WorldWideScience

Sample records for recovery assessment volume

  1. International Best Practice Basis for Assessing Recovery Operations. Annex II of Technical Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to identify lessons learned related to post-accident recovery that may further improve preparedness worldwide. This objective assessment of the recovery programme is made according to international best practice. In the practice and assessment of radiation and nuclear safety, international best practice is a process or technique that is likely to consistently produce superior results. An important principle is that a ‘best’ practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered and lessons are learned from past experience. The lessons to be learned from the recovery programme as it unfolds in Japan will feed back into improving international best practice in post-accident recovery worldwide. Best practice is used to maintain quality and is a component of quality management systems and standards, such as ISO 9000. It is generally regarded as being the most efficient and effective way to accomplish desired outcomes. The body of best practice is used as a benchmark and for self assessment

  2. Damage, Loss, and Needs Assessment Guidance Notes : Volume 3. Estimation of Post-Disaster Needs for Recovery and Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jovel, Roberto J.; Mudahar, Mohinder

    2010-01-01

    This is a guideline for World Bank task team leaders (TTLs) entrusted with the design and execution of assessments to determine disaster impacts as well as post-disaster needs for recovery, reconstruction, and disaster risk reduction or management. Assessments estimate, first, the short-term government interventions required to initiate recovery and second, the financial requirements to ac...

  3. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  4. Business recovery: an assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Joanne R; Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2018-07-01

    This paper presents a Business Recovery Assessment Framework (BRAF) to help researchers and practitioners design robust, repeatable, and comparable studies of business recovery in various post-disruption contexts. Studies assessing business recovery without adequately considering the research aims, recovery definitions, and indicators can produce misleading findings. The BRAF is composed of a series of steps that guide the decisions that researchers need to make to ensure: (i) that recovery is indeed being measured; (ii) that the indicators of recovery that are selected align with the objectives of the study and the definition of recovery; and, where necessary, (iii) that appropriate comparative control variables are in place. The paper draws on a large dataset of business surveys collected following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, on 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 to demonstrate the varied conclusions that different recovery indicators can produce and to justify the need for a systematic approach to business recovery assessments. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  5. Recovery actions in PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] for the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP): Volume 1, Development of the data-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, L.M.; Whitehead, D.W.; Graves, N.L.

    1987-06-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a nuclear power plant, the analyst identifies a set of potential core damage events consisting of equipment failures and human errors and their estimated probabilities of occurrence. If operator recovery from an event within some specified time is considered, then the probability of this recovery can be included in the PRA. This report provides PRA analysts with an improved methodology for including recovery actions in a PRA. A recovery action can be divided into two distinct phases: a Diagnosis Phase (realizing that there is a problem with a critical parameter and deciding upon the correct course of action) and an Action Phase (physically accomplishing the required action). In this methodology, simulator data are used to estimate recovery probabilities for the diagnosis phase. Different time-reliability curves showing the probability of failure of diagnosis as a function of time from the compelling cue for the event are presented. These curves are based on simulator exercises, and the actions are grouped based upon their operational similarities. This is an improvement over existing diagnosis models that rely greatly upon subjective judgment to obtain such estimates. The action phase is modeled using estimates from available sources. The methodology also includes a recommendation on where and when to apply the recovery action in the PRA process

  6. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  7. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  8. Assessing the Impact of Surgeon Experience on Urinary Continence Recovery After Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results of Four High-Volume Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Nicola; Di Trapani, Ettore; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Umari, Paolo; Buffi, Nicolò Maria; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Mottrie, Alexander; Gaboardi, Franco; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto; Suardi, Nazareno

    2017-09-01

    To test the impact of surgeon experience on urinary continence (UC) recovery after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). The study included 1477 consecutive patients treated with RARP by four surgeons between 2006 and 2014. UC recovery was defined as being completely dry over a 24-hour period at follow-up. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of RARP performed by the surgeon before the patient's operation. Multivariable analysis tested the association between surgeon experience and UC recovery. Covariates consisted of patient age, Charlson comorbidity index, preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF), nerve-sparing surgery (none vs unilateral vs bilateral), and preoperative risk groups (low- vs intermediate- vs high risk). The number of cases performed by each surgeon was 541, 413, 411, and 112, respectively. Median follow-up was 24 months (inter-quartile range: 18, 40). The UC recovery rate at 1 year after surgery was 82%. At multivariable analyses, surgeon experience represented an independent predictor of UC recovery (hazard ratio: 1.02, p < 0.001). The surgical learning curve was similar among surgeons, moving linearly from ∼60% of UC rate at the initial cases to almost 90% after more than 400 procedures. In patients undergoing RARP, surgeon experience is a significant predictor of UC recovery. The surgical learning curve of UC recovery does not reach a plateau even after more than 100 cases, suggesting a continuous improvement of the surgical technique. These findings deserve attention for patient counseling and future comparative studies evaluating functional outcomes after RARP.

  9. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  10. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  11. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N.; Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves

  12. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N. [EAESP/FGV, Av. Nove de Julho, 2029-10 andar, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J. [Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Avenida Nove de Julho, 2029, 10th floor, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves.

  13. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON....... The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers....

  14. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains 158 papers presented at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Risk Assessment held by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in Port Chester, New York in 1981. The meeting was second in a series of three. The main focus of the meeting was on the safety of light water reactors. The papers discuss safety goals and risk assessment. Quantitative safety goals, risk assessment in non-nuclear technologies, and operational experience and data base are also covered. Included is an address by Dr. Chauncey Starr

  16. Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery, (STEOR) Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P.; Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal enhanced oil recovery is widely used in California to aid in the production of heavy oils. Steam injection either to stimulate individual wells or to drive oil to the producing wells, is by far the major thermal process today and has been in use for over 20 years. Since steam generation at the necessary pressures (generally below 4000 kPa (580 psia)) is within the capabilities of present day solar technology, it is logical to consider the possibilities of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). The present project consisted of an evaluation of STEOR. Program objectives, system selection, trade-off studies, preliminary design, cost estimate, development plan, and market and economic analysis are summarized.

  17. [Recovery Self Assessment: Translation and cultural adaption of a recovery oriented assessment instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuaboni, Gianfranco; Degano Kieser, Luciana; Kozel, Bernd; Glavanovits, Katharina; Utschakowski, Jörg; Behrens, Johann

    2015-08-01

    The recovery approach is becoming increasingly important in mental health services and research. In English-speaking countries, its practical implementation as well as the scientific discussion is far more advanced. To support the approach, assessment instruments are required. A widespread and recognised tool is the Recovery Self Assessment Scale {RSA}. This includes four versions of a questionnaire, which cover the perspectives of users, providers, family members and management. In this article, the development of the instrument and the system atictranslation process are presented. Two independent research groups applied different translation. The Swiss research group {AGS} used the ISOPR principles, the German research group (AGN} the Guidelines of the European Social Survey Programme for survey translations TRAPD. The methods differ in the fact,that TRAPD uses focus groups. The results of both groups were combined by means of a consensus process. Within the translation and cultural adjustment of the RSA-D, the the oretical framework of the RSA as well as the transferability into the German speaking context has been ensured. Before the RSA-D c~n beused in practice and research, further studies towards psychometric testing should be conducted.

  18. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  19. Survivability Assessment: Modeling A Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Paputungan, Irving Vitra; Abdullah, Azween

    2009-01-01

    Survivability is the ability of a system to continue operating, in a timely manner, in the presence ofattacks, failures, or accidents. Recovery in survivability is a process of a system to heal or recover from damageas early as possible to fulfill its mission as condition permit. In this paper, we show a preliminary recoverymodel to enhance the system survivability. The model focuses on how we preserve the system and resumes itscritical service under attacks as soon as possible.Keywords: surv...

  20. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    2001-01-01

    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  1. California Drought Recovery Assessment Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Aghakouchak, A.; Madadgar, S.; Tourian, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    California has been experiencing its most extreme drought in recent history due to a combination of record high temperatures and exceptionally low precipitation. An estimate for when the drought can be expected to end is needed for risk mitigation and water management. A crucial component of drought recovery assessments is the estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) deficit. Previous studies on drought recovery have been limited to surface water hydrology (precipitation and/or runoff) for estimating changes in TWS, neglecting the contribution of groundwater deficits to the recovery time of the system. Groundwater requires more time to recover than surface water storage; therefore, the inclusion of groundwater storage in drought recovery assessments is essential for understanding the long-term vulnerability of a region. Here we assess the probability, for varying timescales, of California's current TWS deficit returning to its long-term historical mean. Our method consists of deriving the region's fluctuations in TWS from changes in the gravity field observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. We estimate the probability that meteorological inputs, precipitation minus evaporation and runoff, over different timespans will balance the current GRACE-derived TWS deficit (e.g. in 3, 6, 12 months). This method improves upon previous techniques as the GRACE-derived water deficit comprises all hydrologic sources, including surface water, groundwater, and snow cover. With this empirical probability assessment we expect to improve current estimates of California's drought recovery time, thereby improving risk mitigation.

  2. Assessment of left atrial volume and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...... between CMR and MSCT, with a small to moderate bias in LA(max) (4.9 ± 10.4 ml), CC (3.1 ± 9.1 ml) and reservoir volume (3.4 ± 9.1 ml). TTE underestimates LA(max) with up to 32% compared with CMR and MSCT (P ...

  3. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  4. Recovery in environmental risk assessment at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee

  5. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  6. Merging Cultural Heritage Assessments with Risk Reduction and Disaster Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    heritage. These limitations serve as motivation for the introduction of the ACTOR framework (Assessing Cultural Threats, Obstacles and Resilience) ACTOR aims at merging cultural heritage assessments with risk reduction and disaster recovery, and provide disaster management students with a learning......Abstract There is a general professional consensus that vulnerability and risk assessments are crucial tasks in any serious attempt to substantially reduce disaster losses and enhance the reconciliation or recovery in the post event phase. However, cultural heritage is often considered...... as an overarching element that should be assessed, rather than a permanent key component of the assessments. Research in disaster management noticeably illustrates how cultural heritage is increasingly at risk from disasters caused by natural and human-made hazards, as well as the effects of climate change. Still...

  7. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Stanley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  8. Misuse of Checklist Assessments in Endangered Species Recovery Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Good

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource agencies worldwide must develop species recovery plans that specify threats, propose targets required for recovery, and evaluate the extent to which habitat alteration and restoration may influence species decline and recovery. To evaluate the impacts of proposed habitat alterations on species of conservation concern, standardized protocols may be adopted even when supporting data are scarce. For example, a habitat matrix was developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS to guide consultations under the Endangered Species Act for actions that may affect the functioning of the freshwater habitat used by several federally listed salmonid species. The habitat matrix has also been advocated as a tool for recovery planning by agencies apart from the NMFS, who could use it to define the habitat conditions assumed to be necessary for salmonid population viability and hence recovery. This use of the habitat matrix in a recovery context has not been evaluated, and, despite its widespread use as a regulatory tool, the empirical relationships between many of the habitat matrix variables and salmonid populations remain unexplored. By amassing data on habitat assessments and trends in fish abundance, we empirically evaluate the relationship between habitat matrix scores and salmonid population metrics. We found that abundance trends for populations of three species of threatened and endangered salmonids (chinook, coho, and steelhead were unrelated to these habitat matrix assessments. This study reveals the danger of assuming quantitative relationships between habitat and organism and cautions against co-opting protocols from the regulatory realm for recovery planning for endangered species.

  9. Recovery of plasma volume after 1 week of exposure at 4,350 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Lafforgue, Eric; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2002-01-01

    Plasma volume (PV) decreases at high altitude, but is rapidly restored upon return to sea-level (RSL). The aim of this study was (1) to describe PV recovery upon RSL with concomitant changes in major fluid regulating hormones, and (2) to test the hypothesis that PV recovery is promoted...... natriuretic factor (ANF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured at rest and during exercise. The subjects were divided into two groups 1 h before RSL, one group receiving PV expansion (475+/-219 ml) to ensure normovolemia (PVX, n=6), the others serving as controls (Control, n=4). PV decreased by 13...... groups, whereas water output dropped in RSL. PVX increased urine flow rate in RSL1 compared with subjects not given PVX. The present results suggest that PV recovery during early RSL is mainly due to a decreased diuresis, promoted at least in part by changes in fluid regulating hormones. However, neither...

  10. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  11. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  12. Physical aging and structural recovery in a colloidal glass subjected to volume-fraction jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-04-01

    Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics

  13. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. VAN VAERENBERGH; B. LARIVIÈRE; I. VERMEIR

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  14. The Development of the Recovery Assessments by Phone Points (RAPP): A Mobile Phone App for Postoperative Recovery Monitoring and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensson, Maria; Dahlberg, Karuna; Eriksson, Mats; Grönlund, Åke; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2015-09-11

    In Sweden, day surgery is performed in almost 2 million patients per year. Patient satisfaction is closely related to potential adverse events during the recovery process. A way to empower patients and give them the opportunity to affect care delivery is to let them evaluate their recovery process. The most common evaluation method is a follow-up telephone call by a nurse one or two days after surgery. In recent years, mHealth apps have been used to evaluate the nurse-patient relationship for self-management in chronic diseases or to evaluate pain after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, no previous research has explored the recovery process after day surgery via mobile phone in a Swedish cohort. The objective of the study is to describe the process of developing a mobile phone app using a Swedish Web-based Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire to evaluate postoperative recovery after day surgery. The development process included five steps: (1) setting up an interdisciplinary task force, (2) evaluating the potential needs of app users, (3) developing the Swedish Web version of a QoR questionnaire, (4) constructing a mobile phone app, and (5) evaluating the interface and design by staff working in a day-surgery department and patients undergoing day surgery. A task force including specialists in information and communication technology, eHealth, and nursing care worked closely together to develop a Web-based app. Modifications to the QoR questionnaire were inspired by instruments used in the field of recovery for both children and adults. The Web-based app, Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) consists of two parts: (1) a mobile app installed on the patient's private mobile phone, and (2) an administrator interface for the researchers. The final version of the SwQoR questionnaire, which includes 31 items, was successfully installed in RAPP. The interface and the design were evaluated by asking for user opinions about the design and usefulness of the

  15. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  16. Vegetation recovery assessment following large wildfires in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have evolved along with fire, adapting to quick recovering following wildfire events. However, vegetation species respond differently to the changes in fire regimes that have been observed in the past decades in the Mediterranean. These changes, which occurred mainly due to socio-economic and climatic changes, led to dramatic modifications of landscape composition and structure (Malkinson et al., 2011). Post-fire vegetation recovery depends on environmental factors such as landscape features and climatic variables and on specific plant traits; however it also depends on the differentiated response of each species to the characteristics of fire regimes, such as recurrence, severity and extent. The complexity of the interactions between these factors emphasizes the importance of assessing quantitatively post-fire recovery as well as the role of driving factors of regeneration over different regions in the Mediterranean. In 2006, Spain experienced the fire season with larger fires, restricted to a relatively small region of the province of Galicia, that represents more than 60% of total burned area of this fire season (92000ha out of 148827 ha). The 2007 fire season in Greece was remarkably severe, registering the highest value of burnt area (225734 ha) since 1980. Finally, in 2010 a very large wildfire of about 5000 ha occurred in Mount Carmel, Israel, with major social and environmental impacts. The work relies on monthly NDVI data from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the period from September 1998 - August 2011 for Spain, Greece and Israel. Here we have applied the same sequential methodology developed at our laboratory, starting by the identification of very large burnt scars by means of a spatial cluster analysis followed by the application of the monoparametric model (Gouveia et al., 2010; Bastos et al., 2011) in order to study post-fire vegetation dynamics. Post-fire recovery times were estimated for burnt scars from each

  17. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  18. Controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control: A framework for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres

  19. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for ``data frac`` stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  20. After the Cap: Risk Assessment, Citizen Science and Disaster Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina McCormick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I used the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill to examine how crowdsourcing is used as a new form of citizen science that provides real time assessments of health-related exposures. Assessing risks of an oil spill, or disasters more generally, is a challenge complicated by the situated nature of knowledge-generation that results in differential perceptions and responses. These processes are critical in the case of the British Petroleum spill in the Gulf Coast since the identification of risks promises to have ramifications for multiple social actors, as well as the health status and long-term resilience of communities in the area. Qualitative interviews, ethnographic observations, and video data were collected with local social movement organizations, grassroots groups, spill workers, fisherman, local residents, scientists, and government representatives within five months of the spill. Findings suggest that crowdsourcing is a new form of citizen science reflecting a transition from lay mapping to an online data gathering system that allows a broader range of participation and the detection of a broader range of impacts. Outcomes of this research promise to help demonstrate and theorize how citizen science relates to risk assessment processes and affects disaster recovery and long-term response.

  1. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    Reviews the scientific background for the impact assessment phase of the EDIP methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) covering the impact categories: Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, human toxicity...

  2. Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System : Volume 1. Master Product Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Volume I is part of a four volume set documenting areas of research resulting from the development of the Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System (AMAS) for the DOT/Transportation Systems Center. AMAS was designed to assist in the evaluation of in...

  3. Assessment of liver volume with spiral computerized tomography scanning: predicting liver volume by age and height

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Sharma; Abhishek Singh; Shewtank Goel; Setu Satani; Kavita Mudgil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estimation of liver size has critical clinical implication. Precise knowledge of liver dimensions and volume is prerequisite for clinical assessment of liver disorders. Liver span as measured by palpation and USG is prone to inter-observer variability and poor repeatability. The aim was to assess the normal liver volume of healthy adults using spiral computed tomography scans and to observe its relationship with various body indices. Methods: In this prospective study, all the...

  4. CERCLA site assessment workbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This workbook provides instructions for planning, implementing, and reporting site assessments under CERCLA, commonly referred to as Superfund. Site assessment consists of two information-gathering steps: the remedial preliminary assessment (PA) and the site inspection (SI). The information obtained is then used to estimate, or score, a site's relative risk to public health and the environment. The score is derived via the hazard ranking system (HRS). Although the workbook and its exercises can be adapted to group study, it is designed primarily for use by an individual

  5. Establishing a recovery orientation in mental health services: Evaluating the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) in a Swedish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra; Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2015-12-01

    Although there has been an emphasis on developing knowledge regarding recovery in Sweden, it is unclear to what extent this has been translated into a recovery orientation in the provision of mental health services. Instruments, which present the components of recovery as measurable dimensions of change, may provide a framework for program development. Involving users is an essential factor in the utilization of such tools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) measure and its potential for being utilized in a Swedish context. The sample consisted of 78 participants from 6 community mental health services targeting people with serious mental illnesses in a municipality in Sweden. They completed the RSA at the study baseline and two weeks later. User panels participated in the translation and administration of the RSA and the reporting of results. The Swedish version of the RSA had good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency, and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability. The user panels contributed to establishing validity and as collaborators in the study. Establishing the RSA as a valid and reliable instrument with which to focus on the recovery orientation of services is a first step in beginning to study the types of interventions that may effect and contribute to recovery oriented practice in Sweden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  7. Pollutant Assessments Group procedures manual: Volume 2, Technical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This is volume 2 of the manuals that describes the technical procedures currently in use by the Pollution Assessments Group. This manual incorporates new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and administrative policy. Descriptions of the equipment, procedures and operations of such things as radiation detection, soil sampling, radionuclide monitoring, and equipment decontamination are included in this manual. (MB)

  8. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  9. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  10. Tracking magma volume recovery at okmok volcano using GPS and an unscented kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Cervelli, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Changes beneath a volcano can be observed through position changes in a GPS network, but distinguishing the source of site motion is not always straightforward. The records of continuous GPS sites provide a favorable data set for tracking magma migration. Dense campaign observations usually provide a better spatial picture of the overall deformation field, at the expense of an episodic temporal record. Combining these observations provides the best of both worlds. A Kalman filter provides a means for integrating discrete and continuous measurements and for interpreting subtle signals. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is a nonlinear method for time-dependent observations. We demonstrate the application of this technique to deformation data by applying it to GPS data collected at Okmok volcano. Seven years of GPS observations at Okmok are analyzed using a Mogi source model and the UKF. The deformation source at Okmok is relatively stable at 2.5 km depth below sea level, located beneath the center of the caldera, which means the surface deformation is caused by changes in the strength of the source. During the 7 years of GPS observations more than 0.5 m of uplift has occurred, a majority of that during the time period January 2003 to July 2004. The total volume recovery at Okmok since the last eruption in 1997 is ??60-80%. The UKF allows us to solve simultaneously for the time-dependence of the source strength and for the location without a priori information about the source. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Matthew J.; Long, David T.; Yohn, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Identifying the cause of Hg contamination via correlations to iron ore production. → Using Hg:Al ratio to show changes in pathway from a point to non-point source. → Overcoming challenges to age determination using event-based dating. → Using sediment cores to estimate recovery rates and identify arrested recovery. - Abstract: Deer Lake is an impoundment located near Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. Iron mining assay laboratories located in Ishpeming disposed of Hg salts to the city sewer whose outfall was located along an inlet to Deer Lake. An effort to remediate the system in the mid 1980s which consisted of drawing down water in the impoundment in order to volatize Hg from the sediments did not result in recovery of the system. Since the mid 1990s, the remediation strategy has been to allow the continual burial of the contaminated sediments, i.e., natural recovery. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this strategy. This was accomplished by investigating State of the system in terms of its recovery and estimating the time frame for recovery. Sediment cores were collected in 2000 to determine historical trends in accumulation rates and concentrations of Hg and other metals. Sedimentation rates and sediment ages were estimated using 210 Pb. Event-based dating (e.g., peak of 137 Cs in 1963) was used to supplement 210 Pb data due to non-monotonic features in the 210 Pb profile and activities that were not at supported levels at the base of the core. Selected results are that: (1) drawdown significantly influenced sedimentation patterns causing slopes for 210 Pb profiles that reflected the influx of older sediment, (2) periods of Fe production correlate to Hg loading indicating the point source for contamination, a relationship not previously identified, (3) Hg:Al ratios indicate a recent change to a watershed pathway for Hg loading and (4) Hg concentrations had decreased from their peak, remain elevated, and were

  12. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Matthew J. [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Long, David T., E-mail: long@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 206 Natural Science, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yohn, Sharon S. [Juniata College, Raystown Field Station, Brumbaugh Academic Center, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Identifying the cause of Hg contamination via correlations to iron ore production. {yields} Using Hg:Al ratio to show changes in pathway from a point to non-point source. {yields} Overcoming challenges to age determination using event-based dating. {yields} Using sediment cores to estimate recovery rates and identify arrested recovery. - Abstract: Deer Lake is an impoundment located near Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. Iron mining assay laboratories located in Ishpeming disposed of Hg salts to the city sewer whose outfall was located along an inlet to Deer Lake. An effort to remediate the system in the mid 1980s which consisted of drawing down water in the impoundment in order to volatize Hg from the sediments did not result in recovery of the system. Since the mid 1990s, the remediation strategy has been to allow the continual burial of the contaminated sediments, i.e., natural recovery. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this strategy. This was accomplished by investigating State of the system in terms of its recovery and estimating the time frame for recovery. Sediment cores were collected in 2000 to determine historical trends in accumulation rates and concentrations of Hg and other metals. Sedimentation rates and sediment ages were estimated using {sup 210}Pb. Event-based dating (e.g., peak of {sup 137}Cs in 1963) was used to supplement {sup 210}Pb data due to non-monotonic features in the {sup 210}Pb profile and activities that were not at supported levels at the base of the core. Selected results are that: (1) drawdown significantly influenced sedimentation patterns causing slopes for {sup 210}Pb profiles that reflected the influx of older sediment, (2) periods of Fe production correlate to Hg loading indicating the point source for contamination, a relationship not previously identified, (3) Hg:Al ratios indicate a recent change to a watershed pathway for Hg loading and (4) Hg concentrations had decreased from

  13. Development of Measures to Assess Personal Recovery in Young People Treated in Specialist Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mary; Jeffries, Fiona W; Acuna-Rivera, Marcela; Warren, Fiona; Simonds, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Recovery has become a central concept in mental health service delivery, and several recovery-focused measures exist for adults. The concept's applicability to young people's mental health experience has been neglected, and no measures yet exist. Aim The aim of this work is to develop measures of recovery for use in specialist child and adolescent mental health services. On the basis of 21 semi-structured interviews, three recovery measures were devised, one for completion by the young person and two for completion by the parent/carer. Two parent/carer measures were devised in order to assess both their perspective on their child's recovery and their own recovery process. The questionnaires were administered to a UK sample of 47 young people (10-18 years old) with anxiety and depression and their parents, along with a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome and a measure of self-esteem. All three measures had high internal consistency (alpha ≥ 0.89). Young people's recovery scores were correlated negatively with scores on a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome (r = -0.75) and positively with self-esteem (r = 0.84). Parent and young persons' reports of the young person's recovery were positively correlated (r = 0.61). Parent report of the young person's recovery and of their own recovery process were positively correlated (r = 0.75). The three measures have the potential to be used in mental health services to assess recovery processes in young people with mental health difficulties and correspondence with symptomatic improvement. The measures provide a novel way of capturing the parental/caregiver perspective on recovery and caregivers' own wellbeing. No tools exist to evaluate recovery-relevant processes in young people treated in specialist mental health services. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of three self-report recovery-relevant assessments for young

  14. Assessment of the breast volume by a new simple formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Oteify Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the recent introduction of improved techniques for plastic surgery of the breast and increased public awareness toward these procedures, plastic surgeons are continuously trying to improve their methods and results to reach perfection. Assessment of the breast volume is an important issue prior to the use of breast implants in any aesthetic or reconstructive breast surgery. Previous methods to measure breast volume have included use of a simple bra and breast cup size, cumbersome fluid displacement, appliances and approximate visual estimation. Objectives: In this work we have tried to develop an easy method for assessment of the breast volume for both the patient and the the surgeon through a simple mathematical formula. Materials and Methods: Fifty two volunteers were included in this study. For every one, general parameters including age, weight and height were recorded. Local breast measurements and water volume displacement were also recorded. Results: The collected data were statistically correlated. Using the analyzed data, the breast volume was calculated through a simple and direct formula on the basis of the breast circumference. Conclusion: Our method has, as its principle, the use of an accurate and simple formula, which is based only on one measurement. This is easy for both the patient and the plastic surgeon. This equation is not only a significant technical advantage for the surgeon, but also provides a universal standardization of the breast volume.

  15. Assessing management of raptor predation management for snowy plover recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Daniel C. Elbert

    2015-01-01

    On February 4, 2014, a seven-member expert panel provided objective technical information on the potential effectiveness and feasibility of activities to manage raptors (northern harriers and great horned owls) to aid the recovery of western snowy plovers. The panel discussed and scored the 26 raptor control techniques in nine main categories of habitat modification,...

  16. MSWI Bottom Ash Characterization and Resource Recovery Potential Assessment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Krausová, Aneta; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 36 (2015), s. 79-84 ISSN 1640-4902 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * metal recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  18. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M.; Bracken, Richard M.; Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T.; Cook, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of…

  19. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  20. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.H. Tijani

    Eleven of them also had an SFA available (which were normal) while in 89 it was based on history alone. Approval for the study was granted by the hospital research and ethics board, and the informed consent was taken from all subjects. Assessment of testicular volume. Aloka Prosound SDD-3500 Plus, Japan 2005 scan ...

  1. Muscle blood volume assessment during exercise with Power Doppler Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, H.M.; Tchang, B.C.Y.; Schoots, T.; Rutten, M.C.M.; van de Vosse, F.N.; Lopata, R.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of perfusion adaptation in muscle during exercise can provide diagnostic information on cardiac and endothelial diseases. Power Doppler Ultrasound (PDUS) is known for its feasibility in the non-invasive measurement of moving blood volume (MBV), a perfusion related parameter. In this

  2. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  3. Assessment of recovery in older patients hospitalized with different diagnoses and functional levels, evaluated with and without geriatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Jenny Foss; Haugland, Cathrine; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate 1) the role of different admission diagnoses and 2) the degree of functional loss, on the rate of recovery of older patients after acute hospitalization. Furthermore, to compare the predictive value of simple assessments that can be carried out in a hospital lacking geriatric service, with assessments including geriatric screening tests. Prospective, observational cohort study, including 961community dwelling patients aged ≥ 70 years, transferred from medical, cardiac, pulmonary and orthopedic acute hospital departments to intermediate care in nursing home. Functional assessment with Barthel index (BI) was performed at admission to the nursing home and further geriatric assessment tests was performed during the first week. Logistic regression models with and without geriatric assessment were compared concerning the patients having 1) slow recovery (nursing home stay up to 2 months before return home) or, 2) poor recovery (dead or still in nursing home at 2 months). Slow recovery was independently associated with a diagnosis of non-vertebral fracture, BI subgroups 50-79 and model including geriatric assessment, also with cognitive impairment. Poor recovery was more complex, and independently associated both with BI model, cognitive impairment. Geriatric assessment is optimal for determining the recovery potential of older patients after acute hospitalization. As some hospitals lack geriatric services and ability to perform geriatric screening tests, a simpler assessment based on admission diagnoses and ADL function (BI), gives good information regarding the possible rehabilitation time and possibility to return home.

  4. Economic assessment of a proposed integrated resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report comprises an initial economic and market appraisal of the proposals made by Materials Recycling Management (MRM) Ltd for a commercial plant engaged in waste treatment and energy recovery. The MRM design is an integrated waste handling system for commercial and industrial non hazardous wastes and civic amenity wastes. After primary separation into three selected broad waste categories, wastes are processed in the plant to recover basic recyclables such as paper, timber, plastics and metals. A quantity of material is directed for composting and the remainder converted into a fuel and combusted on site for energy recovery. Wastes unworthy of processing would be sent for disposal. A basic technical review has been undertaken. The focus of this review has been on the main processing plant where materials are segregated and the fuel and compost produced. (author)

  5. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  6. Assessing Server Fault Tolerance and Disaster Recovery Implementation in Thin Client Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaydon, Samuel L

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on assessing server fault tolerance and disaster recovery procedures for thin-clients being implemented in smart classrooms and computer laboratories aboard the Naval Postgraduate School campus...

  7. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  8. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  9. The Mental Health Recovery Measure can be used to assess aspects of both customer-based and service-based recovery in the context of severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino J Oliveira-Maia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery. However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery. Here we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from severe mental illness, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed respectively using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20 and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from severe mental illness may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for

  10. Assessment in rats of the reproductive toxicity of gasoline from a gasoline vapor recovery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Trimmer, G W; Whitman, F T; Nessel, C S; Mackerer, C R; Hagemann, R; Priston, R A; Riley, A J; Cruzan, G; Simpson, B J; Urbanus, J H

    2000-01-01

    Gasoline (CAS 86290-81-5) is one of the world's largest volume commercial products. Although numerous toxicology studies have been conducted, the potential for reproductive toxicity has not been directly assessed. Accordingly, a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats was conducted to provide base data for hazard assessment and risk characterization. The test material, vapor recovery unit gasoline (68514-15-8), is the volatile fraction of formulated gasoline and the material with which humans are most likely to come in contact. The study was of standard design. Exposures were by inhalation at target concentrations of 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 mg/m(3). The highest exposure concentration was approximately 50% of the lower explosive limit and several orders of magnitude above anticipated exposure during refueling. There were no treatment-related clinical or systemic effects in the parental animals, and no microscopic changes other than hyaline droplet nephropathy in the kidneys of the male rats. None of the reproductive parameters were affected, and there were no deleterious effects on offspring survival and growth. The potential for endocrine modulation was also assessed by analysis of sperm count and quality as well as time to onset of developmental landmarks. No toxicologically important differences were found. Therefore, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in this study was > or =20 000 mg/m(3). The only systemic effects, in the kidneys of the male rats, were consistent with an alpha-2 u-globulin-mediated process. This is a male rat-specific effect and not relevant to human health risk assessment.

  11. Impact of elliptical shaped red oak logs on lumber grade and volume recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick M. Rappold; Brian H. Bond; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Roncs Ese-Etame

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the grade and volume of lumber recovered from red oak logs with elliptical shaped cross sections. The volume and grade of lumber recovered from red oak logs with low (e ≤ 0.3) and high (e ≥ 0.4) degrees of ellipticity was measured at four hardwood sawmills. There was no significant difference (...

  12. MRT letter: Guided filtering of image focus volume for 3D shape recovery of microscopic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, a shape from focus (SFF) method is proposed that utilizes the guided image filtering to enhance the image focus volume efficiently. First, image focus volume is computed using a conventional focus measure. Then each layer of image focus volume is filtered using guided filtering. In this work, the all-in-focus image, which can be obtained from the initial focus volume, is used as guidance image. Finally, improved depth map is obtained from the filtered image focus volume by maximizing the focus measure along the optical axis. The proposed SFF method is efficient and provides better depth maps. The improved performance is highlighted by conducting several experiments using image sequences of simulated and real microscopic objects. The comparative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed SFF method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Distributed Database Control and Allocation. Volume 1. Frameworks for Understanding Concurrency Control and Recovery Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    an Aborti , It forwards the operation directly to the recovery system. When the recovery system acknowledges that the operation has been processed, the...list... AbortI . rite Ti Into the abort list. Then undo all of Ti’s writes by reedina their bet ore-images from the audit trail and writin. them back...Into the stable database. [Ack) Then, delete Ti from the active list. Restart. Process Aborti for each Ti on the active list. Ack) In this algorithm

  14. Reliability of Volumetry and Perimetry to Assess Knee Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; Yamashitafuji, Igor; Wageck, Bruna; Teixeira, Guilherme Garcia; Karloh, Manuela; de Noronha, Marcos

    2016-08-24

    The treatment of edema after a knee injury is usually 1 of the main objectives during rehabilitation. To assess the success of treatment, 2 methods are commonly used in clinical practice: volumetry and perimetry. To investigate the intra- and interassessor reliability of volumetry and perimetry to assess knee volume. Cross-sectional. Laboratory. 45 healthy participants (26 women) with mean age of 22.4 ± 2.8 y. Knee volume was assessed by 3 assessors (A, B, and C) with 3 methods (lower-limb volumetry [LLV], knee volumetry [KV], and knee perimetry [KP]). Assessor A was the most-experienced assessor, and assessor C, the least experienced. LLV and KV were performed with participants in the orthostatic position, while KP was performed with participants in supine. For the interassessor analysis, the ICC2,1 was high (.82) for KV and very high for LLV (.99) and KP (.99). For the intra-assessor analysis, ICC2,1 ranged from moderate to high for KV (.69-.83) and was very high for LLV (.99) and KP (.97-.99). KV, LLV, and KP are reliable methods, both intra- and interassessor, to measure knee volume.

  15. Chloride channels in myotonia congenita assessed by velocity recovery cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Veronica; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Boërio, Delphine; Rayan, Dipa Raja; Norwood, Fiona; Ruddy, Deborah; Howard, R; Hanna, Michael G; Bostock, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Myotonia congenita (MC) is caused by congenital defects in the muscle chloride channel CLC-1. This study used muscle velocity recovery cycles (MVRCs) to investigate how membrane function is affected. MVRCs and responses to repetitive stimulation were compared between 18 patients with genetically confirmed MC (13 recessive, 7 dominant) and 30 age-matched, normal controls. MC patients exhibited increased early supernormality, but this was prevented by treatment with sodium channel blockers. After multiple conditioning stimuli, late supernormality was enhanced in all MC patients, indicating delayed repolarization. These abnormalities were similar between the MC subtypes, but recessive patients showed a greater drop in amplitude during repetitive stimulation. MVRCs indicate that chloride conductance only becomes important when muscle fibers are depolarized. The differential responses to repetitive stimulation suggest that, in dominant MC, the affected chloride channels are activated by strong depolarization, consistent with a positive shift of the CLC-1 activation curve. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Individualized assessment of post-arthroplasty recovery by actigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Peterson, Barry; Kehlet, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    time. The aim of this study was to describe a novel methodology using actigraphy data to describe specific activity-intensities potentially affected by surgery and patients with poor rehabilitation trajectories. Actigraphy data from 10 patients scheduled for primary unilateral TKA were recorded...... recovery trajectories were described by the gradient of the regression line of post- versus pre-operative physical activity over the study period. TKA had a negative impact on all activity intensities with gradual improvement towards preoperative values during the study period. The inter......-individual variation increased with intensified activity. Identification of individual patients with positive, neutral or negative activity trajectories was possible. The methodology should be considered in future interventional studies to improve rehabilitation strategies....

  17. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A summary of the location and major design features of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center is presented. The safety aspects of the proposed facilities and operations are summarized, taking into account possible normal and abnormal operating and environmental conditions. A chapter on site characteristics is included

  18. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  19. Development of a higher-order finite volume method for simulation of thermal oil recovery process using moving mesh strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, M. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a project in which a higher order up-winding scheme was used to solve mass/energy conservation equations for simulating steam flood processes in an oil reservoir. Thermal recovery processes are among the most complex because they require a detailed accounting of thermal energy and chemical reaction kinetics. The numerical simulation of thermal recovery processes involves localized phenomena such as saturation and temperatures fronts due to hyperbolic features of governing conservation laws. A second order accurate FV method that was improved by a moving mesh strategy was used to adjust for moving coordinates on a finely gridded domain. The Finite volume method was used and the problem of steam injection was then tested using derived solution frameworks on both mixed and moving coordinates. The benefits of using a higher-order Godunov solver instead of lower-order ones were qualified. This second order correction resulted in better resolution on moving features. Preferences of higher-order solvers over lower-order ones in terms of shock capturing is under further investigation. It was concluded that although this simulation study was limited to steam flooding processes, the newly presented approach may be suitable to other enhanced oil recovery processes such as VAPEX, SAGD and in situ combustion processes. 23 refs., 28 figs.

  20. Conservation physiology can inform threat assessment and recovery planning processes for threatened species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Walton, Sarah; Delle Palme, Caleigh A.

    2017-01-01

    threat assessments and work with partners to develop recovery plans. Here we argue that conservation physiology has much to offer for the threat assessment process and outline the ways in which this can be operationalized. For instance, conservation physiology is effective at revealing causal...... role in the conservation activities of bodies like the IUCN that are engaged in threat assessment and recovery of endangered organisms. Although we focus on activities at the international scale, these same concepts are relevant and applicable to national and regional bodies...

  1. European utility requirements (EUR) volume 3 assessment for AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.; Demetri, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The EUR (European Utility Requirements) Volume 3 is intended to report the Plant Description, the Compliance Assessment to EUR Volumes 1 and 2, and finally, the Specific Requirements for each specific Nuclear Power Plant Design considered by the EUR. Five subsets of EUR Volume 3, based on EUR Revision B, are already published; all of which are next generation plant designs being developed for Europe beyond 2000. They include : 1) EP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (3-Loop, 1000 MWe) 2) EPR - Evolutionary Pressurized Light Water Reactor (1500 MWe) 3) BWR90/90+ - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe) 4) ABWR - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe) 5) SWR 1000 - Boiling Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe) In addition, the following subsets are currently being developed: 1) AP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (2-Loop, 1117 MWe) 2) VVER AES 92 - Pressurized Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe) The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program, which started in January 2004 with the EUR group to prepare an EUR Volume 3 Subset for the AP1000 nuclear plant design. The AP1000 EUR compliance assessment, to be performed against EUR Revision C requirements, is an important step for the evaluation of the AP1000 design for application in Europe. The AP1000 compliance assessment is making full use of AP1000 licensing documentation, EPP Phase 2 design activities and EP1000 EUR detailed compliance assessment. As of today, nearly all of the EUR Chapters have been discussed within the EUR Coordination Group. Based on the results of the compliance assessment, it can be stated that the AP1000 design shows a good level of compliance with the EUR Revision C requirements. Nevertheless, the compliance assessment has highlighted areas for where the AP1000 plant deviates from the EUR. The EPP design group has selected the most significant ones for performing detailed studies to quantify the degree of compliance

  2. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  3. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  4. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Kilduff, Liam P; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M; Bracken, Richard M; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of this study was to examine the BAM as a quick measure of mood in relation to recovery status in elite rugby players alongside established physiological markers of recovery. Using elite rugby union players (N = 12), this study examined the utility of BAM as an indicator of mental and physical recovery in elite athletes by exploring pattern change in mood disturbance, energy index, power output, cortisol, and testosterone 36 hr before and 12 hr, 36 hr, and 60 hr after a competitive rugby match. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant changes in all variables across the 4 time points (p < .05, η(2) range = .20-.48), concurrent with previous study findings. Although visual inspection of the graphs indicated that the pattern of change for mood disturbance and energy index mapped changes in all physiological variables, only a low correlation was observed for power output (r = - .34). Although BAM scores changed significantly over time in accordance with the hypotheses, further testing is required to confirm the utility of the BAM as a measure of recovery. The results indicate that the BAM could be used as 1 indicator of recovery status alongside other measures.

  6. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  7. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management

  8. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  9. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  10. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  11. Assessment of Uncertainty-Based Screening Volumes for NASA Robotic LEO and GEO Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvet, Steven W.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment operations require screening assets against the space object catalog by placing a pre-determined spatial volume around each asset and predicting when another object will violate that volume. The selection of the screening volume used for each spacecraft is a trade-off between observing all conjunction events that may pose a potential risk to the primary spacecraft and the ability to analyze those predicted events. If the screening volumes are larger, then more conjunctions can be observed and therefore the probability of a missed detection of a high risk conjunction event is small; however, the amount of data which needs to be analyzed increases. This paper characterizes the sensitivity of screening volume size to capturing typical orbit uncertainties and the expected number of conjunction events observed. These sensitivities are quantified in the form of a trade space that allows for selection of appropriate screen-ing volumes to fit the desired concept of operations, system limitations, and tolerable analyst workloads. This analysis will specifically highlight the screening volume determination and selection process for use in the NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis process but will also provide a general framework for other Owner / Operators faced with similar decisions.

  12. Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO). Here, we provide a detailed protocol to induce muscular exhaustion of the frontal thighs with a self-paced, 3 x 30 countermovement jump protocol (30-s rest between each set). This randomized controlled trial protocol explains how to perform local cryotherapy cuff application (+ 8 °C for 20 min) and thermoneutral cuff application (+ 32 °C for 20 min) on both thighs as two possible post-exercise recovery modalities. Finally, we provide a non-invasive protocol to measure the effects of these two recovery modalities on subjective (i.e., DOMS of both frontal thighs and RPE) and objective recovery (i.e., CMJ and PPO) characteristics 24, 48, and 72 h post-application. The advantage of this method is that it provides a tool for researchers or coaches to induce muscular exhaustion, without using any expensive devices; to implement local cooling strategies; and to measure both subjective and objective recovery, without using invasive methods. Limitations of this protocol are that the 30 s rest period between sets is very short, and the cardiovascular demand is very high. Future studies may find the assessment of maximum voluntary contractions to be a more sensitive assessment of muscular exhaustion compared to CMJs. PMID:28654037

  13. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  14. Usage of Geoprocessing Services in Precision Forestry for Wood Volume Calculation and Wind Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mikita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the idea of a precision forestry tool for optimizing clearcut size and shape within the process of forest recovery and its publishing in the form of a web processing service for forest owners on the Internet. The designed tool titled COWRAS (Clearcut Optimization and Wind Risk Assessment is developed for optimization of clearcuts (their location, shape, size, and orientation with subsequent wind risk assessment. The tool primarily works with airborne LiDAR data previously processed to the form of a digital surface model (DSM and a digital elevation model (DEM. In the first step, the growing stock on the planned clearcut determined by its location and area in feature class is calculated (by the method of individual tree detection. Subsequently tree heights from canopy height model (CHM are extracted and then diameters at breast height (DBH and wood volume using the regressions are calculated. Information about wood volume of each tree in the clearcut is exported and summarized in a table. In the next step, all trees in the clearcut are removed and a new DSM without trees in the clearcut is generated. This canopy model subsequently serves as an input for evaluation of wind risk damage by the MAXTOPEX tool (Mikita et al., 2012. In the final raster, predisposition of uncovered forest stand edges (around the clearcut to wind risk is calculated based on this analysis. The entire tool works in the background of ArcGIS server as a spatial decision support system for foresters.

  15. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Riley, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree

  16. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Riley, Jeff [Electric Power Research, Palo Alto (United States)

    2016-05-15

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree.

  17. Lags in hydrologic recovery following an extreme drought: Assessing the roles of climate and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; McVicar, Tim R.; Donohue, Randall J.; Zhang, Yongqiang; Roderick, Michael L.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Junlong

    2017-06-01

    Drought, generally characterized by below-average water supply, propagates through the hydrologic system with consequent ecological and societal impacts. Compared with other drought aspects, the recovery of drought especially in the hydrological components, which directly relates to the recovery of water resources for agricultural, ecological and human needs, is less-understood. Here, taking the Millennium drought in southeast Australia (˜1997-2009) as an illustrating case, we comprehensively examined multiple aspects of the meteorological (i.e., precipitation) and hydrological (i.e., streamflow and base flow) droughts across 130 unimpaired catchments using long-term hydro-meteorological observations. Results show that the duration and intensity of the meteorological drought are both lengthened and amplified in the hydrological drought, suggesting a nonstationarity in the rainfall-runoff relationship during a prolonged drought. Additionally, we find a time lag commonly exists between the end of the meteorological droughts and the end of the hydrological drought, with the recovery of base flow showing a longer lag than the recovery of streamflow. The recovery rate of precipitation after drought was found to be the dominant factor that controls the recovery of hydrological droughts while catchment landscape (i.e., valley bottom flatness) plays an important but secondary role in controlling the lags in the hydrological recovery. Other hydro-climatic factors and catchment properties appear to have only minor influences governing hydrological drought recovery. Our findings highlight a delayed response in the terrestrial components of the hydrological cycle to precipitation after prolonged drought, and provide valuable scientific guidance to water resources management and water security assessment in regions facing future droughts.

  18. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference and MRI Volume: A Replication and Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; DeKosky, Steven; Rosselli, Monica; Bauer, Russell; Grieg-Custo, Maria; Penate, Ailyn; Li, Chunfei; Lizagarra, Gabriel; Golde, Todd; Adjouadi, Malek; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    The rise in incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to efforts to advance early detection of the disease during its preclinical stages. To achieve this, the field needs to develop more sensitive cognitive tests that relate to biological markers of disease pathology. Failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI) is one such cognitive marker that is associated with volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, precuneus, and other AD-prone regions, and to amyloid load in the brain. The current study attempted to replicate and extend our previous findings that frPSI is a sensitive marker of early AD, and related to a unique pattern of volumetric loss in AD prone areas. Three different memory measures were examined relative to volumetric loss and cortical thickness among 45 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. frPSI was uniquely associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (r = 0.50) precuneus (r = 0.41), and other AD prone regions, replicating previous findings. Strong associations between frPSI and lower entorhinal cortex volumes and cortical thickness (r≥0.60) and precuneus (r = 0.50) were also observed. Unique and strong associations between volumetric reductions and frPSI as observed by Loewenstein and colleagues were replicated. Together with cortical thickness findings, these results indicate that frPSI is worthy of further study as a sensitive and early cognitive marker of AD.

  19. Recovery Act: SeaMicro Volume Server Power Reduction Research Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Lauterbach

    2012-03-22

    Cloud data centers are projected to be the fastest growing segment of the server market through 2015, according to IDC. Increasingly people and businesses rely on the Cloud to deliver digital content quickly and efficiently. Recovery Act funding from the Department of Energy has helped SeaMicro's technologies enhance the total cost of operation, performance and energy efficiency in large data center and Cloud environments. SeaMicro's innovative supercomputer fabric connects thousands of processor cores, memory, storage and input/output traffic. The company's fabric supports multiple processor instruction sets. Current systems featuring SeaMicro technology typically use one quarter the power and take one sixth the space of traditional servers with the same compute performance, yet deliver up to 12 times the bandwidth per core. Mozilla and eHarmony are two customers successfully using SeaMicro's technology. Numerous non-public customers have been successfully using the SeaMicro product in test and production facilities. As a result of the Recovery Act funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, more than 50 direct jobs were created at SeaMicro. To date, they primarily have been high-value, engineering jobs. Hardware, software and manufacturing engineering positions have been created, as well as sales and sales engineering. The positions have allowed SeaMicro to significantly accelerate engineering development and accelerate commercialization. As a result, commercialization and delivery to market are months ahead of initial schedule. Additional jobs were indirectly created through the development of the SeaMicro product. Through many years of research and hard work prior to receipt of public funding, SeaMicro was awarded 2 patents for its work. SeaMicro's product led the way for industry leaders to reconsider the market for low power servers and create new product lines. With valuable support of the U.S. Department of Energy and through Sea

  20. A Factor Analytic Investigation of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider Versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Ham, Elke; Ball, Laura C

    2017-12-01

    Recovery is understood as living a life with hope, purpose, autonomy, productivity, and community engagement despite a mental illness. The aim of this study was to provide further information on the psychometric properties of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R), a widely used measure of recovery orientation. Data from 654 individuals were analyzed, 519 of whom were treatment providers (63.6% female), while 135 were inpatients (10.4% female) of a Canadian tertiary-level psychiatric hospital. Confirmatory and exploratory techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of both versions of the instrument. Results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that none of the four theoretically plausible models fit the data well. Principal component analyses could not replicate the structure obtained by the scale developers either and instead resulted in a five-component solution for the Provider and a four-component solution for the Person-in-Recovery version. When considering the results of a parallel analysis, the number of components to retain dropped to two for the Provider version and one for the Person-in-Recovery version. We can conclude that the RSA-R requires further revision to become a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing recovery-oriented practices in an inpatient mental health-care setting.

  1. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  2. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  3. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States); Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- `` bioremoval`` -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R&D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  4. Initial development of the recovery-oriented services assessment: A collaboration with peer-provider consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Amy C; Kuhn, Wendy; Earley, Juli; Stevens Manser, Stacey

    2018-06-01

    The Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) is a reliable and valid tool used to measure recovery-oriented services. Recent studies, however, suggest that the length and reading level of the RSA makes its routine use in service settings difficult. Recognizing the importance of including people with lived experience of a mental health challenge in research processes and the need to enhance the utility of tools that measure recovery-oriented services, this paper describes an innovative researcher-peer provider consultant multistep process used to revise the provider version of the RSA to create a new instrument-the Recovery-Oriented Services Assessment (ROSA). The authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal axis factoring extraction and direct oblimin rotation to evaluate the underlying structure of the provider RSA using data from mental health employees (n = 323). To triangulate the findings of the EFA, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from peer provider consultants (n = 9) on the importance of and language of RSA items. EFA results indicated that a 1-factor solution provided the best fit and explained 48% of the total variance. Consultants triangulated EFA results and recommended the addition of 2 items and language revisions. These results were used to develop the ROSA-a 15-item instrument measuring recovery-oriented services with accessible language. Two versions of the ROSA were developed: a staff version and a people-in-services version. The ROSA may provide organizations with a more accessible way to measure the extent to which their services are recovery oriented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Comparative assessment of alternative cycles for waste heat recovery and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Adrienne B.; Garimella, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Thermally activated systems based on sorption cycles, as well as mechanical systems based on vapor compression/expansion are assessed in this study for waste heat recovery applications. In particular, ammonia-water sorption cycles for cooling and mechanical work recovery, a heat transformer using lithium bromide-water as the working fluid pair to yield high temperature heat, and organic Rankine cycles using refrigerant R245fa for work recovery as well as versions directly coupled to a vapor compression cycle to yield cooling are analyzed with overall heat transfer conductances for heat exchangers that use similar approach temperature differences for each cycle. Two representative cases are considered, one for smaller-scale and lower temperature applications using waste heat at 60 o C, and the other for larger-scale and higher temperature waste heat at 120 o C. Comparative assessments of these cycles on the basis of efficiencies and system footprints guide the selection of waste heat recovery and upgrade systems for different applications and waste heat availabilities. Furthermore, these considerations are used to investigate four case studies for waste heat recovery for data centers, vehicles, and process plants, illustrating the utility and limitations of such solutions. The increased implementation of such waste heat recovery systems in a variety of applications will lead to decreased primary source inputs and sustainable energy utilization. -- Highlights: → Sorption and mechanical pathways for the conversion of waste heat streams to work, cooling, and temperature boosting were investigated. → Waste heat sources including 300 W of energy at 60 o C and 1 kW of energy at 120 o C were analyzed. → Up to about seventy percent of the input waste heat can be converted to cooling. → Up to about ten percent can be converted to work. → Up to about 47 percent can be upgraded to a higher temperature.

  6. Effects of intravenous administration of two volumes of calcium solution on plasma ionized calcium concentration and recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia in lactating dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, J.G.; Donders, R.; Kolk, J.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of administration of 2 volumes of a calcium solution (calcium oxide and calcium gluconate) on plasma ionized calcium concentration (PICaC) and clinical recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia (NOHC; milk fever) in lactating dairy cows. ANIMALS: 123 cows with

  7. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  8. Method selection for sustainability assessments: The case of recovery of resources from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, M C; Waaijers-van der Loop, S L; Heijungs, R; Broeren, M L M; Peeters, R; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, A; Shen, L; Heugens, E H W; Posthuma, L

    2017-07-15

    Sustainability assessments provide scientific support in decision procedures towards sustainable solutions. However, in order to contribute in identifying and choosing sustainable solutions, the sustainability assessment has to fit the decision context. Two complicating factors exist. First, different stakeholders tend to have different views on what a sustainability assessment should encompass. Second, a plethora of sustainability assessment methods exist, due to the multi-dimensional characteristic of the concept. Different methods provide other representations of sustainability. Based on a literature review, we present a protocol to facilitate method selection together with stakeholders. The protocol guides the exploration of i) the decision context, ii) the different views of stakeholders and iii) the selection of pertinent assessment methods. In addition, we present an online tool for method selection. This tool identifies assessment methods that meet the specifications obtained with the protocol, and currently contains characteristics of 30 sustainability assessment methods. The utility of the protocol and the tool are tested in a case study on the recovery of resources from domestic waste water. In several iterations, a combination of methods was selected, followed by execution of the selected sustainability assessment methods. The assessment results can be used in the first phase of the decision procedure that leads to a strategic choice for sustainable resource recovery from waste water in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving Multi-Sensor Drought Monitoring, Prediction and Recovery Assessment Using Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakouchak, Amir; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable drought monitoring, prediction and recovery assessment tools are fundamental to water resources management. This presentation focuses on how gravimetry information can improve drought assessment. First, we provide an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using remote sensing observations and model simulations. Then, we present a framework for integration of satellite gravimetry information for improving drought prediction and recovery assessment. The input data include satellite-based and model-based precipitation, soil moisture estimates and equivalent water height. Previous studies show that drought assessment based on one single indicator may not be sufficient. For this reason, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions and provides composite multi-index drought information for overall characterization of droughts. GIDMaPS includes a seasonal prediction component based on a statistical persistence-based approach. The prediction component of GIDMaPS provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation we present a new component in which the drought prediction information based on SPI, SSI and MSDI are conditioned on equivalent water height obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Using a Bayesian approach, GRACE information is used to evaluate persistence of drought. Finally, the deficit equivalent water height based on GRACE is used for assessing drought recovery. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from 2014

  10. Traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome: assessment of cranial nerve recovery in 33 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Wang, Theresa Y; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Huang, Faye; Lai, Jui-Pin; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-07-01

    Superior orbital fissure syndrome is a rare complication that occurs in association with craniofacial trauma. The characteristics of superior orbital fissure syndrome are attributable to a constellation of cranial nerve III, IV, and VI palsies. This is the largest series describing traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome that assesses the recovery of individual cranial nerve function after treatment. In a review from 1988 to 2002, 33 patients with superior orbital fissure syndrome were identified from 11,284 patients (0.3 percent) with skull and facial fractures. Severity of cranial nerve injury and functional recovery were evaluated by extraocular muscle movement. Patients were evaluated on average 6 days after initial injury, and average follow-up was 11.8 months. There were 23 male patients. The average age was 31 years. The major mechanism of injury was motorcycle accident (67 percent). Twenty-two received conservative treatment, five were treated with steroids, and six patients underwent surgical decompression of the superior orbital fissure. After initial injury, cranial nerve VI suffered the most damage, whereas cranial nerve IV sustained the least. In the first 3 months, recovery was greatest in cranial nerve VI. At 9 months, function was lowest in cranial nerve VI and highest in cranial nerve IV. Eight patients (24 percent) had complete recovery of all cranial nerves. Functional recovery of all cranial nerves reached a plateau at 6 months after trauma. Cranial nerve IV suffered the least injury, whereas cranial nerve VI experienced the most neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve palsies improved to their final recovery endpoints by 6 months. Surgical decompression is considered when there is evidence of bony compression of the superior orbital fissure.

  11. Assessment of modularity architecture for recovery process of electric vehicle in supporting sustainable design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroroh, D. K.; Alfiah, D.

    2018-05-01

    The electric vehicle is one of the innovations to reduce the pollution of the vehicle. Nevertheless, it still has a problem, especially for disposal stage. In supporting product design and development strategy, which is the idea of sustainable design or problem solving of disposal stage, assessment of modularity architecture from electric vehicle in recovery process needs to be done. This research used Design Structure Matrix (DSM) approach to deciding interaction of components and assessment of modularity architecture using the calculation of value from 3 variables, namely Module Independence (MI), Module Similarity (MS), and Modularity for End of Life Stage (MEOL). The result of this research shows that existing design of electric vehicles has the architectural design which has a high value of modularity for recovery process on disposal stage. Accordingly, so it can be reused and recycled in component level or module without disassembly process to support the product that is environmentally friendly (sustainable design) and able reduce disassembly cost.

  12. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different proc...

  13. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  14. Assessment, mechanisms, prevention, and measures for quick recovery of military operation-associated fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-shen LI; Wen HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a worldwide problem. Military members frequently feel fatigue in military operations, which hinders the successful completion of their tasks. In complicated international military environments, military fatigue has received great attention from the armed forces in all countries. The present paper elaborates the performances, assessment, and mechanism of fatigue in military operations. In addition, the current study discusses the prevention and rapid recovery of fatigue, aiming at p...

  15. Hydrogel-forming microneedles increase in volume during swelling in skin, but skin barrier function recovery is unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Mooney, Karen; McCrudden, Maelíosa T.C.; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; Belaid, Luc; González-Vázquez, Patricia; McElnay, James C.; Woolfson, A. David

    2014-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, quantification of in-skin swelling and fluid uptake by hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays (MN) and skin barrier recovery in human volunteers. Such MN, prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methylvinylether/maleicanhydride) (15% w/w) and the crosslinker poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (7.5% w/w), were inserted into the skin of human volunteers (n = 15) to depths of approximately 300 μm by gentle hand pressure. The MN swelled in skin, taking up skin interstitial fluid, such that their mass had increased by approximately 30% after 6 hours in skin. Importantly, however, skin barrier function recovered within 24 hours post microneedle removal, regardless of how long the MN had been in skin or how much their volume had increased with swelling. Further research on closure of MN-induced micropores is required, since transepidermal water loss measurements suggested micropore closure, while optical coherence tomography indicated that MN-induced micropores had not closed over, even 24 hours after MN had been removed. There were no complaints of skin reactions, adverse events or strong views against MN use by any of the volunteers. Only some minor erythema was noted after patch removal, although this always resolved within 48 hours and no adverse events were present on follow-up. PMID:24633895

  16. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  17. Assessing the integration of forward osmosis and anaerobic digestion for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Ngo, Huu H; Guo, Wenshan; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution. At 90% water recovery, about 10% more methane was produced when using NaOAc compared with NaCl because of the contribution of biodegradable reverse NaOAc flux. No negative impact on anaerobic digestion was observed when wastewater was pre-concentrated ten-fold (90% water recovery) for both draw solutes. Interestingly, the unit cost of methane production using NaOAc was slightly lower than NaCl due to the lower reverse solute flux of NaOAc, although NaCl is a much cheaper chemical. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-run Economic Assessment of the Transportation Recovery Policy After an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a short-run economic damage assessment model. The model contains two sub models. One is the conventional traffic assignment model, which calculates traveling time under the damaged transportation infrastructure. The other is the economic damage assessment model, which determines the decrease in production level in the short run. This method facilitates the identification of critical infrastructure that could reduce the economic damage when the disaster occurs. As a case study, we applied this model to several recovery plans for transport facilities. The results suggest that the proposed comprehensive model should be considered as a prevention plan.

  19. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  20. The utility of harvest recoveries of marked individuals to assess polar bear (Ursus maritimus) survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Laake, Jeff; Laidre, Kristin L.; Born, Erik W.; Atkinson, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Management of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations requires the periodic assessment of life history metrics such as survival rate. This information is frequently obtained during short-term capture and marking efforts (e.g., over the course of three years) that result in hundreds of marked bears remaining in the population after active marking is finished. Using 10 additional years of harvest recovery subsequent to a period of active marking, we provide updated estimates of annual survival for polar bears in the Baffin Bay population of Greenland and Canada. Our analysis suggests a decline in survival of polar bears since the period of active marking that ended in 1997; some of the decline in survival can likely be attributed to a decline in springtime ice concentration over the continental shelf of Baffin Island. The variance around the survival estimates is comparatively high because of the declining number of marks available; therefore, results must be interpreted with caution. The variance of the estimates of survival increased most substantially in the sixth year post-marking. When survival estimates calculated with recovery-only and recapture-recovery data sets from the period of active marking were compared, survival rates were indistinguishable. However, for the period when fewer marks were available, survival estimates were lower using the recovery-only data set, which indicates that part of the decline we detected for 2003 – 09 may be due to using only harvest recovery data. Nevertheless, the decline in the estimates of survival is consistent with population projections derived from harvest numbers and earlier vital rates, as well as with an observed decline in the extent of sea ice habitat.

  1. Assessing nuclear power plant safety and recovery from earthquakes using a system-of-systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, E.; Zio, E.

    2014-01-01

    We adopt a ‘system-of-systems’ framework of analysis, previously presented by the authors, to include the interdependent infrastructures which support a critical plant in the study of its safety with respect to the occurrence of an earthquake. We extend the framework to consider the recovery of the system of systems in which the plant is embedded. As a test system, we consider the impacts produced on a nuclear power plant (the critical plant) embedded in the connected power and water distribution, and transportation networks which support its operation. The Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment of such system of systems is carried out by Hierarchical modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. First, we perform a top-down analysis through a hierarchical model to identify the elements that at each level have most influence in restoring safety, adopting the criticality importance measure as a quantitative indicator. Then, we evaluate by Monte Carlo simulation the probability that the nuclear power plant enters in an unsafe state and the time needed to recover its safety. The results obtained allow the identification of those elements most critical for the safety and recovery of the nuclear power plant; this is relevant for determining improvements of their structural/functional responses and supporting the decision-making process on safety critical-issues. On the test system considered, under the given assumptions, the components of the external and internal water systems (i.e., pumps and pool) turn out to be the most critical for the safety and recovery of the plant. - Highlights: • We adopt a system-of-system framework to analyze the safety of a critical plant exposed to risk from external events, considering also the interdependent infrastructures that support the plant. • We develop a hierarchical modeling framework to represent the system of systems, accounting also for its recovery. • Monte Carlo simulation is used for the quantitative evaluation of the

  2. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  3. Measuring recovery: An adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) compared to biochemical and power output alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cunningham, Daniel J; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match. Match activity data for each participant was also collected using GPS monitors on players. BAM+, CK and PPO had significant (pathletes. Future research is needed to confirm both the scales reliability and validity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-J-79: Internal Tumor Volume Motion and Volume Size Assessment Using 4D CT Lung Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, I [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P [Cancer Therapy and Research Center University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess internal tumor volume change through breathing cycle and associated tumor motion using the 4DCT data. Methods: Respiration induced volume change through breathing cycle and associated motion was analyzed for nine patients that were scanned during the different respiratory phases. The examined datasets were the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) and the 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. The internal target volume (ITV) was delineated on each of the phases and the planning target volume (PTV) was then created by adding setup margins to the ITV. Tumor motion through the phases was assessed using the acquired 4DCT dataset, which was then used to determine if the margins used for the ITV creation successfully encompassed the tumor in three dimensions. Results: Results showed that GTV motion along the superior inferior axes was the largest in all the cases independent of the tumor location and/or size or the use of abdomen compression. The extent of the tumor motion was found to be connected with the size of the GTV. The smallest GTVs exhibited largest motion vector independent of the tumor location. The motion vector size varied through the phases depending on the tumor size and location and it was smallest for phases 20 and 30. The smaller the volume of the delineated GTV, the greater its volume difference through the different respiratory phases was. The average GTV volume change was largest for the phases 60 and 70. Conclusion: Even if GTV is delineated using both AIP and MIP datasets, its motion extent will exceed the used margins especially for the very small GTV volumes. When the GTV size is less than 10 cc it is recommended to use fusion of the GTVs through all the phases to create the planning ITV.

  5. Development of a dynamic model to evaluate economic recovery following a nuclear attack. Volume 1. Description and simulations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.W.; Silverman, W.S.; Weil, H.B.; Willard, S.

    1980-11-01

    A highly-robust, dynamic simulation model of the US economy has been constructed to evaluate the likely economic response after various nuclear attacks or other severe disruptions, under various policies and assumptions. The model consists of a large system of nonlinear, recursive, time-difference equations. The solution-interval of the model is adjustable, with a maximum value of three weeks. The model represents the economy in thirteen sectors. Each sector contains a detailed representation of production, distribution, supply constraints, finance, employment, pricing, and wages. Also included are a full input-output representation of the interconnections among the sectors, and the psychological responses of corporate planners, consumers, and the labor force. The model's equations are formulated to remain consistent and realistic for all values of the variables, including the most extreme conditions. Therefore, the model can realistically simulate any degree or time sequence of nuclear attacks, pre-attack surges, mobilization, or policy shifts. Simulation experiments with the model suggest that the economy is highly vulnerable to nuclear attack, and that recovery requires extensive preparation, including psychological readiness, technology maintenance, special financial policies, and (if possible) maintenance of foreign trade. Civil defense policies must be adaptive (contingent on the nature of the damage) and must strive for balance among sectors, rather than maximum survival. This volume includes two appendices. Appendix A defines the aggregation of the model. Appendix B outlines the range of attack scenarios, pre-attack civil defense policies, and post-attack civil defense policies that can be evaluated with the model, including the model variables applicable to implementing those policies

  6. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  8. Assessment of cognitive recovery following sports related head trauma in boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravdin, Lisa D; Barr, William B; Jordan, Barry; Lathan, William E; Relkin, Norman R

    2003-01-01

    To prospectively examine recovery of cognitive function within one month following subconcussive sports related head trauma. A prospective study of New York State licensed professional boxers who underwent testing of cognitive functioning before and after (within days, one week, and one month) a professional bout. Male professional athletes recruited from the New York State Athletic Commission and local boxing gyms. Twenty-six licensed professional boxers were enrolled in the protocol. Data is presented on the 18 participants who completed testing on at least three of the four time points. Serial neuropsychological assessment before and after the athletes engaged in competition. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning, including new learning and memory, information processing speed, and mental flexibility. A series of repeated measures MANOVAS revealed significant within subject differences across testing on complex information processing and verbal fluency. Post hoc analyses indicated significant differences between time 1 (baseline) and time 4 (one month post), with scores one month following the bout indicating significantly improved performance. Memory scores did not change significantly across testing; however, prior boxing exposure measured by total number of professional bouts was associated with poorer memory performance. Cognitive testing one month following participation in a professional boxing bout yielded scores suggestive of recovery to a level above the baseline. We conclude that baseline assessment taken during periods of intense training are likely confounded by other pre-bout conditions (i.e., sparring, rapid weight loss, pre-bout anxiety) and do not represent true baseline abilities. Instability of performance associated with mild head injury may complicate the interpretation of post-injury assessments. Practice effects may also confound the interpretation of serial assessments, leading to underestimation of the effects of sports

  9. Application of the GEM Inventory Data Capture Tools for Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Recovery Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrucci, Enrica; Bevington, John; Vicini, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    A set of open-source tools to create building exposure datasets for seismic risk assessment was developed from 2010-13 by the Inventory Data Capture Tools (IDCT) Risk Global Component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The tools were designed to integrate data derived from remotely-sensed imagery, statistically-sampled in-situ field data of buildings to generate per-building and regional exposure data. A number of software tools were created to aid the development of these data, including mobile data capture tools for in-field structural assessment, and the Spatial Inventory Data Developer (SIDD) for creating "mapping schemes" - statistically-inferred distributions of building stock applied to areas of homogeneous urban land use. These tools were made publically available in January 2014. Exemplar implementations in Europe and Central Asia during the IDCT project highlighted several potential application areas beyond the original scope of the project. These are investigated here. We describe and demonstrate how the GEM-IDCT suite can be used extensively within the framework proposed by the EC-FP7 project SENSUM (Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recovery Monitoring). Specifically, applications in the areas of 1) dynamic vulnerability assessment (pre-event), and 2) recovery monitoring and evaluation (post-event) are discussed. Strategies for using the IDC Tools for these purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the benefits of using advanced technology tools for data capture, especially in a systematic fashion using the taxonomic standards set by GEM. Originally designed for seismic risk assessment, it is clear the IDCT tools have relevance for multi-hazard risk assessment. When combined with a suitable sampling framework and applied to multi-temporal recovery monitoring, data generated from the tools can reveal spatio-temporal patterns in the quality of recovery activities and resilience trends can be

  10. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the main propulsion subsystem FMEA/CIL, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were than compared to available data from the Rockwell Downey/NASA JSC FMEA/CIL review. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA worksheets for MPS hardware items.

  11. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the main propulsion subsystem FMEA/CIL, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were than compared to available data from the Rockwell Downey/NASA JSC FMEA/CIL review. Volume 4 contains the IOA analysis worksheets and the NASA FMEA to IOA worksheet cross reference and recommendations.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the main propulsion subsystem FMEA/CIL, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to available data from the Rockwell Downey/NASA JSC FMEA/CIL review. Volume 3 continues the presentation of IOA worksheets and includes the potential critical items list.

  13. Adaptation of a ladder beam walking task to assess locomotor recovery in mice following spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Brian J.; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Anderson, Aileen J.

    2007-01-01

    Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  15. A multi-modal approach to assessing recovery in youth athletes following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick; Murphy, James; Dick, Talia; Mah, Katie; Paniccia, Melissa; Verweel, Lee; Dobney, Danielle; Keightley, Michelle

    2014-09-25

    Concussion is one of the most commonly reported injuries amongst children and youth involved in sport participation. Following a concussion, youth can experience a range of short and long term neurobehavioral symptoms (somatic, cognitive and emotional/behavioral) that can have a significant impact on one's participation in daily activities and pursuits of interest (e.g., school, sports, work, family/social life, etc.). Despite this, there remains a paucity in clinically driven research aimed specifically at exploring concussion within the youth sport population, and more specifically, multi-modal approaches to measuring recovery. This article provides an overview of a novel and multi-modal approach to measuring recovery amongst youth athletes following concussion. The presented approach involves the use of both pre-injury/baseline testing and post-injury/follow-up testing to assess performance across a wide variety of domains (post-concussion symptoms, cognition, balance, strength, agility/motor skills and resting state heart rate variability). The goal of this research is to gain a more objective and accurate understanding of recovery following concussion in youth athletes (ages 10-18 years). Findings from this research can help to inform the development and use of improved approaches to concussion management and rehabilitation specific to the youth sport community.

  16. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  17. The Irvine, Beatties, and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Recovery Scale: An Assessment of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Ferguson, Adam R.; Mitchell, Kathleen D.; Beattie, Stephanie B.; Lin, Amity; Stuck, Ellen D.; Huie, J. Russell; Nielson, Jessica L.; Talbott, Jason F.; Inoue, Tomoo; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    The IBB scale is a recently developed forelimb scale for the assessment of fine control of the forelimb and digits after cervical spinal cord injury [SCI; (1)]. The present paper describes the assessment of inter-rater reliability and face, concurrent and construct validity of this scale following SCI. It demonstrates that the IBB is a reliable and valid scale that is sensitive to severity of SCI and to recovery over time. In addition, the IBB correlates with other outcome measures and is highly predictive of biological measures of tissue pathology. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that the IBB is highly predictive of the syndromic outcome after SCI (2), and is among the best predictors of bio-behavioral function, based on strong construct validity. Altogether, the data suggest that the IBB, especially in concert with other measures, is a reliable and valid tool for assessing neurological deficits in fine motor control of the distal forelimb, and represents a powerful addition to multivariate outcome batteries aimed at documenting recovery of function after cervical SCI in rats. PMID:25071704

  18. Effective assessments of electroencephalography during stroke recovery: contemporary approaches and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Kartik K

    2017-11-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of permanent disability worldwide, relying conventionally on extended periods of physiotherapy to recover functional ability. While neuroimaging techniques and emerging neurorehabilitation paradigms have advanced our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying stroke, recent evidence has renewed focus on quantifying features of cortical activity present in electroencephalography recordings to greatly enhance our understanding of stroke treatment and recovery. This Neuro Forum article reviews these key advances and discusses the importance of quantifying electroencephalography in future assessments of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  20. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  1. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives

  2. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 2: Appendices, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; O'Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants. This volume compiles the data from this study

  3. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  4. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  5. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions

  6. Species-level persistence probabilities for recovery and conservation status assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2016-12-01

    Recovery planning for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has been hampered by a lack of consistency and transparency, which can be improved by implementing a standardized approach for evaluating species status and developing measurable recovery criteria. However, managers lack an assessment method that integrates threat abatement and can be used when demographic data are limited. To help meet these needs, we demonstrated an approach for evaluating species status based on habitat configuration data. We applied 3 established persistence measures (patch occupancy, metapopulation capacity, and proportion of population lost) to compare 2 conservation strategies (critical habitat designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Forest Service's Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy) and 2 threat scenarios (maximum limestone mining, removal of all habitat in areas with mining claims; minimum mining, removal of habitat only in areas with existing operations and high-quality ore) against a baseline of existing habitat for 3 federally listed plant species. Protecting all area within the designated critical habitat maintained a similar level (83.9-99.9%) of species persistence as the baseline, whereas maximum mining greatly reduced persistence (0.51-38.4% maintained). The 3 persistence measures provided complementary insights reflecting different aspects of habitat availability (total area, number of patches, patch size, and connectivity). These measures can be used to link recovery criteria developed following the 3 R principles (representation, redundancy, and resilience) to the resulting improvements in species viability. By focusing on amount and distribution of habitat, our method provides a means of assessing the status of data-poor species to inform decision making under the Endangered Species Act. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Organic carbon recovery modeling for a rotating belt filter and its impact assessment on a plant-wide scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Santoro, Domenico; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we perform a systematic plant-wide assessment of the organic carbon recovery concept on wastewater treatment plants by an advanced cellulose recovery enabling technology called rotating belt filter (RBF). To this end, first, an empirical model is developed to describe organic carbon...... recovery by the RBF, which is then used for the plant-wide performance evaluation to further understand the impact of organic carbon recovery by framing four different scenarios. The key features of the scenario analysis are: (i) an RBF operating with thick mat increases methane production (around 10...... %) and brings down aeration energy demand (by 8 %) compared to the primary clarifier (PC) and, (ii) the sludge retention time (SRT) of the activated sludge (AS) tank increases by 55 % when an RBF runs with thick mat and therefore promotes higher nitrification rate, (iii) organic carbon recovery by the RBF does...

  8. Risk assessment in the recovery of food for social solidarity purposes: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Milicevic

    2016-11-01

    that the recovery of surplus from catering service and their reuse at COs should be planned with correct procedures, and the volunteer’s knowledge on the hygienic aspects appears to be a critical point. The recovery and the charitable activities require an appropriate assessment and careful risk analysis, in order to manage the complexity of no profit organization.

  9. Risk Assessment in the Recovery of Food for Social Solidarity Purposes: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Vesna; Colavita, Giampaolo; Castrica, Marta; Ratti, Sabrina; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia M

    2016-09-20

    of surplus from catering service and their reuse at COs should be planned with correct procedures, and the volunteer's knowledge on the hygienic aspects appears to be a critical point. The recovery and the charitable activities require an appropriate assessment and careful risk analysis, in order to manage the complexity of no profit organization.

  10. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  11. Design, Prototyping, and Assessment of a Wastewater Closed-Loop Recovery and Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to decrease the water use within industry are mandatory to pursue product and process sustainability. Particularly, the European Union (EU is at the top level for water consumption in industry, while some sectors, such as the food and beverage (F&B, are highly water-intensive with hundreds of liters per hour of consumed and, then, drained water. This article provides a systematic overview of the most innovative insights coming from an EU Eco-Innovation project dealing with greening the F&B industry through the design, prototyping, technical, economic, and environmental assessment of a wastewater closed-loop recovery and purification system. The system, tailored for a standard mid-size F&B company using 2–3 billion L/year of raw water, collects, purifies and recirculates the key produced wastewater streams with an overall recovery efficiency of about 56%. The proposed purification technology comes from the most efficient combination of membrane-based filtration methods, reverse osmosis (RO, and ultraviolet modules. Evidence from the technical design, full-scale on-site technology prototyping, net-present-value (NPV analysis and system life-cycle-assessment (LCA are presented concluding about the convenience of adopting the proposed solution to reduce costs and impacts on the environment.

  12. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Camarillo, Mary Kay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Domen, Jeremy K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandelin, Whitney L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Varadharajan, Charuleka [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cooley, Heather [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Donnelly, Kristina [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew G. [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Hays, Jake [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth B.C. [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Englander, Jacob G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hamdoun, Amro [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nicklisch, Sascha C.T. [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Harrison, Robert J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wettstein, Zachary S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Banbury, Jenner [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Cypher, Brian L. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott E. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, the present volume, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, also issued in July 2015, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. A final Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  13. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Foxall, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lindsey, Nathaniel [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Ferrar, Kyle [The FracTracker Alliance, Oakland, CA (United States); Gautier, Donald [DonGautier LLC., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Greenfield, Ben [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, Michael L.B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, issued in July 2015, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, this volume, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. The Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  14. Assessment of end of life disposal, tritium recovery and purification strategies for radioluminescent lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Ellefson, R.E.; Carden, H.S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this joint assessment by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies is to identify and examine options for disposal of aged-out RL lights based on current technology, and for the possible recovery and purification of tritium from the lights and disposal of the resulting contaminated remnants. The focus of the assessment is on the waste disposal and tritium recycling issues that will evolve with use of advanced RL lighting technology and that are relevant to industrial suppliers and to civilian, military, and other government users. The scope of work also includes identification of the potential financial benefits and risks of recycle versus direct disposal. 5 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%–90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  16. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  17. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  18. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  19. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Gillespie, P.A.; Main, D.E.

    1985-07-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Summary, is a condensation of Volumes 2, 3 and 4. It briefly describes the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, and the methods and results of the second interim pre-closure and post-closure assessments of that concept. 46 refs

  20. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  1. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan; Sahker, Ethan; Hedden, Suzy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker's congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41-0.52) suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93), accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains.

  2. Validation study of a web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good clinical care of prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy depends on careful assessment of post-operative morbidities, yet physicians do not always judge patient symptoms accurately. Logistical problems associated with using paper questionnaire limit their use in the clinic. We have implemented a web-interface ("STAR" for patient-reported outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Methods We analyzed data on the first 9 months of clinical implementation to evaluate the validity of the STAR questionnaire to assess functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We assessed response rate, internal consistency within domains, and the association between survey responses and known predictors of sexual and urinary function, including age, time from surgery, nerve sparing status and co-morbidities. Results Of 1581 men sent an invitation to complete the instrument online, 1235 responded for a response rate of 78%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, 0.86 and 0.97 for bowel, urinary and sexual function respectively. All known predictors of sexual and urinary function were significantly associated with survey responses in the hypothesized direction. Conclusions We have found that web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy is practical and feasible. The instrument demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, suggested that validity is maintained when questions are transferred from paper to electronic format and when patients give responses that they know will be seen by their doctor and added to their clinic record. As such, our system allows ready implementation of patient-reported outcomes into routine clinical practice.

  3. Assessment of motor recovery and MRI correlates in a porcine spinal cord injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Šulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on behavioral and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics in a porcine spinal cord injury model. Six adult minipigs weighing 32–35 kg were narcotized by thiopental, intubated, and placed on a volume-cycled ventilator. Anaesthesia was maintained by 1.5% sevoflurane with oxygen. Following location of the 1st lumbar vertebra animals were fastened in an immobilization frame. The spinal cord, exposed through a laminectomy, was compressed by a 5 mm thick circular rod with a peak force of 0.8 kg at a velocity of 3 cm·s-1. The next day the minipigs were paraplegic but improved rapidly to paraparesis. On the 12th postoperative day they were euthanasied. Neural tissue changes were evaluated by post mortem MRI, which showed damage to the spinal cord white and/or gray matter in the epicentre of compression with longitudinal spreading over one segment cranially and caudally. Statistical analyses performed by Spearman’s rho test revealed positive correlations between damaged areas and the whole area of the spinal cord white/gray matter (P = 0.047; rs = 0.742 and (P = 0.002; rs = 0.943, respectively. The study confirmed the reliability and reproducibility of the utilised model of spinal cord trauma. The structural changes in the epicentre of injury did not impede the rapid but incomplete recovery of motor functions.

  4. Vehicle Net Habitable Volume (NHV) and Habitability Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this study is to assess habitability on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to better prepare for long-duration spaceflight missions of the...

  5. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities...... (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF...... type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kWh per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF...

  6. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the orbiter main propulsion system FMEA/CIL, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Main Propulsion System (MPS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to available data from the Rockwell Downey/NASA JSC FMEA/CIL review. The Orbiter MPS is composed of the Propellant Management Subsystem (PMS) consisting of the liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) subsystems and the helium subsystem. The PMS is a system of manifolds, distribution lines, and valves by which the liquid propellants pass from the External Tank to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The helium subsystem consists of a series of helium supply tanks and their associated regulators, control valves, and distribution lines. Volume 1 contains the MPS description, assessment results, ground rules and assumptions, and some of the IOA worksheets.

  8. Adaptation of a ladder beam walking task to assess locomotor recovery in mice following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Brian J.; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Anderson, Aileen J.

    2007-01-01

    Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing. PMID:17197044

  9. Adaptation of a ladder beam walking task to assess locomotor recovery in mice following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Brian J; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Cadena, Gilbert; Anderson, Aileen J

    2007-02-27

    Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing.

  10. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  11. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  12. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.; Gillespie, P.A.; Mehta, K.K.; Henrich, W.F.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Guvanasen, V.M.; Sherman, G.R.; Donahue, D.C.; Goodwin, B.W.; Andres, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This volume, entitled Post-Closure Assessment, describes the methods, models and data used to perform the second post-closure assessment. The results are presented and their significance is discussed. Conclusions and planned improvements are listed. 72 refs

  13. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 3. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  14. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  15. Ovarian volume and antral follicle count assessed by MRI and transvaginal ultrasonography: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Gull, Berit; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hellström, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonographic measurements of ovarian volume and antral follicle count are of clinical importance as diagnostic features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and as a parameter in estimation of ovarian follicular reserve in infertility care. To compare two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of ovarian volume and antral follicle count, and to assess reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of MRI measurements. Volumes of 172 ovaries in 99 women aged 21-37 years were calculated (length x width x height x 0.523) with conventional 2D TVUS and 2D MRI. Semi-automatic estimates of ovarian volumes were obtained by 3D MRI. Antral follicles were counted manually on 2D MRI and automatically by 3D TVUS (SonoAVC), and stratified according to follicle size. Mean ovarian volume assessed by 2D TVUS (13.1 ± 6.4 mL) was larger than assessed by 2D MRI (9.6 ± 4.1) and 3D MRI (11.4 ± 4.5) (P 0.77. 2D MRI reveals more antral follicles, especially of small size, than 3D TVUS. Ovarian volume estimation by MRI provides smaller volumes than by the reference standard 2D TVUS. Ovarian volume estimation by 3D MRI, allowing independence of non-ellipsoid ovarian shape measurement errors, provides volumes closer to 2D TVUS values than does 2D MRI. Reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of 2D MRI measurements of ovarian volume and total follicle count are good.

  16. Fully integrated modelling for sustainability assessment of resource recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward-Hopkins, Joel; Busch, Jonathan; Purnell, Phil; Zwirner, Oliver; Velis, Costas A; Brown, Andrew; Hahladakis, John; Iacovidou, Eleni

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents an integrated modelling approach for value assessments, focusing on resource recovery from waste. The method tracks and forecasts a range of values across environmental, social, economic and technical domains by attaching these to material-flows, thus building upon and integrating unidimensional models such as material flow analysis (MFA) and lifecycle assessment (LCA). We argue that the usual classification of metrics into these separate domains is useful for interpreting the outputs of multidimensional assessments, but unnecessary for modelling. We thus suggest that multidimensional assessments can be better performed by integrating the calculation methods of unidimensional models rather than their outputs. To achieve this, we propose a new metric typology that forms the foundation of a multidimensional model. This enables dynamic simulations to be performed with material-flows (or values in any domain) driven by changes in value in other domains. We then apply the model in an illustrative case highlighting links between the UK coal-based electricity-production and concrete/cement industries, investigating potential impacts that may follow the increased use of low-carbon fuels (biomass and solid recovered fuels; SRF) in the former. We explore synergies and trade-offs in value across domains and regions, e.g. how changes in carbon emissions in one part of the system may affect mortality elsewhere. This highlights the advantages of recognising complex system dynamics and making high-level inferences of their effects, even when rigorous analysis is not possible. We also indicate how changes in social, environmental and economic 'values' can be understood as being driven by changes in the technical value of resources. Our work thus emphasises the advantages of building fully integrated models to inform conventional sustainability assessments, rather than applying hybrid approaches that integrate outputs from parallel models. The approach we

  17. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 3. Gas and drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 3 contains papers from the sessions on natural gas supporting research, western gas sands project, drilling technology, and environmental effects. Individuals were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the VLBW children, and analysed for total and regional brain volumes. At 5 years of age, a psychologist assessed the neuropsychological performance with NEPSY II, and parents completed the Five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire on development and behaviour. The results of the control group were used to give the age-specific reference values. No significant associations were found between the brain volumes and the NEPSY II domains. As for the FTF, significant associations were found between a smaller total brain tissue volume and poorer executive functions, between a smaller cerebellar volume and both poorer executive functions and motor skills, and, surprisingly, between a larger volume of brainstem and poorer language functions. Even after adjustment for total brain tissue volume, the two associations between the cerebellar volume and the FTF domains remained borderline significant (P = 0.05). The NEPSY II domains Executive Functioning, Language and Motor Skills were significantly associated with the corresponding FTF domains. In conclusion, altered brain volumes at term equivalent age appear to affect development still at 5 years of age. The FTF seems to be a good instrument when used in combination with other neuropsychological assessment.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  1. Economic Risk Assessment Taking Into Account the Volume Oscillator Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Mihaela LAPADUSI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic risk can be assessed from many points of view, but generally speaking it means the firm's inability to match workload with cost structure. Expansion of production capacity, adaptation to new technologies, diversification of products are only a few factors influencing risk. These, along with financial risk and bankruptcy risk constitute the most important category of risk which presents a great interest for the banks, shareholders, managers, business partners, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of tje oscillation of your company's activity from the point of view of economic risk. The main objective of this research lies in economic risk assessment by means of the margin of safety, the safety index and critical time point.

  2. Bioimpedance spectroscopy for assessment of volume status in patients before and after general anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus Ernstbrunner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Technically assisted assessment of volume status before surgery may be useful to direct intraoperative fluid administration. We therefore tested a recently developed whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy device to determine pre- to postoperative fluid distribution. METHODS: Using a three-compartment physiologic tissue model, the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany measures total body fluid volume, extracellular volume, intracellular volume and fluid overload as surplus or deficit of 'normal' extracellular volume. BCM-measurements were performed before and after standardized general anaesthesia for gynaecological procedures (laparotomies, laparoscopies and vaginal surgeries. BCM results were blinded to the attending anaesthesiologist and data analysed using the 2-sided, paired Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: In 71 females aged 45 ± 15 years with body weight 67 ± 13 kg and Duration of anesthesia 154 ± 69 minutes [corrected] duration of anaesthesia 154 ± 68 min, pre- to postoperative fluid overload increased from -0.7 ± 1.1 L to 0.1 ± 1.0 L, corresponding to -5.1 ± 7.5% and 0.8 ± 6.7% of normal extracellular volume, respectively (both p<0.001, after patients had received 1.9 ± 0.9 L intravenous crystalloid fluid. Perioperative urinary excretion was 0.3 ± 0.2 L [corrected]. The increase in extracellular volume was paralleled by an increase in total body fluid volume, while intracellular volume increased only slightly and without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15. Net perioperative fluid balance (administered fluid volume minus urinary excretion was significantly associated with change in extracellular volume (r(2 = 0.65, but was not associated with change in intracellular volume (r(2 = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Routine intraoperative fluid administration results in a significant, and clinically meaningful increase in the extracellular compartment. BCM-measurements yielded

  3. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  4. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  5. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  6. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.; Donnelly, K.J.; Gee, J.H.; Green, B.J.; Nathwani, J.S.; Quinn, A.M.; Rogers, B.G.; Stevenson, M.A.; Dunford, W.E.; Tamm, J.A.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the isolation of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluation of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have on man and the environment if the concept were implemented. The second such assessment was completed in 1984 and is documented in the Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1-4. This, the third volume of the report, summarizes the pre-closure environmental and safety assessments completed by Ontario Hydro for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The preliminary results and their sigificance are discussed. 85 refs

  7. Assessment of the adequacy of bronchial stenting by flow-volume loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Clare A.; Roebuck, Derek J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Pigott, Nick; Elliott, Martin J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiothoracic Unit, London (United Kingdom); Dunne, Catherine [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Physiotherapy, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Airway compression is a common problem in children with certain forms of congenital heart disease. Although various surgical approaches are available to overcome this form of airway obstruction, internal stenting is necessary in a minority of patients. It can be difficult to assess the success of stenting at the time of the procedure, and the interval to successful extubation is usually used as an outcome measure. Measurement of relevant parameters of respiratory physiology with flow-volume and volume-pressure loops permits immediate quantitative assessment of the adequacy of stenting. A 3-month-old infant who underwent bronchial stenting and physiological assessment at the time of the procedure is described. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of the adequacy of bronchial stenting by flow-volume loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Clare A.; Roebuck, Derek J.; Pigott, Nick; Elliott, Martin J.; Dunne, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Airway compression is a common problem in children with certain forms of congenital heart disease. Although various surgical approaches are available to overcome this form of airway obstruction, internal stenting is necessary in a minority of patients. It can be difficult to assess the success of stenting at the time of the procedure, and the interval to successful extubation is usually used as an outcome measure. Measurement of relevant parameters of respiratory physiology with flow-volume and volume-pressure loops permits immediate quantitative assessment of the adequacy of stenting. A 3-month-old infant who underwent bronchial stenting and physiological assessment at the time of the procedure is described. (orig.)

  9. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  10. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-11-04

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal in drinking water treatment and wastewater reuse schemes. However, there is a need to develop assessment tools to help implement MAR as an effective barrier in attenuating different OMPs including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors. In this study, guidelines were developed for different classes of organic micropollutants, in which removal efficiencies of these compounds are determined as a function of travel times and distances. Moreover, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) based model was proposed to predict the removals of organic micropollutants by MAR. The QSAR approach is especially useful for compounds with little information about their fate during soil passage. Such an assessment framework for organic micropollutant removal is useful for adapting MAR as a multi-objective (-contaminant) barrier and understanding different classes of compounds during soil passage and the determination of post treatment requirements for MAR. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  11. MARS CODE MANAUAL VOLUME IV - Developmental Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This assessment manual provides a complete list of code assessment results of the MARS code for various conceptual problem, separate effect test and integral effect test. From these validation procedures, the soundness and accuracy of the MARS code has been confirmed. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  12. Lobar analysis of collapsibility indices to assess functional lung volumes in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Mariko; Iwano, Shingo; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Matsuo, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Naganawa, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We investigated correlations between lung volume collapsibility indices and pulmonary function test (PFT) results and assessed lobar differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, using paired inspiratory and expiratory three dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. We retrospectively assessed 28 COPD patients who underwent paired inspiratory and expiratory CT and PFT exams on the same day. A computer-aided diagnostic system calculated total lobar volume and emphysematous lobar volume (ELV). Normal lobar volume (NLV) was determined by subtracting ELV from total lobar volume, both for inspiratory phase (NLVI) and for expiratory phase (NLVE). We also determined lobar collapsibility indices: NLV collapsibility ratio (NLVCR) (%)=(1-NLVE/NLVI)×100%. Associations between lobar volumes and PFT results, and collapsibility indices and PFT results were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. NLVCR values were significantly correlated with PFT results. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, measured as percent of predicted results (FEV1%P) was significantly correlated with NLVCR values for the lower lobes (Pvolume, measured as percent of predicted (DLCO/VA%P) results were strongly correlated with ELVI for the upper lobes (Ppulmonary function in COPD patients.

  13. Mesorad dose assessment model. Volume 1. Technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Bander, T.J.; Athey, G.F.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-03-01

    MESORAD is a dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Using release data for as many as 50 radionuclides, the model calculates: (1) external doses resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides contained in elevated or deposited material; (2) internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation; and (3) total whole-body doses. External doses from airborne material are calculated using semi-infinite and finite cloud approximations. At each stage in model execution, the appropriate approximation is selected after considering the cloud dimensions. Atmospheric processes are represented in MESORAD by a combination of Lagrangian puff and Gaussian plume dispersion models, a source depletion (deposition velocity) dry deposition model, and a wet deposition model using washout coefficients based on precipitation rates

  14. Reactor safeguards system assessment and design. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Daniel, S.L.; Bennett, H.A.; Hulme, B.L.

    1978-06-01

    This report describes the development and application of a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of nuclear power reactor safeguards systems. Analytic techniques are used to identify the sabotage acts which could lead to release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant, to determine the areas of a plant which must be protected to assure that significant release does not occur, to model the physical plant layout, and to evaluate the effectiveness of various safeguards systems. The methodology was used to identify those aspects of reactor safeguards systems which have the greatest effect on overall system performance and which, therefore, should be emphasized in the licensing process. With further refinements, the methodology can be used by the licensing reviewer to aid in assessing proposed or existing safeguards systems

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  16. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, respiratory rate (respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  17. The Mental Health Recovery Measure can be used to assess aspects of both customer-based and service-based recovery in the context of severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Albino J Oliveira-Maia; Albino J Oliveira-Maia; Albino J Oliveira-Maia; Albino J Oliveira-Maia; Carina Mendonça; Marta Camacho; Maria João Pessoa; Joaquim Gago; Joaquim Gago

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs...

  18. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J.; Mendon?a, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J.; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namel...

  19. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den N.M.A.; Ciapaite, J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of

  20. Assessment of the TRANSREC-350 mechanical recovery capacity of the oil spill response equipment in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provant, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the compliance of oil spill response equipment in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to state standards. Data on the observed performance of the Framo TRANSREC skimmer, which represents a large portion of the initial response skimming capability of the Sound's equipment, were obtained from Norwegian experience. The results of the analysis are based on the level of performance expected from well-trained skimmer crews responding to a 300,000 bbl spill under the worst average weather conditions over a 72-h period. Certain assumptions are made about volumes of evaporation and decanting. Results indicate that the volume of oil expected to be recovered would be 188,900 bbl, which would expand via emulsion formation to 303,000 bbl. In addition, a volume of free water would be taken in with the emulsion, which would be reduced by decanting. The overall storage capacity needed would then be 382,300 bbl. With the present available configuration of skimmers and barges, the maximum available storage capacity is 370,000 bbl. Skimmer capability can be maximized by matching storage capacity to recovery capability or by developing and demonstrating a capability to offload the recovered oil effectively such that transfer operations do not materially affect recovery operations. Recommendations are made for spill response organizations to improve their operations. 4 refs., 9 figs

  1. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  3. Accuracy of renal volume assessment in children by three-dimensional sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, G.A.; Riccabona, M.; Bohdal, G.; Quehenberger, F.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) to assess the renal parenchymal volume. Materials and Methods: CT, MRI, 2DUS and 3DUS were used to measure the renal volume in 40 patients (range: neonate to 17 years; mean age: 8.95 years). The 3DUS was determined with a Voluson 730 (Kretztechnik, GE) or an external 3D-system (EchoTech, GE) using electromagnetic positioning sensors attached to conventional 2DUS-equipment. The 2DUS volume was calculated with the ellipsoid equation and the 3DUS volume computed with the system integrated software. For CT and MRI, planimetric analysis was used to determine the renal parenchymal volume, whereby the dilated collecting system of a hydronephrosis was subtracted to obtain the real renal parenchymal volume. The results of 2DUS and 3DUS were compared to the results of CT and MRI, and inter- and intraobserver variabilities were calculated. Results: In 74 of 77 kidneys, the 3DUS study was of diagnostic quality. The accuracy of the 3DUS volumes compared well to the CT and MRI volumes with a mean difference of -1.8 ± 4.6% versus a mean difference of -2.4 ± 15.4% for 2DUS. In normal kidneys, the accuracy was -2.6 ± 4.4% for 3DUS and -3.8 ± 14.7% for 2DUS. In hydronephrosis, the accuracy was +4.0 ± 5.9% and +9.6 ± 21.3%, respectively, indicating that 3DUS is more accurate than 2DUS, particularly in kidneys with a dilated collecting system. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were ± 7.3% and ± 5.3%. Conclusion: For assessing the renal parenchymal volume in children, 3DUS is feasible and comparable to CT and MRI. (orig.) [de

  4. A socioeconomic assessment of Forest Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act projects: eight case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Pamela J. Jakes; John Schelhas

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 aimed to create jobs and jumpstart the economy while addressing the Nation’s social and environmental needs. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, received $1.15 billion in recovery funding to support projects in wildland fire management, capital improvement and maintenance, and biomass utilization. This...

  5. Assessment and monitoring of flow limitation and other parameters from flow/volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, R

    2000-01-01

    Flow/volume (F/V) spirometry is routinely used for assessing the type and severity of lung disease. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and timed vital capacity (FEV1) provide the best estimates of airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Computerized spirometers are now available for early home recognition of asthma exacerbation in high risk patients with severe persistent disease, and for recognition of either infection or rejection in lung transplant patients. Patients with severe COPD may exhibit expiratory flow limitation (EFL) on tidal volume (VT) expiratory F/V (VTF/V) curves, either with or without applying negative expiratory pressure (NEP). EFL results in dynamic hyperinflation and persistently raised alveolar pressure or intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi). Hyperinflation and raised PEEPi greatly enhance dyspnea with exertion through the added work of the threshold load needed to overcome raised pleural pressure. Esophageal (pleural) pressure monitoring may be added to VTF/V loops for assessing the severity of PEEPi: 1) to optimize assisted ventilation by mask or via endotracheal tube with high inspiratory flow rates to lower I:E ratio, and 2) to assess the efficacy of either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or low level extrinsic PEEP in reducing the threshold load of PEEPi. Intraoperative tidal volume F/V loops can also be used to document the efficacy of emphysema lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) via disappearance of EFL. Finally, the mechanism of ventilatory constraint can be identified with the use of exercise tidal volume F/V loops referenced to maximum F/V loops and static lung volumes. Patients with severe COPD show inspiratory F/V loops approaching 95% of total lung capacity, and flow limitation over the entire expiratory F/V curve during light levels of exercise. Surprisingly, patients with a history of congestive heart failure may lower lung volume towards residual volume during exercise

  6. Principles and techniques for post-accident assessment and recovery in a contaminated environment of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To assist operators and public authorities alike in their advance preparation of emergency plans and in the establishment of emergency preparedness infrastructures, the IAEA has already issued several Safety Series publications dealing with these matters. This Safety Guide complements the technical guidance already published. It provides: a) Information and practical guidance relevant to assessing the off-site consequences during the late phase of a serious accident in a nuclear facility; b) Guidance on recovery operations off the site and the associated decision making process; and c) Proposals for consideration by national authorities regarding the organizational structure for the conduct of recovery operations. 52 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs.

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment of alternative strategies for energy recovery from used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Mendecka, Barbara; Carnevale, Ennio

    2018-06-15

    The separate collection of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) is gaining popularity through several countries in Europe. An appropriate management of UCO waste stream leads to substantial benefits. In this study, we analyse two different possibilities of UCO energy reuse: the direct feed to a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) for cogeneration purpose, and the processing to generate biodiesel. Concerning biodiesel production, we analyse four among conventional and innovative technologies, characterised by different type and amount of used chemicals, heat and electricity consumptions and yields. We perform a systematic evaluation of environmental benefits and drawbacks by applying life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to compare the alternatives. For the impact assessment, two methods are selected: the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). Results related only to the processing phases (i.e. not including yet the avoided effects) show that the recovery of UCO in cogeneration plant has in general lower values in terms of environmental impacts than its employment in biodiesel production. When products and co-products substitution are included, the savings obtained by the substitution of conventional diesel production, in the biodiesel cases, are significantly higher than the avoided effects for electricity and heat in the cogeneration case. In particular, by using the UCO in the biodiesel production processes, the savings vary from 41.6 to 54.6 GJ ex per tUCO, and from 2270 to 2860 kg CO 2eq per tUCO for CExC and GWP, respectively. A particular focus is put on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Overall, high uncertainty of final results for process impacts is observed, especially for the supercritical methanol process. Low uncertainty values are evaluated for the avoided effects. Including the uncertain character of the impacts, cogeneration scenario and NaOH catalysed process of biodiesel production result to be the most suitable

  9. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  10. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same.

  11. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B Permit application. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1-Appendix C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for the following: chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; data accumulated from headspace-gas analyses; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; waste characterization sampling methods; applicability of real-time radiography; quality assurance objectives for waste characterization sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance project plan requirements; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program

  13. Assessment of errors associated with plot size and lateral movement of nitrogen-15 when studying fertilizer recovery under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.A.; Blackmer, A.M.; Horton, R.; Timmons, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of 15 N-labeled fertilizers encourages the use of field plots having minimum size. If plot size is reduced too much, however, lateral movement of N near the plots by mass flow or diffusion within the soil or by translocation through plant roots can become a significant source of error in determinations of fertilizer N recovery. This study was initiated to assess the importance of lateral movement of labeled fertilizer when unconfined plots are used to determine recovery of fertilizer. Corn grain samples were collected at various positions inside and outside 15 N plots, and the 15 N contents of these samples were determined. The data were fit to mathematical models to estimate the extent to which lateral movement of fertilizer N caused errors in determined values of fertilizer recovery for the first, second, and third crops following fertilization. These models also were used to predict the plot size needed for similar 15 N-tracer studies in the future. The results of these studies indicate that 15 N plots having a size of 2 by 2 m are sufficiently large for determining recovery of fertilizer N for corn crops under most conditions. Where lateral movement of fertilizer N in soils is suspected to be a problem, we recommend collection of a few plant samples outside the 15 N plots as insurance against misleading conclusions concerning fertilizer N recovery

  14. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  15. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators

  16. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  17. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi

  18. Assessing the quality of the volume-outcome relationship in uro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik K; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara; Vale, Justin A

    2009-02-01

    To assess systematically the quality of evidence for the volume-outcome relationship in uro-oncology, and thus facilitate the formulating of health policy within this speciality, as 'Implementation of Improving Outcome Guidance' has led to centralization of uro-oncology based on published studies that have supported a 'higher volume-better outcome' relationship, but improved awareness of methodological drawbacks in health service research has questioned the strength of this proposed volume-outcome relationship. We systematically searched previous relevant reports and extracted all articles from 1980 onwards assessing the volume-outcome relationship for cystectomy, prostatectomy and nephrectomy at the institution and/or surgeon level. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality using a previously validated rating system. Where possible, meta-analytical methods were used to calculate overall differences in outcome measures between low and high volume healthcare providers. In all, 22 studies were included in the final analysis; 19 of these were published in the last 5 years. Only four studies appropriately explored the effect of both the institution and surgeon volume on outcome measures. Mortality and length of stay were the most frequently measured outcomes. The median total quality scores within each of the operation types were 8.5, 9 and 8 for cystectomy, prostatectomy and nephrectomy, respectively (possible maximum score 18). Random-effects modelling showed a higher risk of mortality in low-volume institutions than in higher-volume institutions for both cystectomy and nephrectomy (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.54-2.29, and 1.28, 1.10-1.49, respectively). The methodological quality of volume-outcome research as applied to cystectomy, prostatectomy and nephrectomy is only modest at best. Accepting several limitations, pooled analysis confirms a higher-volume, lower-mortality relationship for cystectomy and nephrectomy. Future research should

  19. Assessment of early bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis is dependent on lung volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.L. Bard (Martin); K. Graniel (Karla); J. Park (Judy); N.H. de Klerk (Nicholas); P.D. Sly; C.P. Murray (Conor); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); S. Stick

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of this study was to determine whether assessment of early CT scan-detected bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) depends on lung volume. Methods: This study, approved by the hospital ethics committee, included 40 young children with CF from a

  20. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 3. Sections 5 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  1. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  2. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 2. Sections 1 through 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  3. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  4. The environmental impact of organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery through life-cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; He, Chao; Gao, Hong; Xie, Hui; Li, Yourong; Wu, Shuangying; Xu, Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    The LCA (life-cycle assessment) was applied to evaluate EI (the environmental impact) of ORCPW (organic Rankine cycle power-plant for waste-heat-recovery) in this paper. The model of LCA on the ORCPW was established. The life-cycle of ORCPW was divided into construction, operation and decommissioning phases. The inventory of environmental emissions was listed for the ORCPW with 7 different working fluids. The GWP (global warming potential), AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP (human toxicity potential), SWP (solid waste potential) and SAP (soot and dust potential) were investigated. Some EIs of ORCPW were compared with the EIs of other power generation modes. The results show that the construction phase of ORCPW contributes mostly to the GWP and EP. GWP is the most serious EI followed by HTP among all the environmental impacts. The average pay back times of greenhouse gas discharged from ORCPW is calculated on the basis of five other power generation modes. For 7 different working fluids, it is 3–5 years for CO 2 , about one year for CH 4 and 3–6 years for NO x . But CO cannot be paid back during the life-cycle of ORCPW according to the average pay back time. - Highlights: • LCA was proposed to evaluate the environmental performance of ORC. • The ORC life cycle environmental emissions inventory was established. • GWP is the most serious environmental impact, followed by HTP. • The ORC with R113 exhibits the lowest environment impact load, followed by Pentane. • The total GWP of ORC could be paid back in 5 years

  5. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  6. Development of the life impact burn recovery evaluation (LIBRE) profile: assessing burn survivors' social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Marino, Molly; Ni, Pengsheng; Soley Bori, Marina; Amaya, Flor; Dore, Emily; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Shie, Vivian; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M

    2017-10-01

    Measuring the impact burn injuries have on social participation is integral to understanding and improving survivors' quality of life, yet there are no existing instruments that comprehensively measure the social participation of burn survivors. This project aimed to develop the Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile (LIBRE), a patient-reported multidimensional assessment for understanding the social participation after burn injuries. 192 questions representing multiple social participation areas were administered to a convenience sample of 601 burn survivors. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the underlying structure of the data. Using item response theory methods, a Graded Response Model was applied for each identified sub-domain. The resultant multidimensional LIBRE Profile can be administered via Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) or fixed short forms. The study sample included 54.7% women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 15.9) years. The average time since burn injury was 15.4 years (0-74 years) and the average total body surface area burned was 40% (1-97%). The CFA indicated acceptable fit statistics (CFI range 0.913-0.977, TLI range 0.904-0.974, RMSEA range 0.06-0.096). The six unidimensional scales were named: relationships with family and friends, social interactions, social activities, work and employment, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. The marginal reliability of the full item bank and CATs ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, with ceiling effects less than 15% for all scales. The LIBRE Profile is a promising new measure of social participation following a burn injury that enables burn survivors and their care providers to measure social participation.

  7. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy for Assessment of Volume Status in Patients before and after General Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstbrunner, Matthäus; Kostner, Lisa; Kimberger, Oliver; Wabel, Peter; Säemann, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Fleischmann, Edith; Kabon, Barbara; Hecking, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background Technically assisted assessment of volume status before surgery may be useful to direct intraoperative fluid administration. We therefore tested a recently developed whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy device to determine pre- to postoperative fluid distribution. Methods Using a three-compartment physiologic tissue model, the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) measures total body fluid volume, extracellular volume, intracellular volume and fluid overload as surplus or deficit of ‘normal’ extracellular volume. BCM-measurements were performed before and after standardized general anaesthesia for gynaecological procedures (laparotomies, laparoscopies and vaginal surgeries). BCM results were blinded to the attending anaesthesiologist and data analysed using the 2-sided, paired Student’s t-test and multiple linear regression. Results In 71 females aged 45±15 years with body weight 67±13 kg and duration of anaesthesia 154±68 min, pre- to postoperative fluid overload increased from −0.7±1.1 L to 0.1±1.0 L, corresponding to −5.1±7.5% and 0.8±6.7% of normal extracellular volume, respectively (both p<0.001), after patients had received 1.9±0.9 L intravenous crystalloid fluid. Perioperative urinary excretion was 0.4±0.3 L. The increase in extracellular volume was paralleled by an increase in total body fluid volume, while intracellular volume increased only slightly and without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.15). Net perioperative fluid balance (administered fluid volume minus urinary excretion) was significantly associated with change in extracellular volume (r2 = 0.65), but was not associated with change in intracellular volume (r2 = 0.01). Conclusions Routine intraoperative fluid administration results in a significant, and clinically meaningful increase in the extracellular compartment. BCM-measurements yielded plausible results and may become useful to guide intraoperative fluid therapy in

  8. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  9. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses

  10. Second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, P.A.; Wuschke, D.M.; Guvanasen, V.M.; Mehta, K.K.; McConnell, D.B.; Tamm, J.A.; Lyon, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The nuclear fuel waste disposal concept chosen for development and assessment in Canada involves the burial of corrosion-resistant containers of waste in a vault located deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. As the concept and the assessment tools are developed, periodic assessments are performed to permit evaluatin of the methodology and provide feedback to those developing the concept. The ultimate goal of these assessments is to predict what impact the disposal system would have if the concept were implemented. The second assessment was performed in 1984 and is documented in Second Interim Assessment of the Canadian Concept for Nuclear Fuel Waste Disposal - Volumes 1 to 4. This volume, entitled Background, discusses Canadian nuclear fuel wastes and the desirable features of a waste disposal method. It outlines several disposal options being considered by a number of countries, including the option chosen for development and assessment in Canada. The reference disposal systems assumed for the second assessment are described, and the approach used for concept assessment is discussed briefly. 79 refs

  11. Peripheral i.v. analysis (PIVA) of venous waveforms for volume assessment in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, K M; Alvis, B D; Baudenbacher, F; Boyer, R; Brophy, C M; Beer, I; Eagle, S

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of intravascular volume status remains a challenge for clinicians. Peripheral i.v. analysis (PIVA) is a method for analysing the peripheral venous waveform that has been used to monitor volume status. We present a proof-of-concept study for evaluating the efficacy of PIVA in detecting changes in fluid volume. We enrolled 37 hospitalized patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) as a controlled model for intravascular volume loss. Respiratory rate (F0) and pulse rate (F1) frequencies were measured. PIVA signal was obtained by fast Fourier analysis of the venous waveform followed by weighing the magnitude of the amplitude of the pulse rate frequency. PIVA was compared with peripheral venous pressure and standard monitoring of vital signs. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between volume loss and change in the PIVA signal (R2=0.77). Receiver operator curves demonstrated that the PIVA signal showed an area under the curve of 0.89 for detection of 20 ml kg-1 change in volume. There was no correlation between volume loss and peripheral venous pressure, blood pressure or pulse rate. PIVA-derived pulse rate and respiratory rate were consistent with similar numbers derived from the bio-impedance and electrical signals from the electrocardiogram. PIVA is a minimally invasive, novel modality for detecting changes in fluid volume status, respiratory rate and pulse rate in spontaneously breathing patients with peripheral i.v. cannulas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Comparison between CT volume measurement and histopathological assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pomerri@unipd.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Department of Medicine, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Pucciarelli, Salvatore, E-mail: puc@unipd.it [Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Gennaro, Gisella, E-mail: gisella.gennaro@pd.infn.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Maretto, Isacco, E-mail: isac77@gmail.com [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Nitti, Donato, E-mail: donato.nitti@unipd.it [Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Muzzio, Pier Carlo, E-mail: pcmuzzio@unipd.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volume measurements on computed tomography (CT) images with histopathological assessments of chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced tumor regression in locally advanced rectal cancer (RC). Methods: In 25 patients (13 males, 12 females; median age, 63 years; age range, 44–79 years) with locally advanced RC treated with preoperative CRT and surgery, two radiologists measured tumor volume on CT images before and after CRT. CT-based tumor volumetry and the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECISTs) were compared with T and N downstaging after CRT, and with the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: Tumor volumes were significantly smaller on CT images after CRT. The tumors regressed in 52% (13/25), 36% (9/25) and 40% (10/25) of patients, based on T downstaging, TRG and mRECIST findings, respectively. In terms of T downstaging, the pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes of responders and non-responders to the treatment differed statistically, while their tumor volume reduction rates and volume reductions according to the 65% mRECIST threshold did not. In terms of N downstaging and TRG, the differences between the responders’ and the non-responders’ pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes, tumor volume reduction rates, and mRECIST thresholds were never statistically significant. Conclusion: Measuring tumor size on CT images is of limited value in predicting the histopathological response to preoperative CRT in RC patients, so it may be unwise to select surgical treatment strategies based on CT volumetry.

  13. A modelling assessment of acidification and recovery of European surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A.; Camarero, L.; Cosby, B. J.; Ferrier, R. C.; Forsius, M.; Helliwell, R. C.; Kopácek, J.; Majer, V.; Moldan, F.; Posch, M.; Rogora, M.; Schöpp, W.; Wright, R. F.

    The increase in emission of sulphur oxides and nitrogen (both oxidised and reduced forms) since the mid-1800s caused a severe decline in pH and ANC in acid-sensitive surface waters across Europe. Since c.1980, these emissions have declined and trends towards recovery from acidification have been widely observed in time-series of water chemistry data. In this paper, the MAGIC model was applied to 10 regions (the SMART model to one) in Europe to address the question of future recovery under the most recently agreed emission protocols (the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol). The models were calibrated using best available data and driven using S and N deposition sequences for Europe derived from EMEP data. The wide extent and the severity of water acidification in 1980 in many regions were illustrated by model simulations which showed significant deterioration in ANC away from the pre-acidification conditions. The simulations also captured the recovery to 2000 in response to the existing emission reductions. Predictions to 2016 indicated further significant recovery towards pre-acidification chemistry in all regions except Central England (S Pennines), S Alps, S Norway and S Sweden. In these areas it is clear that further emission reductions will be required and that the recovery of surface waters will take several decades as soils slowly replenish their depleted base cation pools. Chemical recovery may not, however, ensure biological recovery and further reductions may also be required to enable these waters to achieve the "good ecological status" as required by the EU Water Framework Directive.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  15. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Volume 1, Summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Gilmore, W.E.; Galyean, W.J.; Groh, M.R.; Gentillon, C.D.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1988-02-01

    A data management system has been implemented which supports a variety of risk-related analyses and provides a repository of hardware component failure and human error probability data to the risk analyst. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, NUCLARR, is an interactive, graphically oriented system which resides on a personal computer (PC) or PC-compatible environment. An overview of the data management system, including a description of data collection, specification, data structure, and taxonomies, is presented in Volume I of this report. Programming activities, procedures for processing data, user's guide, and hard copy data manual are presented in Volumes II through V

  16. Assessment of the recovery annealing efficiency for VVER-1000 materials' structure reset and lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, B.; Kuleshova, E.; Prikhodko, K.; Fedotova, S.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessels welds studies based on the surveillance specimens sets have revealed a high embrittlement rate of steel with high nickel content compared with predicted embrittlement determined from the Russian Guide. For these critical vessels further safe operation (even during design service life) is not allowed without additional measures (recovery annealing of the VVER-1000 welds as earlier for VVER- 440). The reason is that the rate of high nickel VVER-1000 welds embrittlement is significantly higher than that is for base metal. In order to solve a problem of VVER-1000 lifetime extension recovery annealing validation and accelerated reirradiation of specimens for prolonged operation period estimation after annealing were necessary. In this work comparison of electron-microscopy fine structure studies and fractographic studies of Charpy specimens fracture surface of the VVER-1000 high nickel welds in different states were carried out. It allows estimation of the recovery annealing effect on steels structure and its behavior at further operation. It is shown that both secondary and primary irradiation causes alike radiation-induced fine structure changes: dislocation loops and nano-size precipitates. Recovery annealing leads to full dislocation loops dissolution and significant nano-size precipitates solution but not to the initial values. The rate of radiation defects and radiation-induced precipitates accumulation at reirradiation weld after recovery annealing is lower than at primary irradiation and determine the lower secondary embrittlement rate of VVER-1000 weld. (authors)

  17. An Internal Standard for Assessing Phosphopeptide Recovery from Metal Ion/Oxide Enrichment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; Navarrete-Perea, Jose; Erickson, Alison R.; Knott, Jeffrey; Gygi, Steven P.

    2018-04-01

    Phosphorylation-mediated signaling pathways have major implications in cellular regulation and disease. However, proteins with roles in these pathways are frequently less abundant and phosphorylation is often sub-stoichiometric. As such, the efficient enrichment, and subsequent recovery of phosphorylated peptides, is vital. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a well-established approach for quantifying thousands of phosphorylation events in a single experiment. We designed a peptide internal standard-based assay directed toward sample preparation strategies for mass spectrometry analysis to understand better phosphopeptide recovery from enrichment strategies. We coupled mass-differential tandem mass tag (mTMT) reagents (specifically, TMTzero and TMTsuper-heavy), nine mass spectrometry-amenable phosphopeptides (phos9), and peak area measurements from extracted ion chromatograms to determine phosphopeptide recovery. We showcase this mTMT/phos9 recovery assay by evaluating three phosphopeptide enrichment workflows. Our assay provides data on the recovery of phosphopeptides, which complement other metrics, namely the number of identified phosphopeptides and enrichment specificity. Our mTMT/phos9 assay is applicable to any enrichment protocol in a typical experimental workflow irrespective of sample origin or labeling strategy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  20. The Importance of Assessing Nutritional Status to Ensure Optimal Recovery during the Chronic Phase of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C

    2018-01-01

    Despite evidence that many of the consequences of stroke that hinder recovery (i.e., obesity, muscle atrophy, and functional declines) have nutritionally modifiable behavior components, little attention has been focused on the significance of nutrition beyond the acute phase of stroke. This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the influence of nutrition on optimal recovery and rehabilitation in chronic (>6 months) stroke. The literature, which is mainly limited to cross-sectional studies, suggests that a suboptimal nutritional status, including an excess caloric intake, reduced protein intake, and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly the B-vitamins, vitamin D, and omega 3 fatty acids, may have deleterious effects on metabolic, physical, and psychological functioning in chronic stroke survivors. Careful evaluation of dietary intake, especially among those with eating disabilities and preexisting malnutrition, may aid in the identification of individuals at increased nutritional risk through which early intervention may benefit recovery and rehabilitation and prevent further complications after stroke.

  1. Assessment of post-tsunami disaster recovery of Banda Aceh city of Indonesia as window of opportunities for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilianda, E.; Munadi, K.; Azmeri; Safrida; Direzkia, Y.; Syamsidik; Oktari, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Post-tsunami recovery process at Banda Aceh city of Indonesia were assessed in this study. Several actions and programs implemented during the recovery process were exercised and examined through several FGDs, to identify any windows of opportunities to change were captured in the aspects of infrastructure and housing, economic revitalization of the affected community, mental health and psychosocial condition and development, establishment and implementation of disaster risk reduction programs and community preparedness. Subsequently, whether or not those changes fit into the principle criteria of sustainability were examined. The results give insights on the dynamics of recovery process after more than a decade since the tsunami was affected the area. Some success and not-so-success stories of actions and program implementations during the recovery process were captured. On the aspect of livelihoods and public finance, the local government seems to have seen a window of opportunity and subsequently seize the opportunity to revitalize the administrative system of financing the micro-finance for communities. In contrast, on the aspect of socio-ecological systems integrity toward preserving the natural environment, the case of housing development at the coastal areas against the blueprint city masterplan exemplifies the failure in seizing the window of opportunity to “build back better”.

  2. Quantifying restoration success and recovery in a metal-polluted stream: A 17-year assessment of physicochemical and biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, W.H.; Vieira, N.K.M.; Church, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of stream restoration is often challenging because of the lack of pre-treatment data, narrow focus on physicochemical measures and insufficient post-restoration monitoring. Even when these fundamental elements are present, quantifying restoration success is difficult because of the challenges associated with distinguishing treatment effects from seasonal variation, episodic events and long-term climatic changes.2. We report results of one of the most comprehensive and continuous records of physical, chemical and biological data available to assess restoration success for a stream ecosystem in North America. Over a 17 year period we measured seasonal and annual changes in metal concentrations, physicochemical characteristics, macroinvertebrate communities, and brown trout Salmo trutta populations in the Arkansas River, a metal-contaminated stream in Colorado, USA.3. Although we observed significant improvements in water quality after treatment, the effectiveness of restoration varied temporally, spatially and among biological response variables. The fastest recovery was observed at stations where restoration eliminated point sources of metal contamination. Recovery of macroinvertebrates was significantly delayed at some stations because of residual sediment contamination and because extreme seasonal and episodic variation in metal concentrations prevented recolonization by sensitive species. Synthesis and applications. Because recovery trajectories after the removal of a stressor are often complex or nonlinear, long-term studies are necessary to assess restoration success within the context of episodic events and changes in regional climate. The observed variation in recovery among chemical and biological endpoints highlights the importance of developing objective criteria to assess restoration success. Although the rapid response of macroinvertebrates to reduced metal concentrations is encouraging, we have previously demonstrated that

  3. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, Pierre M.; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  4. Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallin, Lena; Axelsson, Rimma; Bronge, Lena; Zhang, Yi; Oeksengaard, Anne-Rita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is important to have a replicable easy method for monitoring atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric methods for calculating hippocampal volume are time-consuming and commonly used in research. Visual assessments of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) is a rapid method for clinical use. This method has not been tested in a large non-demented population in comparison with volumetry measurements. Since hippocampal volume decreases with time even in normal aging there is also a need to study the normal age differences of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Purpose: To compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) with hippocampal volume in a healthy, non-demented elderly population. To describe normal ageing using vaMTA. Material and Methods: Non-demented individuals aged 60, 66, 72, 78, 81, 84, and ≥87 years old were recruited from the Swedish National study on Ageing and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Sweden. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, vaMTA, and calculations of hippocampal volumes were performed in 544 subjects. Results: Significant correlation (rs = -0.32, P 80-year-old individuals

  5. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Gautier, Donald L. [Dr. Donald Dautier, LLC., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the California Legislature passed Senate Bill 4 (SB 4), setting the framework for regulation of well stimulation technologies in California, including hydraulic fracturing. SB 4 also requires the California Natural Resources Agency to conduct an independent scientific study of well stimulation technologies in California to assess current and potential future practices, including the likelihood that well stimulation technologies could enable extensive new petroleum production in the state, evaluate the impacts of well stimulation technologies and the gaps in data that preclude this understanding, identify risks associated with current practices, and identify alternative practices which might limit these risks. The study is issued in three volumes. This document, Volume I, provides the factual basis describing well stimulation technologies, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II discusses how well stimulation affects water, the atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, traffic, light and noise levels; it will also explore human health hazards, and identify data gaps and alternative practices. Volume III presents case studies to assess environmental issues and qualitative

  6. Ultrasound assessment of thyroid gland volume in diabetic patients without overt thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, Christopher C; Adeyekun, Ademola A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are known to mutually influence each other. Thyroid disease can worsen glycaemic control in diabetes, and patients with diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of thyroid disorders such as increase in size, compared to the normal population. The aim of the study was to sonographically assess thyroid gland volume in Nigerian adult diabetic patients and compare with apparently healthy adults (controls). The study setting was the Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Nigeria. The thyroid gland in 120 diabetic subjects and equal number of apparently healthy controls was scanned with a 5-12 MHz linear transducer of a SONOACE X4 Machine. Thyroid gland volume was assessed. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Diabetics had significantly increased thyroid volume compared to age matched male and female control subjects (11.5 ± 5.2 cm3 vs 7.4 ± 1.9 cm3; Pthyroid volume among diabetics. Diabetics have higher thyroid gland dimensions, compared to apparently healthy subjects. Gland proliferation from circulating insulin may play a role. This is not influenced by gender.

  7. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...

  8. Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

  9. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Benjamin Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR may be successful, especially in recovery of injected waters, by analyzing publicly-available hydrogeologic data. Transmissivity, hydraulic gradient, well density, depth to aquifer, and depth to groundwater are used in a GIS-based index to determine feasibility of implementing an ASR system in the Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems. New hydrological insights for the region: Large regions of the central and northern Gulf Coast and the central and southern Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems are expected to be hydrologically feasible regions for ASR. Corpus Christi, Victoria, San Antonio, Bryan, and College Station are identified as possible cities where ASR would be a useful water storage strategy. Keywords: Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR, GIS, Gulf coast, Carrizo-Wilcox, Managed aquifer recharge (MAR

  10. A comparative study on assessment procedures and metric properties of two scoring systems of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised items: standard and modified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Lovaglio, Piergiorgio; Brenna, Greta; Covelli, Venusia; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Duran, Dunja; Minati, Ludovico; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-09-01

    The study compared the metric characteristics (discriminant capacity and factorial structure) of two different methods for scoring the items of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and it analysed scale scores collected using the standard assessment procedure and a new proposed method. Cross sectional design/methodological study. Inpatient, neurological unit. A total of 153 patients with disorders of consciousness were consecutively enrolled between 2011 and 2013. All patients were assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised using standard (rater 1) and inverted (rater 2) procedures. Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, number of cognitive and reflex behaviours and diagnosis. Regarding patient assessment, rater 1 using standard and rater 2 using inverted procedures obtained the same best scores for each subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised for all patients, so no clinical (and statistical) difference was found between the two procedures. In 11 patients (7.7%), rater 2 noted that some Coma Recovery Scale-Revised codified behavioural responses were not found during assessment, although higher response categories were present. A total of 51 (36%) patients presented the same Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scores of 7 or 8 using a standard score, whereas no overlap was found using the modified score. Unidimensionality was confirmed for both score systems. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score showed a higher discriminant capacity than the standard score and a monofactorial structure was also supported. The inverted assessment procedure could be a useful evaluation method for the assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness diagnosis.

  11. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

  12. Assessment of the Performance of a Ventilated Window Coupled with a Heat Recovery Unit through the Co-Heating Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Danza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the results of an experimental campaign based on the assessment of a heat recovery unit coupled with a dynamic window. Two fully monitored and calibrated outdoor test cells are used, in order to evaluate the energy performance and the related thermal comfort. The former presents a traditional window with double-glazing, aluminum frame and indoor blind and a centrifugal extractor for the air circulation. The latter is equipped with a dynamic window with ventilated and blinded double-glazing provided with a heat exchanger. The connection of the dynamic window and heat recovery unit provides different actions: heat recovery; heat transfer reduction; pre-heating before the exchanger. Different operating configurations allowed the trends of the dynamic system to be assessed in different seasons in terms of energy saving, thermal comfort behavior and energy efficiency. The results showed an overall lower consumption of the innovative system, both in winter and summer, with 20% and 15% energy saving, respectively. In general, the dynamic system provided the best comfort conditions, even if it involves a worse behavior than expected, in the summer season.

  13. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  14. Pore volume is most highly correlated with the visual assessment of skin pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Shin, M K; Back, J H; Koh, J S

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have been focused on evaluating assessment techniques for facial pores amid growing attention on skin care. Ubiquitous techniques used to assess the size of facial pores include visual assessment, cross-section images of the skin surface, and profilometric analysis of silicone replica of the facial skin. In addition, there are indirect assessment methods, including observation of pores based on confocal laser scanning microscopy and the analysis of sebum secretion and skin elasticity. The aim of this study was to identify parameters useful in estimating pore of surface in normal skin. The severity of pores on the cheek area by frontal optical images was divided on a 0-6 scale with '0' being faint and small pore and '6' being obvious and large pore. After the photos of the frontal cheek of 32 women aged between 35 and 49 were taken, the size of their pores was measured on a 0-6 scale; and the correlation between visual grading of pore and various evaluations (pore volume by 3-D image, pore area and number by Optical Image Analyzer) contributing to pore severity investigated using direct, objective, and noninvasive evaluations. The visual score revealed that the size of pores was graded on a 1-6 scale. Visual grading of pore was highly correlated with pore volume measured from 3-D images and pore area measured from 2-D optical images in the order (P pore was also slightly correlated with the number of pores in size of over 0.04 mm(2) (P pore score and pore volume can be explained by 3-D structural characteristics of pores. It is concluded that pore volume and area serve as useful parameters in estimating pore of skin surface. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Exploratory assessment of left ventricular strain–volume loops in severe aortic valve diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hugo G.; van Dijk, Arie P.; George, Keith P.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Severe aortic valve diseases are common cardiac abnormalities that are associated with poor long‐term survival.Before any reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, the left ventricle undergoes structural remodelling under the influence of changing haemodynamic conditions.In this study, we combined temporal changes in LV structure (volume) with alterations in LV functional characteristics (strain, ԑ) into a ԑ–volume loop, in order to provide novel insight into the haemodynamic cardiac consequences of aortic valve diseases in those with preserved LV ejection fraction.We showed that our novel ԑ–volume loop and the specific loop characteristics provide additional insight into the functional and mechanical haemodynamic consequences of severe aortic valve diseases (with preserved LV ejection fraction).Finally, we showed that the ԑ–volume loop characteristics provide discriminative capacity compared with conventional measures of LV function. Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine left ventricular (LV) strain (ԑ)–volume loops to provide novel insight into the haemodynamic cardiac consequences of aortic valve stenosis (AS) and aortic valve regurgitation (AR). Twenty‐seven participants were retrospectively recruited: AR (n = 7), AS (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 10). Standard transthoracic echocardiography was used to obtain apical four‐chamber images to construct ԑ–volume relationships, which were assessed using the following parameters: early systolic ԑ (ԑ_ES); slope of ԑ–volume relationship during systole (Sslope); end‐systolic peak ԑ (peak ԑ); and diastolic uncoupling (systolic ԑ–diastolic ԑ at same volume) during early diastole (UNCOUP_ED) and late diastole (UNCOUP_LD). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the ability to detect impaired LV function. Although LV ejection fraction was comparable between groups, longitudinal peak ԑ was reduced compared with control subjects

  16. Exploratory assessment of left ventricular strain-volume loops in severe aortic valve diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hugo G; van Dijk, Arie P; George, Keith P; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J; Oxborough, David L

    2017-06-15

    Severe aortic valve diseases are common cardiac abnormalities that are associated with poor long-term survival. Before any reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, the left ventricle undergoes structural remodelling under the influence of changing haemodynamic conditions. In this study, we combined temporal changes in LV structure (volume) with alterations in LV functional characteristics (strain, ԑ) into a ԑ-volume loop, in order to provide novel insight into the haemodynamic cardiac consequences of aortic valve diseases in those with preserved LV ejection fraction. We showed that our novel ԑ-volume loop and the specific loop characteristics provide additional insight into the functional and mechanical haemodynamic consequences of severe aortic valve diseases (with preserved LV ejection fraction). Finally, we showed that the ԑ-volume loop characteristics provide discriminative capacity compared with conventional measures of LV function. The purpose of this study was to examine left ventricular (LV) strain (ԑ)-volume loops to provide novel insight into the haemodynamic cardiac consequences of aortic valve stenosis (AS) and aortic valve regurgitation (AR). Twenty-seven participants were retrospectively recruited: AR (n = 7), AS (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 10). Standard transthoracic echocardiography was used to obtain apical four-chamber images to construct ԑ-volume relationships, which were assessed using the following parameters: early systolic ԑ (ԑ_ES); slope of ԑ-volume relationship during systole (Sslope); end-systolic peak ԑ (peak ԑ); and diastolic uncoupling (systolic ԑ-diastolic ԑ at same volume) during early diastole (UNCOUP_ED) and late diastole (UNCOUP_LD). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the ability to detect impaired LV function. Although LV ejection fraction was comparable between groups, longitudinal peak ԑ was reduced compared with control subjects. In contrast, ԑ_ES and Sslope were

  17. Validation of the brief version of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-B) using Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, Skye P; Kidd, Sean A; Davidson, Larry; McKenzie, Kwame; O'Connell, Maria J

    2015-12-01

    In psychiatry, the recovery paradigm is increasingly identified as the overarching framework for service provision. Currently, the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA), a 36-item rating scale, is commonly used to assess the uptake of a recovery orientation in clinical services. However, the consumer version of the RSA has been found challenging to complete because of length and the reading level required. In response to this feedback, a brief 12-item version of the RSA was developed (RSA-B). This article describes the development of the modified instrument and the application of traditional psychometric analysis and Rasch Measurement Theory to test the psychometrics properties of the RSA-B. Data from a multisite study of adults with serious mental illnesses (n = 1256) who were followed by assertive community treatment teams were examined for reliability, clinical meaning, targeting, response categories, model fit, reliability, dependency, and raw interval-level measurement. Analyses were performed using the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (RUMM 2030). Adequate fit to the Rasch model was observed (χ2 = 112.46, df = 90, p = .06) and internal consistency was good (r = .86). However, Rasch analysis revealed limitations of the 12-item version, with items covering only 39% of the targeted theoretical continuum, 2 misfitting items, and strong evidence for the 5 option response categories not working as intended. This study revealed areas for improvement in the shortened version of the 12-item RSA-B. A revisit of the conceptual model and original 36-item rating scale is encouraged to select items that will help practitioners and researchers measure the full range of recovery orientation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Assessment of the effectiveness of orange (Citrus reticulata) peel in the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Rim A

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.

  19. Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wan

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of edema volume is essential for the investigation of tissue response and recovery following a traumatic injury. The measurements must be noninvasive and repetitive over time so as to monitor tissue response throughout the healing process. Such techniques are particularly necessary for the evaluation of therapeutics that are currently in development to suppress or prevent edema formation. In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to image and quantify edema in a mouse ear model where the injury is induced by a superficial-thickness burn. Extraction of edema volume is achieved by an attenuation compensation algorithm performed on the three-dimensional OCT images, followed by two segmentation procedures. In addition to edema volume, the segmentation method also enables accurate thickness mapping of edematous tissue, which is an important characteristic of the external symptoms of edema. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method for noninvasively measuring absolute edema volume. PMID:27282161

  20. Assessing intravascular volume by difference in pulse pressure in pigs submitted to graded hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Fukui, Kimiko; Cohen, Delphine; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea M

    2006-10-01

    We assessed changes in intravascular volume monitored by difference in pulse pressure (dPP%) after stepwise hemorrhage in an experimental pig model. Six pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized (isoflurane 1.5 vol%) and mechanically ventilated to keep end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) at 35 mmHg. A PA-catheter and an arterial catheter were placed via femoral access. During and after surgery, animals received lactated Ringer's solution as long as they were considered volume responders (dPP>13%). Then animals were allowed to stabilize from the induction of anesthesia and insertion of catheters for 30 min. After stabilization, baseline measurements were taken. Five percent of blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5%, and then in 10%-increments until death from exsanguination occurred. After withdrawal of 5% of blood volume, all pigs were considered volume responders (dPP>13%); dPP rose significantly from 6.1+/-3.3% to 19.4+/-4.2%. The regression analysis of stepwise hemorrhage revealed a linear relation between blood loss (hemorrhage in %) and dPP (y=0.99*x+14; R2=0.7764; P<.0001). In addition, dPP was the only parameter that changed significantly between baseline and a blood loss of 5% (P<0.01), whereas cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, MAP, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, respectively, remained unchanged. We conclude that in an experimental hypovolemic pig model, dPP correlates well with blood loss.

  1. Response of left ventricular volume to exercise in man assessed by radionuclide equilibrium angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Karliner, J.; Ricci, D.; Schuler, G.; Pfisterer, M.; Peterson, K.; Ashburn, W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the effects of exercise on left ventricular volumes we studied 10 normal men, 15 patients with coronary disease who developed angina pectoris during exercise, and 10 patients with known coronary disease who did not develop angina during exercise. Each subject performed supine bicycle exercise under a mobile, single-crystal scintillation camera until angina or fatigue occurred. Technetium-99m bound to human serum albumin was the imaging agent. Data were collected at rest and during the last 2 minutes of each 3-minute stage of exercise and for 10 minutes after exercise. Volumes were calculated by a new radionuclide technique that correlated well with cineangiography and is expressed in nondimensional units. In normal subjects, the end-diastolic volume (EDV) at rest was not different from that a peak exercise. The end-systolic volume (ESV) decreased at peak exercise. ESV decreased progressively in all but two of 30 exercise periods. Angina patients had a larger EDV at rest and during chest pain than normals. Angina patients increased their ESV during chest pain resulting in a decreased ejection fraction (EF). All angina patients had a higher ESV during chest pain than during the exercise stage before chest pain. As a group, patients who did not develop angina had a lower EDV at rest and peak exercise than those who did develop angina. We conclude: that the EF increases during exercise due to a decrease in ESV; that the EF in patients with angina decreases because of an increase in ESV; and that the EF in coronary disease patients without angina shows no change because there is no significant change in the ESV. Radionuclide equilibrium angiography may prove useful for assessing EF and volume changes in patients with coronary artery disease

  2. Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, Lena; Axelsson, Rimma [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: lena.cavallin@karolinska.se; Bronge, Lena [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Aleris Diagnostics, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Yi [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Oeksengaard, Anne-Rita [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ulleval Univ. Hospital and Asker and Baerum Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Wahlund, Lars-Olof [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish Brain Power, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fratiglioni, Laura [ARC Karolinska Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Background: It is important to have a replicable easy method for monitoring atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric methods for calculating hippocampal volume are time-consuming and commonly used in research. Visual assessments of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) is a rapid method for clinical use. This method has not been tested in a large non-demented population in comparison with volumetry measurements. Since hippocampal volume decreases with time even in normal aging there is also a need to study the normal age differences of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Purpose: To compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) with hippocampal volume in a healthy, non-demented elderly population. To describe normal ageing using vaMTA. Material and Methods: Non-demented individuals aged 60, 66, 72, 78, 81, 84, and {>=}87 years old were recruited from the Swedish National study on Ageing and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Sweden. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, vaMTA, and calculations of hippocampal volumes were performed in 544 subjects. Results: Significant correlation (rs = -0.32, P < 0.001, sin; and rs = -0.26, P < 0.001, dx) was found between hippocampal volume measurements and vaMTA. In normal ageing, almost 95% of {<=}66-year-olds had a medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score {<=}1, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 4. Subjects aged 72, 78, and 81 years scored {<=}2, while the two oldest age groups had scores {<=}3. Conclusion: There was a highly significant correlation between volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and MTA scoring. In normal ageing, there is increasing MTA score. For non-demented elderly individuals {<=}70 years, an MTA score of 0-1 may be considered normal, compared with MTA {<=}2 for 70-80-years and MTA 3 for >80-year-old individuals.

  3. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation

  4. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

  5. Assessed and Emerging Biomarkers in Stroke and Training-Mediated Stroke Recovery: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Gandolfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed. To date, biomarkers represent a possible challenge in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of stroke onset, pathogenesis, and recovery. Many molecules are still under investigation and may become promising and encouraging biomarkers. Experimental and clinical research should increase this list and promote new discoveries in this field, to improve stroke diagnosis and treatment.

  6. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Alkan; Claudia Schier; Lars Gronen; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical...

  7. A modelling assessment of acidification and recovery of European surface waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jenkins, A.; Camarero, L.; Cosby, B. J.; Ferrier, R. C.; Forsius, M.; Helliwell, R. C.; Kopáček, Jiří; Majer, V.; Moldan, F.; Posch, M.; Rogora, M.; Schöpp, W.; Wright, R. F.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2003), s. 447-455 ISSN 1027-5606 Grant - others:EC(XE) EMERGE EVK1-CT-1999-00032; EC(XE) RECOVER 2010 EVK1-CT-1999-00018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : acid-sensitive * predictions * recovery Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2003

  8. Using Landsat Spectral Indices in Time-Series to Assess Wildfire Disturbance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Hislop

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth observation is being increasingly used to monitor forests across the world. Freely available Landsat data stretching back four decades, coupled with advances in computer processing capabilities, has enabled new time-series techniques for analyzing forest change. Typically, these methods track individual pixel values over time, through the use of various spectral indices. This study examines the utility of eight spectral indices for characterizing fire disturbance and recovery in sclerophyll forests, in order to determine their relative merits in the context of Landsat time-series. Although existing research into Landsat indices is comprehensive, this study presents a new approach, by comparing the distributions of pre and post-fire pixels using Glass’s delta, for evaluating indices without the need of detailed field information. Our results show that in the sclerophyll forests of southeast Australia, common indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR, both accurately capture wildfire disturbance in a pixel-based time-series approach, especially if images from soon after the disturbance are available. However, for tracking forest regrowth and recovery, indices, such as NDVI, which typically capture chlorophyll concentration or canopy ‘greenness’, are not as reliable, with values returning to pre-fire levels in 3–5 years. In comparison, indices that are more sensitive to forest moisture and structure, such as NBR, indicate much longer (8–10 years recovery timeframes. This finding is consistent with studies that were conducted in other forest types. We also demonstrate that additional information regarding forest condition, particularly in relation to recovery, can be extracted from less well known indices, such as NBR2, as well as textural indices incorporating spatial variance. With Landsat time-series gaining in popularity in recent years, it is critical to

  9. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; O'Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants

  10. Assessing non-metro recovery across two continents: issues and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Edward J; Fisher, Peter M J

    2017-07-01

    Rural and remote areas of countries such as Australia and the United States are less well-resourced and often poorer than their city counterparts. When a disaster strikes, therefore, their long-term recovery can be impeded by being situated 'over the horizon'. Nonetheless, they are likely to enjoy higher social capital, with 'locals' banding together to help restore economic and social life in the wake of a calamitous incident. At the same time, a repeat of extreme events, springing in part from alteration to the landscape through intense human occupation, threatens to derail sustainable recovery processes everywhere, suggesting that renewed emphasis needs to be placed on preparedness. Improved metrics are also required, spanning both pre- and post-disaster phases, to determine effectiveness. Moreover, a focus on the 'hardening' of towns offers a better return in limiting damage and potentially hastens the speed of recovery should these places later fall victim to extreme events. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. The Importance of Assessing Nutritional Status to Ensure Optimal Recovery during the Chronic Phase of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Serra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite evidence that many of the consequences of stroke that hinder recovery (i.e., obesity, muscle atrophy, and functional declines have nutritionally modifiable behavior components, little attention has been focused on the significance of nutrition beyond the acute phase of stroke. Objective. This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the influence of nutrition on optimal recovery and rehabilitation in chronic (>6 months stroke. Results. The literature, which is mainly limited to cross-sectional studies, suggests that a suboptimal nutritional status, including an excess caloric intake, reduced protein intake, and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly the B-vitamins, vitamin D, and omega 3 fatty acids, may have deleterious effects on metabolic, physical, and psychological functioning in chronic stroke survivors. Conclusions. Careful evaluation of dietary intake, especially among those with eating disabilities and preexisting malnutrition, may aid in the identification of individuals at increased nutritional risk through which early intervention may benefit recovery and rehabilitation and prevent further complications after stroke.

  12. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine

  13. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  14. Optimization of radiation therapy, III: a method of assessing complication probabilities from dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, J.T.; Wolbarst, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    To predict the likelihood of success of a therapeutic strategy, one must be able to assess the effects of the treatment upon both diseased and healthy tissues. This paper proposes a method for determining the probability that a healthy organ that receives a non-uniform distribution of X-irradiation, heat, chemotherapy, or other agent will escape complications. Starting with any given dose distribution, a dose-cumulative-volume histogram for the organ is generated. This is then reduced by an interpolation scheme (involving the volume-weighting of complication probabilities) to a slightly different histogram that corresponds to the same overall likelihood of complications, but which contains one less step. The procedure is repeated, one step at a time, until there remains a final, single-step histogram, for which the complication probability can be determined. The formalism makes use of a complication response function C(D, V) which, for the given treatment schedule, represents the probability of complications arising when the fraction V of the organ receives dose D and the rest of the organ gets none. Although the data required to generate this function are sparse at present, it should be possible to obtain the necessary information from in vivo and clinical studies. Volume effects are taken explicitly into account in two ways: the precise shape of the patient's histogram is employed in the calculation, and the complication response function is a function of the volume

  15. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  17. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James L.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  18. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  19. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  20. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  1. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  2. Assessment of carprofen and buprenorphine on recovery of mice after surgical removal of the mammary fat pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Trinka W; Kendall, Lon V; Goss, Sherri; Grayson, Kevin; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Chen, Jane Q; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain elicited by mammary fat pad removal surgery and the effects of postoperative analgesics on recovery. Female FVB mice were anesthetized, and mammary fat pad removal was performed. After surgery, mice received carprofen, buprenorphine, a combination of carprofen and buprenorphine, or saline treatment. Additional mice received anesthesia but no surgery or treatment. Food and water intake, body weight, wheel running activity, and a visual assessment score were recorded daily for 4 d after surgery and compared with presurgical findings. Corticosterone metabolites in fecal samples were analyzed at 12 and 24 h postsurgically and compared with baseline values. All surgical groups had significantly decreased food intake at 24 h, with a return to baseline by 48 h. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly decreased water intake and body weight at 24 h. All surgical groups had significantly decreased wheel running activity at 24 h only. The visual assessment scores indicated mild pain for all surgical groups, with the buprenorphine treated mice showing the highest pain index scores, as compared with nonsurgical controls. Fecal corticosterone metabolite levels did not differ significantly between any of the groups or across time. The parameters used in this study did not indicate that administration of these analgesic regimens improved recovery as compared with that of saline-treated mice. Care should be taken when using visual assessment scores to evaluate pain in mice, given that analgesics may have side effects that inadvertently elevate the score.

  3. An Assessment of the Drivers and Barriers for the Deployment of Urban Phosphorus Recovery Technologies: A Case Study of The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. de Boer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, being one of the building blocks of life, is essential for a multitude of applications, primarily for fertilizer usage. Sustainable management of phosphorus is becoming increasingly important in light of adverse environmental effects, ambiguous reserves, increasing global demand and unilateral dependence. Recovery of phosphorus from the biggest loss stream, communal wastewater, has the potential to tackle each of these problems. The implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies at wastewater treatment plants is not widespread, despite prolonged efforts primarily done by researchers over the past decade. This study aimed to assess the drivers and barriers of a phosphorus recovery transition. Several key stakeholders involved in this transition in The Netherlands were interviewed. The Netherlands was taken as a case study, since it serves as a frontrunner in the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies. This study shows that the main barriers from the point of view of fertilizer companies are the different and unclear characteristics of the phosphorus recovery product struvite compared to common fertilizers. Moreover, the end-of-waste status of struvite is mentioned as a prominent barrier for a phosphorus transition, since it hinders free market trade. Many water boards indicate that the main barrier is the high investment cost with an uncertain return on investment for onsite struvite recovery processes. The specified main driver for water boards for onsite struvite phosphorus recovery technology is the reduction of maintenance costs, and for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash, the low organic pollutant in the P recovery product.

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  5. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G

  6. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 1. Main achievements of the joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the main achievements of a joint theoretical study aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR wastes, relying to a certain extent on national practices in this particular area, on the basis of economical and radiological criteria. All individual intermediate steps entering a management route, from radioactive-wastes production up to their disposal in near-surface sites or in a deep repository, have been identified, described and cost-evaluated throughout the study. The radiological impact assessment comprises estimates of both individual and collective doses resulting from normal discharges of radioactive effluents and from disposal of radioactive waste products in near-surfaces sites. All specific data concerning the description of the different management routes considered as well as the methodology applied to evaluate cost and radiological impact are detailed in the subsequent volumes of the series (Volumes 2 to 8)

  7. From Drought to Recovery: a GRACE-Based Assessment of Groundwater Storage Variations in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, A.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Liu, P. W.; Reager, J. T., II

    2017-12-01

    The 2011-2015 drought in California was the most severe on record and significantly depleted state water reserves. However, after the consecutive wet winters of 2015-16 and 2016-17, water storage in reservoirs, soil, snowpack, and aquifers began recovering and the state government lifted the drought emergency for all California counties except four. But is the drought really "over"? Quantifiable metrics of groundwater storage are necessary to provide such evidence, yet in situ measurements are sparse at best. Here we holistically test whether California state water resources have fully recovered in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Tulare Lake basins of California, using remote sensing satellite observations, in situ measurements, and numerical models. Specifically, we partition water storage into four components of the terrestrial water cycle: soil moisture, snow water equivalent, surface water, and groundwater. We derive soil moisture and snow water equivalent from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and we use the California Data Exchange Center (CDEC) network to measure in situ reservoir storage. To estimate changes in groundwater storage, we subtract these three components from the total water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite. Preliminary results show that the groundwater storage plummeted to a record low during the 2011-2015 drought. The results also show a rapid recovery in total water storage from 2015-2017. Moreover, we find that groundwater accounts for, on average, 60% of the total water storage variations in the study basins. Our results hold social significance when placed in the context of arid California: Did the groundwater recover? Is this the largest recovery that California can expect? Finally, our results have implications for the utility of remote sensing to inform water resource management decisions.

  8. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  9. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  10. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedizzi, C; Noya, I; Sarli, J; González-García, S; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T; Carballa, M

    2018-04-20

    The application of livestock manure on agricultural land is being restricted due to its significant content of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the growing demand for N and P mineral fertilizers is increasing their production costs and causing the depletion of natural phosphate rock deposits. In the present work, seven technologically feasible treatment schemes for energy (biogas) and nutrient recovery (e.g., struvite precipitation) and/or removal (e.g., partial nitritation/anammox) were evaluated from an environmental perspective. In general, while approaches based solely on energy recovery and use of digestate as fertilizer are commonly limited by community regulations, strategies pursuing the generation of high-quality struvite are not environmentally sound alternatives. In contrast, schemes that include further solid/liquid separation of the digestate improved the environmental profile, and their combination with an additional N-removal stage would lead to the most environmental-friendly framework. However, the preferred scenario was identified to be highly dependent on the particular conditions of each site, integrating environmental, social and economic criteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the bias linked to DNA recovery from biofiltration woodchips for microbial community investigation by fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Léa; Malhautier, Luc; Poly, Franck; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Fanlo, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored methodological aspects of nucleic acid recovery from microbial communities involved in a gas biofilter filled with pine bark woodchips. DNA was recovered indirectly in two steps, comparing different methods: cell dispersion (crushing, shaking, and sonication) and DNA extraction (three commercial kits and a laboratory protocol). The objectives were (a) to optimize cell desorption from the packing material and (b) to compare the 12 combinations of desorption and extraction methods, according to three relevant criteria: DNA yield, DNA purity, and community structure representation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Cell dispersion was not influenced by the operational parameters tested for shaking and blending, while it increased with time for sonication. DNA extraction by the laboratory protocol provided the highest DNA yields, whereas the best DNA purity was obtained by a commercial kit designed for DNA extraction from soil. After successful PCR amplification, the 12 methods did not generate the same bias in microbial community representation. Eight combinations led to high diversity estimation, independently of the experimental procedure. Among them, six provided highly similar DGGE profiles. Two protocols generated a significantly dissimilar community profile, with less diversity. This study highlighted the crucial importance of DNA recovery bias evaluation.

  12. Geostatistical approach for assessing soil volumes requiring remediation: validation using lead-polluted soils underlying a former smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demougeot-Renard, Helene; De Fouquet, Chantal

    2004-10-01

    Assessing the volume of soil requiring remediation and the accuracy of this assessment constitutes an essential step in polluted site management. If this remediation volume is not properly assessed, misclassification may lead both to environmental risks (polluted soils may not be remediated) and financial risks (unexpected discovery of polluted soils may generate additional remediation costs). To minimize such risks, this paper proposes a geostatistical methodology based on stochastic simulations that allows the remediation volume and the uncertainty to be assessed using investigation data. The methodology thoroughly reproduces the conditions in which the soils are classified and extracted at the remediation stage. The validity of the approach is tested by applying it on the data collected during the investigation phase of a former lead smelting works and by comparing the results with the volume that has actually been remediated. This real remediated volume was composed of all the remediation units that were classified as polluted after systematic sampling and analysis during clean-up stage. The volume estimated from the 75 samples collected during site investigation slightly overestimates (5.3% relative error) the remediated volume deduced from 212 remediation units. Furthermore, the real volume falls within the range of uncertainty predicted using the proposed methodology.

  13. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lees, C. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R{sup 2} = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R{sup 2} = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  14. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  15. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  16. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J.; Lees, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R"2 = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R"2 = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R"2 = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of tidal volume and thoracoabdominal motion using volume and flow-oriented incentive spirometers in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Parreira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate incentive spirometers using volume- (Coach and Voldyne and flow-oriented (Triflo II and Respirex devices. Sixteen healthy subjects, 24 ± 4 years, 62 ± 12 kg, were studied. Respiratory variables were obtained by respiratory inductive plethysmography, with subjects in a semi-reclined position (45º. Tidal volume, respiratory frequency, minute ventilation, inspiratory duty cycle, mean inspiratory flow, and thoracoabdominal motion were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test and ANOVA. Comparison between the Coach and Voldyne devices showed that larger values of tidal volume (1035 ± 268 vs 947 ± 268 ml, P = 0.02 and minute ventilation (9.07 ± 3.61 vs 7.49 ± 2.58 l/min, P = 0.01 were reached with Voldyne, whereas no significant differences in respiratory frequency were observed (7.85 ± 1.24 vs 8.57 ± 1.89 bpm. Comparison between flow-oriented devices showed larger values of inspiratory duty cycle and lower mean inspiratory flow with Triflo II (0.35 ± 0.05 vs 0.32 ± 0.05 ml/s, P = 0.00, and 531 ± 137 vs 606 ± 167 ml/s, P = 0.00, respectively. Abdominal motion was larger (P < 0.05 during the use of volume-oriented devices compared to flow-oriented devices (52 ± 11% for Coach and 50 ± 9% for Voldyne; 43 ± 13% for Triflo II and 44 ± 14% for Respirex. We observed that significantly higher tidal volume associated with low respiratory frequency was reached with Voldyne, and that there was a larger abdominal displacement with volume-oriented devices.

  18. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  19. A 3-D method for delineation of activity distributions and assessment of functional organ volumes with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Karolinska Hospital and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm; Jacobsson, H.; Jacobson, S.H.; Kimiaei, S.; Larsson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The distrubution volume of an organ may have a clinical impact in many cases and various methods have been designed to make volume assessments. In this paper, we describe a new method for delineation of the distribution outline and volume determination. The method is based on smoothing, differentiation, image relaxation and voxel counting of single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) image sets with 3-D operators. A special routine corrects for the inherent thickness of the voxel-based outline. Phantom experiments, using a SPECT system with LEGP-collimator and a 64x64 acquisition matrix with 6.3x6.3 mm 2 pixel size, demonstrated good correlation between the measured and the true volumes. For volumes larger than 120 cc the correlation coefficient was 0.9999 with SE 1.0 cc and an average relative deviation of 0.49%. For volumes below 120 cc, the accuracy was impaired due to low resolution power. By improving the system spatial resolution with an LEHR-collimator and a smaller pixel-size (4.1x4.1 mm 2 ), good accuracy was achieved also for volumes in the range from 3 to 120 cc. Measurements of 15 differently shaped phantoms of volumes between 3 and 104 cc demonstrated high correlation between measured and true volumes: R=0.9921 and SE=0.74 cc (5.3%). For volumes as small as 3 and 5 cc, the difference between the true and the assessed volume was 0.6 cc. The reproducibility of the method was within 3% for volumes above 120 cc and within 7% for volumes below. Due to this accuracy, we conclude that the method can be applied for various clinical routine and research applications using SPECT. (orig.)

  20. System modeling and identification in indicator dilution method for assessment of ejection fraction and pulmonary blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharath, H.N.; Prabhu, K.M.M.; Korsten, H.H.M.; Mischi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Clinically relevant cardiovascular parameters, such as pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and ejection fraction (EF), can be assessed through indicator dilution techniques. Among these techniques, which are typically invasive due to the need for central catheterization, contrast ultrasonography provides a

  1. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  2. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  3. Assessment methodology for new cooling lakes. Volume 3. Limnological and fisheries data and bibliography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This is the data volume of the report entitled Assessment Methodology for New Cooling Lakes. Limnological and fisheries data were compiled in this volume for potential users in the utility industry. Published papers, reports, other written information, computer files, and direct contracts were used to compile a matrix of information. This volume presents data and the bibliographic sources of the power plant and geographical, limnological, and fisheries information for 181 lakes and reservoirs, of which 134 were used for cooling purposes. Data for 65 lakes were completed with respect to the limnology and fisheries parameters so that complete statistical analysis could be performed. Of these 65 lakes, 42 are used for cooling. Tables in this report contain data arranged by utility, power plant, limnology, water quality, morphoedaphic, and fishery categories. The data in the tables are keyed to a lake code. The references for the data shown are keyed to a numerical listing of the bibliography. Author, state, lake, and subject indexes facilitate searching for bibliographic information

  4. Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

  5. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    sales and sorting residues disposal costs. Material flows through the plants were simulated considering both optimal process conditions and real or typical conditions characterised by downtime and frequent operation at overcapacity. By modelling four plants of progressively higher capacity (size......Simulation of technical and economic performance for materials recovery facilities (MRFs) is a basic requirement for planning new, or evaluating existing, separate waste collection and recycling systems. This study mitigates the current pervasive scarcity of data on process efficiency and costs...... 7 to 21 million EUR and the yearly operational expenditure grew by a factor of 2.4 from 2 to 4.7 million EUR. As a result, specific unit processing cost decreased from 110 to 70 EUR/tonne. Material sales and disposal costs summed to between a net cost of 25 EUR/tonne and net revenue of 50 EUR...

  6. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  8. Development of a dynamic model to evaluate economic recovery following a nuclear attack. Volume 2. Model equations (appendices C and D). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.W.; Silverman, W.S.; Weil, H.B.; Willard, S.

    1980-11-01

    A highly-robust, dynamic simulation model of the US economy has been constructed to evaluate the likely economic response after various nuclear attacks or other severe disruptions, under various policies and assumptions. The model consists of a large system of nonlinear, recursive, time-difference equations. The solution-interval of the model is adjustable, with a maximum value of three weeks. The model represents the economy in thirteen sectors. Each sector contains a detailed representation of production, distribution, supply constraints, finance, employment, pricing, and wages. Also included are a full input-output representation of the interconnections among the sectors, and the psychological responses of corporate planners, consumers, and the labor force. The model's equations are formulated to remain consistent and realistic for all values of the variables, including the most extreme conditions. Therefore, the model can realistically simulate any degree or time sequence of nuclear attacks, pre-attack surges, mobilization, or policy shifts. Simulation experiments with the model suggest that the economy is highly vulnerable to nuclear attack, and that recovery requires extensive preparation, including psychological readiness, technology maintenance, special financial policies, and (if possible) maintenance of foreign trade. Civil defense policies must be adaptive (contingent on the nature of the damage) and must strive for balance among sectors, rather than maximum survival. The simulation model itself consists of an interrelated set of mathematical equations, written in the computer language DYNAMO. Two appendices to the report are presented in this volume. Appendix C gives a brief introduction to the conventions and notations of the DYNAMO language. The equations, definitions, and variables of the model are listed in Appendix D. For the convenience of the reader, these two appendices are bound separately

  9. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  10. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  11. Empirical Assessment of the Mean Block Volume of Rock Masses Intersected by Four Joint Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of a representative value for the rock block volume ( V b) is of huge interest in rock engineering in regards to rock mass characterization purposes. However, while mathematical relationships to precisely estimate this parameter from the spacing of joints can be found in literature for rock masses intersected by three dominant joint sets, corresponding relationships do not actually exist when more than three sets occur. In these cases, a consistent assessment of V b can only be achieved by directly measuring the dimensions of several representative natural rock blocks in the field or by means of more sophisticated 3D numerical modeling approaches. However, Palmström's empirical relationship based on the volumetric joint count J v and on a block shape factor β is commonly used in the practice, although strictly valid only for rock masses intersected by three joint sets. Starting from these considerations, the present paper is primarily intended to investigate the reliability of a set of empirical relationships linking the block volume with the indexes most commonly used to characterize the degree of jointing in a rock mass (i.e. the J v and the mean value of the joint set spacings) specifically applicable to rock masses intersected by four sets of persistent discontinuities. Based on the analysis of artificial 3D block assemblies generated using the software AutoCAD, the most accurate best-fit regression has been found between the mean block volume (V_{{{{b}}_{{m}} }}) of tested rock mass samples and the geometric mean value of the spacings of the joint sets delimiting blocks; thus, indicating this mean value as a promising parameter for the preliminary characterization of the block size. Tests on field outcrops have demonstrated that the proposed empirical methodology has the potential of predicting the mean block volume of multiple-set jointed rock masses with an acceptable accuracy for common uses in most practical rock engineering applications.

  12. Meta-analysis of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity recovery following wildland fire: Applications for hydrologic model parameterization and resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Martin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic recovery after wildfire is critical for restoring the ecosystem services of protecting of human lives and infrastructure from hazards and delivering water supply of sufficient quality and quantity. Recovery of soil-hydraulic properties, such as field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), is a key factor for assessing the duration of watershed-scale flash flood and debris flow risks after wildfire. Despite the crucial role of Kfs in parameterizing numerical hydrologic models to predict the magnitude of postwildfire run-off and erosion, existing quantitative relations to predict Kfsrecovery with time since wildfire are lacking. Here, we conduct meta-analyses of 5 datasets from the literature that measure or estimate Kfs with time since wildfire for longer than 3-year duration. The meta-analyses focus on fitting 2 quantitative relations (linear and non-linear logistic) to explain trends in Kfs temporal recovery. The 2 relations adequately described temporal recovery except for 1 site where macropore flow dominated infiltration and Kfs recovery. This work also suggests that Kfs can have low hydrologic resistance (large postfire changes), and moderate to high hydrologic stability (recovery time relative to disturbance recurrence interval) and resilience (recovery of hydrologic function and provision of ecosystem services). Future Kfs relations could more explicitly incorporate processes such as soil-water repellency, ground cover and soil structure regeneration, macropore recovery, and vegetation regrowth.

  13. Assessment of Soil Erosion Methods for Sludge Recovery, Savannah River Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Lawson

    1997-01-01

    ...) from selected storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was assessed conceptually. Soil erosion methods are defined as the processes of soil detachment, entrainment, transport, and deposition...

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the orbital maneuvering system FMEA/CIL, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prust, Chet D.; Haufler, W. A.; Marino, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) hardware and Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C), generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter OMS hardware. The IOA analysis defined the OMS as being comprised of the following subsystems: helium pressurization, propellant storage and distribution, Orbital Maneuvering Engine, and EPD and C. The IOA product for the OMS analysis consisted of 284 hardware and 667 EPD and C failure mode worksheets that resulted in 160 hardware and 216 EPD and C potential critical items (PCIs) being identified. A comparison was made of the IOA product to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline which consisted of 101 hardware and 142 EPD and C CIL items.

  15. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 2/5. Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Technical Volume 1 of this report has described what happened during the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP). This volume begins (Section 2.1) with a review of how the design basis of the site for external events was assessed initially and then reassessed over the life of the NPP. The section also describes the physical changes that were made to the units as a result. The remainder of the volume describes the treatment of beyond design basis events in the safety assessment of the site, the accident management provisions, the effectiveness of regulatory programmes, human and organizational factors and the safety culture, and the role of operating experience. Further background information is contained in three annexes included on the CD-ROM of this Technical Volume which describe analytical investigations of the accident along with information on topics such as system performance, defence in depth and severe accident phenomena. Section 2.2 provides an assessment of the systems that failed, resulting in a failure to maintain the fundamental safety functions in Units 1–3, which were in operation at the time of the tsunami and in which the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and containment vessels failed. The section also describes Units 4-6, which were shut down at the time of the tsunami, and the site’s central spent fuel storage facility. Section 2.3 discusses the probabilistic and deterministic safety assessments of beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs) that had been performed for the plant and the insights from these assessments that had led to changes in the plant’s design. The section pays particular attention to the assessment of extreme natural hazards, such as the one which led to the total loss of AC power supply on the site. The additional loss of DC power supply in Units 1 and 2 played a key role in the progression of the accident because it impeded the diagnosis of plant conditions and made the operators unaware of the status of

  17. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Berhendt, V.; Ensminger, D.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanner, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  18. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume ({gamma}= 0.637 for total liver and {gamma}= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  19. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume (γ= 0.637 for total liver and γ= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  20. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  1. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Summaries and reviews of independent code assessment reports. Volume 7, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.L.; Sloan, S.M.; Schultz, R.R.; Wilson, G.E.

    1996-10-01

    Summaries of RELAP5/MOD3 code assessments, a listing of the assessment matrix, and a chronology of the various versions of the code are given. Results from these code assessments have been used to formulate a compilation of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the code. These results are documented in the report. Volume 7 was designed to be updated periodically and to include the results of the latest code assessments as they become available. Consequently, users of Volume 7 should ensure that they have the latest revision available

  2. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2015-11-30

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed both at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently at Pennsylvania State University. The research project can be divided into three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment.

  3. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort David [MIT

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  4. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  5. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  7. Membrane dysfunction in Andersen-Tawil syndrome assessed by velocity recovery cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Veronica; Z'graggen, Werner J; Boërio, Delphine; Rayan, Dipa L Raja; Howard, Robin; Hanna, Michael G; Bostock, Hugh

    2012-08-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) due to Kir2.1mutations typically manifests as periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias and developmental abnormalities but is often difficult to diagnose clinically. This study was undertaken to determine whether sarcolemmal dysfunction could be identified with muscle velocity recovery cycles (MVRCs). Eleven genetically confirmed ATS patients and 20 normal controls were studied. MVRCs were recorded with 1, 2, and 5 conditioning stimuli and with single conditioning stimuli during intermittent repetitive stimulation at 20 Hz, in addition to the long exercise test. ATS patients had longer relative refractory periods (P < 0.0001) and less early supernormality, consistent with membrane depolarization. Patients had reduced enhancement of late supernormality with 5 conditioning stimuli (P < 0.0001), and less latency reduction during repetitive stimulation (P < 0.001). Patients were separated completely from controls by combining MVRC and repetitive stimulation. MVRCs combined with repetitive stimulation differentiated ATS patients from controls more effectively than the conventional long-exercise test. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Structural recovery of the detached macula after retinal detachment repair as assessed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, Yoon Jeon; Chae, Ju Byung; Yang, Sung Jae; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yoon, Young Hee

    2013-06-01

    To investigate correlations between preoperative and postoperative foveal microstructures in patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). We reviewed the records of 31 eyes from 31 patients with macula-off RRD who had undergone successful re-attachment surgery. We analyzed data obtained from complete ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 9 to 12 months after surgery. All postoperative OCT measurements were taken with spectral-domain OCT, but a subset of preoperative OCT measurements were taken with time-domain OCT. The mean duration of macular detachment was 15.5 ± 15.2 days, and mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) was 1.03 ± 0.68. Preoperative visual acuity was correlated with retinal detachment height (p macula-off duration. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with integrity of the junction between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) combined with the continuity of external limiting membrane (ELM) (p = 0.025). The presence of IRS and OLU on a detached macula were highly correlated with the final postoperative integrity of the IS/OS junction and the ELM (p = 0.017). Eyes preoperatively exhibiting IRS and OLU showed a higher incidence of disruption to the photoreceptor IS/OS junction and the ELM at final follow-up. Such a close correlation between preoperative and postoperative structural changes may explain why ultimate visual recovery in such eyes is poor.

  9. An assessment of consumers’ subconscious responses to frontline employees’ attractiveness in a service failure and recovery situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Boshoff

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initial analyses of the impact of physical attractiveness in a business context have supported the ‘what is beautiful is good’ contention. However, in circumstances characterised by negative emotions, duress and stress, very little is known about how human beings respond at the subconscious level to the attractiveness of frontline service providers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumers who complain to a frontline service provider about a service failure respond differently at the subconscious level when the service provider involved in the service encounter is attractive compared with one who is less attractive. Method: Forty respondents were exposed to a video clip of a service failure and service recovery situation. While viewing the hypothetical scenario, two neuro-physiological measurements were used to collect data at the subconscious level, namely galvanic skin response (GSR and electroencephalography (EEG. Results: The results suggest that, at the subconscious level, customers respond differently to the service recovery efforts depending on the attractiveness of the frontline service provider who attempts to rectify the service failure. Conclusion: The results seem to suggest that the physical attractiveness of a frontline service provider moderates (or softens the negative emotions that a complaining customer might experience during a service failure and complaint situation – consistent with the ‘what is beautiful is good’ contention.

  10. Energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in EU: proposals to assess the management performance under a circular economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the European Commission issued a package of documents on Circular Economy concerning an integrated revision of legislative proposals on waste management. The aim was to stimulate a European transition towards a circular economy concept, which is expected to foster competitiveness, sustainable economic growth and new jobs generation. Three indicators are proposed in this paper to contribute to the assessment of the energy recovery management performance from MSW in a scenario of circular economy: a referring to MSW directly used (RMSW or indirectly used (SRF as input of thermochemical plants, an indicator can be the percentage of waste having LHV > 13MJ/kg; b referring to the MSW directly or indirectly used as input of thermochemical plants, the percentage of waste having ash recovered; c referring to food waste, percentage of this stream sent to anaerobic digestion. The above indicators, proposed and discussed in this paper, have to be integrated with other ones in order to complete the quantification of the role of MSW management in term of energy recovery under a circular economy strategy. It is not the aim of the present paper to give a comprehensive solution to this complex issue.

  11. Environmental assessment of the use of radionuclides as tracers in the enhanced recovery of oil and gas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in field flooding for the enhanced recovery of oil and natural gas was performed. A typical operation using radioisotopes for interwell tracing was analyzed from the standpoint of three stages of operation: aboveground, subsurface, and recovery and disposal. Doses to workers who handle radioactive tracers and to members of the public were estimated for normal and accidental exposure scenarios. On the basis of estimates of the total quantity of tracer radionuclides injected in a year, the annual number of projects, the average number of injections per project, and assumed values of accident frequency, the collective dose equivalent is estimated to be 1.1 man-rem/y to workers and 15 man-rem/y to members of the public. The national radiological impact of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in EOR projects is estimated to be a total collective dose equivalent of <16 man-rem/y. Accidential exposures are estimated to contribute relatively little to the total. 47 references, 8 figures, 43 tables

  12. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  13. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-Dimensional Photography for Quantitative Assessment of Penile Volume-Loss Deformities in Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Ezra J; Mlynarczyk, Carrie M; Mulhall, John P; Stember, Doron S; Stahl, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    Non-curvature penile deformities are prevalent and bothersome manifestations of Peyronie's disease (PD), but the quantitative metrics that are currently used to describe these deformities are inadequate and non-standardized, presenting a barrier to clinical research and patient care. To introduce erect penile volume (EPV) and percentage of erect penile volume loss (percent EPVL) as novel metrics that provide detailed quantitative information about non-curvature penile deformities and to study the feasibility and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) photography for measurement of quantitative penile parameters. We constructed seven penis models simulating deformities found in PD. The 3D photographs of each model were captured in triplicate by four observers using a 3D camera. Computer software was used to generate automated measurements of EPV, percent EPVL, penile length, minimum circumference, maximum circumference, and angle of curvature. The automated measurements were statistically compared with measurements obtained using water-displacement experiments, a tape measure, and a goniometer. Accuracy of 3D photography for average measurements of all parameters compared with manual measurements; inter-test, intra-observer, and inter-observer reliabilities of EPV and percent EPVL measurements as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The 3D images were captured in a median of 52 seconds (interquartile range = 45-61). On average, 3D photography was accurate to within 0.3% for measurement of penile length. It overestimated maximum and minimum circumferences by averages of 4.2% and 1.6%, respectively; overestimated EPV by an average of 7.1%; and underestimated percent EPVL by an average of 1.9%. All inter-test, inter-observer, and intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficients for EPV and percent EPVL measurements were greater than 0.75, reflective of excellent methodologic reliability. By providing highly descriptive and reliable measurements of

  15. Energy Recovery from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Real Options-Based Facility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, due to the strict regulations on waste landfilling, anaerobic digestion (AD of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW is increasingly considered a sustainable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. AD can reduce the volume of OFMSW going to landfill and produce, at the same time, biogas and compost, all at a profit. The uncertainty about the collected quantity of organic fraction, however, may undermine the economic-financial sustainability of such plants. While the flexibility characterizing some AD technologies may prove very valuable in uncertain contexts since it allows adapting plant capacity to changing environments, the investment required for building flexible systems is generally higher than the investment for dedicated equipment. Hence, an adequate justification of investments in these flexible systems is needed. This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating how different technologies may perform from technical, economic and financial standpoints, in presence of an uncertain organic fraction quantity to be treated. Focusing on two AD treatment plant configurations characterized by a technological process with different degree of flexibility, a real options-based model is developed and then applied to the case of the urban waste management system of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy. Results show the importance of pricing the flexibility of treatment plants, which becomes a critical factor in presence of an uncertain organic fraction. Hence, it has to be taken into consideration in the design phase of these plants.

  16. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887. Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.

  17. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Sarah

    2011-07-03

    Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland\\'s only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach\\'s alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute\\/high security units from those in medium or in low secure\\/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.

  18. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a 3 He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose

  19. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolz, Lori A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common carotid flow measurements may be clinically useful to determine volume responsiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of emergency physicians (EP to obtain sonographic images and measurements of the common carotid artery velocity time integral (VTi for potential use in assessing volume responsiveness in the clinical setting. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we showed a five-minute instructional video demonstrating a technique to obtain common carotid ultrasound images and measure the common carotid VTi to emergency medicine (EM residents. Participants were then asked to image the common carotid artery and obtain VTi measurements. Expert sonographers observed participants imaging in real time and recorded their performance on nine performance measures. An expert sonographer graded image quality. Participants were timed and answered questions regarding ease of examination and their confidence in obtaining the images. Results: A total of 30 EM residents participated in this study and each performed the examination twice. Average time required to complete one examination was 2.9 minutes (95% CI [2.4-3.4 min]. Participants successfully completed all performance measures greater than 75% of the time, with the exception of obtaining measurements during systole, which was completed in 65% of examinations. Median resident overall confidence in accurately performing carotid VTi measurements was 3 (on a scale of 1 [not confident] to 5 [confident]. Conclusion: EM residents at our institution learned the technique for obtaining common carotid artery Doppler flow measurements after viewing a brief instructional video. When assessed at performing this examination, they completed several performance measures with greater than 75% success. No differences were found between novice and experienced groups. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:255–259.

  20. The importance of predator–prey overlap: predicting North Sea cod recovery with a multispecies assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Alexander; Dingsør, Gjert Endre; Huse, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The overlap between predator and prey is known as a sensitive parameter in multispecies assessment models for fish, and its parameterization is notoriously difficult. Overlap indices were derived from trawl surveys and used to parametrize the North Sea stochastic multispecies model. The effect...... of time-invariant and year- and quarter-specific overlap estimates on the historical (1991–2007) and predicted trophic interactions, as well as the development of predator and prey stocks, was investigated. The focus was set on a general comparison between single-species and multispecies forecasts...... and the sensitivity of the predicted development of North Sea cod for the two types of overlap implementation. The spatial–temporal overlap between cod and its predators increased with increasing temperature, indicating that foodweb processes might reduce the recovery potential of cod during warm periods...

  1. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  2. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, C.; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion...... impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during...... of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction...

  3. Assessment of sphenoid sinus volume in order to determine sexual identity, using multi-slice CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Farazdaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Gender determination is an important step in identification. For gender determination, anthropometric evaluation is one of the main forensic evaluations. The aim of this study was the assessment of sphenoid sinus volume in order to determine sexual identity, using multi-slice CT images. Materials and Methods: For volumetric analysis, axial paranasal sinus CT scan with 3-mm slice thickness was used. For this study, 80 images (40 women and 40 men older than 18 years were selected. For the assessment of sphenoid sinus volume, Digimizer software was used. The volume of sphenoid sinus was calculated using the following equation: v=∑ (area of each slice × thickness of each slice. Statistical analysis was performed by independent T-test. Results: The mean volume of sphenoid sinus was significantly greater in male gender (P=0.01.The assessed Cut off point was 9/35 cm3, showing that 63.4% of volume assessments greater than cut off point was supposed to be male and 64.1% of volumetry lesser than cut off point were female. Conclusion: According to the area under Roc curve (1.65%, sphenoid sinus volume is not an appropriate factor for differentiation of male and female from each other, which means the predictability of cut off point (9/35 cm3 is 65/1% close to reality.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Advanced Fibrosis Based on Hepatic Volume in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Fukuzawa, Kei; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Junji; Kawamura, Yusuke; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Fujii, Takeshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-15

    Noninvasive liver fibrosis evaluation was performed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used a quantitative method based on the hepatic volume acquired from gadoxetate disodium-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. A total of 130 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were retrospectively included. Histological data were available for 118 patients. Hepatic volumetric parameters, including the left hepatic lobe to right hepatic lobe volume ratio (L/R ratio), were measured. The usefulness of the L/R ratio for diagnosing fibrosis ≥F3-4 and F4 was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify variables (age, body mass index, serum fibrosis markers, and histological features) that were associated with the L/R ratio. The L/R ratio demonstrated good performance in differentiating advanced fibrosis (AUROC, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.88) from cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.99). Multiple regression analysis showed that only fibrosis was significantly associated with the L/R ratio (coefficient, 0.121; p<0.0001). The L/R ratio, which is not influenced by pathological parameters other than fibrosis, is useful for diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD.

  5. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  6. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bifulco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  7. Applying Fingerprint Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics to Assess Soil Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment and monitoring of soil ecosystem function has been hindered due to the shortcomings of many traditional analytical techniques (e.g., soil enzyme activities, microbial incubations), including: high cost, long time investment and difficulties with data interpretation. Consequently, ther...

  8. 15 CFR 971.501 - Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical mining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and logical mining unit. 971.501 Section 971.501 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR... mining unit. (a) The applicant must submit with the application a resource assessment to provide a basis...

  9. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 25 Appendix X - Forecast Sea Ice Age.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  10. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 26 Appendix Y - Historical Ridging Rate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  11. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 23 Appendix V - Forecast Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-04-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  12. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 27 Appendix Z - Forecast Ridging Rate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  13. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 24 Appendix W - Historical Sea Ice Age.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  14. Partial volume effect correction in nuclear medicine: assessment with a mathematical phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Collete da; Pozzo, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: assessment of Van Cittert partial volume effect correction method in nuclear medicine images, with a mathematical phantom. Material and method: we simulated an image of four circular sources of different diameters and intensity of 255 per pixel. The iterative algorithm was applied with 20 iterations and α = 1. We obtained the maximum and average counts on the entire image and in regions of interest placed on each of the sources. We also extracted count profiles plotted along the diameter of each of the sources. Results: the local convergence depends on the size of the source studied: the smaller the source, the greater the number of iterations required. It also depends on the information extracted: the use of average counts provides more homogeneous results than the maximum count. There is a significant improvement in image contrast. Conclusion: this study showed the possibility of qualitative and quantitative improvement in applying the bidimensional iterative Van Cittert method to images of simple geometry. (author)

  15. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  16. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 17 Appendix P - Forecast Soil Moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-04-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  17. An assessment of unstructured grid finite volume schemes for cold gas hypersonic flow calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz F. Azevedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of five different spatial discretization schemes is performed considering a typical high speed flow application. Flowfields are simulated using the 2-D Euler equations, discretized in a cell-centered finite volume procedure on unstructured triangular meshes. The algorithms studied include a central difference-type scheme, and 1st- and 2nd-order van Leer and Liou flux-vector splitting schemes. These methods are implemented in an efficient, edge-based, unstructured grid procedure which allows for adaptive mesh refinement based on flow property gradients. Details of the unstructured grid implementation of the methods are presented together with a discussion of the data structure and of the adaptive refinement strategy. The application of interest is the cold gas flow through a typical hypersonic inlet. Results for different entrance Mach numbers and mesh topologies are discussed in order to assess the comparative performance of the various spatial discretization schemes.

  18. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 15 Appendix N - Forecast Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  19. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 10 Appendix I - Historical Evaporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  20. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 14 Appendix M - Historical Surface Runoff.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  1. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 8 Appendix G - Historical Precipitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  2. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 12 Appendix K - Historical Rel. Humidity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  3. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 16 Appendix O - Historical Soil Moisture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  4. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 22 Appendix U - Historical Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  5. Methods development for assessing air pollution control benefits. Volume V, executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshire, D.S.; Crocker, T.D.; d'Arge, R.C.; Ben-David, S.; Kneese, A.V.; Schulze, W.D.

    1979-02-01

    The studies summarized by this volume represent original efforts to construct both a conceptually consistent and empirically verifiable set of methods for assessing environmental quality improvement benefits. While the state-of-the-art does not at present make it possible to provide highly accurate estimates of the benefits of reduced human or plant exposure to air pollutants, these studies nevertheless provide a set of fundamental benchmarks on which further efforts might be built. There are: many benefits traditionally viewed as intangible and therefore non-measurable can, in fact, be measured and be made comparable to economic values as expressed in markets; aesthetic and morbidity effects may dominate the measure of benefits as opposed to previous emphases on mortality health effects; and the likely economic benefits of air quality improvements are perhaps as much as an order of magnitude greater than previous studies had hypothesized

  6. Volume of visual field assessed with kinetic perimetry and its application to static perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforidis JB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John B ChristoforidisCollege of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume of the kinetic visual field with a single unit that accounts for visual field area and differential luminance sensitivity.Methods: Kinetic visual field perimetry was performed with a Goldmann perimeter using I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e targets. The visual fields of 25 normal volunteers (17 women, eight men of mean age 33.9 ± 10.1 (range 17–64 years were obtained and digitized. Isopter areas were measured with a method devised to correct cartographic distortion due to polar projection inherent in perimetry and are expressed in steradians. The third dimension of each isopter represents sensitivity to target luminance and was calculated as log (target luminance-1. If luminance is expressed in cd/m2, the values for the third dimension are 0.5 for I4e, 1.0 for I3e, 1.5 for I2e, and 2.0 for I1e. The resulting unit is a steradian (log 103 (cd/m2-1 which is referred to as a Goldmann. In addition, the visual fields of four patients with representative visual defect patterns were examined and compared with normal subjects.Results: Mean isopter areas for normal subjects were 3.092 ± 0.242 steradians for I4e, 2.349 ± 0.280 steradians for I3e, 1.242 ± 0.263 steradians for I2e, and 0.251 ± 0.114 steradians for the I1e target. Isopter volumes were 1.546 ± 0.121 Goldmanns for the I4e target, 1.174 ± 0.140 Goldmanns for I3e, 0.621 ± 0.131 Goldmanns for I2e, and 0.126 ± 0.057 Goldmanns for I1e. The total mean visual field volume in our study for the I target was 3.467 ± 0.371 Goldmanns.Conclusion: The volume of the island of vision may be used to quantify a visual field with a single value which contains information about both visual field extension and differential luminance sensitivity. This technique may be used to assess the progression or stability of visual field defects over time. A similar method may

  7. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  9. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Dose assessment of head CT examination by volume scanning with 320-area-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Masanao

    2009-01-01

    CT with the 320-area-detector (320-ADCT), first presented in 2007, still requires further basic studies, particularly in the field of dose assessment, as the CT has been widely spread in clinic due to its many advantages compared with the usual spiral CT. In this paper, the assessment in the title was thereby done in human phantom and a patient with suspicious acute cerebral infarction under different scanning modes (non-spiral, spiral and volume) for their comparison. Machines for 320-ADCT, and non-spiral and spiral CT were Toshiba Aquilion ONE, and Aquilion 64-MD, respectively. Scanning of the phantom and patient was individually conducted under similar conditions of tube voltage/ current, rotation time and length with the same field of view with defined nominal slice thicknesses. Alderson human body phantom in which 240 thermoluminescent dosimeters were indwelled, was used; doses were read by the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reader model 3000 (Kyokko Co.) after scanning; and effective doses were calculated with reference to ICRP publ. 102/103 equations for patient's head to be 4.2 (64-MDCT) and 6.6 (320-ADCT) mSv, which were respectively 6.4 and 5.4 mSv when estimated using the conversion coefficient and DLP (dose length product) in the texts. It was suggested that the exposure dose at the volume scanning by 320-ADCT can be reduced in the routine examination, and in the exact diagnosis, possibly increases. These doses can be reduced further by optimization of scanning conditions by additional basic investigations. (K.T.)

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  12. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction....... The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes....

  13. A pilot study to assess the feasibility of measurement of adrenal gland volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Lee A.; Dixon, Adrian K. (Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge Univ. Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)), e-mail: leegrant100@gmail.com; Napolitano, Antonella; McHugh, Simon M. (GlaxoSmithKline RandD, Clinical Unit Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Centre for Clinical Investigation, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Miller, Sam (Analysis Applications Research Group, GSK RandD, Harlow, Essex (United Kingdom)); Stephens, Kimberley (Discovery Statistics, GSK RandD, Harlow, Essex (United Kingdom))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Repeated computed tomography (CT) assessment of the adrenal glands is associated with a significant radiation burden. The increasing capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) volumetric analysis of the adrenals make this a potentially alternative technique in man. Purpose: To determine whether MR imaging could be used to measure adrenal volume, and to determine the intra- and interobserver variation and repeatability of MR volume imaging of adrenals in healthy human subjects. Material and Methods: This was a single-cohort, sequential design, three-part study involving four MRI examinations per subject following ethical approval and informed consent. Information was collected on four healthy subjects (three male and one female). Two different investigators estimated the area of the adrenal gland for each of the 3-mm contiguous slices (and consequently adrenal volume). In order to estimate inter- and intrareader variability, a repeated-measures mixed model was fitted with adrenal volume as the dependent variable. In order to estimate any bias between readers, Bland-Altman methodology was applied. Results: Intraobserver variation for adrenal gland volume is approximately 5% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Interobserver variation is approximately 9% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Potential variation in measurement for adrenal volume from all sources equates to approximately 14% of a 3-cm3 adrenal gland. Verification of image reading by a second investigator (consensus reading) reduces variability. Conclusion: Analysis of adrenal gland volume using MRI is a potentially reliable technique that could be used to assess a pathological change in adrenal size

  14. Kinetic energy recovery turbine technology: resource assessment and site development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, Marie-Helene; Ng, Karen

    2010-09-15

    New technologies to extract readily available energy from waves, tides and river flow are being developed and are promising but are still at the demonstration stage. Harnessing kinetic energy from currents (hydrokinetic power) is considered an attractive and cost-effective renewable energy solution to replace thermal generation without requiring construction of a dam or large civil works. The nature of this innovative hydrokinetic technology requires an adaptation of conventional approach to project engineering and environmental impact studies. This paper presents the approach developed by RSW to design a hydrokinetic site in the riverine environment, from resource assessment to detailed engineering design.

  15. Metabolic impact of partial volume correction of [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies on the assessment of tumor response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, A; Gallivanone, F; Messa, C; Gilardi, M C; Gastiglioni, I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the metabolic impact of Partial Volume Correction (PVC) on the measurement of the Standard Uptake Value (SUV) from [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies for treatment monitoring purpose. Twenty-nine breast cancer patients with bone lesions (42 lesions in total) underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT studies after surgical resection of breast cancer primitives, and before (PET-II) chemotherapy and hormone treatment. PVC of bone lesion uptake was performed on the two [18F]FDG PET-CT studies, using a method based on Recovery Coefficients (RC) and on an automatic measurement of lesion metabolic volume. Body-weight average SUV was calculated for each lesion, with and without PVC. The accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility and the metabolic impact on treatment response of the considered PVC method was evaluated. The PVC method was found clinically feasible in bone lesions, with an accuracy of 93% for lesion sphere-equivalent diameter >1 cm. Applying PVC, average SUV values increased, from 7% up to 154% considering both PET-I and PET-II studies, proving the need of the correction. As main finding, PVC modified the therapy response classification in 6 cases according to EORTC 1999 classification and in 5 cases according to PERCIST 1.0 classification. PVC has an important metabolic impact on the assessment of tumor response to treatment by [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies.

  16. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. ► Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. ► Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. ► Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. ► Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  17. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    posture, volume accumulation in small blood vessels contributes significantly to the total fluid volume accumulated in the legs. Considering that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tracks postural blood volume changes within the small blood vessels of the lower leg, we evaluated the NIRS-determined changes......-linear accumulation of blood volume in the small vessels of the leg, with an initial fast phase followed by a more gradual increase at least partly contributing to the relocation of fluid during orthostatic stress....

  18. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  20. Acquisition of airborne imagery in support of Deepwater Horizon oil spill recovery assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery was collected from a low flying aircraft along the near coastal waters of the Florida Panhandle and northern Gulf of Mexico and into Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, during March 2011. Imagery was acquired from an aircraft that simultaneously collected traditional photogrammetric film imagery, digital video, digital still images, and digital hyperspectral imagery. The original purpose of the project was to collect airborne imagery to support assessment of weathered oil in littoral areas influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil and gas spill that occurred during the spring and summer of 2010. This paper describes the data acquired and presents information that demonstrates the utility of small spatial scale imagery to detect the presence of weathered oil along littoral areas in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Flight tracks and examples of imagery collected are presented and methods used to plan and acquire the imagery are described. Results suggest weathered oil in littoral areas after the spill was contained at the source.

  1. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-31

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2,900,000 MWh of electricity, of which 2,200,000 MWh were sold to Electricité de France (EDF) and 9,100,000 MWh of heat, of which 7,200,000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance.

  2. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: Assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2 900 000 MWh of electricity, of which 2 200 000 MWh were sold to Electricite de France (EDF) and 9 100 000 MWh of heat, of which 7 200 000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance

  3. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

  4. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for Continued Personnel Recovery Training Operations Within the Gulf of Mexico WTA Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    occurring on the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (Marquez 1990 and TEWG 2000); and (5) a Dry Tortugas nesting subpopulation, occurring in the...islands of the Dry Tortugas , near Key West, Florida (NMFS SEFSC 2001). The recently published recovery plan for the Northwest Atlantic population of...southern Virginia); (2) the Peninsular Florida Recovery Unit (Florida/Georgia border through Pinellas County, Florida); (3) the Dry Tortugas Recovery

  6. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  7. SU-F-207-06: CT-Based Assessment of Tumor Volume in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, F; Armato, S; Straus, C; Husain, A; Vigneswaran, W; Kindler, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential utility of computed tomography (CT) scans in the assessment of physical tumor bulk in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were used for this study. A CT scan was acquired for each patient prior to surgical resection of the tumor (median time between scan and surgery: 27 days). After surgery, the ex-vivo tumor volume was measured by a pathologist using a water displacement method. Separately, a radiologist identified and outlined the tumor boundary on each CT section that demonstrated tumor. These outlines then were analyzed to determine the total volume of disease present, the number of sections with outlines, and the mean volume of disease per outlined section. Subsets of the initial patient cohort were defined based on these parameters, i.e. cases with at least 30 sections of disease with a mean disease volume of at least 3mL per section. For each subset, the R- squared correlation between CT-based tumor volume and physical ex-vivo tumor volume was calculated. Results: The full cohort of 28 patients yielded a modest correlation between CT-based tumor volume and the ex-vivo tumor volume with an R-squared value of 0.66. In general, as the mean tumor volume per section increased, the correlation of CT-based volume with the physical tumor volume improved substantially. For example, when cases with at least 40 CT sections presenting a mean of at least 2mL of disease per section were evaluated (n=20) the R-squared correlation increased to 0.79. Conclusion: While image-based volumetry for mesothelioma may not generally capture physical tumor volume as accurately as one might expect, there exists a set of conditions in which CT-based volume is highly correlated with the physical tumor volume. SGA receives royalties and licensing fees through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology

  8. SU-F-207-06: CT-Based Assessment of Tumor Volume in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qayyum, F; Armato, S; Straus, C; Husain, A; Vigneswaran, W; Kindler, H [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the potential utility of computed tomography (CT) scans in the assessment of physical tumor bulk in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were used for this study. A CT scan was acquired for each patient prior to surgical resection of the tumor (median time between scan and surgery: 27 days). After surgery, the ex-vivo tumor volume was measured by a pathologist using a water displacement method. Separately, a radiologist identified and outlined the tumor boundary on each CT section that demonstrated tumor. These outlines then were analyzed to determine the total volume of disease present, the number of sections with outlines, and the mean volume of disease per outlined section. Subsets of the initial patient cohort were defined based on these parameters, i.e. cases with at least 30 sections of disease with a mean disease volume of at least 3mL per section. For each subset, the R- squared correlation between CT-based tumor volume and physical ex-vivo tumor volume was calculated. Results: The full cohort of 28 patients yielded a modest correlation between CT-based tumor volume and the ex-vivo tumor volume with an R-squared value of 0.66. In general, as the mean tumor volume per section increased, the correlation of CT-based volume with the physical tumor volume improved substantially. For example, when cases with at least 40 CT sections presenting a mean of at least 2mL of disease per section were evaluated (n=20) the R-squared correlation increased to 0.79. Conclusion: While image-based volumetry for mesothelioma may not generally capture physical tumor volume as accurately as one might expect, there exists a set of conditions in which CT-based volume is highly correlated with the physical tumor volume. SGA receives royalties and licensing fees through the University of Chicago for computer-aided diagnosis technology.

  9. Optical Spectroscopy Approach for the Predictive Assessment of Kidney Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2010-02-11

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  10. Optical spectroscopy approach for the predictive assessment of kidney functional recovery following ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  11. In vivo 31P NMR spectroscopic assessment of the endurance and recovery capacity of skeletal muscle: Comparison between the sedentaries and canoe athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Hawn; Lee, Tae Keun; Seong, Ki Hong; Mun, Chi Woong; Kim, Sang Tae; Shin, Myung Jin

    1992-01-01

    In vivo 3P NMR spectroscopic study of forearm wrist flexor muscles was performed in two groups of volunteers composed respectively of 6 sedentaries and 6 canoe athletes. A continuous isometric contraction of endurance exercise was adopted in order to assess the endurance capacity and recovery potential of skeletal muscles. Differences in high energy phosphorus metabolism between the sedentaries and athletes were evaluated with and emphasis on the intracellular pH and Pi/PCr ratio as indicators of high energy phosphorus metabolism, There were no differences of baseline pH and Pi/ PCr ratio between the two groups. The athletes sustained the exercise at a more acidic intracellular pH and at a higher Pi/ PCr radio of intracellular conditions for an all out than did the sedentaries. The recovery rate of pH showed no difference between the two groups. There was a tendency of faster recovery of Pi/ PCr in athletes showing half recovery time (T 1/2 ) of 39.0 ± 3.0 seconds as compared to that of sedentaries (55.7 ± 7.5 seconds). The recovery rate of Pi/ PCr as a function of Pi/ PCr rate at a given period of time was significantly faster in athletes than in sedentaries (P<0.001). The correlation coefficient of the recovery rate of Pi/ PCr against the Pi/ PCr ratio was 0.985 and 0.914 respectively for the athletes and sedentaries. The pH and the Pi/ PCr ratio at an all-out state can be used as indicators of endurance capacity and the recovery rate of Pi/ PCr, as a recovery potential of skeletal muscles

  12. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  13. Assessment of functional recovery after autologous implantation of neural progenitor cells for the treatment of traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Zhang Dong; Zuo Zhuantao; Ge Feng; Zhu Jianhong; Zhou Liangfu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the functional recovery in the patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) after autologous implantation of neural progenitor cells, and 7 counterparts with matched age, injury location and extent were chosen as the control. Methods: Neural progenitor cells were isolated from exposed brain tissue and propagated for 25 to 30 d, then implanted the autologous neural progenitor cells at seven points around the traumatic regions with MRI-stereotactic guiding device for 7 patients. All recruited patients underwent 18 F-fluorodeox-yglucose (FDG) PET imaging, function MRI (fMRI) and assessment of Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) after operation for open brain trauma. The examinations were repeated one month after neural progenitor cell implantation and then repeated every 3 months during follow-up in the first year, and every 6 months in the second year. The same examinations were performed on untreated counterparts at similar intervals for avoiding deviations of spontaneous recovery. The data were analyzed with region of interest (ROI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: At the third month of follow-up, mean tracer uptake in the damaged territory in implantation group increased significantly (P 18 F-FDG in the top of precentral gyrus was significantly increased in implantation group, and the metabolism of 18 F-FDG in the frontal lobe was significantly elevated postoperation according to paired SPM analysis. The activation in fMRI maps was seen in the motor cortex since the third month after implantation, whereas no active signals were detected before implantation or in control group. At the 6th month of follow-up, mean score of GOSE in the group of implantation was 6.63±0.52, whereas the mean score was 4.50 ±0.76 in control group (P 18 F-FDG uptake in the injured area was 3 months prior to the elevation of GOSE. Conclusions: The results of the study show that 18 F-FDG PET and fMRI both showed significantly increased neurological

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  15. Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas; Andersen, Mads J; Vejlstrup, Niels; Kelbæk, Henning; Engstrøm, Thomas; Møller, Jacob E; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2012-06-01

    Measurement of left atrial (LA) maximal volume (LA(max)) using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides prognostic information in several cardiac diseases. However, the relationship between LA(max) and LA function is poorly understood and TTE is less well suited for measuring dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir volume) and pump function (left atrial ejection fraction-LAEF) were derived using CMR and MSCT. Left atrial fractional change and left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) determined with CMR and MSCT were unrelated to LA(max) enlargement by echocardiography (P = NS). There was an overall good agreement between CMR and MSCT, with a small to moderate bias in LA(max) (4.9 ± 10.4 ml), CC (3.1 ± 9.1 ml) and reservoir volume (3.4 ± 9.1 ml). TTE underestimates LA(max) with up to 32% compared with CMR and MSCT (P fractional change and LAEF is not significantly related to LA(max) measured by TTE. TTE systematically underestimated LA volumes, whereas there are good agreements between MSCT and CMR for volumetric and functional properties.

  16. Evaluating the utility and seasonality of NDVI values for assessing post-disturbance recovery in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Forest disturbances around the world have the potential to alter forest type and cover, with impacts on diversity, carbon storage, and landscape composition. These disturbances, especially fire, are common and often large, making ground investigation of forest recovery difficult. Remote sensing offers a means to monitor forest recovery in real time, over the entire landscape. Typically, recovery monitoring via remote sensing consists of measuring vegetation indices (e.g., NDVI) or index-derived metrics, with the assumption that recovery in NDVI (for example) is a meaningful measure of ecosystem recovery. This study tests that assumption using MODIS 16-day imagery from 2000 to 2010 in the area of the Colorado's Routt National Forest Hinman burn (2002) and seedling density counts taken in the same area. Results indicate that NDVI is rarely correlated with forest recovery, and is dominated by annual and perennial forb cover, although topography complicates analysis. Utility of NDVI as a means to delineate areas of recovery or non-recovery are in doubt, as bootstrapped analysis indicates distinguishing power only slightly better than random. NDVI in revegetation analyses should carefully consider the ecology and seasonal patterns of the system in question.

  17. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  18. The trees and the forest: mixed methods in the assessment of recovery based interventions' processes and outcomes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments in mental health have emphasized recovery as an outcome for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Accordingly, several studies have attempted to evaluate the process and outcome of recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions. To review and discuss quantitative and qualitative findings from previous efforts to study the impact of five recovery-oriented interventions: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy (NECT), Supported Employment (SE), Supported Socialization (SS), and Family Psychoeducation. Reviewing the literature on studies that examine the effectiveness of these interventions by using both quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative findings in these studies augment quantitative findings and at times draw attention to unexpected findings and uniquely illuminate the effects of these interventions on self-reflective processes. There is a need for further exploration of how mixed-methods can be implemented to explore recovery-oriented outcomes. Critical questions regarding the implications of qualitative findings are posed.

  19. Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyon Wook Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot site of the ASTR supplying drinking water is located downstream of the Nakdong River in South Korea. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP was adopted to ensure suitable water quality in response to the deteriorated water quality of the Nakdong River. HACCP is a proactive management system for ensuring consistent confidence in food (or water. Hazard analysis, the first of the seven principles of HACCP, assesses physical, microbial, chemical, and radioactive hazards. This study focuses on the chemicals that are most likely to be involved in major hazardous events. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR data were used to analyze potential risks of chemicals. A PRTR is a national environmental database of potentially hazardous chemicals. Potential risk analysis considers the total amount of chemicals transferred off-site for treatment or disposal. Fifty-five cities and the top 10 chemicals released in the Nakdong River basin were investigated. Potential risk was defined as a function of total transfers, the relative distance, and toxicity. The top 10 cities with high potential risks were identified, and the city with the highest potential risk turned out to be Ulju.

  20. Fluorescence Exclusion: A Simple Method to Assess Projected Surface, Volume and Morphology of Red Blood Cells Stored in Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of “small RBC” with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts. We aimed to develop a reproducible and ergonomic method to assess simultaneously RBC volume and morphology at the single cell level. We adapted the fluorescence exclusion measurement of volume in nucleated cells to the measurement of RBC volume. This method requires no pre-treatment of the cell and can be performed in physiological or experimental buffer. In addition to RBC volume assessment, brightfield images enabling a precise definition of the morphology and the measurement of projected surface area can be generated simultaneously. We first verified that fluorescence exclusion is precise, reproducible and can quantify volume modifications following morphological changes induced by heating or incubation in non-physiological medium. We then used the method to characterize RBC stored for 42 days in SAG-M in blood bank conditions. Simultaneous determination of the volume, projected surface area and morphology allowed to evaluate the surface area-to-volume ratio of individual RBC upon storage. We observed a similar surface area-to-volume ratio in discocytes (D and echinocytes I (EI, which decreased in EII (7% and EIII (24%, sphero-echinocytes (SE; 41% and spherocytes (S; 47%. If RBC dimensions determine indeed the ability of RBC to cross the spleen, these modifications are expected to induce the rapid splenic entrapment of the most morphologically altered RBC

  1. The assessment of changes in brain volume using combined linear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Steiner, I.; Melamed, E.; Cooper, G.

    1984-01-01

    All linear measurements employed for evaluation of brain atrophy, were performed on 148 computed tomograms of patients aged 28 to 84 without evidence of any nervous system disorder. These included size of lateral, third and fourth ventricles, width of the Sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and cortical sulci and size of the pre-pontine cistern. Various parameters indicated decrease in brain mass with age. Since the atrophic process is a diffuse phenomenon, integration of several measurements evaluating separate brain regions was made. The bicaudate ratio and the Sylvian fissure ratio (representing both central and cortical atrophy) were combined arithmetically, resulting in a correlation of 0.6390 with age (p<0.0005). With a computed canonical correlation analysis: a formula was obtained which combined measurements of the lateral and third ventricles, the Sylvian fissure and the pre-pontine cistern. This formula yealded a correlation of 0.67795 (p<0.0005). These linear measurements will enable simple and reliable assessment of reduction in brain volume during the normal aging process and in disorders accompanied by brain atrophy. (orig.)

  2. FDG-PET imaging for the assessment of physiologic volume response during radiotherapy in cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lilie L.; Yang Zhiyun; Mutic, Sasa; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the physiologic tumor volume response during treatment in cervical cancer using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 32 patients. Physiologic tumor volume in cubic centimeters was determined from the FDG-PET images using the 40% threshold method. Results: The mean pretreatment tumor volume was 102 cm 3 . The mean volume by clinical Stages I, II, and III were 54, 79, and 176 cm 3 , respectively. After 19.8 Gy external irradiation to the pelvis, the reduction in tumor volume was 29% (72 cm 3 ). An additional 13 Gy from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy reduced the mean volume to 15.4 cm 3 , and this was subsequently reduced to 8.6 cm 3 with 13 Gy additional HDR brachytherapy (26 Gy, HDR). Four patients had physiologic FDG uptake in the cervix at 3 months after the completion of therapy. The mean time to the 50% reduction in physiologic tumor volume was 19.9 days and after combined external irradiation and HDR to 24.9 Gy. Conclusion: These results indicate that physiologic tumor volume determination by FDG-PET is feasible and that a 50% physiologic tumor volume reduction occurs within 20 days of starting therapy

  3. The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-28

    This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. This second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

  4. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  5. Assessment of left ventricular volumes by magnetic resonance in comparison with radionuclide angiography, contrast angiography and echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Stokholm, K H; Saunamäki, K

    1992-01-01

    The present study shows that for assessment of LVEF, MRI and the standard methods seem to provide information of similar value. For absolute volume measurements, MRI and RNA are superior to single plane angiography and 2 DE using the modified Simpson-rule. The time consuming transversal MRI method...... quality, which is crucial especially in dilated ventricles containing stagnant or slowly moving blood....

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  7. Seasonal characterization of sugarcane vinasse: Assessing environmental impacts from fertirrigation and the bioenergy recovery potential through biodigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2018-09-01

    Sugarcane vinasse has been widely used as a soil fertilizer in the Brazilian sucro-alcohol industry for recycling potassium and water. However, the potential negative effects from long-term soil fertirrigation represent a major drawback regarding this practice, whereas the application of biodigestion represents an efficient method for reducing the polluting organic load and recovering bioenergy from vinasse. Regardless of the predicted use for vinasse, an understanding of the potential of each option is imperative, as the seasonal alterations in the inorganic/organic fractions of vinasse directly affect its management. In this context, this study presents a detailed compositional characterization of sugarcane vinasse from a large-scale Brazilian biorefinery throughout the 2014/2015 harvest to assess the environmental effects (due to fertirrigation) and to estimate the biogas energetic potential. Calculated inputs of organic matter into soils due to vinasse land application were equivalent to the polluting load of populations (117-257inhabha -1 ) at least 2-fold greater than the largest Brazilian capital cities (78-70inhabha -1 ). Two-phase biodigestion could efficiently reduce the polluting load of vinasse (23-52inhabha -1 ) and eliminate the negative effects from direct sulfide emissions in the environment. However, a high risk of soil sodification could result from using high doses of Na-based alkalizing compounds in biodigestion plants. Finally, the optimized recovery of bioenergy through biogas (13.3-26.7MW as electricity) could supply populations as large as 305 thousand inhabitants, so that over 30% of the surplus electricity produced by the studied biorefinery could be obtained from biogas. Overall, applying biodigestion in the treatment of vinasse provides important environmental and energetic gains. However, the benefits of reducing the polluting organic load of vinasse through bioenergy recovery may lose their effect depending on the alkalizing strategy

  8. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  9. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  10. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  11. High-volume image quality assessment systems: tuning performance with an interactive data visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Patricia A.; Pukinskis, Madeleine; Wiggins, Michael

    1999-03-01

    Image quality assessment systems differ greatly with respect to the number and types of mags they need to evaluate, and their overall architectures. Managers of these systems, however, all need to be able to tune and evaluate system performance, requirements often overlooked or under-designed during project planning. Performance tuning tools allow users to define acceptable quality standards for image features and attributes by adjusting parameter settings. Performance analysis tools allow users to evaluate and/or predict how well a system performs in a given parameter state. While image assessment algorithms are becoming quite sophisticated, duplicating or surpassing the human decision making process in their speed and reliability, they often require a greater investment in 'training' or fine tuning of parameters in order to achieve optimum performance. This process may involve the analysis of hundreds or thousands of images, generating a large database of files and statistics that can be difficult to sort through and interpret. Compounding the difficulty is the fact that personnel charged with tuning and maintaining the production system may not have the statistical or analytical background required for the task. Meanwhile, hardware innovations have greatly increased the volume of images that can be handled in a given time frame, magnifying the consequences of running a production site with an inadequately tuned system. In this paper, some general requirements for a performance evaluation and tuning data visualization system are discussed. A custom engineered solution to the tuning and evaluation problem is then presented, developed within the context of a high volume image quality assessment, data entry, OCR, and image archival system. A key factor influencing the design of the system was the context-dependent definition of image quality, as perceived by a human interpreter. This led to the development of a five-level, hierarchical approach to image quality

  12. Assessment of correlation between knee notch width index and the three-dimensional notch volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Lorenz, S.G.F.; Fu, F.H.; Smolinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to determine whether there is a correlation between the notch volume and the notch width index (NWI) as measured on the three most frequently used radiographic views: the Holmblad 45A degrees, Holmblad 70A degrees, and Rosenberg view. The notch volume of 20 cadaveric knees was

  13. A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L

    2012-12-15

    With increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; % overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m(2); colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative % recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface. To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100%). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively

  14. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Assessment of the accuracy of ABC/2 variations in traumatic epidural hematoma volume estimation: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Yan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The traumatic epidural hematoma (tEDH volume is often used to assist in tEDH treatment planning and outcome prediction. ABC/2 is a well-accepted volume estimation method that can be used for tEDH volume estimation. Previous studies have proposed different variations of ABC/2; however, it is unclear which variation will provide a higher accuracy. Given the promising clinical contribution of accurate tEDH volume estimations, we sought to assess the accuracy of several ABC/2 variations in tEDH volume estimation. Methods. The study group comprised 53 patients with tEDH who had undergone non-contrast head computed tomography scans. For each patient, the tEDH volume was automatically estimated by eight ABC/2 variations (four traditional and four newly derived with an in-house program, and results were compared to those from manual planimetry. Linear regression, the closest value, percentage deviation, and Bland-Altman plot were adopted to comprehensively assess accuracy. Results. Among all ABC/2 variations assessed, the traditional variations y = 0.5 × A1B1C1 (or A2B2C1 and the newly derived variations y = 0.65 × A1B1C1 (or A2B2C1 achieved higher accuracy than the other variations. No significant differences were observed between the estimated volume values generated by these variations and those of planimetry (p > 0.05. Comparatively, the former performed better than the latter in general, with smaller mean percentage deviations (7.28 ± 5.90% and 6.42 ± 5.74% versus 19.12 ± 6.33% and 21.28 ± 6.80%, respectively and more values closest to planimetry (18/53 and 18/53 versus 2/53 and 0/53, respectively. Besides, deviations of most cases in the former fell within the range of 20% (90.57% and 96.23, respectively. Discussion. In the current study, we adopted an automatic approach to assess the accuracy of several ABC/2 variations for tEDH volume estimation. Our initial results showed that the variations y = 0.5 × A1B1C1 (or A2B2C1

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  18. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Feng; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jiantao; He, Xijing

    2017-06-17

    BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography was reconstructed to visualize the repair process. RESULTS The results showed that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation increased the functional and histological recovery and restrained the secondary injury process after the initial spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy values in rats with cell transplantation were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was positively and linearly correlated with fractional anisotropy value, and it was negatively and linearly correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient value. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging parameters are sensitive biomarker indices for olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation interventions, and diffusion tensor imaging scan can reflect the functional recovery promoted by the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury.

  19. Year-one recovery of an intermediate marsh in south Louisiana after an in-situ burn for oil spill remediation. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baustian, J.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Rapp, J.; Myers, J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the recovery of an intermediate marsh in south Louisiana following an oil spill caused by a storage tank that ruptured during Hurricane Katrina. In situ burning of the oil spill was shown to be a successful form of cleanup that did not cause extensive physical damage to the marsh. The burn plan and execution of the burn was described, with particular focus on vegetation recovery in 28 recovery plots. Plots were monitored for aboveground biomass, plant height and stem density. The study showed that when done properly, in-situ burning eliminates oil from the marsh while combusting the oiled aboveground vegetation, leaving the belowground portions of the plant unharmed. Burns performed with as little as 2 cm of water on the marsh surface can buffer the root zone from the burn and increase plant survival. In this study, the structural and functional attributes of burned areas that were heavily and moderately oil were compared to 2 unburned and unoiled reference marshes. Within 9 months of the in situ burn, the above ground vegetation in the marsh had completely recovered. The burn adequately removed the oiled vegetation and allowed for the natural regrowth of the marsh vegetation. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  1. Assessment of volume and leak measurements during CPAP using a neonatal lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H S; Roehr, C C; Proquitté, H; Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    2008-01-01

    Although several commercial devices are available which allow tidal volume and air leak monitoring during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in neonates, little is known about their measurement accuracy and about the influence of air leaks on volume measurement. The aim of this in vitro study was the validation of volume and leak measurement under CPAP using a commercial ventilatory device, taking into consideration the clinical conditions in neonatology. The measurement accuracy of the Leoni ventilator (Heinen and Löwenstein, Germany) was investigated both in a leak-free system and with leaks simulated using calibration syringes (2–10 ml, 20–100 ml) and a mechanical lung model. Open tubes of variable lengths were connected for leak simulation. Leak flow was measured with the flow-through technique. In a leak-free system the mean relative volume error ±SD was 3.5 ± 2.6% (2–10 ml) and 5.9 ± 0.7% (20–60 ml), respectively. The influence of CPAP level, driving flow, respiratory rate and humidification of the breathing gas on the volume error was negligible. However, an increasing F i O 2 caused the measured tidal volume to increase by up to 25% (F i O 2 = 1.0). The relative error ±SD of the leak measurements was −0.2 ± 11.9%. For leaks >19%, measured tidal volume was underestimated by more than 10%. In conclusion, the present in vitro study showed that the Leoni allowed accurate volume monitoring under CPAP conditions similar to neonates. Air leaks of up to 90% of patient flow were reliably detected. For an F i O 2 >0.4 and for leaks >19%, a numerical correction of the displayed volume should be performed

  2. Assessment of volume and leak measurements during CPAP using a neonatal lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H S; Roehr, C C; Proquitté, H; Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    2008-01-01

    Although several commercial devices are available which allow tidal volume and air leak monitoring during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in neonates, little is known about their measurement accuracy and about the influence of air leaks on volume measurement. The aim of this in vitro study was the validation of volume and leak measurement under CPAP using a commercial ventilatory device, taking into consideration the clinical conditions in neonatology. The measurement accuracy of the Leoni ventilator (Heinen & Löwenstein, Germany) was investigated both in a leak-free system and with leaks simulated using calibration syringes (2-10 ml, 20-100 ml) and a mechanical lung model. Open tubes of variable lengths were connected for leak simulation. Leak flow was measured with the flow-through technique. In a leak-free system the mean relative volume error +/-SD was 3.5 +/- 2.6% (2-10 ml) and 5.9 +/- 0.7% (20-60 ml), respectively. The influence of CPAP level, driving flow, respiratory rate and humidification of the breathing gas on the volume error was negligible. However, an increasing F(i)O(2) caused the measured tidal volume to increase by up to 25% (F(i)O(2) = 1.0). The relative error +/- SD of the leak measurements was -0.2 +/- 11.9%. For leaks > 19%, measured tidal volume was underestimated by more than 10%. In conclusion, the present in vitro study showed that the Leoni allowed accurate volume monitoring under CPAP conditions similar to neonates. Air leaks of up to 90% of patient flow were reliably detected. For an F(i)O(2) > 0.4 and for leaks > 19%, a numerical correction of the displayed volume should be performed.

  3. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Groundwater chemical baseline values to assess the Recovery Plan in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Martínez, S; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2016-01-15

    The two most exploited aquifers in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin are being monitored in the framework of the Integrated Environmental Sanitation Plan that implements the Basin Authority, Autoridad de Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo. In this context, this work identifies the groundwater chemical types and the natural processes behind them; determines spatial and temporal changes; establishes ranges of variation for chemical components, and proposes concentration values for the upper limit of the natural chemical background. A total of 1007 samples from three aquifer-layers (Upper Aquifer, top and bottom of Puelche Aquifer) have been studied. As concrete guidelines for practical determination of baseline values are not available in the region, the methodology used follows the proposals of European projects which assessed European water directives. The groundwater composition is very stable in terms of both chemical facies and mineralization degree, and the changes observed in the dry and wet periods analysed are subtle in general. Most of the groundwater is Na-HCO3 type, except a few samples that are Ca-HCO3, Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl types. The Ca-HCO3 waters are the result of calcium carbonate dissolution, Na-HCO3 waters result from cation exchange and carbonate dissolution, while in the Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl waters, mixing with connate and with encroached old marine water from the underlying and overlying sediments are the most relevant processes. The proposed values for the upper limit of the natural background consider the influence of geology and Holocene marine ingressions in the baseline of coastal groundwater. This study allowed to know the initial chemical conditions of the groundwater system of the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin and to establish the reference from which Basin Authority can start to evaluate trends and monitor the recovery plan. At the same time, it sets a precedent for future studies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the potential for salmon recovery via floodplain restoration: a multitrophic level comparison of dredge-mined to reference segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J Ryan; Baxter, Colden V; Ray, Andrew M; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

    2012-03-01

    Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

  6. Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

    2012-03-01

    Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  9. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  10. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 6: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. This report addresses the Department of Environmental Health Science, education and training initiative.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities

  12. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 5: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirement of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine; environmental hazards assessment and education program in pharmacy graduate education in risk assessment; and graduate education risk assessment.

  13. Assessment of glioma response to radiotherapy using 3D pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling and 3D segmented volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Jianrui; Diao, Qiang; Lin, YuanKai; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lin; Yang, Gang; Fang, Xiaokun; Li, Xie; Chen, YingQi; Zheng, Ling, E-mail: lingzheng1989@yeah.net; Lu, Guangming, E-mail: guangminglu1905@163.com

    2016-11-15

    Background: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, in some cases, radiotherapy may be the preferred treatment option especially for elderly people who cannot endure surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on glioma. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR imaging technique that allows for a quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Tumor volume is still an important determinant for evaluating treatment response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tumor perfusion parameters and tumor volume and assess the effects of radiotherapy on glioma using pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) technique. Methods: 35 patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade group (n = 16) and high-grade group (n = 19), treated with radiotherapy only or before using other therapies were included in this study. MR examinations, including T1 weighted image and pcASL, were performed before and 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after radiotherapy. Regional CBF of normal tissue, mean tumor blood flow (TBF{sub mean}), maximum tumor blood flow (TBF{sub max}), and tumor volume were evaluated at each time point. Both the percentage change in CBF (CBF ratio), TBF{sub mean} (TBF{sub mean} ratio), TBF{sub max} (TBF{sub max} ratio) and the percentage change in tumor volume (volume ratio) were calculated using values obtained before and after radiotherapy. The correlation between the volume ratio and CBF ratio, TBF{sub mean} ratio, TBF{sub max} ratio was assessed using linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Results: The TBF{sub mean} and TBF{sub max} of high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than that of low-grade group. In high-grade group, a strong correlation was demonstrated between the tumor volume and the TBF{sub max} before radiotherapy (R{sup 2} = 0.35, r{sub s} = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was also a significant correlation between the TBF

  14. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  15. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  16. Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR). Volume 1: Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dierker, Ron

    2000-01-01

    .... This volume provides an executive summary and describes the overall program goals, the methodology used to develop the ABDAR technology and a demonstration system, and the results of a field test...

  17. Assessment of left atrial volume and function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Bue F Ross; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Linde, Jesper James

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. AF is associated with enlargement of the left atrium (LA), and the LA volume has important prognostic implications for the disease. The objective of the study was to determine how...... measurements of LA volume and function obtained by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) correlate in patients with permanent AF....

  18. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,Djeison Cesar; Klitzke,Ricardo Jorge; Rocha,Márcio Pereira da; Muñiz,Graciela Inez Bolzon de; Batista,Tharcia Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content...

  19. Assessment of left ventricular function and volumes by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - comparison of two algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, T.; Fischer, R.; Brink, I.; Moser, E.; Krause, T.; Saurbier, B.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Left ventricular volume and function can be computed from gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging using emory cardiac toolbox (ECT) or gated SPECT quantification (GS-Quant). The aim of this study was to compare both programs with respect to their practical application, stability and precision on heart-models as well as in clinical use. Methods: The volumes of five cardiac models were calculated by ECT and GS-Quant. 48 patients (13 female, 35 male) underwent a one day stress-rest protocol and gated SPECT. From these 96 gated SPECT images, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were estimated by ECT and GS-Quant. For 42 patients LVEF was also determined by echocardiography. Results: For the cardiac models the computed volumes showed high correlation with the model-volumes as well as high correlation between ECT and GS-Quant (r ≥0.99). Both programs underestimated the volume by approximately 20-30% independent of the ventricle-size. Calculating LVEF, EDV and ESV, GS-Quant and ECT correlated well to each other and to the LVEF estimated by echocardiography (r ≥0.86). LVEF values determined with ECT were about 10% higher than values determined with GS-Quant or echocardiography. The incorrect surfaces calculated by the automatic algorithm of GS-Quant for three examinations could not be corrected manually. 34 of the ECT studies were optimized by the operator. Conclusion: GS-Quant and ECT are two reliable programs in estimating LVEF. Both seem to underestimate the cardiac volume. In practical application GS-Quant was faster and easier to use. ECT allows the user to define the contour of the ventricle and thus is less susceptible to artifacts. (orig.) [de

  20. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  1. Simultaneous pressure-volume measurements using optical sensors and MRI for left ventricle function assessment during animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Abdallah Rodriguez, Dima; Durand, Emmanuel; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Boudjemline, Younes; Mousseaux, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous pressure and volume measurements enable the extraction of valuable parameters for left ventricle function assessment. Cardiac MR has proven to be the most accurate method for volume estimation. Nonetheless, measuring pressure simultaneously during MRI acquisitions remains a challenge given the magnetic nature of the widely used pressure transducers. In this study we show the feasibility of simultaneous in vivo pressure-volume acquisitions with MRI using optical pressure sensors. Pressure-volume loops were calculated while inducing three inotropic states in a sheep and functional indices were extracted, using single beat loops, to characterize systolic and diastolic performance. Functional indices evolved as expected in response to positive inotropic stimuli. The end-systolic elastance, representing the contractility index, the diastolic myocardium compliance, and the cardiac work efficiency all increased when inducing inotropic state enhancement. The association of MRI and optical pressure sensors within the left ventricle successfully enabled pressure-volume loop analysis after having respective data simultaneously recorded during the experimentation without the need to move the animal between each inotropic state. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The repeatability of left ventricular volume assessment by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system during head-up tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Bonpei; Hosaka, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Katsuhiro

    2001-01-01

    The precise measurement of changes in left ventricular volume is important to elucidate the mechanisms of neurally mediated syncope. This study was conducted to determine whether or not a brand-new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (C-VEST system) can be clinically used to easily and precisely measure left ventricular volume and function in tilt testing. To assess the repeatability of the C-VEST system, 12 healthy volunteers (mean age 24±4 years old) underwent 20 minute head-up tilt testing and we measured the temporal changes in left ventricular volume and ejection fraction twice a day (first and second studies). To investigate the changes in the C-VEST measurements and the detector position in the first and second studies, tilt testing was performed with an 80-degree passive tilt, which is the same as the standard procedure used in diagnosing neurally mediated syncope. The coefficient of repeatability for both the C-VEST and detector position was well within the clinical range (coefficient of repeatability in left ventricular volume ranged from 1.7 to 2.8; coefficient of repeatability in the detector position ranged from 2.3 to 3.1). Precise evaluation of the left ventricular volume can be achieved by an ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system in tilt testing. (author)

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 9. Chapter E, Appendix E1-Chapter H, Appendix H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume nine contains the following appendices: RCRA groundwater protection information; Examples of inspection sheets, logs and instructions for systems/equipment requiring inspection under 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart V; Material safety data sheets; List of hazardous waste management job titles; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA hazardous waste management job description

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  5. Influence of tidal volume on ventilation inhomogeneity assessed by electrical impedance tomography during controlled mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, T; Kott, M; Schädler, D; Vogt, B; Meinel, T; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I

    2015-01-01

    The global inhomogeneity (GI) index is a parameter of ventilation inhomogeneity that can be calculated from images of tidal ventilation distribution obtained by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It has been suggested that the GI index may be useful for individual adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and for guidance of ventilator therapy. The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of tidal volume (V_T) on the GI index values. EIT data from 9 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome ventilated with a low and a high V_T of 5   ±   1 (mean  ±  SD) and 9   ±   1 ml kg"−"1 predicted body weight at a high and a low level of PEEP (PEEP_h_i_g_h, PEEP_l_o_w) were analyzed. PEEP_h_i_g_h and PEEP_l_o_w were set 2 cmH_2O above and 5 cmH_2O below the lower inflection point of a quasi-static pressure volume loop, respectively. The lower inflection point was identified at 8.1   ±   1.4 (mean  ±  SD) cmH_2O, resulting in a PEEP_h_i_g_h of 10.1   ±   1.4 and a PEEP_l_o_w of 3.1   ±   1.4 cmH_2O. At PEEP_h_i_g_h, we found no significant trend in GI index with low V_T when compared to high V_T (0.49   ±   0.15 versus 0.44   ±   0.09, p = 0.13). At PEEP_l_o_w, we found a significantly higher GI index with low V_T compared to high V_T (0.66   ±   0.19 versus 0.59   ±   0.17, p = 0.01). When comparing the PEEP levels, we found a significantly lower GI index at PEEP_h_i_g_h both for high and low V_T. We conclude that high V_T may lead to a lower GI index, especially at low PEEP settings. This should be taken into account when using the GI index for individual adjustment of ventilator settings. (paper)

  6. Assessment at UK medical schools varies substantially in volume, type and intensity and correlates with postgraduate attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Oliver Patrick; Harborne, Andrew Christopher; McManus, I C

    2015-09-11

    In the United Kingdom (UK), medical schools are free to develop local systems and policies that govern student assessment and progression. Successful completion of an undergraduate medical degree results in the automatic award of a provisional licence to practice medicine by the General Medical Council (GMC). Such a licensing process relies heavily on the assumption that individual schools develop similarly rigorous assessment policies. Little work has evaluated variability of undergraduate medical assessment between medical schools. That absence is important in the light of the GMC's recent announcement of the introduction of the UKMLA (UK Medical Licensing Assessment) for all doctors who wish to practise in the UK. The present study aimed to quantify and compare the volume, type and intensity of summative assessment across medicine (A100) courses in the United Kingdom, and to assess whether intensity of assessment correlates with the postgraduate attainment of doctors from these schools. Locally knowledgeable students in each school were approached to take part in guided-questionnaire interviews via telephone or Skype(TM). Their understanding of assessment at their medical school was probed, and later validated with the assessment department of the respective medical school. We gathered data for 25 of 27 A100 programmes in the UK and compared volume, type and intensity of assessment between schools. We then correlated these data with the mean first-attempt score of graduates sitting MRCGP and MRCP(UK), as well as with UKFPO selection measures. The median written assessment volume across all schools was 2000 min (mean = 2027, SD = 586, LQ = 1500, UQ = 2500, range = 1000-3200) and 1400 marks (mean = 1555, SD = 463, LQ = 1200, UQ = 1800, range = 1100-2800). The median practical assessment volume was 400 min (mean = 472, SD = 207, LQ = 400, UQ = 600, range = 200-1000). The median intensity (minutes per mark ratio) of summative written assessment was 1.24 min per mark

  7. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  8. Navigating the Road to Recovery: Assessment of the Coordination, Communication, and Financing of the Disaster Case Management Pilot in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Chandra, Anita; Feeney, Kevin Carter

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, individuals heavily affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were still in need of social services. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided funding to the Louisiana Recovery Authority to implement the Disaster Case Management Pilot (DCMP) in order to help people still living in FEMA temporary housing units in April 2009 move to permanent and secure housing and access services. Despite concerted effort by participating agencies, the implementation of the DCMP was fraught with challenges. As a result, the pilot could not be implemented as intended, leaving the needs of many clients not fully met. This article shares details of a study that documents some of the key challenges in coordination, communication, and financing of the program and offers recommendations for future state and FEMA implementation of disaster case management. In light of these challenges, the authors recommend that federal and state governments review the systems used to identify and locate residents in need of disaster case management; these systems performed poorly in the DCMP, making it difficult to appropriately plan services. The stop and start of recovery initiatives led to serious discontinuities in client recovery, so the authors also recommend that federal and state governments consider a single, longer-term recovery initiative that seamlessly acknowledges the stages of human recovery. Improvements in how federal and state governments identify and locate affected residents, consider needs and vulnerabilities in planning, and ensure continuity of services are critical to ensure high-quality disaster case management.

  9. Repeat Computed Tomography Simulation to Assess Lumpectomy Cavity Volume During Whole-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Todd W.; Nichols, Elizabeth M.; Cheston, Sally B.; Marter, Kimberley J.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Markham, Kristen M.; Ali, Imran; Mohiuddin, Majid M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the lumpectomy cavity (LPC) decreases in volume during whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) and what factors influence the decrease. Patients and Methods: Forty-three women with 44 breast lesions were prospectively enrolled. Eligible patients underwent lumpectomy followed by a CT simulation (CT1) within 60 days of surgery. Patients were treated to the entire breast to a dose of 45-50.4 Gy. After 21-23 treatments, a second planning CT simulation (CT2) was done. The LPC was contoured on CT2, and the volumes (LCV) were compared between CT1 and CT2. Results: The median LCV on CT1 and CT2 was 38.2 cm 3 and 21.7 cm 3 , respectively. The median percent change and volume decrease between CT1 and CT2 was -32.0% and 11.2 cm 3 , respectively (n = 44). The LCV decreased in 38 of 44 patients (86%). There was a significant correlation between initial LCV and decrease in volume (p = 0.001) and initial LCV and percent decrease in volume (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between time from surgery to CT1, to start of RT, or to CT2 and change in volume. Conclusions: Patients who undergo lumpectomy almost always have a decrease in their LCV during whole-breast RT. There was a correlation between the initial LCV and decrease in volume on repeat CT simulation. Evaluating patients for this change can potentially lead to decreased doses of radiation to the remaining breast and other critical structures when delivering a small-field boost. Repeat CT simulation should be considered in patients with larger cavities or cavities near critical structures.

  10. Predicting adult pulmonary ventilation volume and wearing complianceby on-board accelerometry during personal level exposure assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, C. E.; Chillrud, S. N.; Haskell, W. L.; Intille, S. S.; Albinali, F.; Rosenberger, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    BackgroundMetabolic functions typically increase with human activity, but optimal methods to characterize activity levels for real-time predictions of ventilation volume (l min-1) during exposure assessments have not been available. Could tiny, triaxial accelerometers be incorporated into personal level monitors to define periods of acceptable wearing compliance, and allow the exposures (μg m-3) to be extended to potential doses in μg min-1 kg-1 of body weight? ObjectivesIn a pilot effort, we tested: 1) whether appropriately-processed accelerometer data could be utilized to predict compliance and in linear regressions to predict ventilation volumes in real-time as an on-board component of personal level exposure sensor systems, and 2) whether locating the exposure monitors on the chest in the breathing zone, provided comparable accelerometric data to other locations more typically utilized (waist, thigh, wrist, etc.). MethodsPrototype exposure monitors from RTI International and Columbia University were worn on the chest by a pilot cohort of adults while conducting an array of scripted activities (all volumes in-situ. For the subset of participants with complete data (n = 22), linear regressions were constructed (processed accelerometric variable versus ventilation rate) for each participant and exposure monitor type, and Pearson correlations computed to compare across scenarios. ResultsTriaxial accelerometer data were demonstrated to be adequately sensitive indicators for predicting exposure monitor wearing compliance. Strong linear correlations (R values from 0.77 to 0.99) were observed for all participants for both exposure sensor accelerometer variables against ventilation volume for recumbent, sedentary, and ambulatory activities with MET values ˜volume data. Computing accelerometric standard deviations allowed good sensitivity for compliance assessments even for sedentary activities. These pilot findings supported the hypothesis that a common linear

  11. Assessment of bronchodilator response through changes in lung volumes in chronic airflow obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Figueroa-Casas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Although FEV1 improvement is routinely used to define bronchodilator (BD response, it correlates poorly with clinical effects. Changes in lung volumes (LV have shown better correlation with exercise tolerance and might be more sensitive to detect BD effects. We assessed the additional contribution of measuring LV before and after BD to detect acute improvement in lung function not demonstrated by FEV1, and the influence of the response criteria selected on this contribution. We analyzed 98 spirometries and plethismographies performed pre and post BD in patients with airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC 10% of baseline (D>5 anD>15% were also analyzed. FEV1 identified as responders 32% of patients. Greater proportions were uncovered by slow vital capacity (51%, p5 anD>15%. Mean change and proportions of responders for each LV varied significantly (pSi bien el aumento del VEF1 es habitualmente utilizado para definir respuesta a broncodilatadores (BD, su correlación con efectos clínicos es pobre. Los cambios en volúmenes pulmonares (VP han demostrado mejor correlación con tolerancia al ejercicio y podrían ser más sensibles para detectar efectos de los BD. Nosotros evaluamos la contribución adicional de medir VP antes y después de BD para detectar mejoría funcional aguda no demostrada por cambios del VEF1, y la influencia del criterio de respuesta seleccionado en esta contribución. Se analizaron 98 espirometrías y pletismografías realizadas pre y post BD en pacientes con obstrucción al flujo aéreo (VEF1/CVF 10% del basal (D>5 y 15% fueron también analizados. El VEF1 identificó como respondedores a 32% de los pacientes. Proporciones mayores fueron identificadas por capacidad vital lenta (51%, p5 y 15%. El cambio promedio y las proporciones de respondedores para cada VP variaron significativamente (p<0.05 según que el cambio fuese expresado como porcentaje del basal o del valor predicho. Una proporción considerable de pacientes con obstrucci

  12. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  13. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  14. Assessment of recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of cold rolled IF steel through non-destructive electromagnetic characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rajat K.; Dutta, Siuli; Panda, Ashis K.; Rajinikanth, V.; Das, Swapan K.; Mitra, Amitava; Strangwood, M.; Davis, Claire L.

    2018-07-01

    The recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of cold rolled IF steel have been investigated by destructive (optical microscopy and hardness) and non-destructive electromagnetic sensor, (which allows direct measurement of strip samples with no surface preparation) techniques. The onset and completion of recrystallisation are clearly monitored through destructive techniques of optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The nucleation of new recrystallised grains is observed in the sample annealed at 600 °C/15 min, while completion of recrystallisation takes place at 700 °C/15 min. The destructive techniques are not very accurate in monitoring recovery, for example, changes in hardness of accounting for ≈60% change in the coercivity value. Therefore, the measurement of magnetic softening through an electromagnetic sensor acts a crucial role for understanding recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of steels during industrial processing. The present investigation is aimed not only for controlling product quality but also saving characterisation time through off line monitoring during steel processing at industry.

  15. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  16. An Assessment of the Potential Effects of Aquifer Storage and Recovery on Mercury Cycling in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury contamination in the environment is a global concern, especially in areas with abundant wetlands, such as south Florida. As the causal factors of this concern improve, scientists find that many factors that do not necessarily affect mercury concentrations, such as flooding and drying cycles, or changes to carbon and sulfate loading, can profoundly affect net mercury toxicity. Especially important are ecological factors that alter the conversion of mercury to methylmercury, which is the most bioaccumulative and toxic form of mercury in the environment. Resource managers, therefore, need to be aware of possible deleterious affects to mercury toxicity that could result from land and water management decisions. Several aspects of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), including the planned Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) program, have the potential to affect the abundance of methylmercury. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collaborated on a study to evaluate how the proposed ASR program may affect mercury cycling and toxicity. This project was conducted as an initial assessment of the possible effects of the CERP ASR program on mercury in the south Florida environment. A twofold approach was employed: field sampling and controlled laboratory benchmark experiments. The field sampling survey collected ground-water samples from the Floridan and surficial aquifer systems for the ASR program to determine existing levels of mercury and methylmercury. Laboratory experiments, on the other hand, were designed to determine how the injected surface water would interact with the aquifer during storage periods. Overall, very low levels of mercury and methylmercury (mean values of 0.41 and 0.07 nanograms per liter, respectively) were observed in ground-water samples collected from the Floridan and surficial aquifer systems. These results indicate that 'recovered water' from the CERP ASR program would

  17. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    With the goal of developing a deterministic understanding of the microbiological and geochemical processes controlling subsurface environments, groundwater bacterial communities were collected from the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Biomass from three temporal acetate-stimulated groundwater samples were collected during a period of dominant Fe(III)-reduction, in a region of the aquifer that had previously received acetate amendment the year prior. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diverse Bacterial community, notably devoid of Archaea with 249 taxa from 9 Bacterial phyla including the dominance of uncultured candidate divisions, BD1-5, OD1, and OP11. We have reconstructed 86 partial to near-complete genomes and have performed a detailed characterization of the underlying metabolic potential of the ecosystem. We assessed the natural variation and redundancy in multi-heme c-type cytochromes, sulfite reductases, and central carbon metabolic pathways. Deep genomic sampling indicated the community contained various metabolic pathways: sulfur oxidation coupled to microaerophilic conditions, nitrate reduction with both acetate and inorganic compounds as donors, carbon and nitrogen fixation, antibiotic warfare, and heavy-metal detoxification. Proteomic investigations using predicted proteins from metagenomics corroborated that acetate oxidation is coupled to reduction of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron across the samples. Of particular interest was the detection of acetate oxidizing and sulfate reducing proteins from a Desulfotalea-like bacterium in all three time points, suggesting that aqueous sulfide produced by active sulfate-reducing bacteria could contribute to abiotic iron reduction during the dominant iron reduction phase. Additionally, proteogenomic analysis verified that a large portion of the community, including members of the uncultivated BD1-5, are obligate fermenters, characterized by the presence of hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations

  20. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  1. Assessment of minute volume of lung in NPP workers for Korean reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Song, S. H.; Lee, J.; Jin, Y. W.; Yim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    To formulation of the reference Korean for radiation protection purpose, we measured the forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume in second(FEVI), minute ventilation(MV) of Nuclear Power Plant workers using SP-1 Spirometry Unit(Schiller AG. 1998) and eatimated the liters of breathed for working and resting, also compared these data with ICRP 23

  2. Assessment of minute volume of lung in NPP workers for Korean reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J.; Song, S. H.; Lee, J.; Jin, Y. W.; Yim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S. [KNETEC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To formulation of the reference Korean for radiation protection purpose, we measured the forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume in second(FEVI), minute ventilation(MV) of Nuclear Power Plant workers using SP-1 Spirometry Unit(Schiller AG. 1998) and eatimated the liters of breathed for working and resting, also compared these data with ICRP 23.

  3. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  4. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  5. Comparative assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for the prediction of functional recovery in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Haruhisa; Nakano, Akira; Uzui, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Takanori; Lee, Jong-Dae; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although preserved glucose metabolism is considered to be a marker of myocardial viability in the chronic stage, it has not been fully elucidated whether this is also true with regard to reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prediction of functional recovery in reperfused AMI.Methods: The study population comprised 28 patients. Both tetrofosmin SPECT and FDG PET were performed in all 28 patients at ca. 2 weeks and in 23 at 6 months. The tetrofosmin and FDG findings in infarct-related segments were compared with the regional wall motion score assessed by left ventriculography over 6 months to determine the predictive value for functional recovery. Of 120 infarct-related segments, 83 had preserved flow (tetrofosmin uptake ≥50%) and 81 had preserved glucose metabolism (FDG uptake ≥40%). The sensitivity and specificity of tetrofosmin SPECT for the prediction of functional recovery tended to be superior to those of FDG PET (90.0% and 72.5% vs 85.0% and 67.5%, respectively). Thirteen segments with preserved flow and decreased glucose metabolism demonstrated marked recovery of contractile function from 2.5±1.0 to 1.4±1.4 (p<0.01), with restoration of glucose metabolism at 6 months. In contrast, 11 segments with decreased flow and preserved glucose metabolism demonstrated incomplete functional improvement from 3.0±0.8 to 2.2±1.2. In the subacute phase, preserved myocardial blood flow is more reliable than glucose metabolism in predicting functional recovery in reperfused myocardium. (orig.)

  6. Correlation of Objective Assessment Data With General Surgery Resident In-Training Evaluation Reports and Operative Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Jad M; AlJamal, Yazan N; Ruparel, Raaj K; Rowse, Phillip G; Heller, Stephanie F; Farley, David R

    2018-05-14

    Faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, and operative case volumes often tell little about true resident performance. We developed an objective structured clinical examination called the Surgical X-Games (5 rooms, 15 minutes each, 12-15 tests total, different for each postgraduate [PGY] level). We hypothesized that performance in X-Games will prove more useful in identifying areas of strength or weakness among general surgery (GS) residents than faculty evaluations, ABSITE scores, or operative cases volumes. PGY 2 to 5 GS residents (n = 35) were tested in a semiannual X-Games assessment using multiple simulation tasks: laparoscopic skills, bowel anastomosis, CT/CXR analysis, chest tube placement, etc. over 1 academic year. Resident scores were compared to their ABSITE, in-training evaluation reports, and operating room case numbers. Academic medical center. PGY-2, 3, 4, and 5 GS residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Results varied greatly within each class except for staff evaluations: in-training evaluation reports medians for PGY-2s were 5.3 (range: 5.0-6.0), PGY-3s 5.9 (5.5-6.3), PGY-4s 5.6 (5.0-6.0), and PGY-5s were 6.1 (5.6-6.9). Although ABSITE and operating room case volumes fluctated greatly with each PGY class, only X-Games scores (median: PGY-2 = 82, PGY-3 = 61, PGY-4 = 76, and PGY-5 = 60) correlated positively (p < 0.05) with operative case volume and negatively (p < 0.05) with staff evaluations. X-Games assessment generated wide differentiation of resident performance quickly, inexpensively, and objectively. Although "Minnesota-nice" surgical staff may feel all GS trainees are "above average," objective assessment tells us otherwise. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of superior mesenteric artery flow volume in the assessment of Crohn's disease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Paiva Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate superior mesenteric artery flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography as a means of characterizing inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease. Materials and Methods Forty patients were examined and divided into two groups – disease activity and remission – according to their Crohn's disease activity index score. Mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was calculated for each group and correlated with Crohn's disease activity index score. Results The mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was significantly greater in the patients with active disease (626 ml/min ± 236 × 376 ml/min ± 190; p = 0.001. As a cut off corresponding to 500 ml/min was utilized, the superior mesenteric artery flow volume demonstrated sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease activity. Conclusion The present results suggest that patients with active Crohn's disease have increased superior mesenteric artery flow volume as compared with patients in remission. Superior mesenteric artery flow measurement had a good performance in the assessment of disease activity in this study sample.

  8. Revisiting the relationship between tumour volume and diameter in advanced NSCLC patients: An exercise to maximize the utility of each measure to assess response to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, M.; Jackman, D.M.; DiPiro, P.J.; Hatabu, H.; Jänne, P.A.; Johnson, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To revisit the presumed relationship between tumour diameter and volume in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and determine whether the measured volume using volume-analysis software and its proportional changes during therapy matches with the calculated volume obtained from the presumed relationship and results in concordant response assessment. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC with a total of 53 measurable lung lesions, treated in a phase II trial of erlotinib, were studied with institutional review board approval. Tumour volume and diameter were measured at baseline and at the first follow-up computed tomography (CT) examination using volume-analysis software. Using the measured diameter (2r) and the equation, calculated volume was obtained as (4/3)πr 3 at baseline and at the follow-up. Percent volume change was obtained by comparing to baseline for measured and calculated volumes, and response assessment was assigned. Results: The measured volume was significantly smaller than the calculated volume at baseline (median 11,488.9 mm 3 versus 17,148.6 mm 3 ; p < 0.0001), with a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.7022. At follow-up, the measured volume was once again significantly smaller than the calculated volume (median 6573.5 mm 3 versus 9198.1 mm 3 ; p = 0.0022), with a CCC of 0.7408. Response assessment by calculated versus measured volume changes had only moderate agreement (weighted κ = 0.545), with discordant assessment results in 20% (8/40) of lesions. Conclusion: Calculated volume based on the presumed relationship significantly differed from the measured volume in advanced NSCLC patients, with only moderate concordance in response assessment, indicating the limitations of presumed relationship. - Highlights: • Response assessment by measured vs calculated values has only moderate agreement. • It is important to obtain the actual measured values for tumor response

  9. Tumor Volume Changes Assessed by Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Volumetry in Rectal Cancer Patients After Preoperative Chemoradiation: The Impact of the Volume Reduction Ratio on the Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Young Wan; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Jin Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Hogeun; Lim, Joon Seok; Seong, Jinsil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tumor volume changes assessed by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry and the histopathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical surgery were prospectively enrolled in the study. The post-treatment tumor volume and tumor volume reduction ratio (% decrease ratio), as shown by 3D MR volumetry, were compared with the histopathologic response, as shown by T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: There were no significant differences in the post-treatment tumor volume and the volume reduction ratio shown by 3D MR volumetry with respect to T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade. In a multivariate analysis, the tumor volume reduction ratio was not significantly associated with T and N downstaging. The volume reduction ratio (>75%, p = 0.01) and the pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level (≤3 ng/ml, p = 0.01), but not the post-treatment volume shown by 3D MR (≤ 5ml), were, however, significantly associated with an increased pathologic complete response rate. Conclusion: More than 75% of the tumor volume reduction ratios were significantly associated with a high pathologic complete response rate. Therefore, limited treatment options such as local excision or simple observation might be considered after preoperative CRT in this patient population.

  10. Assessment of a volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance in ALI/ARDS by pooling breathing cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Möller, Knut; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    New methods were developed to calculate the volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance (C rs ) in mechanically ventilated patients. Due to noise in respiratory signals and different characteristics of the methods, their results can considerably differ. The aim of the study was to establish a practical procedure to validate the estimation of intratidal dynamic C rs . A total of 28 patients from intensive care units of eight German university hospitals with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were studied retrospectively. Dynamic volume-dependent C rs was determined during ongoing mechanical ventilation with the SLICE method, dynostatic algorithm and adaptive slice method. Conventional two-point compliance C 2P was calculated for comparison. A number of consecutive breathing cycles were pooled to reduce noise in the respiratory signals. C rs -volume curves produced with different methods converged when the number of pooling cycles increased (n ≥ 7). The mean volume-dependent C rs of 20 breaths was highly correlated with mean C 2P (C 2P,mean = 0.945 × C rs,mean − 0.053, r 2 = 0.968, p < 0.0001). The Bland–Altman analysis indicated that C 2P,mean was lower than C rs,mean (−2.4 ± 6.4 ml cm −1 H 2 O, mean bias ± 2 SD), but not significant according to the paired t-test (p > 0.05). Methods for analyzing dynamic respi