conjunction with assessing clinical outcomes and could be of potential value in helping to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with HSV encephalitis. PMID:28125598

  6. Blood oxygenation-level dependent functional MRI in evaluating the selective activation of motor cortexes associated with recovery of motor function in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechun Li; Xiaoyan Liu; Guorong Liu; Ying He; Baojun Wang; Furu Liang; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Jingfen Zhang; Ruiming Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies about blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) have indicated that the poststroke recovery of motor function is accompanied by the selective activation of motor cor texes with high correlation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes after rehabilitative interventions with BOLD fMRI in hemi plegic patients with acute stroke, and analyze the correlation of the excitement of brain function in the passive and active movements of the affected limb with the recovery of motor function. DESIGN : A case observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty hemiplegic inpatients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital from January to December in 2005, including 16 males and 14 females, aging 44-71 years with an average age of (56±5) years, and the disease course ranged from 12 to 72 hours. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic standard of ischemic stroke revised by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. They were all informed agreed with the detected items.METHODS: ① The Bobath technique was adopted in the rehabilitative interventions of the 30 patients, 30 minutes for each time, twice a day for three weeks continuously. ② The hand motor recovery of the stroke patients was graded by the Brunnstrom,stages ( Ⅰ -Ⅵ), and be able to grasp various objects and extend for the whole range was taken as grade Ⅵ. ③ The patients were examined with fMRI BOLD before rehabilitation and 3 weeks after rehabilitation. All the patients were trained with finger movements, the distracting thoughts should be eliminated as much as possible especially during the movement phase, the patients should highly concentrate on the hand movements. The range for the finger movements should be as large as possible with moderate frequency. The hand movements should be 10 s with

  7. Trigeminal neuralgia: Assessment with T2 VISTA and FLAIR VISTA fusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jin Wook; Kim, Hye Jeong; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha; Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the neurovascular compression (NVC) in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) using T2 VISTA and FLAIR VISTA fusion imaging. Sixty-six consecutive patients with TN who underwent MR imaging at 3-T between April 2008 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) of T2 VISTA and FLAIR VISTA fusion imaging were used for image interpretation. The frequency of vascular contact, the segment of compression and the type of vessel were compared between the ipsilateral symptomatic side and the contralateral asymptomatic side. The frequency of vascular contact on the ipsilateral side and the contralateral side were 95.5% (63/66) and 74.2% (49/66), respectively. The frequency of indentation on the ipsilateral side and contralateral side were 74.2% (49/66) and 21.2% (14/66), and showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and odds ratio were 77.8%, 71.4% and 10.7, respectively. There were no significant differences in the involved segment or type of vessel between the ipsilateral side and contralateral side. MPR of T2 VISTA and FLAIR VISTA fusion imaging is useful in the detection of NVC in patients with TN. Vascular indentation can predict the presence of symptoms in patients with TN. (orig.)

  8. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to segment four brainstem structures (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and superior cerebellar peduncle) from 3D brain MRI scans. The segmentation method relies on a probabilistic atlas of the brainstem and its neighboring brain structures. To build the atlas, we...... the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...

  9. MRI findings of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, E.; Ma, D.; Liang, Y.; Ji, A.; Gan, S

    2005-02-01

    AIM: To study the imaging characteristics of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen MRI examinations of the brain and spinal cord in five patients with angiostrongyliasis cantonensis of the central nervous system were performed. The final diagnosis was based on typical clinical symptoms, results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, and the presence of nematode larvae in the CSF. The sequential MRI follow-up examinations were carried out at a different stage for every patient from 1 to 28 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The features of the lesions in the brain, spinal cord, meninges and nerve roots on MRI were studied, moreover, the development of the lesions was analysed on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Abnormalities were demonstrated on MRI in all five cases. They included three cases of meningoencephalitis, one case of encephalitis and one myelomeningitis. The locations and appearances of the lesions were as follows: (1) brain involvement in four cases (including cerebrum in four, cerebellum in two and brain stem in three), and spinal cord involvement in one case. These lesions were diffuse or scattered and appeared as similar or slightly reduced signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and turbo fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence (FLAIR) images. After administration of gadolinium chelate (Gd-DTPA), multiple round or oval enhancing nodules, with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm, were seen on T1WI, a few lesions appeared as stick-shaped enhancement whose longest measurement was 14 mm. Diffuse or local oedema around the lesion could be seen. (2) Meningeal involvement in four cases, a case of ependymal involvement and a case of nerve root involvement were among them. These lesions appeared as linear or nodular enhancement of the leptomeninges and ependyma, as well as nerve root

  10. Detection and appearance of intraparenchymal haematomas of the brain at 1.5 T with spin-echo, FLAIR and GE sequences: poor relationship to the age of the haematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemany Ripoll, M. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Fundacion Rioja Salud, Avda de Portugal no. 7, Logrono, La Rioja (Spain); Stenborg, A.; Terent, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sonninen, P. [Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Raininko, R. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The specific appearance of blood related to time at T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences is generally accepted; thus, these sequences are classically used for estimating the age of haematomas. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T, including T1- and T2-weighted SE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) sequences, was performed on 82 intraparenchymal haematomas (IPHs) and 15 haemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) in order to analyse the appearance at different stages and with different sequences, and to investigate how reliably the age of hematomas can be estimated. The IPHs had been previously detected by CT, were spontaneous (n=72) or traumatic (n=10) in origin and were of different sizes (2 mm to 7 cm) and ages (from 7.5 h to 4 years after acute haemorrhagic event). The age of the lesion was calculated from the moment when clinical symptoms started or the traumatic event occurred. The 15 patients with HIs were patients with ischaemic stroke in whom there was either a suspicion of haemorrhagic transformation on CT, or haemorrhage was detected as an additional finding on MR performed for other indications. Patients with conditions that could affect the SI of blood, such as anticoagulant therapy or severe anaemia, were excluded. The signal intensity pattern of the lesions was analysed and related to their ages without prior knowledge of the clinical data. All lesions were detected with T2*-weighted GE. T1-weighted SE missed 13 haematomas and T2-weighted SE and FLAIR sequences missed five. Haemorrhagic transformation was missed in three infarcts by T1-, T2-weighted SE and FLAIR. The signal pattern on FLAIR was identical to that on T2-weighted SE. For all sequences, a wide variety of signal patterns, without a clear relationship to the age of the haematomas, was observed. There was a poor relationship between the real MR appearance of IPHs and the theoretical appearance on SE sequences. T2*-weighted GE was effective for detecting

  11. MRI in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis%结核性脑膜炎磁共振的诊断应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杭; 王安龙; 林上奇; 邱小伟; 朱卫平; 吴莲慧

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of magnetic resonance liquid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIRtechnology and GDPA enhanced MRI in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis so as to guide the clinical treatment.METHODS A total of 90 cases of tuberculous meningitis patients underwent the conventional TSE sequence T1WI/ T2WI,FLAIR sequence and enhanced MRI examination,then display capabilities of tuberculous meningitis of the three imaging methods were compared.RESULTS Of totally 90 cases of patients receiving the examinations,the MRI enhancement discovered the meningeal disease in 83 cases;the FLAIR sequence found meningeal abnormal in 72 cases;the TSE sequence T2WI found meningeal abnormalities in 61 cases,the difference between the three examination methods was statistically significant.Compared with the display rate of the tuberculous meningitis between each pair,the display rates of the simple tuberculous meningitis was 45.6% by the MRI enhancement,37.8% by FLAIR sequence,33.3% by T1WI/T2WI; the display rate of the merged intracranial tuberculous tumor was 33.3% by the MRI enhancement,28.9% by FLAIR sequence,22.2% by T1WI/T2WI; the display rate of the complications was 13.3% by the MRI enhancement,13.3% by FLAIR sequence,10.0% by T1WI/ T2WI; the chi-square test indicated that the difference in the display of the simple tuberculous meningitis or the merged intracranial tuberculous tumor between the three examination methods was statistically significant(P< 0.05)and that the difference in the display rate of the complication was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION The enhanced MRI has a characteristic performance of tuberculous meningitis,the enhanced MRI combined with FLAIR sequence can significantly improve the display rate of tuberculous meningitis so as to provide a reliable basis for the clinical diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.%目的 评价磁共振液体衰减反转恢复(FLAIR)技术和钆喷酸葡甲胺盐(GDPA)增强MRI对结核

  12. Clinical characteristics of unknown symptom onset stroke patients with and without diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomalla, Götz; Boutitie, Florent; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI...... onset. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. Results Of 699 patients included, 418 (59.8%) presented with DWI-FLAIR mismatch. A shorter delay between last seen well and symptom recognition (p = 0.0063), a shorter delay between symptom recognition...

  13. Cerebellar Ataxia with Complete Clinical Recovery and Resolution of MRI Lesions Related to Central Pontine Myelinolysis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dolciotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several reports of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM in a setting of malnutrition, alcoholism, and chronic debilitating illness associated with electrolyte abnormalities, especially hyponatremia. The cause of myelinolysis is still under debate, and, although osmotic effects are thought to be responsible in most cases, alternative pathological factors should be considered [King et al.: Am J Med Sci 2010;339:561–567]. We report a case of CPM in a patient with recent chemotherapy for colon cancer without electrolyte unbalance and otherwise unexplained causes. Moreover, the present case is an example of the unusual clinical ataxic variant, followed by complete recovery without any specific treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, which showed a characteristic hyperintense signal abnormality in the central part of the pons with an unaffected outer rim. One month later, we observed complete resolution of clinical and radiological symptoms.

  14. Solar flair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  15. Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, A. R.; McConnell, P. A.; Eichberg, C.; Saladin, M. E.; Carpenter, M. J.; Garland, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a behavioral treatment grounded in dual-process models derived from cognitive science, on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult (N = 13; mean (SD) age 49 ± 12.2) smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG). All participants underwent two fMRI scans: pre-tx and after 8-weeks of MORE. Emotion regulation (ER), smoking cue reactivity (CR), and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were assessed at each fMRI visit; smoking and mood were assessed throughout. As compared to the CG, MORE significantly reduced smoking (d = 2.06) and increased positive affect (d = 2.02). MORE participants evidenced decreased CR-BOLD response in ventral striatum (VS; d = 1.57) and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC; d = 1.7) and increased positive ER-BOLD in VS (dVS = 2.13) and vPFC (dvmPFC = 2.66). Importantly, ER was correlated with smoking reduction (r's = .68 to .91) and increased positive affect (r's = .52 to .61). These findings provide preliminary evidence that MORE may facilitate the restructuring of reward processes and play a role in treating the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. PMID:28373890

  16. Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Froeliger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE, a behavioral treatment grounded in dual-process models derived from cognitive science, on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult (N=13; mean (SD age 49 ± 12.2 smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG. All participants underwent two fMRI scans: pre-tx and after 8-weeks of MORE. Emotion regulation (ER, smoking cue reactivity (CR, and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC were assessed at each fMRI visit; smoking and mood were assessed throughout. As compared to the CG, MORE significantly reduced smoking (d=2.06 and increased positive affect (d=2.02. MORE participants evidenced decreased CR-BOLD response in ventral striatum (VS; d=1.57 and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC; d=1.7 and increased positive ER-BOLD in VS (dVS=2.13 and vPFC (dvmPFC=2.66. Importantly, ER was correlated with smoking reduction (r’s = .68 to .91 and increased positive affect (r’s = .52 to .61. These findings provide preliminary evidence that MORE may facilitate the restructuring of reward processes and play a role in treating the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction.

  17. Movement-Dependent Stroke Recovery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of TMS and fMRI Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lorie G.; Stewart, Kim C.; Woodbury, Michelle L.; Senesac, Claudia; Cauraugh, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence indicates that experience-dependent cortical plasticity underlies post-stroke motor recovery of the impaired upper extremity. Motor skill learning in neurologically intact individuals is thought to involve the primary motor cortex, and the majority of studies in the animal literature have studied changes in the primary sensorimotor cortex…

  18. FLAIR-II spectroscopy of two DENIS J-band galaxy samples

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, G A; Proust, D; Mamon, Gary A.; Parker, Quentin A.; Proust, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    As a pilot survey for the forthcoming 6dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, spectroscopy of galaxies selected in J (1.2 mu) with the DENIS survey was performed at the UKST using the FLAIR II multi-object spectroscope. 69 galaxy redshifts (z's) were obtained in a high |b| field and an additional 12 z's in a low latitude (b=-17 deg), obscured field. This study illustrates the feasibility of obtaining z's with optical spectra on galaxies selected at much longer wavelengths. It validated a very preliminary algorithm for star/galaxy separation for high |b| DENIS objects, with 99% reliability for J < 13.9. However, the FLAIR II z determinations required substantially longer integration times to achieve 90% completeness than expected from previous optical surveys at comparable depth. This is mainly due to a degradation in overall fibre throughput due to known problems with ageing of the prism-cement-fibre interface with exposure to UV light. Our low |b| (high extinction) field required 2.5 times more exposure time for less...

  19. Optimization of saturation-recovery dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI acquisition protocol: monte carlo simulation approach demonstrated with gadolinium MR renography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jeff L; Conlin, Chris C; Carlston, Kristi; Xie, Luke; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Morton, Kathryn; Lee, Vivian S

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is widely used for the measurement of tissue perfusion and to assess organ function. MR renography, which is acquired using a DCE sequence, can measure renal perfusion, filtration and concentrating ability. Optimization of the DCE acquisition protocol is important for the minimization of the error propagation from the acquired signals to the estimated parameters, thus improving the precision of the parameters. Critical to the optimization of contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted protocols is the balance of the T1 -shortening effect across the range of gadolinium (Gd) contrast concentration in the tissue of interest. In this study, we demonstrate a Monte Carlo simulation approach for the optimization of DCE MRI, in which a saturation-recovery T1 -weighted gradient echo sequence is simulated and the impact of injected dose (D) and time delay (TD, for saturation recovery) is tested. The results show that high D and/or high TD cause saturation of the peak arterial signals and lead to an overestimation of renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, the use of low TD (e.g. 100 ms) and low D leads to similar errors in RPF and GFR, because of the Rician bias in the pre-contrast arterial signals. Our patient study including 22 human subjects compared TD values of 100 and 300 ms after the injection of 4 mL of Gd contrast for MR renography. At TD = 100 ms, we computed an RPF value of 157.2 ± 51.7 mL/min and a GFR of 33.3 ± 11.6 mL/min. These results were all significantly higher than the parameter estimates at TD = 300 ms: RPF = 143.4 ± 48.8 mL/min (p = 0.0006) and GFR = 30.2 ± 11.5 mL/min (p = 0.0015). In conclusion, appropriate optimization of the DCE MRI protocol using simulation can effectively improve the precision and, potentially, the accuracy of the measured parameters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A comparison of inner ear imaging features at different time points of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglei; Ou, Yongkang; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Ya; Xiong, Hao; Xu, Yaodong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that about half of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) show high signals in the affected inner ear on three-dimensional, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI). These signals may reflect minor hemorrhage or an increased concentration of protein in the inner ear, which has passed through blood vessels with increased permeability. Our objective was to compare the positive ratio of the high signal in affected inner ears at different time points to determine the suitable imaging time point for 3D-FLAIR MRI in SSNHL. 3D-FLAIR MRI images were taken at three times, precontrast and approximately 10 min and 4 h after intravenous injection of a single dose of gadodiamide (Gd) (0.1 mmol/kg), in 46 patients with SNHL. We compared the positive findings of the high signals in the inner ear of patients with SNHL as well as the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the affected cochleae and unaffected cochleae at three time points. The positive ratios of the high signals in the affected inner ear at the time points of precontrast and 10 min and 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection were 26.1, 32.6, and 41.3%, respectively. The high signal intensity ratios of affected inner ears at the three time points were 1.28, 1.31, and 1.48, respectively. The difference between the positive ratios precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection was statistically significant (P = 0.006); the differences between the positive ratios at 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection and precontrast and between the ratios at 4 h and 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection were not statistically significant. The time effects of the median value of SIR were not significant (P = 0.064). We do not recommend 4 h after intravenous Gd injection as a time point to image the inner ear in SNHL. We believe that imaging precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection are suitable time points.

  1. Is the type and extent of hippocampal sclerosis measurable on high-resolution MRI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H; Schwarzwald, R [Medical Center University of Freiburg, Dept. of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Huppertz, H.J. [Swiss Epilepsy Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Becker, A.J. [Medical Center University of Bonn, Department of Neuropathology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [Medical Center University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Bahri, M. Delsous; Tschampa, H.J. [Medical Center University of Bonn, Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to relate hippocampal volume and FLAIR signal intensity to Wyler grading of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Of 100 consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and HS as histopathological diagnosis, 32 had high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI and anatomically well-preserved hippocampi following amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Hippocampal volume on 3D T1-weighted gradient echo and signal intensity on coronal FLAIR sequences were determined using FreeSurfer and SPM tools and related to Wyler grading. Seizure outcome was determined after 1 year. Histopathology showed four Wyler II, 19 Wyler III, and 9 Wyler IV HS. Hippocampal volumes were 3.08 ml for Wyler II (Wyler II/contralateral side: p > 0.05), 2.19 ml for Wyler III (p < 0.01), 2.62 ml for Wyler IV (p = 0.01), and 3.08 ml for the contralateral side. Normalized FLAIR signals were 1,354 (p = 0.0004), 1,408 (p < 0.0001), 1,371 (p < 0.04), and 1,296, respectively. Wyler II hippocampi were visually normal. Two of four (50 %) Wyler II, 16/19 (84 %) Wyler III, and 6/9 (66 %) Wyler IV patients achieved Engel I outcome. Combined volumetry and quantitative FLAIR signal analysis clearly identifies Wyler III and IV HS. Quantitative FLAIR signal analysis may be helpful to identify Wyler II HS. (orig.)

  2. An experimental test of the weak equivalence principle for antihydrogen at the future FLAIR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaum, Klaus; Raizen, Mark G.; Quint, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    We present new experimental ideas to investigate the gravitational interaction of antihydrogen. The experiment can first be performed in an off-line mirror measurement on hydrogen atoms, as a testing ground for our methods, before the implementation with antihydrogen atoms. A beam of hydrogen atoms is formed by launching a cold beam of protons through a cloud of trapped electrons in a nested Penning trap arrangement. In the next step, the atoms are stopped in a series of pulsed electromagnetic coils — so-called atomic coilgun. The stopped atoms are confined in a magnetic quadrupole trap and cooled by single-photon laser cooling. We intend to employ the method of Raman interferometry to study the gravitational interaction of atomic hydrogen — and later on antihydrogen at the FLAIR facility — with high sensitivity.

  3. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Justin Y; Jeong, Suh Young; Van Gelderen, Peter; Deng, Han-Xiang; Quezado, Martha M; Danielian, Laura E; Butman, John A; Chen, Lingye; Bayat, Elham; Russell, James; Siddique, Teepu; Duyn, Jeff H; Rouault, Tracey A; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2)(*)-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  4. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Y Kwan

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2(*-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  5. [Value of MRI findings in Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, V; Vargas, M I; Bin, J F; Bogorin, A; Grebici-Guessoum, M; Jacques, C; Marin, H; Zöllner, G; Dietemann, J L

    2002-09-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy) is related to thiamine deficiency. We report the MRI findings in four patients with visualization of bilateral and symmetrical hyperintense foci on T2W and FLAIR images involving the periaqueductal gray matter, the mamillary bodies and around the third ventricle. Diffusion weighted images obtained in two patients demonstrated mild hypersignal in the same areas. Contrast enhancement within the mamillary bodies was noted in one patient. Follow-up MRI obtained in three patients showed rapid regression of signal abnormalities without correlation with good clinical outcome.

  6. A Comparison of Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms and Feature Vectors for MS Lesion Segmentation Using Multimodal Structural MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Shinohara, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning is a popular method for mining and analyzing large collections of medical data. We focus on a particular problem from medical research, supervised multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We examine the extent to which the choice of machine learning or classification algorithm and feature extraction function impacts the performance of lesion segmentation methods. As quantitative measures derived from structural MRI are important clinical tools for research into the pathophysiology and natural history of MS, the development of automated lesion segmentation methods is an active research field. Yet, little is known about what drives performance of these methods. We evaluate the performance of automated MS lesion segmentation methods, which consist of a supervised classification algorithm composed with a feature extraction function. These feature extraction functions act on the observed T1-weighted (T1-w), T2-weighted (T2-w) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI voxel intensities. Each MRI study has a manual lesion segmentation that we use to train and validate the supervised classification algorithms. Our main finding is that the differences in predictive performance are due more to differences in the feature vectors, rather than the machine learning or classification algorithms. Features that incorporate information from neighboring voxels in the brain were found to increase performance substantially. For lesion segmentation, we conclude that it is better to use simple, interpretable, and fast algorithms, such as logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis, and to develop the features to improve performance. PMID:24781953

  7. Reliability of cortical lesion detection on double inversion recovery MRI applying the MAGNIMS-Criteria in multiple sclerosis patients within a 16-months period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Ceyrowski, Tim; Broocks, Gabriel; Treffler, Natascha; Sedlacik, Jan; Stürner, Klarissa; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Heesen, Christoph; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify cortical lesions (CL). We sought to evaluate the reliability of CL detection on DIR longitudinally at multiple subsequent time-points applying the MAGNIMs scoring criteria for CLs. Methods 26 MS patients received a 3T-MRI (Siemens, Skyra) with DIR at 12 time-points (TP) within a 16 months period. Scans were assessed in random order by two different raters. Both raters separately marked all CLs on each scan and total lesion numbers were obtained for each scan-TP and patient. After a retrospective re-evaluation, the number of consensus CLs (conL) was defined as the total number of CLs, which both raters finally agreed on. CLs volumes, relative signal intensities and CLs localizations were determined. Both ratings (conL vs. non-consensus scoring) were compared for further analysis. Results A total number of n = 334 CLs were identified by both raters in 26 MS patients with a first agreement of both raters on 160 out of 334 of the CLs found (κ = 0.48). After the retrospective re-evaluation, consensus agreement increased to 233 out of 334 CL (κ = 0.69). 93.8% of conL were visible in at least 2 consecutive TP. 74.7% of the conL were visible in all 12 consecutive TP. ConL had greater mean lesion volumes and higher mean signal intensities compared to lesions that were only detected by one of the raters (p<0.05). A higher number of CLs in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe were identified by both raters than the number of those only identified by one of the raters (p<0.05). Conclusions After a first assessment, slightly less than a half of the CL were considered as reliably detectable on longitudinal DIR images. A retrospective re-evaluation notably increased the consensus agreement. However, this finding is narrowed, considering the fact that retrospective evaluation steps might not be practicable in clinical routine

  8. Analysis of the Effectiveness of MRI in Diagnosing Wernicke’s Encephalopathy%Wernick脑病的MRI诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明成; 江洁; 包权; 邢健; 任春慧

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨MRI对Wernick脑病的临床诊断价值。方法回顾性分析2012年7月~2013年9月经临床证实的15例Wernick脑病患者的临床资料及MRI表现,其中5例患者同时行弥散加权成像(DWI),10例患者治疗后行MRI复查,并对治疗前后病灶的MRI表现进行对比。结果15例患者出现不同程度的两侧第三、四脑室旁、乳头体、背侧丘脑、中脑导水管周围白质区对称性异常信号。病灶表现为T1WI像呈低信号,T2WI像呈高信号,FLAIR序列呈明显高信号,DWI扫描呈高及等信号,治疗后病情明显好转。结论Wernick脑病具有特征性MRI表现,MRI对此病的诊断和预后判断具有重要价值。%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in clinical diagnosis of Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Methods Clinical data and MRI manifestations of 15 patients with Wernicke’s encephalopathy who had been conifrmed clinically from July 2012 to September 2013 in the hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Among these patients, DWI (Diffusion Weighted Imaging) was performed in 5 patients;MRI re-examinations were carried out in 10 patients to compare the MRI ifndings before and after the treatment. Results Symmetrical abnormal signal intensity was displayed to a different extent in the third and fourth bilateral ventricles, corpus mamillare, dorsal thalamus and periaqueductal white matter in all the cases. MRI revealed low-intensity lesions on T1WI images;these were high-intensity on T2WI, FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion-Recovery) and DWI images. The lesions were significantly improved after the treatment. Conclusion The Wernicke’s encephalopathy presents typical MRI ifndings. MRI is valuable for its diagnosis and prognosis.

  9. An 8-week brain MRI follow-up analysis of rat eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, L Y; Tsai, H H; Lin, D P; Chang, H H; Tyan, Y S; Weng, J C

    2014-09-01

    Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.

  10. MRI detection of hypointense brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis: T1 spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Sheena L.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Tummala, Subhash [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hurwitz, Shelley [Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bakshi, Rohit, E-mail: rbakshi@bwh.harvard.edu [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Compared T1SE and T1GE in detecting hypointense brain lesions in MS patients. • T1GE detected a higher cerebral lesion volume and number than T1SE. • T1SE correlated significantly with disability, while T1GE did not. • Hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. - Abstract: Objective: Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Background: Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. Design/methods: In 45 patients with MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2.0; 37 relapsing-remitting (RR); 8 secondary progressive (SP)], cerebral T1SE, T1GE, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Images were re-sampled to axial 5 mm slices before directly comparing lesion detectability using Jim (v.7, Xinapse Systems). Statistical methods included Wilcoxon signed rank tests to compare sequences and Spearman correlations to test associations. Results: Considering the entire cohort, T1GE detected a higher lesion volume (5.90 ± 6.21 vs. 4.17 ± 4.84 ml, p < 0.0001) and higher lesion number (27.82 ± 20.66 vs. 25.20 ± 20.43, p < 0.05) than T1SE. Lesion volume differences persisted when considering RR and SP patients separately (both p < 0.01). A higher lesion number by T1GE was seen only in the RR group (p < 0.05). When comparing correlations between lesion volume and overall neurologic disability (EDSS score), T1SE correlated with EDSS (Spearman r = 0.29, p < 0.05) while T1GE (r = 0.23, p = 0.13) and FLAIR (r = 0.24, p = 0.12) did not. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. Based on these results, we hypothesize that T1GE

  11. Chest MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - chest; Magnetic resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI ... healthy enough to filter the contrast. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  12. Sporadic Hemiplegic Migraine with Seizures and Transient MRI Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemiplegic migraines are characterised by attacks of migraine with aura accompanied by transient motor weakness. There are both familial and sporadic subtypes, which are now recognised as separate entities by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, edition II (ICHD-II. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine is a rare variant of migraine, We report a case of sporadic hemiplegic migraine and seizures with MRI features suggestive of cortical hyper intensity and edema on T2 and FLAIR images with no restriction pattern on diffusion and these changes completely resolving over time, suggesting that these changes are due prolonged neuronal depolarization and not of ischemic origin.

  13. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  14. Acute verbal dyspraxia, a rare presentation in multiple sclerosis: a case report with MRI localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Stephen L; Glabus, Michael F; Kelley, Roger E; Minagar, Alireza

    2003-12-01

    Cortical speech disorders rarely occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). We report a patient with relapsing-remitting MS, who presented with acute verbal dyspraxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an acute T2/Flair hyperintense, primarily white matter lesion underlying the middle third of the inferior frontal gyrus. The verbal dyspraxia cleared beginning 48 hours after the initiation of iv dexamethasone. Follow-up MRI demonstrated qualitative and quantitative diminution of the hyperintensity. This is the first report of a clinically definite MS patient with acute verbal dyspraxia. Moreover, there was a suggestive localization of verbal praxis to Brodmann areas 44/45.

  15. Automated detection of Lupus white matter lesions in MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Roura Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML. In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection (True Positive Rate (62% and Positive Prediction Value (80% respectively as well as segmentation accuracy (Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration.

  16. Quantitative multi-modal functional MRI with blood oxygenation level dependent exponential decays adjusted for flow attenuated inversion recovery (BOLDED AFFAIR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Renken, Remco; Kennan, Richard P; Rothman, Douglas L

    2000-01-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method is described that allows interleaved measurements of transverse (R(2)(*) and R(2)) and longitudinal (R(1)) relaxation rates of tissue water in conjunction with spin labeling. The image-contrasts are intrinsically blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and

  17. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker on FLAIR is not associated with early haemorrhagic transformation in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanski, Michal [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin-CSB, Berlin (Germany); Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Ebinger, Martin; Schmidt, Wolf U.; Hotter, Benjamin; Pittl, Sandra; Heuschmann, Peter U.; Jungehuelsing, Jan G.; Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin-CSB, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) has been described as a predictor for haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesised that this phenomenon is not present in the elderly. It was possible to assess 47/84 consecutive patients aged 80 and over with diagnosed ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). MRI was performed within 24 h of onset of symptoms with follow-up MRI within a further 48 h. Of 47 included patients, 19 showed HARM; it was only seen on follow-up examination. Ten of the 47 patients underwent thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA); 4 of them showed HARM, and 1 of those showed HT. HARM was found in three out of eight patients with haemorrhagic transformation on baseline and/or follow-up MRI. We did not observe an association between HARM and early HT either in the whole group or in the patients who received thrombolysis. HARM was not associated with HT in the elderly after ischaemic stroke, independent of treatment. While it may indicate dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it does not necessarily amount to HT. (orig.)

  18. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  19. Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: evaluation of the brain and optic pathway by conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Zikou, Anastasia K.; Tzovara, Ioanna; Margariti, Persefoni [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Nikas, Alexios; Asproudis, Ioannis [University of Ioannina, Ophthalmologic Clinic, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Blekas, Kostandinos; Galatsanos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Informatics, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the brain and the visual pathway of patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by using conventional MRI (cMRI) and volumetric magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI). Thirty NAION patients, aged 67.5 {+-} 8.14 years, and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. MTI was used to measure the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of the chiasm and for MTR histograms of the brain. The presence of areas of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) was evaluated on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Area of the optic nerves (ONs) and volume of the chiasm were assessed, as were coronal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and MTI images, respectively. More areas of WMH were observed in patients (total 419; mean 14.4; SD 19) than in controls (total 127; mean 4.7; SD 5.7), P < 0.001. Area (in square millimetres) of the affected ONs, volume(in cubic millimetres) and MTR (in percent) of the chiasm (10.7 {+-} 4.6), (75.8 {+-} 20.2), (56.4 {+-} 6.5), respectively, were lower in patients than in controls (13.6 {+-} 4.3), (158.2 {+-} 75.3) (62.1 {+-} 6.2), respectively, P < 0.05. Mean MTR of brain histograms was lower in patients (53.0 {+-} 8.0) than in controls (58.0 {+-} 5.6), P < 0.05. NAION is characterised by decreased ON and chiasmatic size. The low MTR of the chiasm and brain associated with increased areas of WMH may be suggestive of demyelination and axonal damage due to generalised cerebral vascular disease. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Mitoxantrone on MRI Findings in Patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afraze

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determining the effect of Mitoxantrone on MRI findings in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS "nPatients and Methods: In clinical trial, 25 SPMS patients were enrolled in this study. Brain and spinal cord MRI were performed before and after treatment with Mitoxantrone. The number, shape, and distribution of the plaques and the size of the largest and smallest plaques were assessed in T1 W, T2 W and FLAIR sequences and compared before and after treatment. "nResults: The mean age of the patients was 38.9 years (24-57. There were 15 women and 10 men. The mean plaque count reduction after treatment was 3±2.6, 3.3±2.5 and 3.1±2.3 in T1W, T2W and FLAIR sequences, respectively (all p<0.0001. The mean of the greatest plaque size reduction was 4.3±3.7 mm in T1W, 4.6±4.1 mm in T2W and 4.6±3.9 mm in the FLAIR sequence (all p<0.0001. The mean of the smallest plaque size reduction was 0.29±0.44, 0.29±0.52 and 0.24±0.53 mm in T1W, T2W and FLAIR sequences, respectively (all p<0.0001. There was no significant difference regarding the location and shape of the plaques before and after treatment (both p's>0.3. Also, there was not any significant difference between before and after treatment images regarding edema and ventricular dilation (p>0.9."nConclusion: Mitoxantrone can decrease the number and size of plaques in SPMS patients.

  1. Age-related findings on MRI in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Deepak S. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hyman, Shelley L. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia); Steinberg, Adam [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); North, Kathryn N. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    T2 hyperintensities (T2H) on MRI are the most common CNS lesions in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The aim was to determine the frequency, signal characteristics and localization of T2H at different ages. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of different MR imaging sequences in detecting these lesions. We studied prospectively a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults with NF1 using T2-volume (T2-V) and conventional MRI sequences. Lesions were designated as either discrete or diffuse, and the region of signal abnormality was recorded. A total of 103 patients were studied (age range 8.0-25.4 years, mean 13.9 years). The frequency, size, and intensity of T2H decreased with age in the basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum/brainstem (CB/BS). The majority of thalamic and CB/BS lesions were diffuse. Of the total cohort, 80% had diffuse bilateral hippocampal hyperintensities and 18.4% had hemispheric lesions best demonstrated on FLAIR; there was no significant difference in the frequency or signal intensity of hemispheric lesions with age. Lesions in the cerebral hemispheres and hippocampus imaged by MR do not change in prevalence over time, suggesting a different pathological basis from the lesions in the in BG and CB/BS that resolve with age. FLAIR and T2-V sequences are more sensitive in detecting lesions than standard T2-weighted sequences. (orig.)

  2. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Mie Univ. School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Fukui (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  4. Shoulder MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  5. Advanced MRI assessment to predict benefit of anti-programmed cell death 1 protein immunotherapy response in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Lei [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Imaging, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Li, Xiang; Qu, Jinrong [Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stroiney, Amanda [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Imaging, Boston, MA (United States); Northeastern University, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, College of Sciences, Boston, MA (United States); Helgager, Jeffrey [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Reardon, David A. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, CenterforNeuro-Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Young, Geoffrey S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We describe the imaging findings encountered in GBM patients receiving immune checkpoint blockade and assess the potential of quantitative MRI biomarkers to differentiate patients who derive therapeutic benefit from those who do not. A retrospective analysis was performed on longitudinal MRIs obtained on recurrent GBM patients enrolled on clinical trials. Among 10 patients with analyzable data, bidirectional diameters were measured on contrast enhanced T1 (pGd-T1WI) and volumes of interest (VOI) representing measurable abnormality suggestive of tumor were selected on pGdT1WI (pGdT1 VOI), FLAIR-T2WI (FLAIR VOI), and ADC maps. Intermediate ADC (IADC) VOI represented voxels within the FLAIR VOI having ADC in the range of highly cellular tumor (0.7-1.1 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (IADC VOI). Therapeutic benefit was determined by tissue pathology and survival on trial. IADC VOI, pGdT1 VOI, FLAIR VOI, and RANO assessment results were correlated with patient benefit. Five patients were deemed to have received therapeutic benefit and the other five patients did not. The average time on trial for the benefit group was 194 days, as compared to 81 days for the no benefit group. IADC VOI correlated well with the presence or absence of clinical benefit in 10 patients. Furthermore, pGd VOI, FLAIR VOI, and RANO assessment correlated less well with response. MRI reveals an initial increase in volumes of abnormal tissue with contrast enhancement, edema, and intermediate ADC suggesting hypercellularity within the first 0-6 months of immunotherapy. Subsequent stabilization and improvement in IADC VOI appear to better predict ultimate therapeutic benefit from these agents than conventional imaging. (orig.)

  6. EVALUATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS BY MRI TECHNIQUES AND THEIR HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : This study was conducted on thirty patients of brain tumors diagnosed on CT scan/ Conventional MRI. It was performed in the Department of Radiological and PET Imaging, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS, Brig S. K. Mazumdar Marg , Lucknow road, Delhi. Out of thirty patients, 19 patients (63.33% were male and 11 patients (36.66% were female. Their ages ranged from 22 to 63 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache followed by seizures. MRI is a powerful tool for evaluation and characterization of brain tumors because of its superior soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities. All these patients underwent routine MRI sequences, including T1W, T2WI and FLAIR sequences. Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as the gold standard. Out of thirty patients selected for this study, twenty cases were found to be malignant and ten cases were benign on histopathological evaluation. Majority of malignant lesions were glioblastomamultiforme. Amongst benign cases, majorities were meningioma, one was a granulomatous lesion and one was a benign cystic lesion. On conventional MRI sequences, including T1, T2 and FLAIR, there was significant overlap between appearances of benign and malignant lesions in their intensity on various sequences. Moreover, it has got no prognostic value in follow up of patients after therapy.

  7. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Larissa, Medical School of Thessaly, Mezourlo (Greece)), e-mail: mvlychou@med.uth.gr

    2010-04-15

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  8. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jpyosirad@med.kobe-u.ac.jpyoshiharuohno@aol.com; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging.

  9. Short TI inversion recovery technology in MRI and its clinical application%磁共振短反转时间的反转恢复技术及其临床应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海峰; 郑玲; 李林

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析磁共振短反转时间的反转恢复技术的原理及特性,探讨其在临床应用中的价值及相关注意事项.方法:回顾性分析经短反转时间的反转恢复技术获得的磁共振脂肪抑制图像50例,对比频率选择饱和法,分析总结出其临床特点.结果:相同条件下短反转时间的反转恢复技术较频率选择饱和法能获得较好的脂肪抑制效果,但某些情况下有可能引起误诊、漏诊.结论:在磁共振脂肪抑制成像的临床应用中应恰当、合理地选择短反转时间的反转恢复技术才能获得最佳的脂肪抑制图像质量,才更利于疾病的诊断与鉴别诊断.%Objective: Analyzing and summarizing the principle and characteristics of the short T1 inversion recovery technology and discusses the value of clinical applications and related matters. Methods : Retrospectively reviewed short inversion time and inversion recovery fat supprcssion techniques obtained by MRI. 50 cases of contrast frequency selective saturation method analyze the clinical features summarized. Results : Under the same conditions , short inversion time and inversian recovery techniques more frequency selective saturation method can obtain better effects of fat suppression, however,under certain circumstances may lead to misdiagnosis. Conclusion:In the clinical application of fat suppression in the magnetic resonance imaging. the short inversion time inversion recovery techniques should be appropriate, reasonable selection to get the best fat-suppression image quality. more conducive to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  10. MRI of sequela of transverse myelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.C.; Lee, S.K.; Ho, Y.J. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Radiology); Lee, K.R. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan). Inst. of Life Science); Mak, S.C.; Chi, C.S. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-09-01

    A 4-year-old boy developed acute paraplegia, associated with sensory impairement and bowel and urinary dysfunction after an URI. MRI showed diffuse hyperintensity in T2WI in the spinal cord below the T6 level. Acute transverse myelitis was diagnosed based on the clinical presentations and MRI findings. The patient had poor recovery and two months later, a follow-up MRI disclosed a severer diffuse atrophic change of the spinal cord in the affected segment. (orig.).

  11. Functional hemispherotomy in Rasmussen syndrome in the absence of classic MRI findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Nagahama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old previously healthy girl presented with a left-sided focal seizure without impaired consciousness and subsequently developed epilepsia partialis continua. Initial MRI was normal, and the subsequent images only showed a focal T2/FLAIR hyperintense area without cortical atrophy. She was diagnosed with Rasmussen syndrome by pathology and promptly treated with functional hemispherotomy. Rasmussen syndrome is a rare progressive neurological disorder, the only definitive cure for which is hemispheric disconnection. The disease presents a management dilemma, especially early in disease course without characteristic neuroimaging features. A high index of suspicion, multidisciplinary approach, and clear timely communication with the family are critical.

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: the value of MRI; Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit: Stellenwert der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Tschampa, H.J.; Keller, E.; Schild, H.H. [Radiologische Klinik, Neuroradiologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn (Germany); Paus, S. [Neurologische Klinik, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    To define the role of MRI in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Methods: 14 patients with suspected CJD were studied within 3 years. MRI findings were correlated with WHO established diagnostic criteria (clinical findings, EEG, CSF with 14-3-3 protein assay). Results: 12 patients had CJD. One patient each suffered from Hashimoto's encephalitis and ALS dementia complex, respectively. Nine of 12 CJD patients had increased signal intensity of the striatum (n = 8), pulvinar thalami (n = 5) and/or cerebellar and cerebral cortex (n = 3), respectively. Signal intensity was most pronounced on FLAIR sequences; six patients were studied with diffusion-weighted MRI and showed impaired diffusion in these areas. Both patients without CJD did not show the abovementioned signal changes (sensitivity 75%, specificity and positive predictive value 100%, respectively). Conclusion: If patients with suspected CJD are studied with FLAIR and diffusion-weighted sequences, this disorder can reliably be proven or ruled out. Typical MRI findings narrow down the differential diagnosis and should be included in the WHO diagnostic criteria. (orig.) [German] Bestimmung des Stellenwerts der MRT in der Diagnostik der Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit (CJK). Methoden: Analyse der MRTs von 14 innerhalb von drei Jahren mit Verdacht auf CJK zugewiesenen Patienten. Korrelation der MRTs mit den entsprechend den WHO-Diagnosekriterien etablierten Untersuchungsverfahren (Klinik, EEG, Liquor mit 14-3-3 Protein-Nachweis). Ergebnisse: 12 Patienten hatten eine CJK, jeweils ein Patient hatte eine Hashimoto-Enzephalitis bzw. einen ALS-Demenz-Komplex. Bei 9 der 12 CJK-Patienten fanden sich beidseits Signalerhoehungen des Striatum (n = 8), des Pulvinar thalami (n = 5) und/oder des Kleinhirn- bzw. Grosshirnkortex (n = 3). Die Signalerhoehungen waren am deutlichsten auf FLAIR-Aufnahmen erkennbar; 6 mit diffusionsgewichteter MRT untersuchte Patienten wiesen eine eingeschraenkte Diffusion dieser Areale

  13. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  14. Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases using structural MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Rhodius-Meester, Hanneke; Tolonen, Antti; Barkhof, Frederik; Tijms, Betty; Lemstra, Afina W.; Tong, Tong; Guerrero, Ricardo; Schuh, Andreas; Ledig, Christian; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Remes, Anne M.; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hasselbalch, Steen; Mecocci, Patrizia; van der Flier, Wiesje; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative diseases can cause memory disorders and other cognitive impairments. The early detection and the stratification of patients according to the underlying disease are essential for an efficient approach to this healthcare challenge. This emphasizes the importance of differential diagnostics. Most studies compare patients and controls, or Alzheimer's disease with one other type of dementia. Such a bilateral comparison does not resemble clinical practice, where a clinician is faced with a number of different possible types of dementia. Here we studied which features in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans could best distinguish four types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, and control subjects. We extracted an extensive set of features quantifying volumetric and morphometric characteristics from T1 images, and vascular characteristics from FLAIR images. Classification was performed using a multi-class classifier based on Disease State Index methodology. The classifier provided continuous probability indices for each disease to support clinical decision making. A dataset of 504 individuals was used for evaluation. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 70.6% and balanced accuracy was 69.1% for the five disease groups using only automatically determined MRI features. Vascular dementia patients could be detected with high sensitivity (96%) using features from FLAIR images. Controls (sensitivity 82%) and Alzheimer's disease patients (sensitivity 74%) could be accurately classified using T1-based features, whereas the most difficult group was the dementia with Lewy bodies (sensitivity 32%). These results were notable better than the classification accuracies obtained with visual MRI ratings (accuracy 44.6%, balanced accuracy 51.6%). Different quantification methods provided complementary information, and consequently, the best results were obtained by

  15. Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases using structural MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Rhodius-Meester, Hanneke; Tolonen, Antti; Barkhof, Frederik; Tijms, Betty; Lemstra, Afina W; Tong, Tong; Guerrero, Ricardo; Schuh, Andreas; Ledig, Christian; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Remes, Anne M; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hasselbalch, Steen; Mecocci, Patrizia; van der Flier, Wiesje; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative diseases can cause memory disorders and other cognitive impairments. The early detection and the stratification of patients according to the underlying disease are essential for an efficient approach to this healthcare challenge. This emphasizes the importance of differential diagnostics. Most studies compare patients and controls, or Alzheimer's disease with one other type of dementia. Such a bilateral comparison does not resemble clinical practice, where a clinician is faced with a number of different possible types of dementia. Here we studied which features in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans could best distinguish four types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, and control subjects. We extracted an extensive set of features quantifying volumetric and morphometric characteristics from T1 images, and vascular characteristics from FLAIR images. Classification was performed using a multi-class classifier based on Disease State Index methodology. The classifier provided continuous probability indices for each disease to support clinical decision making. A dataset of 504 individuals was used for evaluation. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 70.6% and balanced accuracy was 69.1% for the five disease groups using only automatically determined MRI features. Vascular dementia patients could be detected with high sensitivity (96%) using features from FLAIR images. Controls (sensitivity 82%) and Alzheimer's disease patients (sensitivity 74%) could be accurately classified using T1-based features, whereas the most difficult group was the dementia with Lewy bodies (sensitivity 32%). These results were notable better than the classification accuracies obtained with visual MRI ratings (accuracy 44.6%, balanced accuracy 51.6%). Different quantification methods provided complementary information, and consequently, the best results were obtained by

  16. 磁共振FSE-T2WI、FLAIR-T2WI及增强扫描对脑实质囊虫病诊断价值%The value of FSE-T2WI,FLAIR-T2WI and enhancement scan in diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承志; 邱麟; 许俊锋; 唐艳隆; 查文金; 冉令甲

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究磁共振FSE-T2WI、FLAIR-T2WI及增强扫描对脑实质囊虫病诊断价值.方法分析76例脑实质囊虫患者磁共振FSE-T2WI、FLAIR-T2WI及增强扫描序列MRI表现,及其各序列检出囊泡、头节、颗粒状肉芽肿、灶周水肿及钙化灶的数目,并进行统计学处理.结果脑实质囊虫病病理分期为囊泡期28例,退变死亡期25例,死亡钙化期16例,混合期7例,与MRI表现相一致,囊泡在FSE-T2WI检出率最高为98%,头节在FLAIR-T2WI检出率最高为95%,颗粒状肉芽肿增强扫描检出率最高为93%,灶周水肿在FLAIR-T2WI检出率最高为97%,钙化灶在FSE-T2WI检出率相对较高为76%.结论 MRI表现能明确反映脑实质囊虫病的病理变化过程,合理有效地选择磁共振FSE-T2WI、FLAIR-T2WI及T1WI增强扫描等不同序列的检查,对脑实质囊虫病病灶检出和诊断具有十分重要的价值.

  17. MRI of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Prostate Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate ... limitations of MRI of the Prostate? What is MRI of the Prostate? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  18. MRI zoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard....... MRI was done using a Philips Achieva 1.5 T system and CT was performed using a Siemens Somatom system. Axial and sagittal slices were acquired using standard T1w and T2w MRI sequences, and visualization was made using the Mistar software (Apollo Imaging Technology, Melbourne, Australia). Images were...

  19. Assessment of ischemic penumbra in patients with hyperacute stroke using amide proton transfer (APT) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob; Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Østergaard, Leif; Strother, Megan K; Smith, Seth A; Donahue, Manus J

    2014-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-derived, pH-weighted, amide proton transfer (APT) MRI has shown promise in animal studies for the prediction of infarction risk in ischemic tissue. Here, APT MRI was translated to patients with acute stroke (1-24 h post-symptom onset), and assessments of APT contrast, perfusion, diffusion, disability and final infarct volume (23-92 days post-stroke) are reported. Healthy volunteers (n = 5) and patients (n = 10) with acute onset of symptoms (0-4 h, n = 7; uncertain onset diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and CEST. Traditional asymmetry and a Lorentzian-based APT index were calculated in the infarct core, at-risk tissue (time-to-peak, TTP; lengthening) and final infarct volume. On average (mean ± standard deviation), control white matter APT values (asymmetry, 0.019 ± 0.005; Lorentzian, 0.045 ± 0.006) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from APT values in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of patients (asymmetry, 0.022 ± 0.003; Lorentzian, 0.048 ± 0.003); however, ischemic regions in patients showed reduced (p = 0.03) APT effects compared with NAWM. Representative cases are presented, whereby the APT contrast is compared quantitatively with contrast from other imaging modalities. The findings vary between patients; in some patients, a trend for a reduction in the APT signal in the final infarct region compared with at-risk tissue was observed, consistent with tissue acidosis. However, in other patients, no relationship was observed in the infarct core and final infarct volume. Larger clinical studies, in combination with focused efforts on sequence development at clinically available field strengths (e.g. 3.0 T), are necessary to fully understand the potential of APT imaging for guiding the hyperacute management of patients.

  20. Pediatric MRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Study of Normal Brain Development is a longitudinal study using anatomical MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to map pediatric...

  1. Knee MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air-conditioned and well-lit. Some scanners have music to help you pass the time. When the ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  2. MRI of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.

    2000-02-01

    Shoulder imaging is one of the major applications in musculoskeletal MRI. In order to analyze the images it is important to keep informed about anatomical and pathological findings and publications. In this article MRI technique, anatomy and pathology is reviewed. Technical considerations about MR sequences and examination strategy are only shortly discussed with emphasis on turbo spin echo and short T1 inversion recovery imaging. Basic anatomy as well as recent findings, including macroscopic aspects of the supraspinatus fat pad, composition of the supraspinatus muscle belly, and variability of the glenohumeral ligaments or coracoid ligament, are presented. Basic pathological conditions are described in detail, e. g. instability particularly problems in differentiating the various subtypes of labral pathology. Rotator cuff diseases are elucidated with emphasis on some rarer entities such as subscapularis calcifying tendinitis, coracoid impingement, chronic bursitis producing the double-line sign, prominent coraco-acromial ligament and the impingement due to an inflamed os acromiale. (orig.)

  3. 桥本脑病的MRI特点%The MRI characteristics of Hashimoto encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠; 秦文; 齐志刚; 刘佳宾; 李坤成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the MRI findings of HE and the pathological mechanism and to improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of HE. Methods Five patients of HE diagnosed by clinical and laboratory examination were examined with conventional MRI scan. Additional DWI, MRA and enhancement MRI scan were performed on 3 patients in which abnormal findings was detected on the conventional MRI. The distribution of lesions and signal characteristics were analyzed. The ADC values of the lesions and of the contralateral non-lesion area were measured. Moreover, the possible pathological mechanisms of HE were discussed on the basis of changes of clinical and imaging manifestations in the two cases with serial clinical and MRI data. Results Of 5 patients, brain abnormalities were found in 3 cases,which showed scattered spotted supratentorial white matter lesions of isointensity on T1 WI and DWI, and high signal intensity on T2WI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Meanwhile, multiple plaque-like lesions involving both white matter and gray matter were found, mainly located at the basal ganglia nuclei, hippocampus and cingulate cortex. The lesions demonstrated iso-or hypo-intensity on T1 WI,and iso-or hyper-intensity on T2 WI, FIAIR and DWI at the initial stage. No enhancement was found in these lesions and MRA disclosed no remarkable findings. The ADC value of the lesions [ (0. 449 ± 0. 092) ×10-3 mm2/s] was decreased significantly compared with the contralateral noninvolved area [ (0. 838 ±0. 062) × 10-3 mm2/s] at the early onset. In 2 cases with glucocorticoid therapy, together with symptom relief, MRI follow-up scan demonstrated the reduction of lesion volume, the signal change to hyperintensity on T1 WI and hypo-intensity on DWL The ADC of the lesions increased significantly. Conclusion The MRI could be one of the effective tools for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and judging the prognosis and therapeutic results of HE. Meanwhile, it may be a non

  4. Statistical approach of measurement of signal to noise ratio in according to change pulse sequence on brain MRI meningioma and cyst images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eul Kyu [Inje Paik University Hospital Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [The Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [The Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun [The Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to needed basis of measure MRI CAD development for signal to noise ratio (SNR) by pulse sequence analysis from region of interest (ROI) in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. We examined images of brain MRI contrast enhancement of 117 patients, from January 2005 to December 2015 in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Diagnosed as one of two brain diseases such as meningioma and cysts SNR for each patient's image of brain MRI were calculated by using Image J. Differences of SNR among two brain diseases were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance (p < 0.05). We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to sequence disease, 95% confidence according to SNR of sequence and difference in a mean of SNR. Meningioma results, with the quality of distributions in the order of T1CE, T2 and T1, FLAIR. Cysts results, with the quality of distributions in the order of T2 and T1, T1CE and FLAIR. SNR of MRI sequences of the brain would be useful to classify disease. Therefore, this study will contribute to evaluate brain diseases, and be a fundamental to enhancing the accuracy of CAD development.

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch is associated with better neurologic response to intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Yeong; Han, Sang Kuk; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi, Pil Cho; Lee, Jeong Hun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate differences in the effect of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis regarding the mismatch of diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the emergency department (ED) within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms. Among ED patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and May 2013 at a tertiary hospital, those who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before IV thrombolytic therapy were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into DWI-FLAIR mismatch and match groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores obtained initially, 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy, and on discharge, and early neurologic improvement (ENI) and major neurologic improvement (MNI) were compared. During the study period, 50 of the 213 acute ischemic stroke patients who presented to the ED were included. The DWI-FLAIR mismatch group showed a statistically significantly greater reduction in NIHSS both at 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy and upon discharge than did the match group (5.5 vs. 1.2, PIV thrombolytic therapy than did the DWI-FLAIR match group in terms of neurologic outcome.

  6. Degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine: a prospective comparison of fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, L. Oktay [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Erdem, C. Zuhal [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Acikgoz, Bektas [Department of Neurosurgery, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gundogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, 6700 Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    Objective: To compare fast T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging of the degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (19 females, 16 males; mean age 41 years, range 31-67 years) with suspected degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted TSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Two radiologists compared these sequences both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: On qualitative evaluation, CSF nulling, contrast at the disc-CSF interface, the disc-spinal cord (cauda equina) interface, and the spinal cord (cauda equina)-CSF interface of fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.001). On quantitative evaluation of the first 15 patients, signal-to-noise ratios of cerebrospinal fluid of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Contrast-to-noise ratios of spinal cord/CSF and normal bone marrow/disc for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted TSE images (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results in our study have shown that fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging may be a valuable imaging modality in the armamentarium of lumbar spinal T1-weighted MR imaging, because the former technique has definite superior advantages such as CSF nulling, conspicuousness of the normal anatomic structures and changes in the lumbar spinal discogenic disease and image contrast and also almost equally acquisition times.

  7. Post traumatic deafness: a pictorial review of CT and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Olivier; Attyé, Arnaud; Boyer, Eric; Heck, Olivier; Kastler, Adrian; Grand, Sylvie; Schmerber, Sébastien; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common functional disorder after trauma, and radiologists should be aware of the ossicular, labyrinthine or brain lesions that may be responsible. After a trauma, use of a systematic approach to explore the main functional components of auditory pathways is essential. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the disruption of the conductive chain, which may be due to ossicular luxation or fracture. This pictorial review firstly describes the normal 2-D and 3-D anatomy of the ossicular chain, including the incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joints. The role of 3-D CT in the post-traumatic evaluation of injury to the temporal bone is then evaluated. In the case of sensorineural hearing loss, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth and signs of perilymphatic fistulae but fails to detect subtle lesions within the inner ear, such as labyrinthine haemorrhage or localized brain axonal damage along central auditory pathways. The role that MRI with 3-D-FLAIR acquisition plays in the detection of inner ear haemorrhage and post-traumatic lesions of the brain parenchyma that may lead to auditory agnosia is also discussed. • The most common middle ear injuries are incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joint luxation. • In patients with SNHL, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth or perilymphatic fistula • 3-D-FLAIR MRI appears the best sequence to highlight labyrinthine haemorrhage • Axonal damage and brain hematoma may lead to deafness.

  8. MRI Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al Nasser Assi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   "nMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become more and more frequently used in medical imaging diagnostic in recent years. Radiologists and technicians working at these systems are relatively often confronted with image artifacts related to the radiowave with strong magnetic in the scanner. Many artifacts may be corrected or modulated through an understanding of their cause. This requires familiarity with scanner design; theory of operation; and image acquisition. The purpose of this review article is to present the most relevant artifacts that arise in MRI scanner, to provide some physical background on the formation of artifacts, and to suggest strategies to reduce or avoid these artifacts. The most frequent artifacts that can occur during MRI scanning are Motion related artifacts; Para-magnetic artifacts; Phase Wrap artifacts; Frequency artifacts; Susceptibility artifacts; Clipping artefact; Chemical Shift artifact and "Zebra" artefact .    "n  

  9. Portable MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  10. 脑干梗死与低场强MRI的表现%Analysis on clinical manifestations and low field MRI features of brainstem infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志萍; 吴冬春; 郑列祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of brainstem infarction. Methods The clinical characteristics combined with the corresponding low field MRI features of 44 cases with brainstem infarction were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among 44 cases,38 cases showed pons infarction.3 cases suffered midbrain infarction, and 3 cases showed oblongata infarction. The common clinical symptoms and signs were partial body movement disorder, dysarthria and wet cough. All cases had positive effectives in MRI, and MRI manifested their sizes in diameter was mainly of 6~16mm, and the shape was irregular patch. All lesions showed isointensity or short signals on T1WI, high signals on T2WI, high or lowr signals on FLAIR. Conclusion MRI is the most effective method in the diagnosis of brainstem infarction.%目的 探讨脑干梗死的临床表现及低场MRI 的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析经临床确诊的44 例脑干梗死患者的临床及低场MRI 资料.结果 44 例脑干梗死包括:脑桥梗死38 例,中脑梗死3 例,延髓梗死3 例.临床表现为构音障碍、饮水呛咳、偏身运动障碍等.MRI 显示病灶直径以6~16 mm 为主,形态为不规则斑片状,信号特点为T1WI 呈等或低信号,T2WI 呈高信号,FLAIR 序列呈高或低信号.结论 MRI 是脑干梗死最有效的影像学诊断方法.

  11. Recovery Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Berd, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    We derive an arbitrage free relationship between recovery swap rates, digital default swap spreads and conventional CDS spreads, and argue that the fair forward recovery rate used in recovery swaps must contain a convexity premium over the expected recovery value.

  12. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... radiologist) see some areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  13. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  14. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? MRI examinations may be performed ...

  16. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles: inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Boekhorst, B C M; Bovens, S M; van de Kolk, C W A; Cramer, M J M; Doevendans, P A F M; ten Hove, M; van der Weerd, L; Poelmann, R; Strijkers, G J; Pasterkamp, G; van Echteld, C J A

    2010-10-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo is limited. Study aims were: evaluation of (1) timing of MRI after intravenous injection of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2-R) (expressed by human and mouse plaque macrophages) targeted micelles; (2) inter-scan variability of inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo; (3) relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inversion-recovery fast spin echo/fast spin echo imaging was performed before and every 15 min up to 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted or control micelles using several groups of mice measured in an interleaved fashion. NER(plaque) (determined on inversion-recovery fast spin echo images) remained high (∼2) until 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted micelles, whereas NER(plaque) decreased after 36 h in the control group. The inter-scan variability and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium (assessed with inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry) were compared between inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inter-scan variability was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. Although gadolinium and NER(plaque) correlated well for both techniques, the NER of plaque was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. In mice injected with CB2-R targeted micelles, NER(plaque) can be best evaluated at 36-48 h post-injection. Because NER(plaque) was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo, but with high inter-scan variability, repeated inversion-recovery fast spin echo imaging and averaging of the obtained NER(plaque) values is recommended.

  17. MRI zoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard proced...

  18. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  19. Nuevo Biomarcador en la Enfermedad de Parkinson Mediante el Análisis y Cuantificación de Lesiones Cerebrales en Secuencias Flair Obtenidas por Resonancia Magnética (ACL-Tool)

    OpenAIRE

    Chancay Piure, Orlando Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Las Lesiones en Sustancia Blanca cerebral (LSB) aparecen tanto en sujetos sanos como en ciertas patologías, siendo visibles con imágenes FLAIR de Resonancia Magnética, las cuales se presentan como áreas más brillantes respecto al resto del tejido. El uso clínico de imágenes FLAIR se basan en la inspección visual, sin embargo, este enfoque no permite la evaluación y cuantificación de lesiones que pueden ser muy importantes para diferenciar y evaluar el comportamiento de alguna patología. Actua...

  20. Morphologic MRI features, diffusion tensor imaging and radiation dosimetric analysis to differentiate pseudo-progression from early tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ajay; Kumar, Sanath; Narang, Jayant; Schultz, Lonni; Mikkelsen, Tom; Wang, Sumei; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Poptani, Harish; Jain, Rajan

    2013-05-01

    Pseudo-progression (PsP) refers to the paradoxical increase of contrast enhancement within 12 weeks of chemo-radiation therapy in gliomas attributable to treatment effects rather than early tumor progression (ETP). This study was performed to evaluate the utility of morphologic imaging features, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and radiation dosimetric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in differentiating PsP from ETP. Serial MRI examinations of 163 patients treated for high-grade glioma were reviewed. 46 patients showed a recurrent or progressive enhancing lesion within 12 weeks of radiotherapy. We used an in-house modified scoring system based on 20 different morphologic features (modified VASARI features) to assess the MRI studies. DTI analyses were performed in 24 patients. MRI changes were defined as recurrent volume (Vrec) and registered with pretreatment computed tomography dataset, and the actual dose received by the Vrec during treatment was calculated using dose-volume histograms. Bidimensional product of T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and enhancing component was larger in the ETP group. DTI metrics revealed no significant difference between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the location of Vrec between PsP and ETP groups. Morphologic MRI features and DTI have a limited role in differentiating between PsP and ETP. The larger sizes of the T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and the enhancing component of the lesion favor ETP. There was no correlation between the pattern of MRI changes and radiation dose distribution between PsP and ETP groups.

  1. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  2. Battlefield MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  3. Paraplegia caused by cerebral contusions in the bilateral precentral gyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Matsumura

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We must emphasize that cerebral contusion can be a differential diagnosis for paraplegia. In the acute phase, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR MRI coronal and sagittal images are useful for identifying precentral gyri contusions. Paraplegia caused by a cerebral contusion may be misdiagnosed as a spinal concussion due to the disappearance of the precentral gyrus lesion on FLAIR MRI in the subacute phase.

  4. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest ... limitations of MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  5. Contributions of EEG-fMRI to Assessing the Epileptogenicity of Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau, Francesca; Ferri, Lorenzo; Fahoum, Firas; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability of the BOLD response to EEG spikes to assess the epileptogenicity of the lesion in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Method: Patients with focal epilepsy and FCD who underwent 3T EEG-fMRI from 2006 to 2010 were included. Diagnosis of FCD was based on neuroradiology (MRI+), or histopathology in MRI-negative cases (MRI−). Patients underwent 120 min EEG-fMRI recording session. Spikes similar to those recorded outside the scanner were marked in the filtered EEG. The lesion (in MRI+) or the removed cortex (in MRI−) was marked on the anatomical T1 sequence, blindly to the BOLD response, after reviewing the FLAIR images. For each BOLD response we assessed the concordance with the spike field and with the lesion in MRI+ or the removed cortex in MRI−. BOLD responses were considered “concordant” if the maximal t-value was inside the marking. Follow-up after resection was used as gold-standard. Results: Twenty patients were included (13 MRI+, 7 MRI−), but in seven the EEG was not active or there were artifacts during acquisition. In all 13 studied patients, at least one BOLD response was concordant with the spike field; in 9/13 (69%) at least one BOLD response was concordant with the lesion: in 6/7 (86%) MRI+ and in 3/6 (50%) MRI− patients. Conclusions: Our study shows a high level of concordance between FCD and BOLD response. This data could provide useful information especially for MRI negative patients. Moreover, it shows in almost all FCD patients, a metabolic involvement of remote cortical or subcortical structures, corroborating the concept of epileptic network.

  6. Knee MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI - knee ... radiologist see certain areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ... less anxious. Your provider may suggest an "open" MRI, in which the machine is not as close ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the chest is performed ...

  8. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the chest is performed ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You may resume your usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. On very rare occasions, ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety MRI Safety During Pregnancy Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest ...

  11. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  12. Accuracy of high-field intraoperative MRI in the detectability of residual tumor in glioma grade IV resections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Mager, Ann-Kathrin [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neurologie; Goetz, Claudia; Kremer, Paul [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Detsch, Oliver [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Theisgen, Hannah-Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Friese, Michael; Gottschalk, Joachim [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Schwindt, Wolfram [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2017-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity/specificity of tumor detection by T1 contrast enhancement in intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) in comparison to histopathological assessment as the gold standard in patients receiving surgical resection of grade IV glioblastoma. 68 patients with a primary or a recurrent glioblastoma scheduled for surgery including fluorescence guidance and neuronavigation were included (mean age: 59 years, 26 female, 42 male patients). The ioMRI after the first resection included transverse FLAIR, DWI, T2-FFE and T1 - 3 d FFE ± GD-DPTA. The second resection was performed whenever residual contrast-enhancing tissue was detected on ioMRI. Resected tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated (gold standard). Additionally, we evaluated the early postoperative MRI scan acquired within 48 h post-OP for remaining enhancing tissue and compared them with the ioMRI scan. In 43 patients ioMRI indicated residual tumorous tissue, which could be confirmed in the histological specimens of the second resection. In 16 (4 with recurrent, 12 with primary glioblastoma) cases, ioMRI revealed truly negative results without residual tumor and follow-up MRI confirmed complete resection. In 7 cases (3 with recurrent, 4 with primary glioblastoma) ioMRI revealed a suspicious result without tumorous tissue in the histopathological workup. In 2 (1 for each group) patients, residual tumorous tissue was detected in spite of negative ioMRI. IoMRI had a sensitivity of 95 % (94 % recurrent and 96 % for primary glioblastoma) and a specificity of 69.5 % (57 % and 75 %, respectively). The positive predictive value was 86 % (84 % for recurrent and 87 % for primary glioblastoma), and the negative predictive value was 88 % (80 % and 92 %, respectively). ioMRI is effective for detecting remaining tumorous tissue after glioma resection. However, scars and leakage of contrast agent can be misleading and limit specificity. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) presents with a high sensitivity for residual

  13. Simple and complex dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) variants: clinical profile, MRI, and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alexandre R.; Clusmann, Hans; Lehe, Marec von; Schramm, Johannes [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Niehusmann, Pitt; Becker, Albert J. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Neuropathology, Bonn (Germany); Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) are long-term epilepsy associated tumors subdivided into simple and complex variants. The purpose of this study was to relate different DNT components identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to histopathological features and to test the hypothesis that glial nodules as a histopathological feature of complex variants induce an occasional glioma misdiagnosis. Clinical, MRI, and histopathologic features of DNTs operated between 1988 and 2008 were reviewed. From a total of 61 DNTs, 48 simple and 13 complex variants were identified. Multiple or single pseudocysts in a cortical/subcortical location with small cysts sometimes separated from the tumor represented the glioneuronal element and were found in all DNTs. FLAIR hyperintense tissue was found between pseudocysts but - in neocortical DNTs - also circumscript in deeper tumor parts. Calcification and hemorrhages in this location occurred in four of 13 complex variants, and one of these patients was also the only one with tumor growth. Patients with complex variants had earlier seizure onset, and complex variants were more often located outside the temporal lobe. Although complex variants represented a higher diagnostic challenge, misdiagnoses also occurred in simple variants. One of five of DNTs showed contrast enhancement, which varied on follow-up studies with enhancing parts becoming nonenhancing and vice versa. The glioneuronal element is readily identifiable on MRI and should be considered to support the DNT diagnosis. Complex DNT variants have a different clinical profile and a more variable histopathological and MRI appearance; however, misdiagnoses occasionally also occur in simple variants. (orig.)

  14. Brain MRI findings in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II and mild clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheus, M.Gisele; Castillo, Mauricio; Smith, J. Keith [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 27599-7510, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Armao, Diane [Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Towle, Diane; Muenzer, Joseph [Department of Genetics and Metabolism, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in a selected group of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and II who had only mild clinical manifestations. We retrospectively assessed MRI brain studies in 18 patients with MPS (type I: 6 and type II: 12). We evaluated abnormal signal intensity in the white matter, widening of the cortical sulci, size of the supratentorial ventricles, dilatation of the perivascular spaces (PVS) and enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. We observed a broad spectrum of findings, and despite severely abnormal MRI studies, no patients had mental retardation. We also observed that dilated PVS, previously believed to be caused by macroscopic deposition of the mucopolysaccharides, had an appearance similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all MRI sequences performed, even in FLAIR and trace diffusion weighted images. Based on our results, we believe that with the exception of white matter abnormalities and brain atrophy, all other findings may be related to abnormal resorption of CSF, and there is no relationship between the imaging and clinical manifestations of the disease. (orig.)

  15. Multimodal (18)F-Fluciclovine PET/MRI and Ultrasound-Guided Neurosurgery of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, Anna; Berntsen, Erik Magnus; Johansen, Håkon; Myrthue, Mariane; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Esmaeili, Morteza; Dai, Hong Yan; Xiao, Yiming; Rivaz, Hassan; Borghammer, Per; Solheim, Ole; Eikenes, Live

    2017-08-24

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic tissue sampling are routinely performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with glioma. Because of the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, there is a risk of undergrading caused by histopathologic sampling errors. MRI has limitations in identifying tumor grade and type, detecting diffuse invasive growth, and separating recurrences from treatment induced changes. Positron emission tomography (PET) can provide quantitative information of cellular activity and metabolism, and may therefore complement MRI. In this report, we present the first patient with brain glioma examined with simultaneous PET/MRI using the amino acid tracer (18)F-fluciclovine ((18)F-FACBC) for intraoperative image-guided surgery. A previously healthy 60-year old woman was admitted to the emergency care with speech difficulties and a mild left-sided hemiparesis. MRI revealed a tumor that was suggestive of glioma. Before surgery, the patient underwent a simultaneous PET/MRI examination. Fused PET/MRI, T1, FLAIR, and intraoperative three-dimensional ultrasound images were used to guide histopathologic tissue sampling and surgical resection. Navigated, image-guided histopathologic samples were compared with PET/MRI image data to assess the additional value of the PET acquisition. Histopathologic analysis showed anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the most malignant parts of the tumor, while several regions were World Health Organization (WHO) grade II. (18)F-Fluciclovine uptake was found in parts of the tumor where regional WHO grade, cell proliferation, and cell densities were highest. This finding suggests that PET/MRI with this tracer could be used to improve accuracy in histopathologic tissue sampling and grading, and possibly for guiding treatments targeting the most malignant part of extensive and eloquent gliomas. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. L'uso del doppiaggio e del sottotitolaggio nell'insegnamento della L2: Il caso della piattaforma ClipFlair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupe Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The purpose of this paper is to present the Clipflair project, a web platform for foreign language learning (FLL through revoicing and captioning of clips. Using audiovisual material in the language classroom is a common resource for teachers since it introduces variety, provides exposure to nonverbal cultural elements and, most importantly, presents linguistic and cultural aspects of communication in their context. However, teachers using this resource face the difficulty of finding active tasks that will engage learners and discourage passive viewing. ClipFlair proposes working with AV material productively while also motivating learners by getting them to revoice or caption a clip. Revoicing is a term used to refer to (rerecording voice onto a clip, as in dubbing, free commentary, audio description and karaoke singing. The term captioning refers to adding written text to a clip, such as standard subtitles, annotations and intertitles. Clips can be short video or audio files, including documentaries, film scenes, news pieces, animations and songs. ClipFlair develops materials that enable foreign language learners to practice all four standard CEFR skills: writing, speaking, listening and reading. Within the project’s scope, more than 350 ready-made activities, which involve captioning and/or revoicing of clips, has been created. These activities has been created for more than 16 languages including English, Spanish and Italian, but focus is placed on less widely taught languages, namely Estonian, Greek, Romanian and Polish, as well as minority languages, i.e. Basque, Catalan and Irish. Non-European languages, namely Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Ukrainian are also included. The platform has three different areas: The Gallery offers the materials and the activities; the Studio area, offers a captioning and revoicing tools, in order to create or practice and learn languages by using the activities; the Social Network area

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breath-Hold Divers with Cerebral Decompression Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cerebral decompression sickness (DCS is still unclear. We report 2 cases of breath-hold divers with cerebral DCS in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated distinctive characteristics. One case presented right hemiparesthesia, diplopia, and gait disturbance after breath-hold diving into the sea at a depth of 20 m. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR sequence revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right frontal lobe, bilateral thalamus, pons, and right cerebellar hemisphere. The second case presented visual and gait disturbance after repetitive breath-hold diving into the sea. FLAIR imaging showed hyperintense areas in the bilateral occipito-parietal lobes. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping revealed hyperintense areas in the lesions identified by FLAIR. Moreover, follow-up MRI showed attenuation of the FLAIR signal abnormalities. These findings are suggestive of transient hyperpermeability in the microvasculature as a possible cause of cerebral DCS.

  18. Comparison of FLAIR, Contrast-enhanced T1WI and Contrast-enhanced FLAIR Sequences in the Diagnosis of Leptomeningeal Diseases%比较FLAIR、增强T1WI及增强FLAIR对柔脑膜病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金银; 汤琅琅; 李雪春; 陈银娟; 刘丽萍; 林祺

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较FLAIR、增强T1WI及增强FLAIR三种序列对不同柔脑膜病变的诊断价值.方法:搜集82例均行FLAIR、增强T1WI和增强FLAIR检查的柔脑膜病变患者的MR图像和资料,分析柔脑膜病变在不同序列上的MRI表现,对比三种序列对病变检出的敏感性.结果:柔脑膜病变呈不同程度的异常脑回样或线样高信号,82例中对病变的检出率分别为:FLAIR 14.63% (12/82)、增强T1WI 19.51% (16/82)、增强FLAIR 87.80% (72/82),三种序列之间差异有统计学意义(c2=101.290,P< 0.03).结论:FLAIR、增强T1WI及增强FLAIR三种序列对不同柔脑膜病变均有不同程度的检出率,其中增强FLAIR对柔脑膜病变的检出率明显高于其他两者,对柔脑膜病变更具有诊断价值.

  19. Synthetic MRI of the brain in a clinical setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blystad, I.; Smedby, O. [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Department of Radiology, UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: ida.blystad@lio.se; Warntjes, J.B.M. [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Department of Clinical Physiology, UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Linkoeping (Sweden); Landtblom, A.-M. [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Neurology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, Division of Neurology, UHL, LiM, County Council of Oestergoetland, Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, P. [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Department of Radiation Physics, UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Linkoeping (Sweden); Larsson, E.-M. [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science/Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Background. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has relatively long scan times for routine examinations, and the signal intensity of the images is related to the specific MR scanner settings. Due to scanner imperfections and automatic optimizations, it is impossible to compare images in terms of absolute image intensity. Synthetic MRI, a method to generate conventional images based on MR quantification, potentially both decreases examination time and enables quantitative measurements. Purpose. To evaluate synthetic MRI of the brain in a clinical setting by assessment of the contrast, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the diagnostic quality compared with conventional MR images. Material and Methods. Twenty-two patients had synthetic imaging added to their clinical MR examination. In each patient, 12 regions of interest were placed in the brain images to measure contrast and CNR. Furthermore, general image quality, probable diagnosis, and lesion conspicuity were investigated. Results. Synthetic T1-weighted turbo spin echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo images had higher contrast but also a higher level of noise, resulting in a similar CNR compared with conventional images. Synthetic T2-weighted FLAIR images had lower contrast and a higher level of noise, which led to a lower CNR. Synthetic images were generally assessed to be of inferior image quality, but agreed with the clinical diagnosis to the same extent as the conventional images. Lesion conspicuity was higher in the synthetic T1-weighted images, which also had a better agreement with the clinical diagnoses than the conventional T1-weighted images. Conclusion. Synthetic MR can potentially shorten the MR examination time. Even though the image quality is perceived to be inferior, synthetic images agreed with the clinical diagnosis to the same extent as the conventional images in this study.

  20. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  1. Diagnostic Approach to Functional Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Christensen, Hanne Krarup

    2013-01-01

    a substantial capacity to reorganize after a focal ischemic (or hemorrhagic) brain lesion. This functional reorganization contributes to functional recovery after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a valuable tool to capture the spatial and temporal activity changes in response......, only up to 20-25% of patients are eligible to causal treatment. Further, care in a specialized stroke unit improves prognosis in all patients independent of age and stroke severity. Even when it is not possible to prevent tissue loss, the surviving brain areas of functional brain networks have...... to an acute ischemic lesion. Task-related as well as resting-state fMRI have been successfully applied to elucidate post-stroke remodeling of functional brain networks. This includes regional changes in neuronal activation as well as distributed changes in functional brain connectivity. Since fMRI is readily...

  2. Evolution of Volume and Signal Intensity on Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery MR Images after Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federau, Christian; Mlynash, Michael; Christensen, Soren; Zaharchuk, Greg; Cha, Brannon; Lansberg, Maarten G; Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To analyze both volume and signal evolution on magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images between the images after endovascular therapy and day 5 (which was the prespecified end point for infarct volume in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution [DEFUSE 2] trial) in a subset of patients enrolled in the DEFUSE 2 study. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee at all participating sites. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. In this post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 2 study, 35 patients with FLAIR images acquired both after endovascular therapy (median time after symptom onset, 12 hours) and at day 5 were identified. Patients were separated into two groups based on the degree of reperfusion achieved on time to maximum greater than 6-second perfusion imaging (≥90% vs <90%). After coregistration and signal normalization, lesion volumes and signal intensity were assessed by using FLAIR imaging for the initial lesion (ie, visible after endovascular therapy) and the recruited lesion (the additional lesion visible on day 5, but not visible after endovascular therapy). Statistical significance was assessed by using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. Results All 35 patients had FLAIR lesion growth between the after-revascularization examination and day 5. Median lesion growth was significantly larger in patients with <90% reperfusion (27.85 mL) compared with ≥90% (8.12 mL; P = .003). In the initial lesion, normalized signal did not change between after endovascular therapy (median, 1.60) and day 5 (median, 1.58) in the ≥90% reperfusion group (P = .97), but increased in the <90% reperfusion group (from 1.60 to 1.73; P = .01). In the recruited lesion, median normalized signal increased significantly in both groups between after endovascular therapy and day 5 (after endovascular therapy, from 1.19 to 1.56, P

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? MRI examinations may be performed ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses ... of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  5. Application Value of MR Contrast-Enhanced FLAIR in the Diagnosis of Meningeal Diseases in Children%MR增强FLAIR序列在儿童脑膜病变诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 李欣; 王春祥; 赵滨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the MR characteristics of meningeal enhancement lesions,and to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced FLAIR sequence. Materials and Methods 28 patients with meningeal diseases received plain and contrast-enhanced T, WI and FLAIR MR scan. The images were reviewed by three experienced radiologists. Results Contrast-enhanced FLAIR was more sensitive in detecing meningeal diseases, which could distinguish the cortical vein from venous sinuses*,and also showed the CSF enhancement,but it had limitations in displaying small lesion of parenchyma. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced FLAIR is complementary to widely used contrast-enhanced T, Wl, and combined with contrast-enhanced T, WI could improve the diagnostic accuracy obviously.%目的 分析儿童脑膜异常强化病变的MRI特征,探讨增强液体衰减反转恢复(FLAIR)序列对此类疾病的诊断价值.资料与方法 对28例脑膜异常强化病变患儿行常规MR平扫及增强检查,增强检查为注人对比剂后行T1WI及FLAIR扫描.所获图像由三名有经验的影像诊断医师进行评估.结果 增强FLAIR序列对脑膜病变的显示较敏感,同时可以将强化的皮层静脉及静脉窦正确区分,并可显示脑脊液的强化,但对于伴有脑实质内微小病灶的显示具有一定的局限性.结论 增强FLAIR序列对目前广泛使用的增强T1WI具有较强的补充作用,联合使用能明显提高诊断的准确性.

  6. Acute head trauma in children - early application of MRI; Akutes Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma im Kindesalter - fruehzeitiger Einsatz der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M. [Kinderkrankenhaus Park Schoenfeld, Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the present diagnostic potential of MRI in early stage head trauma and possibly to replace CT studies in children. FLAIR-techniques consequently applied as 'scout sequences' provided reliable identification of traumatic intra- and extracranial lesions yet during the first measurement in all 24 cases. Follow-up scan confirmed the initial results. The reliability of MRI in acute pediatric head trauma is underlined by the fact that CT scans were no longer necessary within the last three years. Therefore, the imaging algorithm of acute head trauma in children has changed in our institution: medium and high risk patients undergo MRI, in young infants we do US first. HR-CT is reserved for lesions of the visceral cranium. X rays are out. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, die heutigen technischen Moeglichkeiten der MRT beim akuten Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma (SHT) des Kindes einzusetzen und evtl. ganz auf CTs zu verzichten. Die konsequente Anwendung der FLAIR-Technik als 'Suchsequenz' erlaubte bereits bei der ersten Messung eine sichere Zuordnung intra- und extrakranieller Laesionen in allen 24 Faellen. Kontrolluntersuchungen bestaetigten die Erstbefunde. Die Zuverlaessigkeit der MRT wird auch dadurch unterstrichen, dass wir in den vergangenen 3 Jahren keine CT-Untersuchungen mehr durchfuehrten. Infolgedessen hat sich der Algorithmus bildgebender Verfahren beim SHT des Kindes in unserem Hause geaendert: Bei Patienten mit niedrigem Risiko fuehren wir keine Bildgebung durch. Bei Patienten mit mittlerem und hohem Risiko wird die MRT, bei jungen Saeuglingen zuerst der US eingesetzt. Die HR-CT ist Verletzungen des Gesichtsschaedels vorbehalten. Roentgenaufnahmen fertigen wir nicht mehr an. (orig.)

  7. Abdominal MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... radiologist see certain areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want ... projectiles within the MRI scanner room and may cause you and/or others nearby harm. These items ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ... tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ... might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Chest? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ... might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... have this exam in the first trimester of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... risking the side effects of conventional (catheter) angiography . Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many ... of the body being studied. If a contrast material will be used in the MRI exam, a ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ... Although there is no reason to believe that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, older ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  4. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dagan, O. [The Intensive Care Unit, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1996-05-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  5. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. In addition to affecting the MRI images, ... damaged pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort ... In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except ...

  6. fMRI Neuroinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Christensen, Mark Schram; Madsen, Kristoffer M.

    2006-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) generates vast amounts of data. The handling, processing, and analysis of fMRI data would be inconceivable without computer-based methods. fMRI neuroinformatics is concerned with research, development, and operation of these methods. Reconstruction...

  7. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  8. Recovery Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  9. Differentiation between peritrigonal terminal zones and hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liauw, Lishya [Department of Radiology, C3Q, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.liauw@rad.umcn.nl; Grond, Jeroen van der [Department of Radiology, C3Q, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.van_der_grond@lumc.nl; Slooff, Valerie [Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: v.d.slooff@amc.uva.nl; Wiggers-de Bruine, Francisca [Department of Radiology, C3Q, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.t.wiggers-de_bruine@lumc.nl; Laan, Laura [Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.a.e.m.laan@lumc.nl; Cessie, Saskia le [Department of Medical Statistics and Bio-Informatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2333 ZC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: c.le_cessie@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, C3Q, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.a.van_buchem@lumc.nl; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Department of Neonatology, J6S-201, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: g.van_wezel-meijler@lumc.nl

    2008-03-15

    The differentiation between terminal zones and pathological signal intensity changes on MRI of children and young adults is of diagnostic importance. We assessed the diagnostic value of several morphological features on MRI to differentiate between terminal zones and hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury. We selected all brain MRI examinations performed in subjects up to 20 years of age showing increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the peritrigonal areas. 75 individuals were assigned to a patient group (n = 28) if there was evidence of hypoxia-ischemia during the perinatal period or a control group (n = 47). Aspect, location, extent, shape, and borders of signal intensity changes in the peritrigonal areas were studied. Signal intensity of the peritrigonal areas was related to signal intensity of surrounding white matter. Presence of Virchow Robin spaces, hypoxic-ischemic abnormalities, and local atrophy were also recorded. Chi-squared tests assessed whether presence or absence of morphological characteristics differed between patients and controls. Logistic regression analysis studied which characteristics were best to discriminate between the two groups. Very high signal intensity of the peritrigonal areas on FLAIR (Odds Ratio 25) and presence of local atrophy (Odds Ratio 14.3) were best predictors to discriminate between the two groups.

  10. Identifying MRI markers to evaluate early treatment-related changes post-laser ablation for cancer pain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain), and has shown promise over radio-frequency (RF) based ablation which is reported to provide temporary relief. One of the major advantages enjoyed by LITT is its compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing for high resolution in vivo imaging to be used in LITT procedures. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short-, and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally treatment effects are evaluated by monitoring changes in volume of the ablation zone post-treatment. However, this is sub-optimal since it involves evaluating a single global parameter (volume) to detect changes pre-, and post-MRI. Additionally, the qualitative observations of LITT-related changes on multi-parametric MRI (MPMRI) do not specifically address differentiation between the appearance of treatment related changes (edema, necrosis) from recurrence of the disease (pain recurrence). In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on MP-MRI to capture early treatment related changes on a per-voxel basis by extracting quantitative relationships that may allow for an in-depth understanding of tissue response to LITT on MRI, subtle changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities. The second objective of this work is to investigate the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing treatment related changes within and outside the ablation zone post-LITT. A retrospective cohort of studies comprising pre- and 24-hour post-LITT 3 Tesla T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, T2-GRE, and T2-FLAIR acquisitions was considered. Our scheme involved (1) inter-protocol as well as inter-acquisition affine registration of pre- and post-LITT MRI, (2) quantitation of MRI parameters

  11. Application of MRI T1 weighted inversion recovery sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants%磁共振成像 T1加权反转恢复序列在评价婴儿颅脑发育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白万晶; 宁刚; 李学胜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)T1 weighted inversion recovery(T1WIR)sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants.Methods A total of 28 infants who accepted MRI examination of brain in West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University from March to June 2014 were chosen as study subjects.Every infant was underwent both T1WIR and T1 weighted spin echo (T1WSE)sequence in brain transverse axial scanning to evaluate brain development.All MR images were evaluated and scored (0-3 )about myelination by two roentgenologists independently.Images with score of 3 can clearly display myelination.Consistency test was made for the scores between these two roentgenologists.Kappa value was calculated and all scores were underwent rank sum test.Contrast ratio (CR)of grey matter-to-white matter was calculated in both T1WIR and T1WSE sequence.Intensity decreased ratio of T1WIR-to-T1WSE was also calculated in both grey matter and white matter.CR of the two sequences,intensity decreased ratios of grey matter and white matter were all underwent paired t-test.Results ① MR image scores about myelination between the two doctors was consistent(u= 7.887,P = 0.000 )and with a comparatively satisfactory consistent degree (Kappa value =0.792).MR image score about myelination of T1WIR sequence in 28 infants was higher than that of T1WSE sequence,and the difference was significantly (3 points vs 2 points,Z =3.64,P =0.000).② CR of T1WIR sequence was higher than that of T1WSE sequence,and the difference was significantly[(0.26 ±0.06 )vs (0.05 ± 0.02 ),t = 1 6.544,P = 0.000].According to T1WSE sequence,intensity decreased ratio of grey matter in T1WIR sequence was lower than that of white matter,and the difference was significantly[(2.03± 0.83)vs (2.25±1.26),t=2.61 6,P =0.014].Conclusion T1WIR sequence of MRI can substitute T1WSE sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants.%目的:探讨磁共振成像(MRI)采用 T1

  12. A BOLD-fMRI study in motor recovery after subcortical stroke%皮层下脑卒中患者两种康复治疗的功能磁共振研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴险峰; 穆丹梅; 田旭玉; 李艳; 张暹东

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过功能磁共振探讨两种康复治疗皮层下脑卒中患者的疗效及潜在机制.方法:患者随机分为强制性运动疗法(constraint-induced movement therapy,CIMT)与神经发育疗法(neurodevelopmental treatment,NDT)两个治疗组.在康复治疗前、后行血氧水平依赖功能磁共振成像(blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,BOLD-fMRI),并进行临床评分.结果:在康复治疗前、后,健手运动的激活模式近于正常人.患手运动时,运动区广泛激活;治疗后双侧大脑半球激活的体素数显著减少,并向正常激活模式集中.治疗前、后的临床评分显示CIMT组康复效果优于NDT组.结论:康复治疗能促进脑功能重组;CIMT对皮层下脑卒中后3~9个月患者的康复效果优于NDT.

  13. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  14. Detección y segmentación de híperintensidades presentes en la sustancia blanca en imágenes de resonancia magnética axiales del cerebro ponderadas en T2-FLAIR

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Correa, Lizette Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Se propone una metodología para realizar automáticamente la identificación y segmentación de híperintensidades presentes en la sustancia blanca en imágenes de resonancia magnética del cerebro, las cuales son ponderadas en T2-FLAIR de corte tipo axial. Para lograrlo se usaron técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes, implementadas en una interfaz gráfica realizada para el Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación. Como resultado principal de esta tesis, se obtuvo una imagen, en la que las ...

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  16. [Temporomandibular joint: MRI diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B; Schmitter, M

    2005-09-01

    MRI of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) requires 1.5 T. The radiologist must be familiar with the anatomy and pathology of the TMJ. This review gives a description of MRI protocols for the TMJ, and MRI anatomy and pathology of the TMJ (open and closed mouth) by means of MR images and drawings. Diagnosing of the TMJ related diseases depends on standardized clinical and MR examinations. Therefore close interdisciplinary cooperation between dentist and radiologist is necessary.

  17. MRI brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  19. Enhanced Thalamic Functional Connectivity with No fMRI Responses to Affected Forelimb Stimulation in Stroke-Recovered Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woo H.; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeong K.; Jeong, Jaeseung; Kim, Young R.

    2017-01-01

    Neurological recovery after stroke has been extensively investigated to provide better understanding of neurobiological mechanism, therapy, and patient management. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional MRI (fMRI), have widely contributed to unravel the relationship between the altered neural function and stroke-affected brain areas. As results of previous investigations, the plastic reorganization and/or gradual restoration of the hemodynamic fMRI responses to neural stimuli have been suggested as relevant mechanisms underlying the stroke recovery process. However, divergent study results and modality-dependent outcomes have clouded the proper interpretation of variable fMRI signals. Here, we performed both evoked and resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) to clarify the link between the fMRI phenotypes and post-stroke functional recovery. The experiments were designed to examine the altered neural activity within the contra-lesional hemisphere and other undamaged brain regions using rat models with large unilateral stroke, which despite the severe injury, exhibited nearly full recovery at ∼6 months after stroke. Surprisingly, both blood oxygenation level-dependent and blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI activities elicited by electrical stimulation of the stroke-affected forelimb were completely absent, failing to reveal the neural origin of the behavioral recovery. In contrast, the functional connectivity maps showed highly robust rs-fMRI activity concentrated in the contra-lesional ventromedial nucleus of thalamus (VM). The negative finding in the stimuli-induced fMRI study using the popular rat middle cerebral artery model denotes weak association between the fMRI hemodynamic responses and neurological improvement. The results strongly caution the indiscreet interpretation of stroke-affected fMRI signals and demonstrate rs-fMRI as a complementary tool for efficiently characterizing stroke recovery. PMID:28119575

  20. Signal intensity change of the labyrinth in patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Moon, Jung Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Won Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal intensity (SI) change of the labyrinth in patients with vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 T. Thirty-four patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma were included in this study. Retrospectively, we visually and quantitatively compared the SIs of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side with those on the unaffected side. We also investigated whether there was correlation between the SI ratios (SIRs) of the labyrinth and the audiometric findings. On 3D FLAIR images, the SI of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side was significantly increased in 97% (33/34) and 91% (31/34), respectively. While the SI of the cochlea was diffusely increased, that of the vestibule was only partially increased. Quantitative study also revealed statistically significantly higher SIRs of the cochlea (0.99 {+-} 0.29) and vestibule (0.73 {+-} 0.31) on the affected side, compared with the cochlea (0.47 {+-} 0.20) and vestibule (0.19 {+-} 0.10) on the unaffected side. There was no significant correlation of the SIRs of the labyrinth with the degree of hearing loss. In patients with vestibular schwannoma, isotropic 3D FLAIR imaging is a useful method for the evaluation of the SI changes of the labyrinth. (orig.)

  1. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  2. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  3. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1 5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al, 2002) We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral...... for this longitudinal stroke recovery data set We used three complexity measures the sphericity index described by Abdi (2010), "unsupervised dimensionality", which is the number of PCs that minimizes unsupervised generalization error of a covariance matrix (Hansen et al, 1999), and "QD dimensionality", which......, but limited, results given the sample size, restricted behavioral measurements and older 1 5T BOLD data sets Nevertheless, they indicate one potentially fruitful direction for future data-driven fMRI studies of stroke recovery in larger, better-characterized longitudinal stroke data sets recorded at higher...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. People with the ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ... computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  12. Spontaneous Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  13. Contrast-associated transient cortical blindness: three cases with MRI and electrophysiology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma, Marius; Younan, Nadia; London, Frédéric; Ossemann, Michel; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2016-09-26

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but striking complication following contrast agent injection. TCB might be secondary to a direct toxicity of the contrast agent, leading to an osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), with a preferential involvement of the posterior circulation and occipital cortex. We report a series of three patients with contrast medium-associated TCB (intra-arterial injection of non-ionic contrast agent during diagnostic cerebral angiography for two of them and coronary angioplasty for the other one). In two patients, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable; in the other patient, typical MRI findings were observed, with FLAIR hyperintensities in the right occipital cortex and decreased apparent diffusions coefficient (ADC). Interestingly, this patient also presented posterior rhythmic epileptiform activities on electroencephalogram during the first 36 h. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) showed normal retinal potential, but a massive destructuration of the later potentials of the cortical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that VEPs acquired during TCB are reported. We discuss these findings with respect to the pathophysiology of TCB.

  14. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI- ... Ultrasound-and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI- ...

  15. Cerebral MRI in neurological asymptomatic patients with malignant melanoma; Zerebrales MRT bei neurologisch asymptomatischen Patienten mit malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlamann, M.; Goericke, S.; Forsting, M.; Wanke, I. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie, Universitatsklinikum Mainz (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: detection of metastasis in the whole body is important for sufficient the staging of malignant melanoma. Sufficient imaging of the brain is particularly important. Although there is evidence that clinical examination is not sufficient for prediction of cerebral metastasis, MRI scan is not always regarded as reasonable in neurological asymptomatic patients. Therefore, we explored the incidence of cerebral metastasis in our patient population in relation to the stage of disease to estimate the reasonability of this examination. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients with malignant melanoma were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were neurologically without pathological findings and received routine staging by cranial MRI. The incidence of brain metastasis was evaluated. The examination protocol consisted of an axial orientated flair and a T1 sequence. Ten minutes after administration of contrast agent, a T1 sequence in axial and coronal orientation was performed using the magnetization transfer technique. The type of melanoma, the thickness of the tumor, the Clark level, the location of the primary tumor, and the clinical stage were recorded from the clinical records. Results: 15 (12.5%) of the 120 patients (clinical stage I: 27 patients, stage II: 29 patients, stage III: 25 patients, stage IV: 39 patients) had cerebral metastasis in MRI. 14 patients were in stage III or IV at this time. Consequently 21.8% of the patients in stage III and IV had cerebral metastasis. Only one patient in stage He had cerebral metastasis. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral fat embolism studied with MRI and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Namer, I.J. (Inst. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Saribas, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Aras, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Tan, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Bekdik, C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Zileli, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))

    1993-03-01

    In a patient with fat embolism to the brain CT showed no abnormality. MRI performed after recovery from coma, when the patient had aphasia and quadriparesis, demonstrated multiple high signal abnormalities in the white matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. HMPAO-SPECT showed left-sided hypoperfusion which resolved in parallel with clinical improvement 1 month later. (orig.)

  17. MRI in perianal fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khera Pushpinder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI has become the method of choice for evaluating perianal fistulae due to its ability to display the anatomy of the sphincter muscles orthogonally, with good contrast resolution. In this article we give an outline of the classification of perianal fistulae and present a pictorial assay of sphincter anatomy and the MRI findings in perianal fistulae. This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 43 patients with a clinical diagnosis of perianal fistula. MRI revealed a total of 44 fistulae in 35 patients; eight patients had only perianal sinuses.

  18. Brain MRI in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Goraj, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review article, conventional brain MRI and advanced MRI techniques in Parkinson`s disease (PD) are discussed, with emphasis on clinical relevance. Conventional brain MRI sequences generally demonstrate limited abnormalities specific for PD and in clinical practice brain MRI is mainly used to

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  20. MRI对脑静脉畸形的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of MRI in cerebral venous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛磊; 朱蒙蒙; 王明皓; 崔文; 刘圆圆; 朱斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨MRI对脑静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法:收集本院18例脑静脉畸形病例,均行磁共振T1WI、T2WI、FLAIR、SWI、DWI、MRA及T1 Wl增强扫描的资料.结果:CVM位于幕下5例,幕上13例,18例均呈典型的“海蛇头”征.MRI显示髓静脉呈长T1长T2信号,引流静脉呈短T1稍长T2信号或长T1长T2信号.FLAIR上髓静脉为稍高信号,引流静脉为低信号或稍高信号.SWI及DWI上髓静脉和引流静脉均为低信号.增强呈“海蛇头”样改变,即多条髓静脉呈辐射状汇入粗大的引流静脉.结论:MRI能明确诊断脑静脉畸形.T1WI增强扫描及SWI均较敏感.SWI对CVM的诊断价值明显优于常规MRI序列.%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of MRI in cerebral venous malformations (CVM). Methods: 18 patients of CVM were collected, and all of them underwent T1 WI, T2WI. FLAIR. SWI. DWI. MRA. And T,W1 enhancement scans. Results:CVMs were located in infra in five cases, and supra tentorium in thirteen eleven patients. Eighteen presented the typical " caput medusae" appearance. As for MRI plain scans.the medullary veins showed hypointensity in T1 WI and hyperintensity in T2WI, while, the drainage veins featured hyperintensity in T1 WI and hyperintensity in T2 WI. FLAIR sequences manifested less medullary veins with hyperintensity and drainage veins with hypointensity or hyperintensity. Both the medullary and the drainage veins appeared hypointensity in DWI and SWI. After enhancement, numerous radiating medullary veins gathered together into one or two larger drainage veins and flowed into superficial or deeper veins. Demonstrating the so-called "Caput Medusae" appearance. Conclusion: MRI is the first choice for suspected CVM patients thus providing more diagnostic information. T1 WI enhancement and SWI are sensitive to manifesting CVMs. SWI diagnosis of CVM is significantly superior to conventional MRI sequences.

  1. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an MRI exam contains a ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures ... artery ( dissection ). See the MRA page for more information. top of page How should I prepare? You ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home, if possible, or removed prior to the MRI ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  7. Extradural spinal meningioma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, P. O. Box 20 8042, New Haven, CT 06520-8042 (United States); Sze, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, P. O. Box 20 8042, New Haven, CT 06520-8042 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report a case of extradural spinal meningioma with pathologically proven features of malignant transformation. The MRI findings of extradural spinal meningioma and differences in the findings from intradural meningiomas are discussed. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologic ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures of ... suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ... include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, hairpins, metal ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether a child requires sedation depends on the child's age, intellectual ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... scanner, play the noises that the child might hear during the MRI exam, answer any questions and ... These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the child can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the child remains motionless ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always ... metal objects. In general, metal objects used in orthopedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. ... fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... exam time. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most MRI exams ... uncomfortable to remain still during MR imaging. Others experience a sense of being closed-in (claustrophobia) while ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... will hear and feel loud tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses ... use headphones to reduce the intensity of the sounds made by the MRI machine. You may be ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint may require the use of ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  2. MRI of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint may require the use of ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether ... A physician or nurse specializing in sedation or anesthesia for children should be available during the exam ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... during an MRI scan, but this is rare. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other ... that are detected by the coils. The electric current does not come in contact with the patient. ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... provides movie-like sequential imaging of the cardiovascular system that is important to assess the health and ... the magnet. Some MRI units, called short-bore systems , are designed so that the magnet does not ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. The radiologist , ... the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it ... if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. MRI has been used for scanning patients since ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed ... the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere with ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ... to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to assess the anatomy and function of the heart and its blood flow. Tell your doctor about ... chest cavity, including the mediastinum , chest wall, pleura, heart and vessels, from almost any angle. MRI also ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and should not enter the MRI scanning area: cochlear (ear) implant some types of clips used for ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... very rare occasions, a few patients experience side effects from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the chest uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... it is useful to bring that to the attention of the scheduler before the exam and bring ... does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ... to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... provides movie-like sequential imaging of the cardiovascular system that is important to assess the health and ... the magnet. Some MRI units, called short-bore systems , are designed so that the magnet does not ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray may be taken to detect and identify any metal objects. In general, metal objects used in orthopedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you ... has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear ... your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may require you ...

  12. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  13. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD or uploaded to ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... electronic devices they may have. top of page What does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI ... to the total exam time. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? ...

  15. MRI of plantar fasciitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, B.; Grenier, P. [Service de Radiologie Polyvalente Diagnostique et Interventionelle, Hopital de la Pitie, 83, boulevard de l`Hopital, F-75651 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    1997-12-01

    At present, MRI is the only imaging method that can precisely visualize lesions of the superficial plantar aponeurosis, whether they be musculoaponeurositides, enthesopathies or tears, and whether they be acute or chronic, with or without complications. By its direct visualization of the lesion, MRI enables an accurate assessment of the injury to be made and thereby better orients the therapeutic strategy. (orig.) With 11 figs., 15 refs.

  16. 频率选择饱和法技术和快速反转恢复技术在脊柱金属植入物患者MRI中应用%Frequency-selective saturation and turbo inversion recovery magnitude in patients with spine metallic implants of MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 王传兵

    2016-01-01

    目的:对比分析频率选择饱和法(FS)技术和快速反转恢复(TIRM)技术在脊柱金属植入物患者MRI中的优劣,探讨最佳脂肪抑制方法。方法选择23例脊柱金属植入物患者,其中男性11例,女性12例;年龄26~70岁,平均年龄55岁。采用Siemens Magnetom Trio 3.0 T MRI仪,分别使用FS技术和TIRM技术行MRI。采用主观法对图像质量进行评价,包括图像清晰度评分、抑脂均匀性评分和伪影评分。结果所有患者没有检查失败者。TIRM技术和FS技术所得图像清晰度评分分别为3.09±0.73、2.61±0.66,差异有统计学意义(t=2.331,P=0.024);抑脂均匀性评分分别为3.04±0.88、2.13±0.63,差异有显著统计学意义(t=4.062,P<0.01);图像伪影大小评分分别为3.00±0.90、2.43±0.73,差异有统计学意义(t=2.335,P=0.024)。结论在脊柱金属植入物患者MRI检查中,TIRM技术可以减轻金属植入物MRI伪影、改善图像质量,具有较大的临床应用价值。%Objective To explore the best method of fat suppression by comparing the value of frequency-selective saturation (FS) with turbo inversion recovery magnitude(TIRM) in patients with spine metallic implants of MRI. Methods A total of 23 pa-tients with spine metallic implants were enrolled, which included 11 males and 12 females, aged 26-70 years old with mean age of 55 years old. All of them were performed FS and TIRM by Siemens Magnetom Trio 3.0 T MRI. The image quality of image clar-ity score, fat suppression homogeneity score and artifact score were evaluated by subjective evaluation. Results All of 23 cases were successfully examined. The clarity score of TIRM was higher than that of FS(3.09 ± 0.73 vs 2.61 ± 0.66;t=2.331, P=0.024), which showed statistical difference. The fat suppression homogeneity score of TIRM and FS were 3.04 ± 0.88 and 2.13 ± 0.63 re-spectively, which showed significant statistical difference(t=4.062, P<0

  17. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumann, N.; Abdelmoumene, A.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Gailloud, M.C.; Resnick, D. [CHUV, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  18. 皮层下动脉硬化性脑病100例临床CT分析%CT and MRI T2WI, and FLAIR and DWI in diagnostic value of cerebral lacunar infarction and its prognosis analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青毅; 邹习忠; 冉强; 董志鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨皮层下动脉硬化性脑病颅脑ct诊断的意义和价值。方法结合我院临床诊断为皮层下动脉硬化性脑病, ct表现为侧脑室周围脑白质脱髓鞘改变的100例病例,按Goto分类法,将侧脑室前角周围脑白质脱髓鞘改变程度不同分为三型的标准,进行临床和影像综合分析。结果按Goto分类法Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型63例,临床表现轻,Ⅲ型37例,症状重,常偏瘫和言语不清,ct表现伴有脑萎缩(96例),腔隙性脑梗死(74例),伴大面积脑梗死(8例)、脑出血(7例)、脑积水和蛛网膜下腔积液(12例)。结论 ct检查对皮层下动脉硬化性脑病的诊断具有重要的价值,对于临床在预防、诊断和治疗皮层下动脉硬化性脑病方面具有重要意义。%Objectiveto explore the value of ct in diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (sae). Methods100 patients were deifnitely diagnosed as SAE by clinic. CT showed low density of surrounding bilateral ventricle. Demyelinating encephalopathy of frontal horn of bilateral ventricle were divided into three types according to the classiifcation of Goto.Results clinical presentations showed mild in typesⅠ andⅡ in 63 patients, severe symptoms were found in 37 patients, including hemiplegia, and barylalia. ct appeared cerebral atrophy in 96 patients; cerebral lacunar infarction in 74; diffuse cerebral infarction in 8; hemorrhage in 7; and hydrocephalus and hydrops of subarachnoid space in 12.Conclusion ct was very valuable on diagnosis and evaluation of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy.

  19. Hyperintense vessel sign on FLAIR maybe associated with cerebral collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a retrospective case series study%缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作患者FLAIR序列高信号血管征可能与脑侧支循环有关:回顾性病例系列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显军; 周志明; 刘文华; 朱武生; 葛良; 徐格林; 刘新峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible formation mechanism and imaging features of the hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods The baseline data of the patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke or TIA with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showing the lesions of MCA M1 segment in clinical practice were retrospectively retrieved from Nanjing Stroke Registry Program from January 2010 to July 2011.FLAIR was used to observe HVS,and DSA was used to evaluate the degree of vascular stenosis and cerebral collateral circulation.Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled,76 (75.2%) were males,and their mean age was 53.94 ± 13.47 years; 90 patients (89.1%) with ischemic stroke and 11 patients (10.9%) with TIA; 55 patients (54.5%) were HVS negative and 46 (45.5%) were HVS positive.Among the patients whose MCA stenosis <50%,50%-70%,70%-90% and ≥90%,the positive rates were 0% (0/8),25.0% (3/12),17.6% (3/17),and 62.5% (40/64),respectively.There were significant differences (Z=-4.479,P< 0.001).The leptomeningeal collateral circulation of the HVS positive group was significantly more than that of the HVS negative group (Z =-6.196,P < 0.001).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the degree of MCA stenosis was an independent risk factor for influencing the formation of HVS (odds ratio 3.943,95% confidence interval 2.03-7.659; P <0.001).Conclusions The formed intracranial leptomeningeal colhteral circulation after severe intracranial vascular stenosis or occlusion is a major pathophysiological basis of HVS formation on FLAIR sequences in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA.%目的 探讨缺血性卒中或短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)患者液体衰减反转恢复序列(fluid-attenuated inversion recovery,FLAIR)高信号血管征(hyperintense vessel sign,HVS)的可

  20. Assessment of baseline hemodynamic parameters within infarct progression areas in acute stroke patients using perfusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Cho, Tae-Hee; Derex, Laurent; Nighoghossian, Norbert [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Cerebrovascular Unit, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Bron (France); Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Wiart, Marlene; Berthezene, Yves [Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Berthiller, Julien [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Oestergaard, Leif [University of Aarhus, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Hermier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Neuroradiology Department, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Lyon (France)

    2011-08-15

    The value of perfusion MRI for identifying the tissue at risk has been questioned. Our objective was to assess baseline perfusion-weighted imaging parameters within infarct progression areas. Patients with anterior circulation stroke without early reperfusion were included from a prospective MRI database. Sequential MRI examinations were performed on admission, 2-3 h (H2), 2-3 days (D2), and between 15 and 30 days after the initial MRI. Maps of baseline time-to-peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were calculated. Lesion extension areas were defined as pixels showing de novo lesions between each MRI and were generated by subtracting successive lesion masks: V{sub 0}, baseline diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion; V{sub 1}, lesion extension between baseline and H2 DWI; V{sub 2}, lesion extension from H2 to D2 DWI; and V{sub 3}, lesion extension from D2 DWI to final FLAIR. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare hemodynamic parameters within the baseline diffusion lesion and subsequent lesion extension areas. Thirty-two patients were included. Baseline perfusion parameters were significantly more impaired within the acute DWI lesion compared to lesion extension areas (TTP, p<0.0001; MTT, p<0.0001; CBF p<0.0001; CBV, p<0.0001). A significant decrease in MTT (p = 0.01) and TTP (p = 0.01) was found within successive lesion growth areas. A decreasing gradient of severity for TTP and MTT was observed within successive infarct growth areas. (orig.)

  1. P16.16INFLUENCE OF DETERMINATION OF PROGRESSION ON PATTERNS OF FLAIR FAILURE ANALYSIS IN PATIENTS WITH GRADE III ANAPLASTIC ASTROCYTOMA (AA) AND ASSOCIATION OF PATTERN OF FAILURE (POF) WITH SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, T.; Hardie, J.G.; Pafundi, D.H.; Brinkmann, D.H.; Laack, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: RANO criteria have recently been proposed as response guidelines for contrast-enhancing high grade gliomas, but the utility of these guidelines has not been established in AA. In this report we evaluated the utility of RANO criteria in determining progression and POF in AA and evaluated the association of POF with overall survival (OS). MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of MR images for 21 consecutive patients with AA and radiologically-proven recurrence after irradiation at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). Three different criteria for identification of progression were used for each patient: 1) standard RANO-based criteria (RANO-C; most often met by development of new contrast enhancement or enlargement of contrast-enhancing lesion), 2) RANO criteria for progression based on significant FLAIR increase (RANO-F) and 3) clinical progression based on oncologist interpretation of imaging and clinical status usually resulting in change in treatment (Clinical). Time to progression was assessed among the three criteria using Friedman's test, and pairwise criteria using a sign test. After subtraction of tumor volume occurring on the best-response MR study, final structure was dosimetrically analyzed and different POF were characterized by the % volume encompassed within the 95% dose as follows: central (V95% ≥ 95%), in-field (80% ≤ V95% < 95%), marginal (20% ≤ V95% < 80%), or distant (V95% < 20%). RESULTS: Time to progression based on RANO criteria preceeded the clinical diagnosis of progression by a median of 3.13 months (9.2 vs 12.6 mo p < 0.0001, Sign test). New or progressive contrast enhancement (RANO-C) was almost entirely central or in-field (95% and 5%, respectively). POF of FLAIR component differed based on timepoint used to determine progression. FLAIR POF was significantly more often marginal or distant when progression was defined clinically compared to either RANO-C or RANO-F criteria (p = .03 and .007

  2. Multidimensional diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topgaard, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Principles from multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, and in particular solid-state NMR, have recently been transferred to the field of diffusion MRI, offering non-invasive characterization of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, such as the human brain, at an unprecedented level of detail. Here we revisit the basic physics of solid-state NMR and diffusion MRI to pinpoint the origin of the somewhat unexpected analogy between the two fields, and provide an overview of current diffusion MRI acquisition protocols and data analysis methods to quantify the composition of heterogeneous materials in terms of diffusion tensor distributions with size, shape, and orientation dimensions. While the most advanced methods allow estimation of the complete multidimensional distributions, simpler methods focus on various projections onto lower-dimensional spaces as well as determination of means and variances rather than actual distributions. Even the less advanced methods provide simple and intuitive scalar parameters that are directly related to microstructural features that can be observed in optical microscopy images, e.g. average cell eccentricity, variance of cell density, and orientational order - properties that are inextricably entangled in conventional diffusion MRI. Key to disentangling all these microstructural features is MRI signal acquisition combining isotropic and directional dimensions, just as in the field of multidimensional solid-state NMR from which most of the ideas for the new methods are derived.

  3. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  4. MRI in Japanese encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kalita, J. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Salwani, V. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gujral, R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the basal ganglia in one. The lesions were haemorrhagic in three of the four patients with lesions in the cortex, two of the three with lesions in the midbrain and cerebellum, but the pontine lesions were haemorrhagic in both patients. Spinal cord involvement was seen in one of the three patients who underwent MRI. In two patients MRI was repeated 3 years after the onset, showing marked reduction in abnormal signal; and all the lesions gave low signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially in endemic areas. (orig.)

  5. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grossmann, Patrick; Alexander, Brian M. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cooper, Lee A.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Holder, Chad A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ligon, Keith L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Aerts, Hugo J.W.L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  6. MRI VERSUS ARTHROSCOPY: A COMPARISON OF FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhara Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to correlate the findings of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthroscopy in internal derangements of knee and to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in comparison to Arthroscopy. METHODS AND MATERIALS Fifty six patients with history of suspected internal derangement of knee were evaluated prospectively with MRI and correlated with arthroscopy during a one and half a year period from March 2012 to September 2013.1.5 Tesla MRI machine using a closed extremity coil is used. Sequences used in MRI of the knee include Turbo-spin echo (TSE, FFE (Gradient echo and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR sequences in Axial, Sagittal and Coronal planes using a slice thickness of 3 mm with a 0.3 mm slice gap. Arthroscopy of the knee with standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals with the patient in supine position done in all the cases. RESULTS The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries as compared to Arthroscopy are as follows: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL: 97.29%, 89.47%, 94.64%; Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL: 100%, 100%, 100%; Medial Meniscus (MM: 100%, 93.33%, 98.21% and Lateral Meniscus (LM: 93.10, 92.59, 92.85. Most common lesions found were ACL and Medial Meniscal tears (posterior horn of MM being the most common site. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  MRI is a useful non-invasive modality having high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosing cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries.  MRI should be considered as the first line of investigation in all patients with suspected internal derangements of knee.  MRI being easily available and non-invasive is useful as a pre-operative screening modality, thus improves the quality of diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopies and further reduces the morbidity.  Arthroscopy is the standard diagnosing tool in all patients with suspected internal

  7. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  8. Enhanced Thalamic Functional Connectivity with No fMRI Responses to Affected Forelimb Stimulation in Stroke-Recovered Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Woo H.; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeong K.; Jeong, Jaeseung; Kim, Young R.

    2017-01-01

    Neurological recovery after stroke has been extensively investigated to provide better understanding of neurobiological mechanism, therapy, and patient management. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional MRI (fMRI), have widely contributed to unravel the relationship between the altered neural function and stroke-affected brain areas. As results of previous investigations, the plastic reorganization and/or gradual restoration of the hemodynamic fMRI responses to ne...

  9. Combined information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging differentiates fast late-onset motor recovery from progressive recovery in hemiplegic stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Du; Kim, Ji-Young; Seo, Jee-Hye; Jin, Seong-Uk; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, So-Hyun; Lee, Yang-Soo; Chang, Yongmin

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the value of combining information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in acute stroke patients with severe motor impairment. Eight patients with severe left upper limb motor impairment underwent a passive movement task with fMRI and resting-state fMRI, 3 weeks following stroke onset. According to the patterns of motor recovery, patients were divided into groups with, respectively, good or poor motor recovery. Patients with good recovery were further divided into two subgroups: progressive and fast late-onset motor recovery. Activation and deactivation maps from a passive movement task with fMRI were obtained. Interhemispheric connectivity analysis was conducted using resting-state fMRI. Interhemispheric connectivity score in patients with progressive motor recovery was much greater than the scores in patients with fast late-onset and poor motor recovery. For passive movement, patients with progressive recovery exhibited activation in the ipsilesional sensorimotor area and no deactivation in the contralesional sensorimotor area. Patients with fast late-onset motor recovery showed strong deactivation in both sensorimotor areas. Patients with poor recovery showed no activation or deactivation in either of the sensorimotor areas. Interhemispheric connectivity alone is not enough to predict delayed motor recovery.

  10. MRI of active otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyeh, S. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Berlis, A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Ross, U.H. [Department of Otolaryngology, Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany); Reinhardt, M.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Our aim was to determine whether MRI reliably shows pathology in patients with active otosclerosis (otospongiosis). We studied five patients with clinical and audiometric signs of this disorder and positive findings on high-resolution CT and tympanocochlear scintigraphy. Contrast enhancement of otospongiotic lesions was found in all affected ears, and could be topographically related to demineralised otospongiotic foci on CT. In lesions in the lateral wall of the labyrinth MRI sometimes showed the pathology better than CT, where partial-volume effects could be troublesome. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Introduction to Interventional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarmo Ruohonen; William G.Bradley; Jr.MD

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of interventional procedures are done under imaging guidance. These include biopsies, drainages and injections. Likewise, imaging guidance and monitoring have enabled the use of sophisticated techniques for minimally invasive therapy of tumors. Since MRI provides the best tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity,the use of MR-guided procedures (MRGP) is quickly gaining momentum. Special hardware and software solutions have been developed that allow more efficient interventional use of the MR scanner.This introduction summarizes the basic concepts of interventional MRI and outlines some of the applications of today and tomorrow.

  12. MRI of osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-12-01

    Osteonecrosis is a relatively common condition, which may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of clinical situations. It may involve the subarticular region of a joint, when it is commonly referred to as ischaemic necrosis, or the metaphyseal regions of long bones, when it is referred to as bone infarction. In both situations, early lesions may be radiographically occult. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very sensitive in identifying and characterizing osteonecrosis. This review illustrates the varied MRI features of osteonecrosis that enable a confident diagnosis to be made. Complications and differential diagnosis are also considered.

  13. MRI in Lyme disease of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantienne, C.; Catalaa, I.; Sevely, A.; Cognard, C.; Manelfe, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hopital Purpan, Toulouse (France); Albucher, J.F. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Purpan, Toulouse (France)

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of Lyme myelitis in a 31-year-old man, presenting with a conus medullaris syndrome. MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement on the pial surface of the lower thoracic cord and conus medullaris. Elevated blood immunoglobulins and IgM antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found. Leptomeningitis may be the first stage of spinal infection in Lyme disease, preceding parenchymal infection leading to myelitis. Vasculitis is probably the major mechanism. MRI findings are nonspecific and the diagnosis is given by serum and CSF analyses. Early treatment with antibiotics and high doses steroids may result in complete recovery, as in this case. (orig.)

  14. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsy uses imaging ... Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsies are performed ...

  15. Quality assurance in functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Thomas T; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has ben- efited greatly from improvements in MRI hardware and software. At the same time, fMRI researchers have pushed the technical limits of MRI systems and greatly in- fluenced the development of state-of-the-art systems....... Minimizing image noise and maximizing system stability is critical in fMRI because the blood oxygenation level- dependent (BOLD) signal changes that are used for most fMRI studies represent only a small fraction of the total MR signal. In addition, multiple imaging volumes must be acquired over time to track...... cognitive processes. As a result, MRI scanners must have excellent time-series stability to accurately measure BOLD signal changes over the course of a long time series (typically on the order of 10 min per scan). fMRI studies are particularly demanding on the scanner hardware because they utilize fast...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want ... projectiles within the MRI scanner room and may cause you and/or others nearby harm. These items ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

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    Full Text Available ... conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to remain perfectly still and follow breath-holding instructions while the images are being recorded. If you ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... the area being scanned include: Metallic spinal rod Plates, pins, screws, or metal mesh used to repair ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... bore which can be more comfortable for larger size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines ... Gallery Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... have this exam in the first trimester of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many ... is positioned around the head. If a contrast material will be used in the MRI exam, a ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, older ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older open MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... imaging technique that does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. MRI can help physicians evaluate the structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  18. White Matter Lesion Assessment in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls: Reliability Comparisons between Visual Rating, a Manual, and an Automatic Volumetrical MRI Method—The Gothenburg MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter lesions (WML are a risk factor for stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Different requirements are imposed on methods for the assessment of WML in clinical settings and for research purposes, but reliability analysis is of major importance. In this study, WML assessment with three different methods was evaluated. In the Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment study, MRI scans from 152 participants were used to assess WML with the Fazekas visual rating scale on T2 images, a manual volumetric method on FLAIR images, and FreeSurfer volumetry on T1 images. Reliability was acceptable for all three methods. For low WML volumes (2/3 of the patients, reliability was overall lower and nonsignificant for the manual volumetric method. Unreliability in the assessment of patients with low WML with manual volumetry may mainly be due to intensity variation in the FLAIR sequence used; hence, intensity standardization and normalization methods must be used for more accurate assessments. The FreeSurfer segmentations resulted in smaller WML volumes than the volumes acquired with the manual method and showed deviations from visible hypointensities in the T1 images, which quite likely reduces validity.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in parasinus mucocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Watanabe, Yoshihiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluated the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 9 cases of parasinus mucocele. The series included frontal mucocele 1 case, frontal and anterior ethmoidal mucocele 3 cases, anterior mucocele 2 cases, posterior ethmoidal mucocele 2 cases, and maxillary mucocele 1 case. MRI was performed with proton density P (300), inversion recovery IR (1000, 350), and spin echo SE (1000, 60/90) with 0.1 tesla resistive conducting system, or with T/sub 1/-weighted SE (440, 40), IR (1500, 500) and T/sub 2/-weighted SE (1500, 500) with 0.5 tesla superconducting system. We obtained images of variable intensities when employing P, IR and T/sub 1/-weighted SE imaging. It was possible to differentiate mucocele from normal orbital tissue by comparison with T/sub 2/-weighted imaging. All the 9 cases manifested a high intensity of T/sub 2/-weighted images. The findings were suggestive of a possibility to verify the content to parasinus cysts by MRI findings. (author).

  20. Analytic heuristics for a fast DSC-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgulin, M.; Castellaro, M.; Marcuzzi, F.; Grisan, E.

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamics of the human brain may be studied with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) imaging. The sequence of volumes obtained exhibits a strong spatiotemporal correlation, that can be exploited to predict which measurements will bring mostly the new information contained in the next frames. In general, the sampling speed is an important issue in many applications of the MRI, so that the focus of many current researches is to study methods to reduce the number of measurement samples needed for each frame without degrading the image quality. For the DSC-MRI, the frequency under-sampling of single frame can be exploited to make more frequent space or time acquisitions, thus increasing the time resolution and allowing the analysis of fast dynamics not yet observed. Generally (and also for MRI), the recovery of sparse signals has been achieved by Compressed Sensing (CS) techniques, which are based on statistical properties rather than deterministic ones.. By studying analytically the compound Fourier+Wavelet transform, involved in the processes of reconstruction and sparsification of MR images, we propose a deterministic technique for a rapid-MRI, exploiting the relations between the wavelet sparse representation of the recovered and the frequency samples. We give results on real images and on artificial phantoms with added noise, showing the superiority of the methods both with respect to classical Iterative Hard Thresholding (IHT) and to Location Constraint Approximate Message Passing (LCAMP) reconstruction algorithms.

  1. Getting an MRI (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed pictures of ...

  2. Getting an MRI (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed pictures of ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. In addition to affecting the MRI images, ... damaged pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort ... In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except ...

  4. Less Confusion in Diffusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, C.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    With its unique ability to investigate tissue architecture and microstructure in vivo, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has gained tremendous interest and the society has been continuously triggered to develop novel dMRI image analysis approaches. With the overwhelming amount of strategies currently available i

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the discovery of abnormalities that might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is less likely to ...

  6. MRI characteristics of eclampsia postpartum with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome%产后子痫并可逆性后部白质脑病综合征的MR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林开武; 周作福; 陈春霞; 李尔烜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨产后子痫并可逆性后部白质脑病综合征的MR影像.表现特点.方法 对16例经过临床和颅脑MR扫描确诊的产后子痫并可逆性后部白质脑病综合征进行回顾性分析.16例均行常规MR平扫(T1Flair、T2WI、TF2Lair及DWI),8例同时进行了MRV扫描,9例治疗后进行二次MR平扫复查.结果 MR显示:病灶位于双侧性顶、枕叶12例、单侧顶枕叶1例、额叶2例、基底节区5例,DWI多数病例表现为等或相对低信号,MRV均提示无血栓形成.9例二次MR平扫复查示明显吸收好转或基本吸收.结论 产后子痫并可逆性后部白质脑病综合征好发于顶枕叶,少数见于额叶,基底节区,T2 WI和T2Flair较为敏感.%Objective To investigate the MRI characteristics of eclampsia postpartum and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRLS). Methods 16 cases diagnosed by clinical and brain MRI of eclampsia postpartum and PRLS were retrospectively analysed. All of them had plain MRI imaging routinely ( T1 Flair, T2WI, T2 FLAIR and DWI), and 8 cases with MRV, after treatment, 9 cases had second plain MR to recheck. Results MR displayed that 12 cases of lesions were located in the bilateral parietal and occipital lobes, 1 case in unilateral parietal and occipital lobe, 2 cases of lesions in frontal lobe, and 5 cases in basal ganglia region. Most of the cases manifested as a relatively low signal on DWI. MRV showed all the cases with no thrombosis. 9 cases of secondary MR showed significantly resorpted or mainly resorpted. Conclusion Postpartum eclampsia and PRLS often occured in the parietal and occipital lobes, few were found in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia region. T2WI and T2 Flair were more sensitive. DWI and ACD map could be used to distinguish between vasogenic edema or cytotoxic edema.

  7. MRI of intact plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, H. van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  8. MRI of intact plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  9. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood test to determine whether the kidneys are functioning adequately. Women should always inform their physician or technologist if ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... the radiologist know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have had any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ...

  11. IMAGING (MRI) FINDINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maxillary lesions frequently affect the alveolar ridge and body. Maxillary lesions ... lesion can occur centrally in the medullary bone or develop. *Correspondence: ... could not be picked up from this view as MRI cannot image bone. Fig 3: Computed ... cross-section of the lesion will fall in the focal trough. When the lesion is ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Sponsored ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or anesthesia. Alternatively, certain pediatric facilities have child life personnel who can work with younger children to help avoid the need ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be ... work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ...

  14. MRI in suspected appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, M.M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift richt zich op de optimalisatie van beeldvormende diagnostiek bij patiënten met een klinische verdenking op appendicitis, waarbij het gebruik van ‘magnetic resonance imaging’ (MRI) wordt verkend. Het proefschrift omvat de resultaten van de OPTIMAP-studie (OPTimisation of IMaging Appe

  15. Vesicouterine fistula: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Lomas, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lee, G.; Doble, A. [Dept. of Urology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sharma, S.D. [Dept. of Urology, Peterborough NHS Trust Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula in a young woman following caesarean section is presented. The diagnosis was established successfully using heavily T2-weighted MRI which clearly demonstrated fluid within the fistula, obviating the need for conventional radiographic contrast examination. (orig.)

  16. MRI in suspected appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, M.M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift richt zich op de optimalisatie van beeldvormende diagnostiek bij patiënten met een klinische verdenking op appendicitis, waarbij het gebruik van ‘magnetic resonance imaging’ (MRI) wordt verkend. Het proefschrift omvat de resultaten van de OPTIMAP-studie (OPTimisation of IMaging

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... can be arranged for those patients who anticipate anxiety, but fewer than one in 20 require medication. It is normal for ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or ... than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  18. Sinus MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A CT scan may be preferred in emergency cases, since it is faster and often available in the emergency room. Note: MRI is not as effective as CT in defining the anatomy of the sinuses, and therefore is not typically used for suspected acute sinusitis.

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may require you ... material is injected. Such reactions are usually mild and easily controlled by medication. If you experience allergic symptoms, a radiologist or ...

  1. MRI of the cardiomyopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it

    2001-06-01

    We examined the potentialities of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the main cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive and arrhythmogenic right ventricular. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is generally adequately investigated by echocardiography, that well defines the myocardial thickening and the obstruction of the left ventricular output. However, by echocardiography we still have difficulties in the evaluation of the apex of the left ventricle and the right ventricle involvement. MRI provides a complete evaluation of the heart with a clear evidence also of the echocardiographic dark zones by means of a clear evidence of the apex of the right ventricle. The dilated form is also well investigated by MRI that provides a clear evaluation of the volumes, mass and ejection fraction by means of the 3D analysis including conditions of the ventricular remodelling. Moreover, this technique helps in the differential diagnosis of acute myocarditis. In the acute phase of myocarditis (first 2 weeks), in fact, the myocardium produces high signal intensity on the T2 weighted sequences due to the presence of oedema. The third form of cardiomyopathy is the restrictive one, characterised by reduced diastolic filling and diastolic volume, normality of the systolic function and parietal thickness, interstitial fibrosis and enlargement of both atria. The mean potentiality of MRI is related to the differential diagnosis with constrictive pericarditis. Only in the former, the pericardium appears irregularly thickened with areas exceeding 4 mm of pericardial thickness. Finally, the right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy represents the main indication to MRI evaluation. With this imaging modality we are can obtain a clear morpho-functional evaluation of the right ventricle and distinguish the intramyocardial adipose substitution characterised by areas of high signal in the myocardium.

  2. Isoflurane Use in the Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus is Associated with Hippocampal Changes on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kristin M; Connors, Robert; Lee, Donald H; Khandji, Alexander G; Claassen, Jan; Young, G Bryan

    2017-06-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Experts recommend aggressive management with continuous intravenous infusions or inhaled anesthetics such as isoflurane. However, there is concern that MRI changes in RSE reflect isoflurane neurotoxicity. We performed a case-control study to determine whether isoflurane is neurotoxic, based on MRI signal changes. We performed a retrospective case-control study of the incidence of MRI changes in RSE treated with and without isoflurane. Charts were reviewed for demographic and treatment information. T1, T2, and FLAIR sequences of MRIs were reviewed independently by two neuroradiologists blinded to treatment group for presence or absence of signal change or atrophy in the meninges, cortex, white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum. Eight cases of RSE receiving treatment with isoflurane were identified and double-matched with 15 controls who received only intravenous anesthetics. Baseline characteristics were similar. Hippocampal signal change was observed more frequently in cases receiving isoflurane (p = 0.026). Hippocampal signal changes were associated with isoflurane use in patients with RSE. They were also associated with number of seizure days prior to MRI and the use of multiple anesthetic agents. Similar changes have been seen as a result of RSE itself, and one cannot rule out the possibility these changes represent seizure-related effects. If isoflurane-related, these hippocampal signal changes may be the result of a direct neurotoxic effect of prolonged isoflurane use or failure of isoflurane to protect the hippocampus from seizure-induced injury despite achieving electrographic burst-suppression.

  3. New Findings, Classification and Long-Term Follow-Up Study Based on MRI Characterization of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced by Enterovirus 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiqiu; Huang, Wenxian; Gan, Yungen; Zeng, Weibin; Chen, Ranran; He, Yanxia; Wang, Yonker; Liu, Zaiyi; Liang, Changhong; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2016-01-01

    cases, and demonstrated foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal with hyper-intensity on FLAIR in 3 cases, or of prolonged T1 and T2 signal with hypo-intensity on FLAIR in 2 cases. Most importantly, MR findings of each case were thoroughly investigated and classified according to phases and MRI signal alteration. Conclusions This study has provided enhanced and useful information for the MRI features of BE induced by EV71, apart from common practice established by previous reports. In addition, a classification scheme that summarizes all types of features based on the MRI signal at the four different stages of the disease would be helpful to improve the diagnostic level. PMID:27798639

  4. MRI of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease: a case-controlled study with a simplified classification based on saccular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attyé, Arnaud; Eliezer, Michael; Boudiaf, Naïla; Tropres, Irène; Chechin, David; Schmerber, Sébastien; Dumas, Georges; Krainik, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) can be studied in patients by MRI. With the semi-quantitative grading system, previous imaging studies showed discrepancies in the occurrence and grading of EH in patients with Meniere's disease (MD). Here, we compared the inversion of the saccule to utricle area ratio (SURI) with the semi-quantitative method of grading conventionally used to diagnose MD. Imaging was carried out on a 3-T MRI scanner. We performed 3D-FLAIR sequences 4 h after a single intravenous dose of contrast agent. Two radiologists independently studied the morphology of the inner ear structures in the healthy subjects and MD patients. Each subject was then graded on the basis of the EH semi-quantitative analysis and on saccular morphology using axial and sagittal reference slices in the vestibule plane. Thirty healthy subjects and 30 MD patients had MRI scans. Using the semi-quantitative method, we found no significant difference in the number of subjects with EH between the two groups. SURI was found in 15 out of 30 MD patients and in none of the 30 healthy subjects. In three MD patients the saccule was not visible. SURI is currently the most specific criterion for imaging diagnosis of MD. • Half of MD patients presented with inversion of the saccule to utricle ratio. • Saccular analysis is crucial when assessing patients with Meniere's disease. • In some patients, the saccule is not visible, suggestive of intra-labyrinthine fistulae.

  5. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2017-09-25

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MTw ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MTw and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MTw images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MTw images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MTw sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MTw imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MTw imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any questions. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) before ... If you do not require sedation, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usual activities ...

  7. MRI of cardiovascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, Bruno [Centre Hospitalier Univ. Jean Minjoz, Besancon (France); Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (FR). Lab. I4S (Health, Innovation, Intervention, Imaging, Engineering); Centre Hospitalier Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    MRI is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that is perfectly suited for the diagnosis and follow-up of both pediatric and adult congenital heart disease. It provides a large field of view and has the unique ability to depict complex cardiac and vascular anatomy and to measure cardiac function and flow within one examination. MRI is the ideal complement to echocardiography whenever the information provided by the latter is limited. This book has been conceived as a self-teaching manual that will assist qualified radiologists, cardiologists, and pediatricians, as well as those in training. It is richly illustrated with numerous images and drawings that cover all usual and most unusual anomalies. The principal author, Professor Bruno Kastler, is head of radiology at Besancon University Hospital, France and is board certified in both radiology and cardiology. (orig.)

  8. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imager)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshinori [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    MRI is a widely used diagnostic imaging modality because it has excellent diagnostic capabilities, is safe to use and generates images not affected by bone artifacts. Images are obtained by utilizing the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) by which protons located in a static magnetic field absorb radio frequency (RF) pulses with a specific frequency and release a part of the energy as a NMR signal. Potentially MRI has the ability to provide functional and metabolic information (such as flow, temperature, diffusion, neuron activity) in addition to morphological information. This paper describes the imaging principles and provides a general outline of some applications: flow imaging, metabolite imaging and temperature imaging. (J.P.N.).

  9. Spinal epidural abscess: correlation between MRI findings and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, G.A.; Yim, J.W.K.; Rogg, J.M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Mermel, L.A.; Philip, L. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University School of Medicine and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine if specific MRI findings in spinal epidural abscess (SEA), at the time of diagnosis, are associated with the clinical outcome. The clinical records and MRI studies of 18 patients with SEA were reviewed and follow-up was obtained from the outpatient medical record, telephone interview, or both. The association between findings on contrast-enhanced MRI and clinical outcome (weakness, neck or back pain, and incomplete functional recovery) was evaluated. With univariate analysis, narrowing of 50 % or more of the central spinal canal (P = 0.03), peripheral contrast-enhancement (P = 0.05), and abnormal spinal cord signal intensity (P = 0.05) were associated with weakness at follow-up. Persistent neck or back pain was associated with spinal canal narrowing (P = 0.02), peripheral contrast-enhancement (P = 0.02), and an abscess longer than 3 cm (P = 0.04) on MRI. Incomplete clinical recovery was associated with both abscess length (P = 0.01) and the severity of canal narrowing (P = 0.01). Abscess length, enhancement pattern, and severity of canal narrowing can be incorporated in a grading system that can be used to predict outcome. (orig.)

  10. Cerebellar Lesions of Uremic Encephalopathy on MRI in Hemodialyzed Diabetic Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Min Chul; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National Universty Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is a well-known complication of uremia, but its pathophysiology remains unknown. It is widely reported that in UE, the bilateral basal ganglia (BG) shows hyperintensities on T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but cerebellar lesions are extremely rare, with to the best of our knowledge, only one case reported to date. We describe the findings from computed tomography and MRI for typical BG and cerebellar vermis lesions.

  11. MRI in subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord : a case report and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 56 year old man presented with acute onset posterior column and lateral spinothalamic tract dysfunction over a period of 15 days. MRI showed diffuse hyperintensity on T2WI involving the posterior columns. A diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD of the spinal cord was considered and confirmed by laboratory findings. The patient showed complete recovery on B12 therapy. MRI lesion also compeletely resolved.

  12. Superconducting magnets for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Three types of magnets are currently used to provide the background field required for magnet resonance imaging (MRI). (i) Permanent magnets produce fields of up to 0.3 T in volumes sufficient for imaging the head or up to 0.15 T for whole body imaging. Cost and simplicity of operation are advantages, but relatively low field, weight (up to 100 tonnes) and, to a small extent, instability are limitations. (ii) Water-cooled magnets provide fields of up to 0.25 T in volumes suitable for whole body imaging, but at the expense of power (up to 150 kW for 0.25 T) and water-cooling. Thermal stability of the field requires the maintenance of constant temperature through periods both of use and of quiescence. (iii) Because of the limitations imposed by permanent and resistive magnets, particularly on field strength, the superconducting magnet is now most widely used to provide background fields of up to 2 T for whole body MRI. It requires very low operating power and that only for refrigeration. Because of the constant low temperature, 4.2 K, at which its stressed structure operates, its field is stable. The following review deals principally with superconducting magnets for MRI. However, the sections on field analysis apply to all types of magnet and the description of the source terms of circular coils and of the principals of design of solenoids apply equally to resistive solenoidal magnets.

  13. Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide

  14. A Novel GBM Saliency Detection Model Using Multi-Channel MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Banerjee

    Full Text Available The automatic computerized detection of regions of interest (ROI is an important step in the process of medical image processing and analysis. The reasons are many, and include an increasing amount of available medical imaging data, existence of inter-observer and inter-scanner variability, and to improve the accuracy in automatic detection in order to assist doctors in diagnosing faster and on time. A novel algorithm, based on visual saliency, is developed here for the identification of tumor regions from MR images of the brain. The GBM saliency detection model is designed by taking cue from the concept of visual saliency in natural scenes. A visually salient region is typically rare in an image, and contains highly discriminating information, with attention getting immediately focused upon it. Although color is typically considered as the most important feature in a bottom-up saliency detection model, we circumvent this issue in the inherently gray scale MR framework. We develop a novel pseudo-coloring scheme, based on the three MRI sequences, viz. FLAIR, T2 and T1C (contrast enhanced with Gadolinium. A bottom-up strategy, based on a new pseudo-color distance and spatial distance between image patches, is defined for highlighting the salient regions in the image. This multi-channel representation of the image and saliency detection model help in automatically and quickly isolating the tumor region, for subsequent delineation, as is necessary in medical diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated on MRI of 80 subjects from the BRATS database in terms of the saliency map values. Using ground truth of the tumor regions for both high- and low- grade gliomas, the results are compared with four highly referred saliency detection models from literature. In all cases the AUC scores from the ROC analysis are found to be more than 0.999 ± 0.001 over different tumor grades, sizes and positions.

  15. Deep MRI brain extraction: A 3D convolutional neural network for skull stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleesiek, Jens; Urban, Gregor; Hubert, Alexander; Schwarz, Daniel; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-04-01

    Brain extraction from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for many neuroimaging workflows. Current methods demonstrate good results on non-enhanced T1-weighted images, but struggle when confronted with other modalities and pathologically altered tissue. In this paper we present a 3D convolutional deep learning architecture to address these shortcomings. In contrast to existing methods, we are not limited to non-enhanced T1w images. When trained appropriately, our approach handles an arbitrary number of modalities including contrast-enhanced scans. Its applicability to MRI data, comprising four channels: non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1w, T2w and FLAIR contrasts, is demonstrated on a challenging clinical data set containing brain tumors (N=53), where our approach significantly outperforms six commonly used tools with a mean Dice score of 95.19. Further, the proposed method at least matches state-of-the-art performance as demonstrated on three publicly available data sets: IBSR, LPBA40 and OASIS, totaling N=135 volumes. For the IBSR (96.32) and LPBA40 (96.96) data set the convolutional neuronal network (CNN) obtains the highest average Dice scores, albeit not being significantly different from the second best performing method. For the OASIS data the second best Dice (95.02) results are achieved, with no statistical difference in comparison to the best performing tool. For all data sets the highest average specificity measures are evaluated, whereas the sensitivity displays about average results. Adjusting the cut-off threshold for generating the binary masks from the CNN's probability output can be used to increase the sensitivity of the method. Of course, this comes at the cost of a decreased specificity and has to be decided application specific. Using an optimized GPU implementation predictions can be achieved in less than one minute. The proposed method may prove useful for large-scale studies and clinical trials.

  16. Pediatric elbow fractures: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J. (Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Rosenberg, Z.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Kawelblum, M. (Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Montes, L. (Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)); Bergman, A.G. (Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ., School of Medicine, CA (United States)); Strongwater, A. (Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in eight patients under the age of 8 years who suffered elbow fractures, to assess possible fracture extension into the distal nonossified epiphysis of the humerus in seven cases and to determine the displacement and location of the radial head in one case. MRI allowed accurate depiction of the fracture line when it extended into the cartilaginous epiphysis. In four cases, MRI findings were confirmed at surgery. In five cases, surgery was obviated because no articular extension of the fracture was seen on MRI (4 cases) or because no displacement was noted (1 case). In one patient, the plain film diagnosis of a Salter type II fracture was changed to Salter type IV on the basis of the MRI findings. It is concluded that MRI might play a role in the preoperative evaluation of pediatric patients presenting with elbow trauma when extension of the fracture cannot be determined with routine radiographic studies. (orig.)

  17. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MRI characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Resnick, D.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with histopathologically proven pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), involving joints but excluding tendon sheaths, were reviewed retrospectively. The purpose of this study is to define the spectrum and frequency of MRI characteristics for PVNS using conventional spin echo (in two cases before and after intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine) and also gradient echo techniques. A cystic variety is presented, the MRI appearances of which have not been found in a review of the literature. (orig.)

  18. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: an implemented program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Gustas, Cristy N.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mail Code H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Geeting, Glenn [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Emergent MRI is now a viable alternative to CT for evaluating appendicitis while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. However, primary employment of MRI in the setting of clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis has remained significantly underutilized. To describe our institution's development and the results of a fully implemented clinical program using MRI as the primary imaging evaluation for children with suspected appendicitis. A four-sequence MRI protocol consisting of coronal and axial single-shot turbo spin-echo (SS-TSE) T2, coronal spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and axial SS-TSE T2 with fat saturation was performed on 208 children, ages 3 to 17 years, with clinically suspected appendicitis. No intravenous or oral contrast material was administered. No sedation was administered. Data collection includes two separate areas: time parameter analysis and MRI diagnostic results. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for pediatric appendicitis indicated a sensitivity of 97.6% (CI: 87.1-99.9%), specificity 97.0% (CI: 93.2-99.0%), positive predictive value 88.9% (CI: 76.0-96.3%), and negative predictive value 99.4% (CI: 96.6-99.9%). Time parameter analysis indicated clinical feasibility, with time requested to first sequence obtained mean of 78.7 +/- 52.5 min, median 65 min; first-to-last sequence time stamp mean 14.2 +/- 8.8 min, median 12 min; last sequence to report mean 57.4 +/- 35.2 min, median 46 min. Mean age was 11.2 +/- 3.6 years old. Girls represented 57% of patients. MRI is an effective and efficient method of imaging children with clinically suspected appendicitis. Using an expedited four-sequence protocol, sensitivity and specificity are comparable to CT while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  19. MRI assessment program. Consensus statement on clinical efficacy of MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This consensus statement is largely based on the experience gained at the MRI units at the four hospitals which have operated scanners in the MRI program. It reflects the considered opinion of the radiologists responsible for the MRI services at those hospitals. Account has also been taken of relevant overseas data. This collection of opinion relates particularly to comparison with other imaging modalities. The specific comments will require further consideration as technical developments with MRI become available, additional experience is gained with gadolinium contrast material and additional data are obtained on the influence of MRI on patient management. MRI, at present, is used either to improve diagnostic accuracy when other tests are negative or equivocal, when there is strong clinical suspicion of disease, or to improve surgical or other management planning when the diagnosis known. In some situations (eg syringomyelia, congenital spinal disease, posterior fossa/cerebello-pontine angle tumours) it may entirely replace other tests (eg myelography, air contrast, CT) which are substantially less accurate and/or more invasive. In other situations (eg hemispheric brain tumours, lumbar disc protrusions) when other tests, such as CT, can be as accurate, MRI is not usually or initially indicated because it is currently more expensive and of limited availability. However, balanced against this is the fact that it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionising radiation. It is also stressed that MRI images depend on complex, widely variable and, as yet, incompletely understood parameters. There is concern that this may result in false positive diagnoses, especially where MRI is used alone as a screening test, or used as the initial test. For several reasons (availability, cost, medical and diagnostic efficacy), the specific comments on indications for MRI presented are based upon the assumption that MRI is a tertiary and complementary imaging examination

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles ... Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  1. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of fMRI During Nonverbal Semantic Decisions in Moderate-Severe Nonfluent Aphasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie Kurland

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical reorganization in poststroke aphasia is not well understood. Few studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in severe aphasia patients, who are typically viewed as having a poor prognosis for language recovery. Although test-retest reliability is routinely demonstrated during collection of language data in single-subject aphasia research, this is rarely examined in fMRI studies investigating the underlying neural mechanisms in aphasia recovery.

  3. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  4. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  5. Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL): Assessment of the involved white matter tracts by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Benha University (Egypt); Wafaie, Ahmed, E-mail: a_wafaie@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Abdelfattah, Sherif [Department of Radiology, Cairo University (Egypt); Farid, Tarek [Pediatric Department, Egyptian National Research Center (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Background and purpose: Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is a recently identified autosomal recessive disorder with early onset of symptoms and slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction. LBSL is characterized by distinct white matter abnormalities and selective involvement of brainstem and spinal cord tracts. The purpose of this study is to assess the imaging features of the involved white matter tracts in cases of LBSL by MRI. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging features of the selectively involved white matter tracts in sixteen genetically proven cases of leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and elevated brain lactate (LBSL). All patients presented with slowly progressive cerebellar sensory ataxia with spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. MRI of the brain and spine using 1.5 T machine and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) on the abnormal white matter were done to all patients. The MRI and MRS data sets were analyzed according to lesion location, extent, distribution and signal pattern as well as metabolite values and ratios in MRS. Laboratory examinations ruled out classic leukodystrophies. Results: In all cases, MRI showed high signal intensity in T2-weighted and FLAIR images within the cerebral subcortical, periventricular and deep white matter, posterior limbs of internal capsules, centrum semiovale, medulla oblongata, intraparenchymal trajectory of trigeminal nerves and deep cerebellar white matter. In the spine, the signal intensity of the dorsal column and lateral cortico-spinal tracts were altered in all patients. The subcortical U fibers, globi pallidi, thalami, midbrain and transverse pontine fibers were spared in all cases. In 11 cases (68.8%), the signal changes were inhomogeneous and confluent whereas in 5 patients (31.2%), the signal abnormalities were spotty. MRI also showed variable

  6. MRI in intraspinal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gupta, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Kumar, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Kohli, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Misra, U.K. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gujral, R.B. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

    1994-01-01

    We studied 20 patients with intraspinal tuberculosis (TB), to characterise the MRI features of tuberculous meningitis and myelitis. MRI leptomeningitis and intramedullary involvement in 11 patients, intramedullary lesions alone in 5, leptomeningitis alone in 2, and isolated extradural disease in 2. TB leptomeningitis was characterised by loculation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root thickening and clumping (seen only in the lumbar region) or complete obliteration of the subarachnoid space on unenhanced images. Gd-DTPA-enhanced images proved useful in 6 cases, revealing linear enhancement of the surface of the spinal cord and nerve roots or plaque-like enhancement of the dura-arachnoid mater complex. Intramedullary lesions included tuberculomas (8), cord oedema (5) and cavitation (3). In seven cases of intramedullary tuberculoma multiple lesions with skip areas were seen, without significant cord swelling. One patient had an isolated lesion in the conus medullaris. The lesions were iso- or hypointense on T1-weighted images, iso-, hypo- or hyperintense on T2-weighted images and showed rim or nodular enhancement with contrast medium. (orig.)

  7. MRI of the cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Krestan, C.; Gahleitner, A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH-Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Pathologie Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-11-01

    With the introduction of fat-suppressed gradient-echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences in clinical routine MR visualization of the hyaline articular cartilage is routinely possible in the larger joints. While 3D gradient-echo with fat suppression allows exact depiction of the thickness and surface of cartilage, FSE outlines the normal and abnormal internal structures of the hyaline cartilage; therefore, both sequences seem to be necessary in a standard MRI protocol for cartilage visualization. In diagnostically ambiguous cases, in which important therapeutic decisions are required, direct MR arthrography is the established imaging standard as an add-on procedure. Despite the social impact and prevalence, until recent years there was a paucity of knowledge about the pathogenesis of cartilage damage. With the introduction of high-resolution MRI with powerful surface coils and fat-suppression techniques, visualization of the articular cartilage is now routinely possible in many joints. After a short summary of the anatomy and physiology of the hyaline cartilage, the different MR imaging methods are discussed and recommended standards are suggested. (orig.)

  8. MRI of ranulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurabayashi, T.; Ida, M.; Ohbayashi, N.; Yoshino, N.; Tetsumura, A.; Sasaki, T. [Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan); Yasumoto, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    We reviewed the MRI of 20 patients with a ranula (8 simple and 12 plunging) and ten with other cystic masses in the floor of the mouth and/ or suprahyoid portion of the neck (three haemangiomas, two neuromas, one monomorphic adenoma, one lipoma, two lateral cervical cysts and one dermoid cyst). Histological diagnoses were obtained in all cases with the exception of one presumed haemangioma. Ranulas were all well-defined, homogeneous masses giving low signal on T1-and markedly high signal on T2-weighted images. While simple ranulas were all confined to the sublingual space, plunging ranulas were centered on the submandibular space and tended to spill into one or more adjacent spaces. They extended into the sublingual space anteriorly (producung a so-called tail sign) in eight of 12 cases and into the parapharyngeal space superiorly in five. Although they sometimes filled a considerable part of the parapharyngeal space, displacement of surrounding muscles or vessels was usually slight, which was thought to reflect the nature of extravasation pseudocysts. All other cystic masses in our study had one or more MRI finding different from those of ranulas and could be easily differentiated from them. (orig.)

  9. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU, Lille (France); Houlette, C. [Service de Radiologie, CHRU, Rouen (France); Godefroy, O. [Service de Neurologie B, CHRU, Lille (France)

    1998-02-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  10. MRI in necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Z; Srinivasan, S; Peh, W C G

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft-tissue infection of bacterial origin, which involves mainly the deep fascia. Early recognition of this condition may be hampered by the uncommon nature of the disease and non-specificity of initial clinical signs and symptoms in less fulminant cases, making the role of imaging important. MRI is the most useful imaging modality in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The presence of thick (>3 mm) hyperintense signal in the deep fascia (particularly intermuscular fascia) on fat-suppressed T2 weighted or short tau inversion-recovery images is an important marker for necrotizing fasciitis. Contrast enhancement of the thickened necrotic fascia can be variable, with a mixed-pattern of enhancement being more commonly encountered. Involvement of multiple musculofascial compartments increases the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis. It is important to remember that T2-hyperintense signal in the deep fascia is not specific to necrotizing fasciitis and can also be seen in cases such as non-infective inflammatory fasciitis or muscle tear. In this pictorial essay, we aim to review the MRI findings in necrotizing fasciitis, discuss its limitations and pitfalls and identify differentiating features from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections, such as cellulitis and infective myositis/pyomyositis, conditions which may clinically mimic necrotizing fasciitis.

  11. MRI Findings In Dengue Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf V.V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological manifestations are rare in dengue fever. Two cases with encephalopathy and systemic features of dengue fever with abnormal CSF and MR imaging are reported. Striking MRI finding was bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions similar to those reported in Japanese encephalitis. This report highlights that MRI findings can be similar in dengue and Japanese encephalitis.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. People with the ...

  14. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  15. Molecular MRI of Atherosclerotic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adel, Brigit den

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of MRI contrast agents and vessel wall parameters to image different stages of atherosclerosis. Chapter 2 summerizes different MRI contrast agents targeted towards vulnerable plaques that have been presented in literature. Chapter 3 illustrates accumulation of paramagn

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... can help physicians evaluate the structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in ...

  18. MRI atlas of ectopic endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaudière, B; Salut, C; Hummel, V; Pouquet, M; Piver, P; Rouanet, J-P; Maubon, A

    2013-03-01

    Ectopic endometriosis is a common condition which is often underdiagnosed, where MRI can help make a diagnosis simply, non-invasively and without irradiation. However, imagery signs of it are enormously polymorphic with a wide range of possible locations. In this paper, we have tried to illustrate comprehensively all its MRI appearances depending on the different locations where it occurs.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  1. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    , but limited, results given the sample size, restricted behavioral measurements and older 1 5T BOLD data sets Nevertheless, they indicate one potentially fruitful direction for future data-driven fMRI studies of stroke recovery in larger, better-characterized longitudinal stroke data sets recorded at higher...... sensitivity maps for the linear and quadratic discriminants indicate brain regions involved in changes in functional connectivity These regions are highly variable across subjects, but include the cerebellum and the motor area contralateral to the lesion...

  2. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles : inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, B. C. M. Te; Bovens, S. M.; van de Kolk, C. W. A.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; ten Hove, M.; van der Weerd, L.; Poelmann, R.; Strijkers, G. J.; Pasterkamp, G.; van Echteld, C. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversi

  3. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique to generate on-board volumetric-cine MRI (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI. Methods One phase of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4D-MRI based on principal-component-analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from four real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD), Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest(ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was on average 8.43±1.52% and the COMS was on average 0.93±0.58mm across all time-steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR=20. For patient data, average tracking errors were less than 2 mm in all directions for all patients. Conclusions Preliminary studies demonstrated the

  4. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  5. Visualizing electromagnetic vacuum by MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrashekar, Chandrika S; Chandrashekar, S; Taylor, Erika A; Taylor, Deanne M

    2016-01-01

    Based upon Maxwell's equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM) fields incident upon a metal surface decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual EM vacuum at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radiofrequency (r.f.) EM fields to produce images. Here we present the first visualization of an EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several novel findings. We uncover unexpected MRI intensity patterns arising from two orthogonal pairs of faces of a metal strip, and derive formulae for their intensity ratios. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI) results that discriminate different faces (surfaces) of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expe...

  6. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  7. MRI findings in Hirayama disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Monali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7, abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  8. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  9. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  10. MRI and MRA signs of moyamoya disease%烟雾病的MRI和MRA征象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秋霞; 詹浩辉; 程鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective:By analyzing signs of 27 cases of MRI and MRA images of moyamoya disease (MMD),to further improve the diagnosis level of moyamoya disease.Methods:Via retrospective analysis of 27 patients with cerebral MRI and MRA check and MMD patients' image data which confirmed to MMD diagnosis standard enacted in 1997 by the Japanese Moyamoya Disease Research Council,summing up the MRI and MRA characteristic signs.Results:MRI could clearly show substantive damage of MMD patients with cerebral infarction,cerebral hemorrhage,cerebral softening,or brain atrophy,and low signal vascular network of anomaly expansion and circuitous of basement department of brain were visible:5 cases in T1WI and FLAIR saw leptomeninges signs; 3 D-TOF MRA directly showed the ICA end and (or) ACA,MCA near-end occlusion or stenosis,smoke shape arteriolar and cerebral collateral circulation; CE-MRA displayed collateral vessels more clearly; MRI signs of brain damage and MRA signs of vascular stenosis or occlusion condition were not completely consistent,which had close relation to cerebral collateral circulation angiogenesis.Conclusion:MRA sign of moyamoya disease has characteristics,so do MRI signs of smoke shape empty vessels shadow and leptomeninges but not as intuitive as MRA.MRI signs of brain damage have close relationship with MRA signs of collateral circulation,MRI and MRA could make clear MMD diagnosis.%目的:分析27例烟雾病(moyamoya disease,MMD)的MRI和MRA征象,以进一步提高对烟雾病的诊断水平.方法:回顾性分析27例经颅脑MRI及MRA检查并符合日本烟雾病研究委员会1997年制定的烟雾病诊断标准的MMD患者的影像资料,总结其MRI和MRA的特征性表现.结果:MRI可清晰显示MMD患者的脑梗死、脑出血、脑软化、脑萎缩等脑实质损害表现,亦可见脑基底部异常扩张迂曲的低信号血管网;5例于T1WI和FLAIR见柔脑膜征;3D-TOF MRA直接显示了颈内动脉末端和/(或)大脑前中动脉近端闭塞

  11. Hyperintense Vessel Sign on T2-FLAIR on Patients with Carotid Endarterectomy%颈动脉内膜剥脱术患者T2-FLAIR高信号血管征相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠华; 褚春燕; 朱传芳; 龚向阳

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between T2-FLAIR hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) and the stenotic degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) and assess the HVS changes after the carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with CEA were retrospectively enrolled. The stenosis of the bilateral ICA were as:≥90%, and1/3大脑中动脉供血区)。比较不同狭窄程度HVS的发生率和分级的差别,分析CEA前后ICA及T2-FLAIR序列的变化,评估CEA对HVS的影响。结果 ICA狭窄程度≥90%组HVS的发生率显著高于<90%组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=23.584, P<0.001)。HVS在各区域出现的次数分别为:侧裂池12次,颞枕叶脑沟34次,其他部位15次。ICA狭窄程度≥90%组的HVS II级比例高于<90%组(χ2=8.395, P<0.05)。CEA后24例HVS消失,5例HVS不变。结论 HVS的发生率及等级与ICA狭窄程度具有相关性。ICA狭窄所致HVS多见于颞枕叶脑沟,侧裂池较少见。CEA可以明显改善HVS,术后HVS消失可能成为评估CEA效果的有效指标之一。

  12. fMRI reliability in subjects with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Khandekar, Gauri; Borich, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) has become one of the most commonly used neuroimaging tools to assess the cortical effects associated with rehabilitation, learning, or disease recovery in subjects with stroke. Despite this, there has been no systematic study of the reliability of the fMR signal in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the within- and between-session reliability of fMRI in cortical and cerebellar structures in subjects with stroke during a complex, continuous visual motor task performed with the less affected hand. Nine subjects with stroke underwent four testing trials during two sessions separated by three weeks. Subjects performed a drawing task using an MRI compatible joystick while in the MRI. Methods of analysis evaluated included: percent signal intensity change, active voxel count and a voxel by voxel stat value analysis within and between testing sessions. Reliability was determined with Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) in the following regions of interest: primary motor (M1), primary sensory (S1), premotor cortex (PMC), medial cerebellum (MCB), and lateral cerebellum (LCB). Results indicate that intensity change has superior reliability to the other methods of analysis (Average ICC across brain regions and trials: intensity change: 0.73, voxel count: 0.58, voxel by voxel: 0.67) and that generally with any analysis method, within-session reliability was higher than between-session, as indicated by higher ICC values across brain regions. Overall, when comparing between-session results, moderate to good reliability was obtained with intensity change (ICC: M1: 0.52, S1: 0.80, SMA: 0.78, PMC: 0.94, MCB: 0.86, and LCB: 0.59). These results show good reliability in subjects with stroke when performing a continuous motor task. These findings give confidence for interpreting fMRI test/retest research in subjects with stroke.

  13. PET/MRI assessment of the infarcted mouse heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T.; Sawiak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure originating from myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mouse models of ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) are used to study the effects of novel treatment strategies targeting MI, however staging disease and treatment efficacy is a challenge. Damage and recovery can be assessed on the cellular, tissue or whole-organ scale but these are rarely measured in concert. Here, for the first time, we present data showing measures of injury in infarcted mice using complementary techniques for multi-modal characterisation of the heart. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess heart function with cine-MRI, hindered perfusion with late gadolinium enhancement imaging and muscular function with displacement encoded with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI. These measures are followed by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose to assess cellular metabolism. We demonstrate a protocol combining each of these measures for the same animal in the same imaging session and compare how the different markers can be used to quantify cardiac recovery on different scales following injury.

  14. PET/MRI assessment of the infarcted mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonincontri, Guido, E-mail: gb396@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J., E-mail: sjs80@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Heart failure originating from myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mouse models of ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) are used to study the effects of novel treatment strategies targeting MI, however staging disease and treatment efficacy is a challenge. Damage and recovery can be assessed on the cellular, tissue or whole-organ scale but these are rarely measured in concert. Here, for the first time, we present data showing measures of injury in infarcted mice using complementary techniques for multi-modal characterisation of the heart. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess heart function with cine-MRI, hindered perfusion with late gadolinium enhancement imaging and muscular function with displacement encoded with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI. These measures are followed by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose to assess cellular metabolism. We demonstrate a protocol combining each of these measures for the same animal in the same imaging session and compare how the different markers can be used to quantify cardiac recovery on different scales following injury.

  15. MRI of plants and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  16. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies.

  17. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  18. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffusion-weighted MRI in cyclosporin A neurotoxicity for the classification of cerebral edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debaere, C.; Stadnik, T.; Maeseneer, M. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Academic Hospital, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    1999-07-01

    Cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressive agent, is known to have neurotoxic effects, but until now, there has not been agreement on the underlying mechanism. Our report suggests, by using diffusion-weighted MRI, that the brain lesions caused by cyclosporin A, are probably related to vasogenic edema. This may explain the complete recovery of the lesions on imaging when cyclosporine therapy is stopped. (orig.)

  20. Monocenter feasibility study of the MRI compatibility of the Evia pacemaker in combination with Safio S pacemaker lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance (MR) conditional pacemaker (PM) system (Evia SR-T and DR-T with Safio S leads) under MR conditions. Methods Patients with standard PM indications and Evia PM were eligible for enrollment in this single center prospective non-randomized pilot study. Patients underwent MR of the brain and lower lumbar spine at 1.5 Tesla. Atrial (RA) und ventricular (RV) lead parameters (sensing, pacing threshold [PTH], pacing impedance) were assessed immediately before (baseline follow-up [FU]) and immediately after MRI (1st FU), after 1 month (2nd FU) and 3 months (3rd FU). The effect of MR on serious adverse device effect (SADE) free-rate, on atrial and ventricular sensing (AS/VS; mV) and atrial (RA) and ventricular (RV) pacing thresholds (PTH; V/0.4 ms) were investigated between baseline and 2nd FU. Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± SD and were compared using paired Student’s t-test. A p pacemakers led to MR imaging artifacts on diffusion weighted sequences of the brain, but did not affect other sequences (e.g. FLAIR and T2 weighted spin-echo images). Conclusion The use of the MR conditional Evia PM in a MR environment under predefined conditions is feasible. No MR related SADEs nor clinically relevant changes in device functions occurred. PMID:23009683

  1. MRI and SPECT findings as a predictive factor for postencephalitic epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sako, Kazuya; Murakami, Nobuto; Nihira, Atsuko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Relationship between postencephalitic epilepsy and acute phase symptoms, CSF, EEG and MRI findings was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Thirteen of 34 patients manifestated epilepsy including four intractable cases. Women (7/11), herpes simplex virus (6/7), seizures in acute phase (12/18), abnormal findings or MRI (6/7) were statistically significant. Four of nine patients with hyperperfusion area by HMPAO-SPECT in acute phase and two of three patients with hypoperfusion area by IMP-SPECT in recovery phase had epilepsy. Hyperperfusion in acute phase reflected acute seizures and inflammations, whereas hypoperfusion in the recovery phase reflected hypometabolism caused by brain damage. These findings suggest epileptogenicity, MRI and SPECT findings may predict prognosis of postencephalitic epilepsy. (author)

  2. MRI of congenital urethroperineal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi-Mahani, Maryam; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Pai, Deepa; DiPietro, Michael [C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Park, John [C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Urology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We present the MRI features of a congenital urethroperineal fistula diagnosed in a 12-year-old boy being evaluated after a single urinary tract infection. This diagnosis was initially suggested by voiding cystourethrogram and confirmed by MRI. Imaging revealed an abnormal fluid-filled tract arising from the posterior urethra and tracking to the perineal skin surface that increased in size during micturition. Surgical resection and histopathological evaluation of the abnormal tract confirmed the diagnosis of congenital urethroperineal fistula. MRI played important roles in confirming the diagnosis and assisting surgical planning. (orig.)

  3. Revised Recommendations of the Consortium of MS Centers Task Force for a Standardized MRI Protocol and Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsee, A.; Simon, J.H.; Stone, L.; Fisher, E.; Jones, D.E.; Malhotra, A.; Newsome, S.D.; Oh, J.; Reich, D.S.; Richert, N.; Rammohan, K.; Khan, O.; Radue, E.-W.; Ford, C.; Halper, J.; Li, D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY An international group of neurologists and radiologists developed revised guidelines for standardized brain and spinal cord MR imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS. A brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended for the diagnosis of MS. A spinal cord MR imaging is recommended if the brain MR imaging is nondiagnostic or if the presenting symptoms are at the level of the spinal cord. A follow-up brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended to demonstrate dissemination in time and ongoing clinically silent disease activity while on treatment, to evaluate unexpected clinical worsening, to re-assess the original diagnosis, and as a new baseline before starting or modifying therapy. A routine brain MR imaging should be considered every 6 months to 2 years for all patients with relapsing MS. The brain MR imaging protocol includes 3D T1-weighted, 3D T2-FLAIR, 3D T2-weighted, post-single-dose gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and a DWI sequence. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy surveillance protocol includes FLAIR and DWI sequences only. The spinal cord MR imaging protocol includes sagittal T1-weighted and proton attenuation, STIR or phase-sensitive inversion recovery, axial T2- or T2*-weighted imaging through suspicious lesions, and, in some cases, postcontrast gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. The clinical question being addressed should be provided in the requisition for the MR imaging. The radiology report should be descriptive, with results referenced to previous studies. MR imaging studies should be permanently retained and available. The current revision incorporates new clinical information and imaging techniques that have become more available. PMID:26564433

  4. Algorithmic three-dimensional analysis of tumor shape in MRI improves prognosis of survival in glioblastoma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Nicholas; Clark, Kal; Peters, Katherine B; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2017-03-01

    In this retrospective, IRB-exempt study, we analyzed data from 68 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) in two institutions and investigated the relationship between tumor shape, quantified using algorithmic analysis of magnetic resonance images, and survival. Each patient's Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) abnormality and enhancing tumor were manually delineated, and tumor shape was analyzed by automatic computer algorithms. Five features were automatically extracted from the images to quantify the extent of irregularity in tumor shape in two and three dimensions. Univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to determine how prognostic each feature was of survival. Kaplan Meier analysis was performed to illustrate the prognostic value of each feature. To determine whether the proposed quantitative shape features have additional prognostic value compared with standard clinical features, we controlled for tumor volume, patient age, and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS). The FLAIR-based bounding ellipsoid volume ratio (BEVR), a 3D complexity measure, was strongly prognostic of survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.36 (95% CI 0.20-0.65), and remained significant in regression analysis after controlling for other clinical factors (P = 0.0061). Three enhancing-tumor based shape features were prognostic of survival independently of clinical factors: BEVR (P = 0.0008), margin fluctuation (P = 0.0013), and angular standard deviation (P = 0.0078). Algorithmically assessed tumor shape is statistically significantly prognostic of survival for patients with GBM independently of patient age, KPS, and tumor volume. This shows promise for extending the utility of MR imaging in treatment of GBM patients.

  5. [Standartization of MRI studies in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukhov, V V; Krotenkova, I A; Morozova, S N; Krotenkova, M V

    2016-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis has markedly increased in recent years. The main task of the MRI studies after the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is to assess the dynamics of MRI for determining disease progression and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. In this regard, it is very important to obtain the most identical baseline and follow-up MRI that is possible when a single standard protocol is used. This article presents the protocol of brain MRI and spinal cord MRI and interpretation of MRI studies in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Neural correlates of longitudinal recovery of naming in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Sebastian

    2015-05-01

    Our preliminary data suggests that recovery of naming is dynamic and may have different time courses in different individuals. Further, brain reorganization during language recovery may not proceed in three phases as proposed by Saur and colleagues. This finding is in line with the recent work from our lab, which examined recovery of language within the first two months after a stroke (Jarso et al., 2014. To further understand the processes involved in naming recovery, we are analyzing DTI and resting state fMRI data. It is hoped that the results from the multimodality imaging data will serve as the basis for targeted brain-based interventions for aphasia, which require an understanding of the anatomy of language networks, as well as the extent and timing of how these networks reorganize after injury.

  7. Functional MRI using robotic MRI compatible devices for monitoring rehabilitation from chronic stroke in the molecular medicine era (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS G.; NAQVI, SYED HASSAN ABBAS; KATEB, BABAK; TZIKA, A. ARIA

    2012-01-01

    The number of individuals suffering from stroke is increasing daily, and its consequences are a major contributor to invalidity in today’s society. Stroke rehabilitation is relatively new, having been hampered from the longstanding view that lost functions were not recoverable. Nowadays, robotic devices, which aid by stimulating brain plasticity, can assist in restoring movement compromised by stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain which can be monitored by MRI. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of stroke patients participating in a training program with a novel Magnetic Resonance Compatible Hand-Induced Robotic Device (MR_CHIROD) could yield a promising biomarker that, ultimately, will enhance our ability to advance hand motor recovery following chronic stroke. Using state-of-the art MRI in conjunction with MR_CHIROD-assisted therapy can provide novel biomarkers for stroke patient rehabilitation extracted by a meta-analysis of data. Successful completion of such studies may provide a ground breaking method for the future evaluation of stroke rehabilitation therapies. Their results will attest to the effectiveness of using MR-compatible hand devices with MRI to provide accurate monitoring during rehabilitative therapy. Furthermore, such results may identify biomarkers of brain plasticity that can be monitored during stroke patient rehabilitation. The potential benefit for chronic stroke patients is that rehabilitation may become possible for a longer period of time after stroke than previously thought, unveiling motor skill improvements possible even after six months due to retained brain plasticity. PMID:22426741

  8. Wernicke脑病的MRI表现%MRI diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥林; 王倩; 谭威; 马贺骥

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Wernicke脑病(Wernicke's encephalopathy,WE)的MRI表现,以提高诊断水平.方法 收集临床确诊并具有完整MRI资料的11例WE进行回顾性分析.结果 5例病变对称性分布于丘脑内侧、第三脑室周围灰质及乳头体.3例病变位于第三脑室周围灰质、中脑导水管周围灰质.2例病变位于中脑导水管周围灰质、丘脑内侧并乳头体萎缩.1例病变位于丘脑内侧、第三脑室周围灰质及顶枕叶皮质区.病变于T1WI为等或低信号,T2WI表现为高信号;FLAIR序列呈高信号;4例急性期病变DWI图像呈高信号.2例增强扫描病例示乳头体呈结节状强化.结论 WE具有典型的MRI表现,对临床诊断有重要意义.%Objective To explore MRI features of Wernicke encephalopathy in order to improve accurate rate of diagnosis of this disease. Methods MRI data of Wernicke encephalopathy in 11 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results The lesions were sym-metrically located at medial thalamus, the grey matter surrounding the third ventricle and mammillary body in 5 cases, at the grey matter surrounding the third cerebral ventricle and aqueduct in 3 cases,at the grey matter surrounding aqueduct and medial thalamus with mammillary body atrophy in 2 cases, at medial thalamus and the grey matter surrounding the third cerebral ventricle in 1 case with the cortex of parietal and occipital lobe involved. The lesions appeared as isointensity or hypointensity on T1 WI, hyperintensity on T2 WI and FLAIR. In 4 acute cases, the lesions appeared as hyperintensity on DWI. Mammillary body showed nodular enhance-ment in 2 cases after administration of contrast medium. Conclusion Wernicke encephalopathy has typical features on MRI, which provide great value in clinical diagnosis.

  9. PET-MRI: a review of challenges and solutions in the development of integrated multimodality imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    The integration of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been an ongoing research topic for the last 20 years. This paper gives an overview of the different developments and the technical problems associated with combining PET and MRI in one system. After explaining the different detector concepts for integrating PET-MRI and minimising interference the limitations and advantages of different solutions for the detector and system are described for preclinical and clinical imaging systems. The different integrated PET-MRI systems are described in detail. Besides detector concepts and system integration the challenges and proposed solutions for attenuation correction and the potential for motion correction and resolution recovery are also discussed in this topical review.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... MR angiography (MRA) provides detailed images of blood vessels in the brain—often without the need for ...

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    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... copied to a CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a contrast ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ...

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging ... than other imaging modalities. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home, if possible, or removed prior to the MRI ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging (MRI) procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  19. MRI of orbital hydroxyapatite implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanders, A.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); De Potter, P. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rao, V.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tom, B.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shields, C.L. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shields, J.A. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our aim was to use MRI for the postsurgical assessment of a new form of integrated orbital implant composed of a porous calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite substrate. We studied ten patients 24-74 years of age who underwent enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite ball; 5-13 months after surgery, each patient was examined by spin-echo MRI, with fat suppression and gadolinium enhancement. Fibrovascular ingrowth was demonstrated in all ten patients as areas of enhancement at the periphery of the hydroxyapatite sphere that extended to the center to a variable degree. The radiologist should aware of the MRI appearances of the coralline hydroxyapatite orbital implant since it is now widely used following enucleation. MRI is a useful means to determine successful incorporation of the substrate into the orbital tissues. The normal pattern of contrast enhancement should not be mistaken for recurrent tumor or infection. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive ... food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologic ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... can help diagnose conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces ... MRA page for more information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the ...

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    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test ... suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ... include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, hairpins, metal ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... It can help diagnose conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid ... early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the discovery of abnormalities that might ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always ... metal objects. In general, metal objects used in orthopedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. ... fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI. For more information, consult your radiologist. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... not come in contact with the patient. A computer then processes the signals and generates a series ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

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    ... their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will have a pamphlet explaining ... large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. You will lie on a moveable examination table ...

  12. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

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    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

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    Full Text Available ... exam time. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most MRI exams ... uncomfortable to remain still during MR imaging. Others experience a sense of being closed-in (claustrophobia) while ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    ... surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint may require the use of ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... let the radiologist know about them. Parents or family members who accompany patients into the scanning room ... MRI examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

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    Full Text Available ... during an MRI scan, but this is rare. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other ... that are detected by the coils. The electric current does not come in contact with the patient. ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... will hear and feel loud tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses ... use headphones to reduce the intensity of the sounds made by the MRI machine. You may be ...

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    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive ... the radiologist know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have had any recent ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to ...

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    Full Text Available ... intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a contrast material called gadolinium, which is ... MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. The radiologist , ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces within the brain (ventricles) causes of epilepsy (seizure) ... MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your ...

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    Full Text Available ... allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it ... if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. MRI has been used for scanning patients since ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... multiple sclerosis disorders of the eye and inner ear disorders of pituitary gland vascular problems, such as ... should not enter the MRI scanning area: cochlear (ear) implant some types of clips used for brain ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... head is performed for a number of abrupt onset or long-standing symptoms. It can help diagnose ... often within less than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost ...

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    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive ... the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere with ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

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    Full Text Available ... spaces within the brain (ventricles) causes of epilepsy (seizure) hemorrhage in selected trauma patients certain chronic conditions, ... A person who is very large may not fit into the opening of certain types of MRI ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) ... contrast material in patients with very poor kidney function. Careful assessment of kidney function before considering a ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ... to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. ...

  15. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-04-17

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... can help diagnose conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces ... MRA page for more information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

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    Full Text Available ... Examples include but are not limited to: artificial heart valves implanted drug infusion ports artificial limbs or ... imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (EKG). MRI generally is not ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...