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Sample records for recovery affect skeletal

  1. Cyclosporin-A does not affect skeletal muscle mass during disuse and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Aoki

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressive drug that acts as an inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium phosphatase that has been suggested to play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of CsA administration (25 mg kg-1 day-1 on skeletal muscle mass and phenotype during disuse and recovery. Male Wistar rats received vehicle (N = 8 or CsA (N = 8 during hind limb immobilization (N = 8 and recovery (N = 8. Muscle weight (dry/wet and cross-sectional area were evaluated to verify the effect of CsA treatment on muscle mass. Muscle phenotype was assessed by histochemistry of myosin ATPase. CsA administration during immobilization and recovery did not change muscle/body weight ratio in the soleus (SOL or plantaris (PL. Regarding muscle phenotype, we observed a consistent slow-to-fast shift in all experimental groups (immobilized only, receiving CsA only, and immobilized receiving CsA as compared to control in both SOL and PL (P < 0.05. During recovery, no difference was observed in SOL or PL fiber type composition between the experimental recovered group and recovered group receiving CsA compared to their respective controls. Considering the muscle/body weight ratio, CsA administration does not maximize muscle mass loss induced by immobilization. Our results also indicate that CsA fails to block skeletal muscle regrowth after disuse. The present data suggest that calcineurin inhibition by CsA modulates muscle phenotype rather than muscle mass.

  2. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis......Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...

  3. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    of unaccustomed exercise on global transcriptional profiles in porcine skeletal muscles. Using a combined microarray and candidate gene approach, we identified a suite of genes that are differentially expressed in muscles during postexercise recovery. Several members of the heat shock protein family and proteins...... of adenosine-to-inosine edited mRNAs in the ribonucleoprotein bodies called paraspeckles. These findings expand the complexity of pathways affected by acute contractile activity of skeletal muscle, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in muscle tissue in the recovery...

  4. A Prospective Study of Factors Affecting Recovery from Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    musculo - skeletal injuries. One factor that appears promising as a predictor of injury recovery is fear-avoidance beliefs. Fear- avoidance beliefs are...predictors of recovery from musculo - skeletal injuries have been mixed [5, 8, 58, 59]. The relationship between depression and musculoskeletal injury

  5. Embryonic stem cells improve skeletal muscle recovery after extreme atrophy in mice.

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    Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; De Oliveira Silvestre, João Guilherme; Guilherme, João Paulo Limongi França; Baptista, Igor Luchini; Ramos, Gracielle Vieira; Da Silva, Willian José; Miyabara, Elen Haruka; Moriscot, Anselmo Sigari

    2015-03-01

    We injected embryonic stem cells into mouse tibialis anterior muscles subjected to botulinum toxin injections as a model for reversible neurogenic atrophy. Muscles were exposed to botulinum toxin for 4 weeks and allowed to recover for up to 6 weeks. At the onset of recovery, a single muscle injection of embryonic stem cells was administered. The myofiber cross-sectional area, single twitch force, peak tetanic force, time-to-peak force, and half-relaxation time were determined. Although the stem cell injection did not affect the myofiber cross-sectional area gain in recovering muscles, most functional parameters improved significantly compared with those of recovering muscles that did not receive the stem cell injection. Muscle function recovery was accelerated by embryonic stem cell delivery in this durable neurogenic atrophy model. We conclude that stem cells should be considered a potential therapeutic tool for recovery after extreme skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Does phototherapy enhance skeletal muscle contractile function and postexercise recovery? A systematic review.

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    Borsa, Paul A; Larkin, Kelly A; True, Jerry M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, researchers have shown that phototherapy administered to skeletal muscle immediately before resistance exercise can enhance contractile function, prevent exercise-induced cell damage, and improve postexercise recovery of strength and function. To critically evaluate original research addressing the ability of phototherapeutic devices, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), to enhance skeletal muscle contractile function, reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue, and facilitate postexercise recovery. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine without date limitations for the following key words: laser therapy, phototherapy, fatigue, exercise, circulation, microcirculation, and photobiomodulation. Eligible studies had to be original research published in English as full papers, involve human participants, and receive a minimum score of 7 out of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Data of interest included elapsed time to fatigue, total number of repetitions to fatigue, total work performed, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (strength), electromyographic activity, and postexercise biomarker levels. We recorded the PEDro scores, beam characteristics, and treatment variables and calculated the therapeutic outcomes and effect sizes for the data sets. In total, 12 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. However, we excluded data from 2 studies, leaving 32 data sets from 10 studies. Twenty-four of the 32 data sets contained differences between active phototherapy and sham (placebo-control) treatment conditions for the various outcome measures. Exposing skeletal muscle to single-diode and multidiode laser or multidiode LED therapy was shown to positively affect physical performance by delaying the onset of fatigue, reducing the fatigue response, improving postexercise recovery, and protecting cells from exercise-induced damage

  7. Thalidomide affects the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

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    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Folwarczna, Joanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2009-01-01

    Apart from having written an inglorious chapter in the history of medicine, thalidomide is currently being intensely studied because of its multidimensional activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats. The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats, divided into eight groups: sham-operated control rats; sham-operated rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po; ovariectomized control rats; ovariectomized rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po. The drug was administered for 4 weeks. Body mass gain and the mass of the uterus, liver, spleen and thymus were studied. Macrometric parameters and content of mineral substances, calcium and phosphorus in the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra and histomorphometric parameters of the femur and tibia were examined. In the femur, the mechanical properties of the whole bone and of the femoral neck were examined. Thalidomide did not affect the skeletal system of the non-ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy induced osteoporotic skeletal changes in mature female rats. The effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats depended on the dose used. With a dose of 15 mg/kg, po, thalidomide counteracted some osteoporotic changes induced by estrogen deficiency. With a dose of 60 mg/kg, po, thalidomide intensified the destructive effects of estrogen deficiency on the rat skeletal system.

  8. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

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    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  9. Substrate availability and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Osada, Takuya; Andersen, Lisbeth Tingsted

    2005-01-01

    In skeletal muscle of humans, transcription of several metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise when no food is consumed. To determine the potential influence of substrate availability on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes during recovery from exercise, ...

  10. Human skeletal muscle fatty acid and glycerol metabolism during rest, exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) and glycerol kinetics and to determine the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole body FA and glycerol turnover during rest, 2 h of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of maximal leg power output, and 3 h of recovery....... To this aim, the leg femoral arterial-venous difference technique was used in combination with a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in five post-absorptive healthy volunteers (22 +/- 3 years). The influence of contamination from non-skeletal muscle tissues, skin and subcutaneous...... glycerol uptake was observed, which was substantially higher during exercise. Total body skeletal muscle FA and glycerol uptake/release was estimated to account for 18-25 % of whole body R(d) or R(a). In conclusion: (1) skeletal muscle FA and glycerol metabolism, using the leg arterial-venous difference...

  11. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

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    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  12. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover in recovery from burns.

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    Porter, Craig; Hurren, Nicholas M; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Trauma and critical illness are associated with a stress response that results in increased skeletal muscle protein catabolism, which is thought to facilitate the synthesis of acute phase proteins in the liver as well as proteins involved in immune function. What makes burn injury a unique form of trauma is the existence of vast skin lesions, where the majority of afflicted tissue is often surgically excised post injury. Thereafter, recovery is dependent on the formation of a significant quantity of new skin, meaning that the burned patient requires a large and sustained supply of amino acids to facilitate wound healing. Skeletal muscle has the capacity to store surplus glucose and fatty acids within glycogen and triacylglycerol depots respectively, where glycogen and fatty acids can be mobilized during prolonged periods of caloric restriction or heightened metabolic demand (e.g., exercise), to be catabolized in order to maintain cellular ATP availability. Amino acids, on the other hand, are not generally considered to be stored in such a manner within skeletal muscle, i.e., in a temporary pool independent of structural proteins and cellular organelles etc. Subsequently, in response to severe thermal trauma, skeletal muscle assumes the role of an amino acid reserve where muscle protein breakdown and amino acid release from skeletal muscle serves to buffer plasma amino acid concentrations. Interestingly, it seems like aggressive feeding of the severely burned patient may not necessarily supply amino acids in sufficient abundance to normalize skeletal muscle protein metabolism, suggesting that skeletal muscle becomes an essential store of protein in patients suffering from severe burn trauma. In this article, the effects of burn injury on whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism will be discussed in an attempt to distill the current understanding of the impact of this debilitating injury on the redistribution of skeletal muscle protein stores.

  13. Plasticity and recovery of skeletal muscle satellite cells during limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jamie I; Borg, Paula; Simon, András

    2010-03-01

    Salamander limb regeneration depends on local progenitors whose progeny are recruited to the new limb. We previously identified a Pax7(+) cell population in skeletal muscle whose progeny have the potential to contribute to the regenerating limb. However, the plasticity of individual Pax7(+) cells, as well as their recovery within the new limb, was unclear. Here, we show that Pax7(+) cells remain present after multiple rounds of limb amputation/regeneration. Pax7(+) cells are found exclusively within skeletal muscle in the regenerating limb and proliferate where the myofibers are growing. Pax7 is rapidly down-regulated in the blastema, and analyses of clonal derivatives show that Pax7(+) cell progeny are not restricted to skeletal muscle during limb regeneration. Our data suggest that the newt regeneration blastema is not entirely a composite of lineage-restricted progenitors. The results demonstrate that except for a transient and subsequently blunted increase, skeletal muscle satellite cells constitute a stable pool of reserve cells for multiple limb regeneration events.-Morrison, J. I., Borg, P., Simon, A. Plasticity and recovery of skeletal muscle satellite cells during limb regeneration.

  14. Elevated triglycerides may affect cystatin C recovery.

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    Witzel, Samantha H; Butts, Katherine; Filler, Guido

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of triglyceride concentration on cystatin C (CysC) measurements. Serum samples collected from 10 nephrology patients, 43 to 78years of age, were air centrifuged to separate aqueous and lipid layers. The lipid layer from each patient was pooled together to create a mixture with a high triglyceride concentration. This pooled lipid layer was mixed with each of the ten patient aqueous layers in six different ratios. Single factor ANOVA was used to assess whether CysC recovery was affected by triglyceride levels. Regression analysis was used to develop a formula to correct for the effect of triglycerides on CysC measurement, based on samples from 6 randomly chosen patients from our study population. The formula was validated with the 4 remaining samples. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in measured CysC with increasing concentrations of triglycerides (Pearson r=-0.56, ptriglycerides: Subsequent Bland-Altman plots revealed a bias (mean±1 standard deviation [SD]) of -3.7±15.6% for the data used to generate the correction formula and a bias of 3.52±9.38% for the validation set. Our results suggest that triglyceride concentrations significantly impact cystatin C measurements and that this effect may be corrected in samples that cannot be sufficiently clarified by air centrifugation using the equation that we developed. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  16. Substrate availability and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Osada, Takuya; Andersen, Lisbeth T; Helge, Jørn W; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2005-08-01

    In skeletal muscle of humans, transcription of several metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise when no food is consumed. To determine the potential influence of substrate availability on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes during recovery from exercise, 9 male subjects (aged 22-27) completed 75 minutes of cycling exercise at 75% Vo2 max on 2 occasions, consuming either a high-carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) diet during the subsequent 24 hours of recovery. Nuclei were isolated and tissue frozen from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained before exercise and 2, 5, 8, and 24 hours after exercise. Muscle glycogen was restored to near resting levels within 5 hours in the HC trial, but remained depressed through 24 hours in the LC trial. During the 2- to 8-hour recovery period, leg glucose uptake was 5- to 15-fold higher with HC ingestion, whereas arterial plasma free fatty acid levels were approximately 3- to 7-fold higher with LC ingestion. Exercise increased (P < .05) transcription and/or mRNA content of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, uncoupling protein 3, lipoprotein lipase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, hexokinase II, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha. Providing HC during recovery reversed the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, uncoupling protein 3, lipoprotein lipase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I within 5 to 8 hours after exercise, whereas providing LC during recovery elicited a sustained/enhanced increase in activation of these genes through 8 to 24 hours of recovery. These findings provide evidence that factors associated with substrate availability and/or cellular metabolic recovery (eg, muscle glycogen restoration) influence the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle of humans during recovery from exercise.

  17. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover in recovery from burns

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Craig; Nicholas M Hurren; Herndon, David N.; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Trauma and critical illness are associated with a stress response that results in increased skeletal muscle protein catabolism, which is thought to facilitate the synthesis of acute phase proteins in the liver as well as proteins involved in immune function. What makes burn injury a unique form of trauma is the existence of vast skin lesions, where the majority of afflicted tissue is often surgically excised post injury. Thereafter, recovery is dependent on the formation of a significant quan...

  18. Nitric oxide affects sarcoplasmic calcium release in skeletal myotubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunks, L.M.A.; Machiels, H.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Prakash, Y.S.; Sieck, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, we used real-time confocal microscopy to examine the effects of two nitric oxide (NO) donors on acetylcholine (ACh; 10 microM)- and caffeine (10 mM)-induced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses in C2C12 mouse skeletal myotubes. We hypothesized that NO reduces

  19. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, H; Ordway, G A; Saltin, B; Neufer, P D

    2000-10-01

    Exercise training elicits a number of adaptive changes in skeletal muscle that result in an improved metabolic efficiency. The molecular mechanisms mediating the cellular adaptations to exercise training in human skeletal muscle are unknown. To test the hypothesis that recovery from exercise is associated with transcriptional activation of specific genes, six untrained male subjects completed 60-90 min of exhaustive one-legged knee extensor exercise for five consecutive days. On day 5, nuclei were isolated from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle of the untrained and the trained leg before exercise and from the trained leg immediately after exercise and after 15 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h of recovery. Transcriptional activity of the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) genes (relative to beta-actin) increased by three- to sevenfold in response to exercise, peaking after 1-2 h of recovery. Increases in mRNA levels followed changes in transcription, peaking between 2 and 4 h after exercise. Lipoprotein lipase and carnitine pamitoyltransferase I gene transcription and mRNA levels showed similar but less dramatic induction patterns, with increases ranging from two- to threefold. In a separate study, a single 4-h bout of cycling exercise (n = 4) elicited from 5 to >20-fold increases in UCP3, PDK4, and HO-1 transcription, suggesting that activation of these genes may be related to the duration or intensity of exercise. These data demonstrate that exercise induces transient increases in transcription of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Moreover, the findings suggest that the cumulative effects of transient increases in transcription during recovery from consecutive bouts of exercise may represent the underlying kinetic basis for the cellular adaptations associated with exercise training.

  20. Fundamental processes affecting recovery in hydrogen thyratrons

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    Braun, C. G.; Erwin, D. A.; Gundersen, M. A.

    1987-05-01

    Experimental measurements in the positive column of wall-confined high-current hydrogen thyratron discharges show a pronounced increase in atomic hydrogen excited state populations after the end of the current pulse. The decay rate of the electron and excited state populations is observed to decrease as the energy flux increases. A time-dependent collisional-radiative model is used to calculate electron and excited state densities. This model is in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements and explains the afterpulse behavior. The analysis shows that the coupling between electron and atom temperatures is an important mechanism in high-power thyratron recovery. A new method using laser-induced fluorescence to obtain time-resolved Stark broadening data for electron density measurements is presented.

  1. Recovery of skeletal muscle after 3 mo of hindlimb immobilization in rats

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    Booth, F. W.; Seider, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    During immobilization, skeletal muscle undergoes decreases in size and strength with concomitant atrophic and degenerative changes in slow-twitch muscle fibers. Currently there are no objective data in slow-twitch muscle demonstrating recovery of biochemical or physiological indices following termination of immobilization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the soleus, a slow-twitch muscle, could recover normal biochemical or physiological levels following termination of immobilization. Adenosine triphosphate, glycogen, and protein concentration (mg/g wet wt) all significantly decreased following 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, but these three values returned to control levels by the 60th recovery day. Similarly, soleus muscle wet weight and protein content (mg protein/muscle) returned to control levels by the 14th recovery day. In contrast, maximal isometric tension did not return to normal until the 120th day. These results indicate that following muscular atrophy, which was achieved through 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, several biochemical and physiological values in skeletal muscle are recovered at various times after the end of immobilization.

  2. Temporal profile of rat skeletal muscle capillary haemodynamics during recovery from contractions

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    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Padilla, Danielle J; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2006-01-01

    In skeletal muscle capillaries, red blood cell (RBC) flux (FRBC), velocity (VRBC) and haematocrit (HctCAP) are key determinants of microvascular O2 exchange. However, the mechanisms leading to the changes in FRBC, VRBC and HctCAP during muscle contractions and recovery thereafter are not fully understood. To address this issue we used intravital microscopy to investigate the temporal profile of the rat spinotrapezius muscle (n = 5) capillary haemodynamics during recovery from 3 min of twitch muscle contractions (1 Hz, 4–6 V). Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) during early recovery FRBC and VRBC would decrease rapidly and FRBC would display a biphasic response (consistent with a muscle pump effect on capillary haemodynamics), and (2) there would be a dynamic relationship between changes (Δ) in VRBC and HctCAP. The values at rest (R) and end-recovery (ER) were significantly lower (P 0.05). Based on the early decrease in FRBC(within 5 s), overall dynamic profile of FRBC and the ∼20 s ‘delay’ to the decrease in VRBC we conclude that the muscle pump does not appear to contribute substantially to the steady-state capillary haemodynamics in the contracting rat spinotrapezius muscle. Moreover, our findings suggest that alterations in VRBC do not obligate proportional changes in HctCAP within individual capillaries following muscle contractions. PMID:16581868

  3. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Recovery rate affects the effective epidemic threshold with synchronous updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Accurate identification of effective epidemic threshold is essential for understanding epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In this paper, we systematically study how the recovery rate affects the susceptible-infected-removed spreading dynamics on complex networks, where synchronous and asynchronous updating processes are taken into account. We derive the theoretical effective epidemic threshold and final outbreak size based on the edge-based compartmental theory. To validate the proposed theoretical predictions, extensive numerical experiments are implemented by using asynchronous and synchronous updating methods. When asynchronous updating method is used in simulations, recovery rate does not affect the final state of spreading dynamics. But with synchronous updating, we find that the effective epidemic threshold decreases with recovery rate, and final outbreak size increases with recovery rate. A good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the numerical results are observed on both synthetic and real-world networks. Our results extend the existing theoretical studies and help us to understand the phase transition with arbitrary recovery rate.

  5. Erythropoietin improves functional and histological recovery of traumatized skeletal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Menshykova, Marija; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Georg; Stratos, Ioannis; Schoen, Matthias; Bittorf, Thomas; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2008-12-01

    Apart from its hematopoietic effect, erythropoietin (EPO) is known as pleiotropic cytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we evaluated for the first time the EPO-dependent regeneration capacity in an in vivo rat model of skeletal muscle trauma. A myoblast cell line was used to study the effect of EPO on serum deprivation-induced cell apoptosis in vitro. A crush injury was performed to the left soleus muscle in 80 rats treated with either EPO or saline. Muscle recovery was assessed by analysis of contraction capacities. Intravital microscopy, BrdU/laminin double immunohistochemistry and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue on days 1, 7, 14, and 42 posttrauma served for assessment of local microcirculation, tissue integrity, and cell proliferation. Serum deprivation-induced myoblast apoptosis of 23.9 +/- 1.5% was reduced by EPO to 17.2 +/- 0.8%. Contraction force analysis in the EPO-treated animals revealed significantly improved muscle strength with 10-20% higher values of twitch and tetanic forces over the 42-day observation period. EPO-treated muscle tissue displayed improved functional capillary density as well as reduced leukocytic response and consecutively macromolecular leakage over day 14. Concomitantly, muscle histology showed significantly increased numbers of BrdU-positive satellite cells and interstitial cells as well as slightly lower counts of cleaved caspase-3-positive interstitial cells. EPO results in faster and better regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue after severe trauma and goes along with improved microcirculation. Thus, EPO, a compound established as clinically safe, may represent a promising therapeutic option to optimize the posttraumatic course of muscle tissue healing.

  6. Can landscape memory affect vegetation recovery in drylands?

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    Baartman, Jantiene; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Temme, Arnaud; Rietkerk, Max

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are water-limited and therefore vegetation typically forms banded or patchy patterns with high vegetation cover, interspersed with bare soil areas. In these systems, a runoff-runon system is often observed with bare areas acting as sources and vegetation patches acting as sinks of water, sediment and other transported substances. These fragile ecosystems are easily disturbed by overgrazing, removing above-ground vegetation. To avoid desertification, vegetation recovery after a disturbance is crucial. This poster discusses the potential of 'landscape memory' to affect the vegetation recovery potential. Landscape memory, originating in geomorphology, is the concept that a landscape is the result of its past history, which it 'remembers' through imprints left in the landscape. For example, a past heavy rainstorm may leave an erosion gully. These imprints affect the landscape's contemporary functioning, for example through faster removal of water from the landscape. In dryland ecosystems vegetation is known to affect the soil properties of the soil they grow in, e.g. increasing porosity, infiltration, organic matter content and soil structure. After a disturbance of the banded ecosystem, e.g. by overgrazing, this pattern of soil properties - favourable for regrowth, stays in the landscape. However, removal of the above-ground vegetation also leads to longer runoff pathways and increased rill and gully erosion, which may hamper vegetation regrowth. I hypothesize that vegetation recovery after a disturbance, depends on the balance between these two contrasting types of landscape memory (i.e. favourable soil properties and erosion rills/gullies).

  7. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  8. Increased ANG II sensitivity following recovery from acute kidney injury: role of oxidant stress in skeletal muscle resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shane A; Pechman, Kimberly R; Leonard, Ellen C; Friedrich, Jessica L; Bian, Jing-Tan; Beal, Alisa G; Basile, David P

    2010-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) results in prolonged impairment of peripheral (i.e., nonrenal) vascular function since skeletal muscle resistance arteries derived from rats 5 wk post-I/R injury, show enhanced responses to ANG II stimulation but not other constrictors. Because vascular superoxide increases ANG II sensitivity, we hypothesized that peripheral responsiveness following recovery from AKI was attributable to vascular oxidant stress. Gracilis arteries (GA) isolated from post-I/R rats (approximately 5 wk recovery) showed significantly greater superoxide levels relative to sham-operated controls, as detected by dihydroeithidium, which was further augmented by acute ANG II stimulation in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide measured by dichlorofluorescein was not affected by ANG II. GA derived from postischemic animals manifested significantly greater constrictor responses in vitro to ANG II than GA from sham-operated controls. The addition of the superoxide scavenging reagent Tempol (10(-5) M) normalized the response to values similar to sham-operated controls. Apocynin (10(-6) M) and endothelial denudation nearly abrogated all ANG II-stimulated constrictor activity in GA from post-AKI rats, suggesting an important role for an endothelial-derived source of peripheral oxidative stress. Apocynin treatment in vivo abrogated GA oxidant stress and attenuated ANG II-induced pressor responses post-AKI. Interestingly, gene expression studies in GA vessels indicated a paradoxical reduction in NADPH oxidase subunit and AT(1)-receptor genes and no effect on several antioxidant genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AKI alters peripheral vascular responses by increasing oxidant stress, likely in the endothelium, via an undefined mechanism.

  9. Recovery rate affects the effective epidemic threshold with synchronous updating

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Panpan; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of effective epidemic threshold is essential for understanding epidemic dynamics on complex networks. The existing studies on the effective epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model generally assume that all infected nodes immediately recover after the infection process, which more or less does not conform to the realistic situation of disease. In this paper, we systematically study the effect of arbitrary recovery rate on the SIR spreading dynamics on complex networks. We derive the theoretical effective epidemic threshold and final outbreak size based on the edge-based compartmental theory. To validate the proposed theoretical predictions, extensive numerical experiments are implemented by using asynchronous and synchronous updating methods. When asynchronous updating method is used in simulations, recovery rate does not affect the final state of spreading dynamics. But with synchronous updating, we find that the effective epidemic threshold decreases with re...

  10. Cold-water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy: physiological changes potentially affecting recovery from high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gillian E; Wells, Greg D

    2013-09-01

    High-intensity exercise is associated with mechanical and/or metabolic stresses that lead to reduced performance capacity of skeletal muscle, soreness and inflammation. Cold-water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy are commonly used following a high-intensity bout of exercise to speed recovery. Cryotherapy in its various forms has been used in this capacity for a number of years; however, the mechanisms underlying its recovery effects post-exercise remain elusive. The fundamental change induced by cold therapy is a reduction in tissue temperature, which subsequently exerts local effects on blood flow, cell swelling and metabolism and neural conductance velocity. Systemically, cold therapy causes core temperature reduction and cardiovascular and endocrine changes. A major hindrance to defining guidelines for best practice for the use of the various forms of cryotherapy is an incongruity between mechanistic studies investigating these physiological changes induced by cold and applied studies investigating the functional effects of cold for recovery from high-intensity exercise. When possible, studies investigating the functional recovery effects of cold therapy for recovery from exercise should concomitantly measure intramuscular temperature and relevant temperature-dependent physiological changes induced by this type of recovery strategy. This review will discuss the acute physiological changes induced by various cryotherapy modalities that may affect recovery in the hours to days (<5 days) that follow high-intensity exercise.

  11. Arc Conductance and Flow Velocity Affected by Transient Recovery Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Reo; Ishikawa, Yuya; Ono, Seisui; Sato, Ken; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the stable supply of electric power is indispensable. The GCB (Gas Circuit Breaker) can prevent the spread of the fault current. However, it should have the reliability more. Therefore the GCB has been researched for performance improvement of the arc interruption of abnormal fault current without the fail. Therefore, it is important to prevent the breakdown such as the re-ignition and thermal re-ignition of arc after the arc interruption. It is necessary to reduce the arc conductance in order to prevent the re-ignition of arc. The arc conductance is derived from the temperature distribution and the volume of the arc. The temperature distribution of the arc is formed by convection. In this research, the arc conductance and flow velocity affected by transient recovery voltage are elucidated. The flow rate and temperature distribution of the arc is calculated with changing transient recovery voltage. In addition, the arc conductance is calculated in order to know the extinguish arc ability. As a result, when the transient recovery voltage increases, the probability of re-ignition increases. Therefore, the arc temperature and the arc conductance were increased.

  12. How Do Thermal Recovery Methods Affect Wettability Alteration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Punase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will investigate the effect of temperature on wettability. First, we will list and summarize the different schools of thoughts from previous literature describing wettability changes for sandstone and carbonate reservoirs at elevated temperature. Next, we will describe the properties that affect wettability: how they alter wettability and how they are affected by temperature. After that, we will present indications of wettability changes and current wettability measurement techniques. Following this, case studies describing how wettability change influences reservoir characteristics and field performance during thermal recovery processes will be discussed. The thermal recovery methods included in the case studies were steam flooding, cyclic steam injection, hot water flooding, and in situ combustion. The main and very important take away from this study is that temperature induced wettability change is determined by many possible mechanisms combined together and not by just one or two phenomena occurring simultaneously. Finally, we will propose a reasonable scheme for wettability alteration during dry forward combustion, which needs further investigation.

  13. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen...... content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies...... in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular...

  14. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mou-wang; GU Li; CHEN Ya-ping; YU Chang-long; AO Ying-fang; HUANG Hong-shi; YANG Yan-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays an important role in knee movements.Since there are controversies surrounding the overall recovery time of proprioception following surgery,it is necessary to define the factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the relationship between proprioception and muscle strength.Methods A total of 36 patients who had their ACL reconstructed with a semitendinosus/gracilis graft (reconstructed group:6 months post-surgery) and 13 healthy adults without any knee injury (control group) were included in the study.Knee proprioception was evaluated with a passive reproduction test.Isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System.Statistical analysis was used to compare proprioception of the reconstructed group versus the control group,and to define causal factors,including sex,hamstring/quadriceps ratio,and the course of injury before reconstruction.We also investigated the correlation between the passive reproduction error and quadriceps index.Results There was a significant difference in proprioception between the reconstructed and control groups (P <0.05).When the course of injury before reconstruction was less than 4 months,there was a linear correlation with proprioception 6 months after the operation (r=0.713,P <0.05).There was a positive correlation between post-surgery proprioception and the quadriceps index at 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Impaired knee proprioception is observed 6 months after ACL reconstruction.Within 4 months of injury,early undertaking of reconstruction is associated with better proprioception outcome.Patients with enhanced proprioception have a better quadriceps index.

  15. Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lugos, Andrew C; Luden, Nicholas D; Faller, Justin M; Akers, Jeremy D; McKenzie, Alec I; Saunders, Michael J

    2016-09-07

    The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT) and reduced-volume training (RVT). Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT), ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT), and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT). In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO) or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP) during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT). A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax) was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT) and returned to baseline levels following RVT (-0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT), with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax) following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (-9 ± 9 bpm). Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance.

  16. Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. D’Lugos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT and reduced-volume training (RVT. Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT, ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT, and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT. In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT. A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT and returned to baseline levels following RVT (−0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT, with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (−9 ± 9 bpm. Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance.

  17. Supplemental Protein during Heavy Cycling Training and Recovery Impacts Skeletal Muscle and Heart Rate Responses but Not Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Lugos, Andrew C.; Luden, Nicholas D.; Faller, Justin M.; Akers, Jeremy D.; McKenzie, Alec I.; Saunders, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation on cycling performance, skeletal muscle function, and heart rate responses to exercise were examined following intensified (ICT) and reduced-volume training (RVT). Seven cyclists performed consecutive periods of normal training (NT), ICT (10 days; average training duration 220% of NT), and RVT (10 days; training duration 66% of NT). In a crossover design, subjects consumed supplemental carbohydrate (CHO) or an equal amount of carbohydrate with added protein (CP) during and following each exercise session (CP = +0.94 g/kg/day protein during ICT; +0.39 g/kg/day during RVT). A 30-kilometer time trial performance (following 120 min at 50% Wmax) was modestly impaired following ICT (+2.4 ± 6.4% versus NT) and returned to baseline levels following RVT (−0.7 ± 4.5% versus NT), with similar responses between CHO and CP. Skeletal muscle torque at 120 deg/s benefited from CP, compared to CHO, following ICT. However, this effect was no longer present at RVT. Following ICT, muscle fiber cross-sectional area was increased with CP, while there were no clear changes with CHO. Reductions in constant-load heart rates (at 50% Wmax) following RVT were likely greater with CP than CHO (−9 ± 9 bpm). Overall it appears that CP supplementation impacted skeletal muscle and heart rate responses during a period of heavy training and recovery, but this did not result in meaningful changes in time trial performance. PMID:27618091

  18. Affecting Factors and Improving Measures for Converter Gas Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To change the undesirable present situation of recovering and using converter gas in steel plants in China,the basic approaches to improving the converter gas recovery rate were analyzed theoretically along with the change curves of the converter gas component content, based on the converter gas recovery system of Baosteel No. 2 steelmaking plant. The effects of converter device, raw material, air imbibed quantity, recovery restricted condition, and intensity of oxygen blowing on the converter gas recovery rate were studied. Among these, the effects of the air imbibed quantity, recovery restricted condition, and intensity of oxygen blowing are remarkable. Comprehensive measures were put forward for improving the converter gas recovery from the point of devices, etc. , and good results were achieved.

  19. Clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisgin, Alparslan

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Demographic and clinical characteristics of 53 stroke patients (31 M, 22 F), such as age, gender, etiology, hemiplegic side, Brunnstrom stage, functional ambulation scale scores, history of rehabilitation, and presence of shoulder pain and complex regional pain syndrome were evaluated. [Results] The etiology was ischemic in 79.2% of patients and hemorrhagic in 20.8%. Brunnstrom hand and upper extremity values in females were lower than in males. Complex regional pain syndrome was observed at a level of 18.9% in all patients (more common in females). Brunnstrom hand stage was lower in complex regional pain syndrome patients than in those without the syndrome. Shoulder pain was present in 44.4% of patients. Brunnstrom lower extremity values and functional ambulation scale scores were higher in rehabilitated than in non-rehabilitated cases. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom stages of hand and upper extremity were lower and complex regional pain syndrome was more common in female stroke patients. Shoulder pain and lower Brunnstrom hand stages were related to the presence of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:28265142

  20. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Conti

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  1. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (Pchickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (Pchickens (Pchickens.

  2. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  3. Mest but Not MiR-335 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramuki, Yosuke; Sato, Takahiko; Furuta, Yasuhide; Surani, M. Azim; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    When skeletal muscle fibers are injured, they regenerate and grow until their sizes are adjusted to surrounding muscle fibers and other relevant organs. In this study, we examined whether Mest, one of paternally expressed imprinted genes that regulates body size during development, and miR-335 located in the second intron of the Mest gene play roles in muscle regeneration. We generated miR-335-deficient mice, and found that miR-335 is a paternally expressed imprinted microRNA. Although both Mest and miR-335 are highly expressed during muscle development and regeneration, only Mest+/- (maternal/paternal) mice show retardation of body growth. In addition to reduced body weight in Mest+/-; DMD-null mice, decreased muscle growth was observed in Mest+/- mice during cardiotoxin-induced regeneration, suggesting roles of Mest in muscle regeneration. Moreover, expressions of H19 and Igf2r, maternally expressed imprinted genes were affected in tibialis anterior muscle of Mest+/-; DMD-null mice compared to DMD-null mice. Thus, Mest likely mediates muscle regeneration through regulation of imprinted gene networks in skeletal muscle. PMID:26098312

  4. Hypoxia transiently affects skeletal muscle hypertrophy in a functional overload model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Koulmann, Nathalie; Simler, Nadine; Meunier, Adélie; Serrurier, Bernard; Chapot, Rachel; Peinnequin, Andre; Beaudry, Michèle; Bigard, Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Hypoxia induces a loss of skeletal muscle mass, but the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia could impair skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload (Ov). To test this hypothesis, plantaris muscles were overloaded during 5, 12, and 56 days in female rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (5,500 m), and then, we examined the responses of specific signaling pathways involved in protein synthesis (Akt/mTOR) and breakdown (atrogenes). Hypoxia minimized the Ov-induced hypertrophy at days 5 and 12 but did not affect the hypertrophic response measured at day 56. Hypoxia early reduced the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream targets P70(S6K) and rpS6, but it did not affect the phosphorylation levels of Akt and 4E-BP1, in Ov muscles. The role played by specific inhibitors of mTOR, such as AMPK and hypoxia-induced factors (i.e., REDD1 and BNIP-3) was studied. REDD1 protein levels were reduced by overload and were not affected by hypoxia in Ov muscles, whereas AMPK was not activated by hypoxia. Although hypoxia significantly increased BNIP-3 mRNA levels at day 5, protein levels remained unaffected. The mRNA levels of the two atrogenes MURF1 and MAFbx were early increased by hypoxia in Ov muscles. In conclusion, hypoxia induced a transient alteration of muscle growth in this hypertrophic model, at least partly due to a specific impairment of the mTOR/P70(S6K) pathway, independently of Akt, by an undefined mechanism, and increased transcript levels for MURF1 and MAFbx that could contribute to stimulate the proteasomal proteolysis.

  5. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R Claflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH and oxidized (NAD+ forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD+ does not, allowing NADH/NAD+ to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type (WT mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old WT mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult WT mice, muscles from the 28 mo WT mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice.

  6. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  7. The role of affect and rumination in cardiovascular recovery from stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaak, M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Brosschot, J.F.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychological processes that may impede or facilitate cardiovascular recovery. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular recovery would be hampered by negative affect and rumination, and facilitated by positive affect. In an experimental study, stress was elicited by exposing

  8. Trait and state positive affect and cardiovascular recovery from experimental academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Nauschnegg, Karin; Paechter, Manuela; Lackner, Helmut K; Goswami, Nandu; Schulter, Günter

    2010-02-01

    As compared to negative affect, only a small number of studies have examined influences of positive affect on cardiovascular stress responses, of which only a few were concerned with cardiovascular recovery. In this study, heart rate, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, blood pressure, and levels of subjectively experienced stress were obtained in 65 students before, during and after exposure to academic stress in an ecologically valid setting. Higher trait positive affect was associated with more complete cardiovascular and subjective post-stress recovery. This effect was independent of negative affect and of affective state during anticipation of the stressor. In contrast, a more positive affective state during anticipation of the challenge was related to poor post-stress recovery. The findings suggest that a temporally stable positive affect disposition may be related to adaptive responses, whereas positive emotional states in the context of stressful events can also contribute to prolonged post-stress recovery.

  9. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P;

    2009-01-01

    -alpha infusion (rhTNF-alpha). We hypothesize that TNF-alpha increases human muscle protein breakdown and/or inhibit synthesis. Subjects and Methods: Using a randomized controlled, crossover design post-absorptive healthy young males (n=8) were studied 2 hours under basal conditions followed by 4 hours infusion......Context: Skeletal muscle wasting has been associated with elevations in circulating inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-alpha. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether TNF-alpha affects human systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, via a 4 hours recombinant human TNF...... of either rhTNF-alpha (700 ng.m(-2).h(-1)) or 20% human albumin (Control) which was the vehicle of rhTNF-alpha. Systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover were estimated by a combination of tracer dilution methodology (primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(15)N...

  10. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  11. Intramuscular nerve damage in lacerated skeletal muscles may direct the inflammatory cytokine response during recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Barry P; Tan, Bee Leng; Han, Hwan Chour; Zou, Yu; Aung, Khin Zarchi; Leong, David T

    2012-07-01

    The expression of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in surgically repaired lacerated muscles over a 12-week recovery phase was investigated. We hypothesized that these expression levels are influenced by both neural and muscular damage within lacerated muscles. Microarrays were confirmed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and histology of biopsies at the lesion of three simulated lacerated muscle models in 130 adult rats. The lacerated medial gastrocnemius with the main intramuscular nerve branch either cut (DN), crushed but leaving an intact nerve sheath (RN); or preserved intact (PN) were compared. At 4 weeks, DN had a higher number of interleukins up-regulated. DN and RN also had a set of Bmp genes significantly expressed between 2 and 8 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). By 12 weeks, DN had a poorer and slower myogenic recovery and greater fibrosis formation correlating with an up-regulation of the Tgf-β gene family. DN also showed poorer re-innervation with higher mRNA expression levels of nerve growth factor (Ngf) and brain-derived neurotrophin growth factor (Bdnf) over RN and PN. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory response over 12 weeks in lacerated muscles may be directed by the type of intramuscular nerve damage, which can influence the recovery at the lesion site. Inflammatory-related genes associated to the type of intramuscular nerve damage include Gas-6, Artemin, Fgf10, Gdf8, Cntf, Lif, and Igf-2. qPCR also found up-regulation of Bdnf (1-week), neurotrophin-3 (2w), Lif (4w), and Ngf (4w, 8w) mRNA expressions in DN, making them possible candidates for therapeutic treatment to arrest the poor recovery in muscle lacerations (250).

  12. Higher Education as the Catalyst of Recovery in Conflict-Affected Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Sansom; Barakat, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of higher education in the recovery of conflict-affected societies and argues that while the sector is typically a very low reconstruction priority, it has the potential, if addressed strategically, to act as a catalyst for effective and sustainable post-war recovery. The article begins by contextualising higher…

  13. The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Roberts, Llion A; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid; Krog, Simone; Aas, Sigve N; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Markworth, James F; Coombes, Jeff S; Cameron-Smith, David; Raastad, Truls

    2017-02-01

    Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. A key assumption about the benefits of cold water immersion is that it reduces inflammation in skeletal muscle. However, no data are available from humans to support this notion. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammatory and cellular stress responses in skeletal muscle from exercise-trained men 2, 24 and 48 h during recovery after acute resistance exercise. Exercise led to the infiltration of inflammatory cells, with increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins, and the subcellular translocation of heat shock proteins in muscle. These responses did not differ significantly between cold water immersion and active recovery. Our results suggest that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for minimizing the inflammatory and stress responses in muscle after resistance exercise. Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments. However, little is known about whether these treatments influence inflammation and cellular stress in human skeletal muscle after exercise. We compared the effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on inflammatory cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in skeletal muscle after intense resistance exercise. Nine active men performed unilateral lower-body resistance exercise on separate days, at least 1 week apart. On one day, they immersed their lower body in cold water (10°C) for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they cycled at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise in both trials. Exercise increased intramuscular neutrophil and macrophage counts, MAC1 and CD163 mRNA expression (P cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for reducing inflammation or

  14. Controlled delivery of SDF-1α and IGF-1: CXCR4(+) cell recruitment and functional skeletal muscle recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, Viktoriya Y; Pham, Chantal B; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Hammers, David W; Merscham-Banda, Melissa; Suggs, Laura J; Farrar, Roger P

    2015-11-01

    Therapeutic delivery of regeneration-promoting biological factors directly to the site of injury has demonstrated its efficacy in various injury models. Several reports describe improved tissue regeneration following local injection of tissue specific growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Evidence exists that combined cytokine/growth factor treatment is superior for optimizing tissue repair by targeting different aspects of the regeneration response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the controlled delivery of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α) alone or in combination with insulin-like growth factor-I (SDF-1α/IGF-I) for the treatment of tourniquet-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury (TK-I/R) of skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that SDF-1α will promote sustained stem cell recruitment to the site of muscle injury, while IGF-I will induce progenitor cell differentiation to effectively restore muscle contractile function after TK-I/R injury while concurrently reducing apoptosis. Utilizing a novel poly-ethylene glycol PEGylated fibrin gel matrix (PEG-Fib), we incorporated SDF-1α alone (PEG-Fib/SDF-1α) or in combination with IGF-I (PEG-Fib/SDF-1α/IGF-I) for controlled release at the site of acute muscle injury. Despite enhanced cell recruitment and revascularization of the regenerating muscle after SDF-1α treatment, functional analysis showed no benefit from PEG-Fib/SDF-1α therapy, while dual delivery of PEG-Fib/SDF-1α/IGF-I resulted in IGF-I-mediated improvement of maximal force recovery and SDF-1α-driven in vivo neovasculogenesis. Histological data supported functional data, as well as highlighted the important differences in the regeneration process among treatment groups. This study provides evidence that while revascularization may be necessary for maximizing muscle force recovery, without modulation of other effects of inflammation it is insufficient.

  15. Improved functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle after temporary sensory nerve innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, J R; Veltri, K L; Chamberlain, D; Fahnestock, M

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged muscle denervation results in poor functional recovery after nerve repair. The possible protective effect of temporary sensory innervation of denervated muscle, prior to motor nerve repair, has been examined in the rat. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve, and the peroneal nerve was then sutured to the transected distal tibial nerve stump either immediately or after two, four or six months. In half of the animals with delayed repair, the saphenous (sensory) nerve was temporarily attached to the distal nerve stump. Muscles were evaluated three months after the peroneal-to-tibial union, and were compared with each other, with unoperated control muscles and with untreated denervated muscles. After four to six months of sensory "protection", gastrocnemius muscles weighed significantly more than unprotected muscles, and both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles exhibited better preservation of their structure, with less fiber atrophy and connective tissue hyperplasia. The maximum compound action potentials were significantly larger in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles following sensory protection, irrespective of the delay in motor nerve union. Isometric force, although less than in control animals and in those with immediate nerve repair, remained reasonably constant after sensory protection, while in unprotected muscles there was a progressive and significant decline as the period of denervation lengthened. We interpret these results as showing that, although incapable of forming excitable neuromuscular junctions, sensory nerves can nevertheless exert powerful trophic effects on denervated muscle fibers. We propose that these findings indicate a useful strategy for improving the outcome of peripheral nerve surgery.

  16. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Suetta

    Full Text Available Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2-4 days of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days. Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days of immobilization. In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was unchanged in old muscle after 2 days and increased after 4 days of immobilization. Further, an age-specific down-regulation of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 expression levels was observed following 2 weeks of immobilization, along with a slowing atrophy response in aged skeletal muscle. Neither the immediate loss of muscle mass, nor the subsequent age-differentiated signaling responses could be explained by changes in inflammatory mediators, apoptosis markers or autophagy indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that the time-course and regulation of human skeletal muscle atrophy is age dependent, leading to an attenuated loss in aging skeletal muscle when exposed to longer periods of immobility-induced disuse.

  17. Mental health affects the quality of life and recovery after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa Renee; Paulson, Daniel; Eshelman, Anne; Bugenski, Mary; Brown, Kimberly A; Moonka, Dilip; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    There has been little research examining the effects of mental health before liver transplantation on quality of life (QOL) and recovery after transplantation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine how pretransplant depression and anxiety affect mental health, QOL, and recovery after transplantation. Eighty-two transplant recipients provided data when they were listed for transplantation and 6 months after transplantation. Pretransplant anxiety predicted posttransplant anxiety (P Mental Health, as well as the Mental Health Composite Score (P Health, Vitality, and Social Functioning, as well as the Physical Composite Score (P recovery 6 months after transplantation (P recovery (P = 0.09). These findings highlight the importance of evaluating transplant candidates both before and after transplantation for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Once patients with these symptoms are identified, they can be referred for treatment, which may lead to better posttransplant outcomes for mental health, QOL, and recovery.

  18. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Line;

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2......-4 days) of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1a and PGC-1ß (1-4 days) and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days). Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days) of immobilization. In contrast...

  19. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  20. Skeletal muscle strength in older adults. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE genotype affects: an UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PEREIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement : Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE with variability inthe skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations.Approach: The purpose of this study was to review the most important studies that have been exanimate thepossible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and femaleathletes involved in elderly populations. This research is needed because the possibility that the DD genotypemay be associated with a greater proportion of fast twitch fibers could explain the influence of the ACE D alleleupon strength/ power, particularly at high velocities, but this evidence remains equivocal in older people becausemore studies are necessary.Results: Thus, according to scientific evidence, changes in muscle strength with exercise training in olderindividuals may be dependent on ACE I/D genotype. Of note, the results provide a novel insight that thesegenetic variations may interact to determine muscle mass in older women specially. The determination of thispredisposition in this population, highlighting the interest of study, for the prophylactic attitude on the factorsand causes of aging (sarcopenia, osteoporosis, risk of falls, reduction of functional physical go through thisanalysis.Conclusions/Recommendations: In this work, the state of the art related to the influence of the ACE genotypeon skeletal muscle strength was presented and some important relations were reported

  1. Alterations to mTORC1 signaling in the skeletal muscle differentially affect whole-body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guridi, Maitea; Kupr, Barbara; Romanino, Klaas; Lin, Shuo; Falcetta, Denis; Tintignac, Lionel; Rüegg, Markus A

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively. Ten-week-old RAmKO mice are lean and insulin resistant with increased energy expenditure, and they are resistant to a high-fat diet (HFD). This correlates with an increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a downregulation of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Ten-week-old TSCmKO mice are also lean, glucose intolerant with a decreased activation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) targets that regulate glucose transporters in the muscle. The mice are resistant to a HFD and show reduced accumulation of glycogen and lipids in the liver. Both mouse models suffer from a myopathy with age, with reduced fat and lean mass, and both RAmKO and TSCmKO mice develop insulin resistance and increased intramyocellular lipid content. Our study shows that alterations of mTORC1 signaling in the skeletal muscle differentially affect whole-body metabolism. While both inhibition and constitutive activation of mTORC1 induce leanness and resistance to obesity, changes in the metabolism of muscle and peripheral organs are distinct. These results indicate that a balanced mTORC1 signaling in the muscle is required for proper metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affects the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    Full Text Available Folate deficiency (FD during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying

  3. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

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    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects skeletal muscle strength in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100(®) and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key pointsDD homozygote's and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength.Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier's female endurance group.Female's D allele carriers exhibited the higher

  5. Metformin selectively attenuates mitochondrial H2O2 emission without affecting respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Anderson, Ethan J; Price, Jesse W; Woodlief, Tracey L; Lin, Chien-Te; Bikman, Benjamin T; Cortright, Ronald N; Neufer, P Darrell

    2010-09-15

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, although no cellular mechanism of action has been established. To determine whether in vivo metformin treatment alters mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, respiratory O(2) flux and H(2)O(2) emission were measured in saponin-permeabilized myofibers from lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats treated for 4 weeks with metformin. Succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration generated greater than twofold higher rates of H(2)O(2) emission in myofibers from untreated obese versus lean rats, indicative of an obesity-associated increased mitochondrial oxidant emitting potential. In conjunction with improved glycemic control, metformin treatment reduced H(2)O(2) emission in muscle from obese rats to rates near or below those observed in lean rats during both succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration. Surprisingly, metformin treatment did not affect basal or maximal rates of O(2) consumption in muscle from obese or lean rats. Ex vivo dose-response experiments revealed that metformin inhibits complex I-linked H(2)O(2) emission at a concentration approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that required to inhibit respiratory O(2) flux. These findings suggest that therapeutic concentrations of metformin normalize mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission by blocking reverse electron flow without affecting forward electron flow or respiratory O(2) flux in skeletal muscle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p < 0.05), but not loaded animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  7. Dietary fish oil delays hypoxic skeletal muscle fatigue and enhances caffeine-stimulated contractile recovery in the rat in vivo hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen efficiency influences skeletal muscle contractile function during physiological hypoxia. Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduces the oxygen cost of muscle contraction. This study used an autologous perfused rat hindlimb model to examine the effects of a fish oil diet on skeletal muscle fatigue during an acute hypoxic challenge. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (SF), long-chain (LC) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA), or LC n-3 PUFA DHA from fish oil (FO) (8 weeks). During anaesthetised and ventilated conditions (normoxia 21% O2 (SaO2-98%) and hypoxia 14% O2 (SaO2-89%)) the hindlimb was perfused at a constant flow and the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle was stimulated via sciatic nerve (2 Hz, 6-12V, 0.05 ms) to established fatigue. Caffeine (2.5, 5, 10 mM) was supplied to the contracting muscle bundle via the arterial cannula to assess force recovery. Hypoxia, independent of diet, attenuated maximal twitch tension (normoxia: 82 ± 8; hypoxia: 41 ± 2 g·g(-1) tissue w.w.). However, rats fed FO sustained higher peak twitch tension compared with the SF and n-6 PUFA groups (P recovery was enhanced in the FO-fed animals (SF: 41 ± 3; n-6 PUFA: 40 ± 4; FO: 52 ± 7% recovery; P < 0.05). These results support a physiological role of DHA in skeletal muscle membranes when exposed to low-oxygen stress that is consistent with the attenuation of muscle fatigue under physiologically normoxic conditions.

  8. Overexpression of inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein in mouse improves structural and functional recovery of skeletal muscles from atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabara, Elen H; Nascimento, Tabata L; Rodrigues, Débora C; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Davila, Wilmer F; AitMou, Younss; deTombe, Pieter P; Mestril, Ruben

    2012-04-01

    Heat shock proteins play a key regulatory role in cellular defense. To investigate the role of the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) in skeletal muscle atrophy and subsequent recovery, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from overexpressing HSP70 transgenic mice were immobilized for 7 days and subsequently released from immobilization and evaluated after 7 days. Histological analysis showed that there was a decrease in cross-sectional area of type II myofiber from EDL and types I and II myofiber from SOL muscles at 7-day immobilization in both wild-type and HSP70 mice. At 7-day recovery, EDL and SOL myofibers from HSP70 mice, but not from wild-type mice, recovered their size. Muscle tetanic contraction decreased only in SOL muscles from wild-type mice at both 7-day immobilization and 7-day recovery; however, it was unaltered in the respective groups from HSP70 mice. Although no effect in a fatigue protocol was observed among groups, we noticed a better contractile performance of EDL muscles from overexpressing HSP70 groups as compared to their matched wild-type groups. The number of NCAM positive-satellite cells reduced after immobilization and recovery in both EDL and SOL muscles from wild-type mice, but it was unchanged in the muscles from HSP70 mice. These results suggest that HSP70 improves structural and functional recovery of skeletal muscle after disuse atrophy, and this effect might be associated with preservation of satellite cell amount.

  9. Physical exercise in aging human skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial calcium uniporter expression levels and affects mitochondria dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mammucari, Cristina; Romanello, Vanina; Barberi, Laura; Pietrangelo, Laura; Fusella, Aurora; Mosole, Simone; Gherardi, Gaia; Höfer, Christian; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Cvecka, Jan; Krenn, Matthias; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice. To understand the relevance of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in aging and to investigate the effect of physical exercise on MCU expression and mitochondria dynamics, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from 70-year-old subjects 9 weeks trained with either neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) or leg press. Here, we demonstrate that improved muscle function and structure induced by both trainings are linked to increased protein levels of MCU Ultrastructural analyses by electron microscopy showed remodeling of mitochondrial apparatus in ES-trained muscles that is consistent with an adaptation to physical exercise, a response likely mediated by an increased expression of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. Altogether these results indicate that the ES-dependent physiological effects on skeletal muscle size and force are associated with changes in mitochondrial-related proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis and mitochondrial shape. These original findings in aging human skeletal muscle confirm the data obtained in mice and propose MCU and mitochondria-related proteins as potential pharmacological targets to counteract age-related muscle loss. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Recovery trends of Scrobicularia plana populations after restoration measures, affected by extreme climate events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelhos, T; Cardoso, P G; Dolbeth, M; Pardal, M A

    2014-07-01

    The Mondego estuary (Portugal) went through different ecological scenarios over the last decades. An eutrophication process led to a decline in the ecosystem quality. The ensuing restoration plan resulted into a gradual ecological recovery, which was impaired by the occurrence of successive extreme climate events that affected dynamics and productivity of key species. In this study we assess the response of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana to the impacts of these events in a recovery scenario, by comparing populations in two different intertidal habitats: a seagrass bed and a sandflat area. As a general tendency, S. plana, which was negatively affected by eutrophication, responded positively to restoration. However, the occurrence of extreme climate events seemed to affect recruitment success, biomass and production, impairing the recovery process. In the seagrass bed, S. plana maintained a stable and structured population, while in the sandflat area recovery clearly reverted into a decline, mainly concerning biomass and production values. This sequence of multiple stressors might have reduced S. plana resilience to further impacts and therefore, understanding the behavior of biological populations following restoration initiatives requires acknowledgement that some changes may not be easily reversible.

  11. Psycho-physiological characteristics of students-powerlifters of different training experience, who have affections of muscular skeletal apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobko V.S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of many years’ power lifting trainings influence on psycho-physiological and other characteristics of students, who have affections of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: the research covered 73 students of 18-22 yrs. Age, who have different training experience. To exclude influence of previous training on experiment’s results, researches were conducted after 2-3 days of rest. The author studied personality’s features (by T. Elers. Psychological diagnostic was conducted by methodic of M.V. Makarenko. Results: different psycho-physiological characteristics, indicators of psychological state and personality’s features were found in students, depending on their power lifting training experience. Improvement of functional and nervous power indicators under influence of systemic power lifting trainings was detected. Conclusions: it was determined that improvement of students’ sportsmanship is accompanied by noticeable improvement of practically all tested indicators.

  12. Motor activity affects adult skeletal muscle re-innervation acting via tyrosine kinase receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Stefano; Bartolini, Fanny; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Betti, Michele; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Lattanzi, Davide; Di Palma, Michael; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, muscle expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein under activity control has been reported. BDNF is a neurotrophin known to be involved in axon sprouting in the CNS. Hence, we set out to study the effect of chronic treadmill mid-intensity running on adult rat muscle re-innervation, and to explore the involvement of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors. After nerve crush, muscle re-innervation was evaluated using intracellular recordings, tension recordings, immunostaining and Western blot analyses. An enhanced muscle multiple innervation was found in running rats that was fully reversed to control values blocking Trk receptors or interrupting the running activity. An increase in muscle multiple innervation was also found in sedentary rats treated with a selective TrkB receptor agonist. The expression of TrkB receptors by intramuscular axons was demonstrated, and increased muscle expression of BDNF was found in running animals. The increase in muscle multiple innervation was consistent with the faster muscle re-innervation that we found in running animals. We conclude that, when regenerating axons contact muscle cells, muscle activity progressively increases modulating BDNF and possibly other growth factors, which in turn, acting via Trk receptors, induce axon sprouting to re-innervate skeletal muscle.

  13. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertius Abraham Kohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB (n = 9 or Vastus lateralis (VL (n = 8 were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10. All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%. Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%. In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients.

  14. Creatine supplementation does not affect human skeletal muscle glycogen content in the absence of prior exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Dean A; Robinson, Tristan M; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2008-02-01

    Due to the current lack of clarity, we examined whether 5 days of dietary creatine (Cr) supplementation per se can influence the glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. Six healthy male volunteers participated in the study, reporting to the laboratory on four occasions to exercise to the point of volitional exhaustion, each after 3 days of a controlled normal habitual dietary intake. After a familiarization visit, participants cycled to exhaustion in the absence of any supplementation (N), and then 2 wk later again they cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of supplementation with simple sugars (CHO). Finally, after a further 2 wk, they again cycled to exhaustion after 5 days of Cr supplementation. Muscle samples were taken at rest before exercise, at the time point of exhaustion in visit 1, and at subsequent visit time of exhaustion. There was a treatment effect on muscle total Cr content in Cr compared with N and CHO supplementation (P exercise. Cr supplementation under conditions of controlled habitual dietary intake had no effect on muscle glycogen content at rest or after exhaustive exercise. We suggest that any Cr-associated increases in muscle glycogen storage are the result of an interaction between Cr supplementation and other mediators of muscle glycogen storage.

  15. A pilot study examining the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle genes related to the TLR signaling pathway in older adults following hip fracture recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I; Briggs, Robert A; Barrows, Katherine M; Nelson, Daniel S; Kwon, Oh Sung; Hopkins, Paul N; Higgins, Thomas F; Marcus, Robin L; Drummond, Micah J

    2017-01-01

    Older adults after hip fracture surgery experience progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, limiting full recovery. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms in muscle with adaptation to exercise training in this vulnerable population is necessary. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the skeletal muscle inflammatory and ceramide biosynthesis gene expression levels associated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway before (Pre) and following a 3-mo multicomponent exercise training program in older adults (3M, 4F; 78.4 ± 13.3 yr; 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) ~4 mo after repair from hip fracture (HipFx). Vastus lateralis biopsies from the surgical limb were obtained before (Pre) and after training. Molecular end points and muscle function data were also compared with matched nonexercise healthy controls (CON). As a follow-up analysis, we evaluated specific sphingolipid pools in HipFx and CON muscle. Following training, quadriceps cross-sectional area, strength, and 6-min walk (6MW) increased in the surgical limb (P exercise training alters skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide metabolism associated with TLR signaling in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery and may be related to improvements in muscle function recovery.

  16. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-08-15

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways.

  17. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 min after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma...... creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque....... Maximal jump height increased by 7.8% ± 6.3% (P MVC (7.9% ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9% ± 9.6%) (both P

  18. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  19. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery...

  20. Overexpression of IGF-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Stephen E Borst; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H. Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of viral mediated overexpression of IGF-1...

  1. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Aagaard, Per; Masiulis, Nerijus; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.

  2. SLC30A8 nonsynonymous variant is associated with recovery following exercise and skeletal muscle size and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Courtney; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Orkunoglu-Suer, E Funda; Lipof, Jason S; Moeckel-Cole, Stephanie; Patel, Ronak R; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S; Hubal, Monica J; Kearns, Amy K; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Thompson, Paul D; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Hoffman, Eric P; Tosi, Laura L; Devaney, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of variants that are associated with numerous phenotypes. One such variant, rs13266634, a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter) member eight gene, is associated with a 53% increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that individuals with the protective allele against T2D would show a positive response to short-term and long-term resistance exercise. Two cohorts of young adults-the Eccentric Muscle Damage (EMD; n = 156) cohort and the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Muscle Size and Strength Study (FAMuSS; n = 874)-were tested for association of the rs13266634 variant with measures of skeletal muscle response to resistance exercise. Our results were sexually dimorphic in both cohorts. Men in the EMD study with two copies of the protective allele showed less post-exercise bout strength loss, less soreness, and lower creatine kinase values. In addition, men in the FAMuSS, homozygous for the protective allele, showed higher pre-exercise strength and larger arm skeletal muscle volume, but did not show a significant difference in skeletal muscle hypertrophy or strength with resistance training.

  3. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal......) and TUNEL, and moderate levels of caspase 3 immuno-reactivity suggested a high cell turnover where DNA damage/repair might be occurring in the diseased hearts. Interestingly, the apparently similar cardiac diseases exhibited differences in the immunopathological responses in Atlantic salmon....

  4. The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from angiotensin II-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carla; Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Simon, Felipe; Brandan, Enrique; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang (1-7)] is a peptide belonging to the non-classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang (1-7), through its receptor Mas, has an opposite action to angiotensin II (Ang II), the typical peptide of the classical RAS axis. Ang II produces skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterised by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is the decrease of the myofibrillar proteins produced by the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), evidenced by the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. In addition, it has been described that Ang II also induces myonuclear apoptosis during muscle atrophy. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) and Mas participation on myonuclear apoptosis during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II. Our results show that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by Ang II in the diaphragm muscles and decreases several events associated with apoptosis in the diaphragm (increased apoptotic nuclei, increased expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased caspase-3 activity and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio). Concomitantly, Ang (1-7) also attenuates the decrease in fibre diameter and muscle strength, and prevents the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 during the muscle wasting induced by Ang II. Interestingly, these effects of Ang (1-7) are dependent on the Mas receptor. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Ang (1-7) prevents myonuclear apoptosis during the recovery of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by Ang II.

  5. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory.

  6. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  7. Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; van Hall, Gerrit; Rose, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intrasubject design......]leucine, and vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained bilaterally at rest as well as 0.5, 3, and 5.5 h after RE. Western blots were run on muscle lysates and phosphospecific antibodies used to detect phosphorylation status of targets involved in regulation of FSR. The intramuscular collagen FSR was evenly increased...... with the fasting condition. The Rp-s6k-4E-binding protein-1 (BP1) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) pathways were activated by the HL intensity and were suggested to be responsible for regulating myofibrillar FSR in response to adequate contractile activity. Feeding predominantly affected Rp-s6k...

  8. Influence of Fiber-Type Composition on Recovery from Tourniquet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-11

    Animals were provided with food and water ad libitum before and after all procedures. The United States Army Institute of Surgical Research Institutional...Elander, A., and Bylund-Fellenius, A.C. 1990. Purine metabolism after in vivo ischemia and reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 258...hindlimb muscle are ac- companied by changes in HSP72 content . Am. J. Physiol. 266: C1240–C1246. PMID:8203488. Lomo, T., Westgaard, R.H., and Dahl, H.A

  9. Enhanced recovery from contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscles of old mice following treatment with the heat shock protein inducer 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, Anna C; Close, Graeme L; Broome, Caroline S; Jackson, Malcolm J; McArdle, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Unlike muscles of young mice, skeletal muscles of old mice fail to recover completely following contraction-induced damage. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. The ability of muscles of old mice to adapt following exercise by the increased production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is blunted. Studies using transgenic mice have shown that this inability to produce HSPs has a major effect on muscle regeneration. Overexpression of HSP70 facilitated complete recovery of maximum tetanic force generation in muscles of old transgenic mice following contraction induced-damage in comparison with a deficit in muscles of old wild-type (WT) mice. We hypothesized that pharmacological induction of HSP70 in muscles of old WT mice would result in enhanced recovery from contraction-induced damage. A single dose of 40 mg/kg of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) resulted in a significant increase in the HSP70 content of extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult C57BL6/J mice 3 days following treatment compared with vehicle-treated mice. Four weekly treatments of adult and old mice resulted in a two- to four-fold increase in muscle HSP70 content. Treatment of old mice with 17AAG at 3 days prior to and weekly for 4 weeks following a severely damaging contraction protocol resulted in enhanced recovery of force generation at 28 days postdamage compared with muscles of vehicle-treated mice. Data suggest that 17AAG overcomes the mechanism by which activation of the stress response fails in muscles of old mice and may have therapeutic benefit in the recovery following damage in muscles of older individuals.

  10. Exercise Type Affects Cardiac Vagal Autonomic Recovery After a Resistance Training Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Fariñas-Rodríguez, Juán; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Kingsley, J Derek

    2016-09-01

    Mayo, X, Iglesias-Soler, E, Fariñas-Rodríguez, J, Fernández-del-Olmo, M, and Kingsley, JD. Exercise type affects cardiac vagal autonomic recovery after a resistance training session. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2565-2573, 2016-Resistance training sessions involving different exercises and set configurations may affect the acute cardiovascular recovery pattern. We explored the interaction between exercise type and set configuration on the postexercise cardiovagal withdrawal measured by heart rate variability and their hypotensive effect. Thirteen healthy participants (10 repetitions maximum [RM] bench press: 56 ± 10 kg; parallel squat: 91 ± 13 kg) performed 6 sessions corresponding to 2 exercises (Bench press vs. Parallel squat), 2 set configurations (Failure session vs. Interrepetition rest session), and a Control session of each exercise. Load (10RM), volume (5 sets), and rest (720 seconds) were equated between exercises and set configurations. Parallel squat produced higher reductions in cardiovagal recovery vs. Bench press (p = 0.001). These differences were dependent on the set configuration, with lower values in Parallel squat vs. Bench press for Interrepetition rest session (1.816 ± 0.711 vs. 2.399 ± 0.739 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p = 0.002), but not for Failure session (1.647 ± 0.904 vs. 1.808 ± 0.703 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p > 0.05). Set configuration affected the cardiovagal recovery, with lower values in Failure session in comparison with Interrepetition rest (p = 0.027) and Control session (p = 0.022). Postexercise hypotension was not dependent on the exercise type (p > 0.05) but was dependent on the set configuration, with lower values of systolic (p = 0.004) and diastolic (p = 0.011) blood pressure after the Failure session but not after an Interrepetition rest session in comparison with the Control session (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the exercise type and an Interrepetition rest design could blunt the decrease of cardiac vagal activity after

  11. Adolescent Toluene Inhalation in Rats Affects White Matter Maturation with the Potential for Recovery Following Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Gary; Kolbe, Scott; Gavrilescu, Maria; Wright, David; Lubman, Dan Ian; Lawrence, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (ptoluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (pToluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that contain toluene during adolescence and early adulthood appear to differentially affect white matter maturation and behavioural outcomes, although recovery can occur following abstinence. PMID:23028622

  12. Power training and postmenopausal hormone therapy affect transcriptional control of specific co-regulated gene clusters in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Vidal; Törmäkangas, Timo; Ronkainen, Paula H. A.; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Takala, Timo; Koskinen, Satu; Cheng, Sulin; Puolakka, Jukka; Kujala, Urho M.; Suominen, Harri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2010-01-01

    At the moment, there is no clear molecular explanation for the steeper decline in muscle performance after menopause or the mechanisms of counteractive treatments. The goal of this genome-wide study was to identify the genes and gene clusters through which power training (PT) comprising jumping activities or estrogen containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may affect skeletal muscle properties after menopause. We used musculus vastus lateralis samples from early stage postmenopausal (50–57 years old) women participating in a yearlong randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with PT and HRT interventions. Using microarray platform with over 24,000 probes, we identified 665 differentially expressed genes. The hierarchical clustering method was used to assort the genes. Additionally, enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways was carried out to clarify whether assorted gene clusters are enriched with particular functional categories. The analysis revealed transcriptional regulation of 49 GO/KEGG categories. PT upregulated transcription in “response to contraction”—category revealing novel candidate genes for contraction-related regulation of muscle function while HRT upregulated gene expression related to functionality of mitochondria. Moreover, several functional categories tightly related to muscle energy metabolism, development, and function were affected regardless of the treatment. Our results emphasize that during the early stages of the postmenopause, muscle properties are under transcriptional modulation, which both PT and HRT partially counteract leading to preservation of muscle power and potentially reducing the risk for aging-related muscle weakness. More specifically, PT and HRT may function through improving energy metabolism, response to contraction as well as by preserving functionality of the mitochondria. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  13. Recovery after heavy resistance exercise and skeletal muscle androgen receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I isoform expression in strength trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtiainen, Juha P; Lehti, Maarit; Hulmi, Juha J; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku; Nyman, Kai; Selänne, Harri; Pakarinen, Arto; Komulainen, Jyrki; Kovanen, Vuokko; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-03-01

    The effects of heavy resistance exercise on skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein concentration and mRNAs of AR, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF)-IEa, and mechano growth factor (MGF) expression were examined from biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle before and 48 hours after heavy resistance exercise (5 × 10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press and 4 × 10RM squats) in 8 adult strength trained men. The present exercise induced an acute decrease in maximal isometric force and increased serum total testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) concentrations. During 2 recovery days, maximal isometric force and subjective perception of physical fitness remained significantly lowered, whereas serum creatine kinase activity, subjective muscle soreness, and muscle swelling (i.e., thickness of VL by ultrasound) were significantly increased compared to pre-exercise values. Subjective perception of physical fitness was followed up to 7 days, and by 6 days postexercise, it was elevated above the pre-exercise level. Basal T and FT concentrations remained unaltered after the exercise. No statistically significant changes were observed in AR protein or mRNA expression, but IGF-IEa (p resistance exercise. Subjective perception of physical fitness suggests that recovery over a pre-exercise level of the present type of heavy resistance exercise can take approximately 6 days.

  14. Permanent LMN denervation of human skeletal muscle and recovery by h-b FES: management and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of a defined skeletal muscle is due to lower motor neuron (LMN or peripheral nerve lesions that have major consequences on the muscle tissue. After early atrophy, the mid- and late-phases presents two very contrasting myofibers populations: beside those severely atrophic with internalized groups of myonuclei, large fast-type muscle fibers continue to be present 4 to 6 years after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Recent results of rat experiments provides the rational basis for understanding the residual functional characteristics of the long-term denervated muscle and the molecular explanation of its ability to respond to home-base functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES using custom-designed electrodes and stimulators. Further outcomes of the Vienna-Padova ten-year collaboration are: 1. a world-unique Myo- Bank of muscle biopsies and 2. improved imaging procedures (Color Computer Tomography (CT scan and Functional Echomyography, all demonstrating that h-b FES induces improvements in muscle contractility, tissue composition and mass, despite permanent LMN denervation. The benefits of h-b FES could be extended from patents suffering with complete Conus-Cauda Syndrome to the numerous patients with incomplete LMN denervation of skeletal muscles to determine whether h-b FES reduces secondary complications related to disuse and impaired blood perfusion (reduction in bone density, risk of bone fracture, decubitus ulcers, and pulmonary thromboembolism. We are confident that translation of the results of a clinical experiment, the EU Project RISE, to the larger cohort of incomplete LMN denervated muscles will provide the wanted results.

  15. L-propionylcarnitine increases postischemic blood flow but does not affect recovery of energy charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, L M; Bezstarosti, K; Van der Giessen, W J; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1991-07-01

    Effects of pretreatment with L-propionylcarnitine (50 mg/kg, n = 9) or saline (n = 10) were studied in open-chest anesthetized pigs, in which ischemia was induced by decreasing left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow to 20% of baseline. After 60 min of ischemia, myocardium was reperfused for 2 h. In both groups, flow reduction abolished contractile function of the affected myocardium and caused similar decreases in ATP (by 55%) and energy charge [(ATP + 0.5ADP)/(ATP + ADP + AMP); decrease from 0.91 to 0.60], mean arterial blood pressure (by 10-24%), the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (by 26-32%), and cardiac output (by 20-30%). During reperfusion, "no-reflow" was attenuated by L-propionylcarnitine, because myocardial blood flow returned to 61 and 82% of baseline in the saline- and L-propionylcarnitine-treated animals, respectively. Cardiac output of the saline-treated animals further decreased (to 52% of baseline), and systemic vascular resistance increased from 46 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 9 mmHg.min.l-1, thereby maintaining arterial blood pressure. In L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs, cardiac output remained at 75% of baseline, and systemic vascular resistance decreased from 42 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 mmHg.min.l-1. In both groups, energy charge but not the ATP level of the ischemic-reperfused myocardium tended to recover, whereas the creatine phosphate level showed significantly more recovery in saline-treated animals. We conclude that L-propionylcarnitine partially preserved vascular patency in ischemic-reperfused porcine myocardium but had no immediate effect on "myocardial stunning." Potential markers for long-term recovery were not affected by L-propionylcarnitine.

  16. Cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work...... was to characterize cardiac changes and inflammatory cell types associated with a clinical HSMI outbreak in Atlantic salmon using immunohistochemistry. Different immune cells and cardiac tissue responses associated with the disease were identified using different markers. The spectrum of inflammatory cells associated...

  17. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  18. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of virally mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for 2 weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantarflexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate, and muscle damage and recovery were monitored over a period of 2-21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-specific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1-injected compared with contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (Pmuscle damage in IGF-1-injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fractional area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-1-injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3 versus 54.1±3.6%, Pmuscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days) and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1-injected limbs (Pmuscles from damage and accelerating muscle repair and regeneration.

  19. Skeletal muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates are affected differently by altitude-induced hypoxia in native lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Haslund, Mads Lyhne; Robach, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence to hypobaric hypoxic exposure skeletal muscle atrophy is often reported. The underlying mechanism has been suggested to involve a decrease in protein synthesis in order to conserve O(2). With the aim to challenge this hypothesis, we applied a primed, constant infusion of 1-(13)C-...

  20. Knockout of the predominant conventional PKC isoform, PKCalpha, in mouse skeletal muscle does not affect contraction-stimulated glucose uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas E; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Rose, Adam J;

    2009-01-01

    for approximately 97% of total cPKC protein expression in skeletal muscle. However, in muscles from PKCalpha knockout (KO) mice, neither contraction- nor phorbol ester-stimulated glucose uptake ex vivo differed compared with the wild type. Furthermore, the effects of calphostin C and Gö-6983 on contraction...

  1. A systems biology approach using transcriptomic data reveals genes and pathways in porcine skeletal muscle affected by dietary lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeting the increasing market demands for pork products requires improvement of the feed efficiency of growing pigs. The use of Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.0 ST array containing 19,211 genes in this study provides a comprehensive gene expression profile of skeletal muscle of finishing pigs in response...

  2. Dietary lysine affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been reported that some amino acids can function as signaling molecules to regulate skeletal muscle growth in mammals. This study was conducted to identify those genes that may be regulated by amino acid lysine and responsible for muscle growth and meat quality of pigs. Nine crossbred barrows...

  3. 针刺及磁提针对骨骼肌静息电位恢复的作用%Effect of acupuncture and magnetic lifting needle on the recovery of resting potential of skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉明; 周新; 殷晓辉

    2005-01-01

    背景:骨骼肌长时间收缩会导致静息单位的下降,影响其收缩,导致疲劳发生.针刺以及无损伤的磁提针对静息单位的恢复有无作用?目的:采用针刺以及无损伤的磁提针作为恢复手段,观察和比较其对骨骼肌静息电位恢复的影响.设计:对照实验.单位:山西师范大学体育学院,山东省滨州学院.材料:实验蟾蜍30只(由北京体育大学实验动物中心提供),随机分成针刺组、磁提针组、磁提针加按压组,每组10只.左右半腱肌进行对照.方法:对离体蟾蜍半腱肌(实验肌和对照肌)进行40 min电刺激后,采用细胞内玻璃微电极技术测量骨骼肌细胞的静息电位.并且在电刺激后进行毫针针刺、磁提针和磁提针加按压等处理.主要观察指标:各组运动前、电刺激后以及处理后的静息电位.结果:①电刺激后骨骼肌细胞膜静息电位较电刺激前下降[实验肌:(59.48±7.37),(84.54±5.72)mV,对照肌:(59.43±7.14),(83.62±5.86)mV].②针刺、磁提针、磁提针加按压使骨骼肌细胞电刺激后下降的静息电位明显恢复(P<0.01).⑧磁提针组静息电位恢复百分比明显小于针刺组和磁提针加按压组[(42.50±12.41)%,(53.71±10.93)%,(49.10±8.39)%,P<0.01].结论:斜刺、磁提针、磁提针加按压对长时间电刺激后骨骼肌细胞膜静息电位的恢复有促进作用.单纯磁提针对长时间电刺激后骨骼肌细胞膜静息电位恢复的促进作用小于针刺和磁提针加按压作用.%BACKGROUND:The long-term contraction of skeletal muscle can lead to the decrease of resting potential, affect its contraction, and result in the occurrence of fatigue. Whether acupuncture and injury-free magnetic lifting needle are effective on the recovery of resting potential? OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the influence on the recovery of resting potential of skeletal muscle by taking acupuncture and magnetic needle as the recovery means.DESIGN: A controlled

  4. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes—preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Junior,Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Godoi,Vanessa de; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; Marchi, Thiago De; Bjordal,Jan Magnus

    2010-01-01

    There are 13 authors. Only a few of them have been given author entries in addition to the Collaboration. In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers ...

  5. Planting richness affects the recovery of vegetation and soil processes in constructed wetlands following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance. Mesocosms were planted in richness groups with various combinations of either 1, 2, 3, or 4 species (RG 1–4) to create a gradient of richness. Structural wetland traits measured include morphological regrowth of macrophytes, soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil %C, and soil %N. Functional wetland traits measured include above ground biomass production, soil potential denitrification, and soil potential microbial respiration. Total mesocosm cover increased along the gradient of plant richness (43.5% in RG 1 to 84.5% in RG 4) in the growing season after the disturbance, although not all planted individuals recovered. This was largely attributed to the dominance of the obligate annual species. The morphology of each species was affected negatively by the disturbance, producing shorter, and fewer stems than in the years prior to the disturbance, suggesting that the communities had not fully recovered one year after the disturbance. Soil characteristics were almost uniform across the planting richness gradient, but for a few exceptions (%C, C:N, and non-growing season soil moisture were higher slightly in RG 2). Denitrification potential (DEA) increased with increasing planting richness and was influenced by the abundance and quality of soil C. Increased open space in unplanted mesocosms and mesocosms with lower species richness increased labile C, leading to higher C mineralization rates.

  6. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  7. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  8. Motor Recovery of the Affected Hand in Subacute Stroke Correlates with Changes of Contralesional Cortical Hand Motor Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Veldema; Kathrin Bösl; Dennis Alexander Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between changes of cortical hand motor representation and motor recovery of the affected hand in subacute stroke. Methods. 17 patients with motor impairment of the affected hand were enrolled in an in-patient neurological rehabilitation program. Hand motor function tests (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test) and neurophysiological evaluations (resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, motor map area size, motor map area volume,...

  9. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  10. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Eng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n=7 and their main carer (n=6, along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n=20. Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone’s mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor’s ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor’s motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time.

  11. Motor Recovery of the Affected Hand in Subacute Stroke Correlates with Changes of Contralesional Cortical Hand Motor Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Veldema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between changes of cortical hand motor representation and motor recovery of the affected hand in subacute stroke. Methods. 17 patients with motor impairment of the affected hand were enrolled in an in-patient neurological rehabilitation program. Hand motor function tests (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test and neurophysiological evaluations (resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, motor map area size, motor map area volume, and motor map area location were obtained from both hands and hemispheres at baseline and two, four, and six weeks of in-patient rehabilitation. Results. There was a wide spectrum of hand motor impairment at baseline and hand motor recovery over time. Hand motor function and recovery correlated significantly with (i reduction of cortical excitability, (ii reduction in size and volume of cortical hand motor representation, and (iii a medial and anterior shift of the center of gravity of cortical hand motor representation within the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusion. Recovery of motor function of the affected hand after stroke is accompanied by definite changes in excitability, size, volume, and location of hand motor representation over the contralesional primary motor cortex. These measures may serve as surrogate markers for the outcome of hand motor rehabilitation after stroke.

  12. Here today but not gone tomorrow: incivility affects after-work and next-day recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tahnee; Griffin, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relation between daily incivility and afterwork recovery, hypothesizing that workplace incivility would have a negative effect on situational wellbeing, afterwork recovery experiences (psychological detachment and relaxation) and next-morning recovery level. Daily surveys were completed on 5 consecutive workdays by 175 employees in the legal industry. Multilevel analyses controlling for the daily number of hours worked showed that day-level incivility was negatively related to afterwork situational wellbeing and psychological detachment, but not to relaxation. Incivility experienced on 1 day also predicted recovery level the following morning. Results emphasize the ongoing impact of rudeness and disrespect in the workplace on employee wellbeing and offer an explanation for the long-term negative outcomes of what is typically thought of as a less severe workplace stressor. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Comparative Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mildly versus Severely Affected mdx Mouse Skeletal Muscles Identifies Annexin, Lamin, and Vimentin as Universal Dystrophic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashling Holland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin results in complex changes in dystrophic muscles. In order to compare the degree of secondary alterations in differently affected subtypes of skeletal muscles, we have conducted a global analysis of proteome-wide changes in various dystrophin-deficient muscles. In contrast to the highly degenerative mdx diaphragm muscle, which showed considerable alterations in 35 distinct proteins, the spectrum of mildly to moderately dystrophic skeletal muscles, including interosseus, flexor digitorum brevis, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscle, exhibited a smaller number of changed proteins. Compensatory mechanisms and/or cellular variances may be responsible for differing secondary changes in individual mdx muscles. Label-free mass spectrometry established altered expression levels for diaphragm proteins associated with contraction, energy metabolism, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and the cellular stress response. Comparative immunoblotting verified the differences in the degree of secondary changes in dystrophin-deficient muscles and showed that the up-regulation of molecular chaperones, the compensatory increase in proteins of the intermediate filaments, the fibrosis-related increase in collagen levels and the pathophysiological decrease in calcium binding proteins is more pronounced in mdx diaphragm as compared to the less severely affected mdx leg muscles. Annexin, lamin, and vimentin were identified as universal dystrophic markers.

  14. Plane of nutrition affects growth rate, organ size and skeletal muscle satellite cell activity in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGhee, M E; Bradley, J S; McCoski, S R; Reeg, A M; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2016-11-18

    Plane of nutrition effects on body, tissue and cellular growth in the neonatal calf are poorly understood. The hypothesis that a low plane of nutrition (LPN) would limit skeletal muscle size by reducing fibre growth and muscle progenitor cell activity was tested. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to either a LPN (20% CP, 20% fat; GE=1.9 Mcal/days) or a high plane of nutrition (HPN; 27% CP, 10% fat, GE = 3.8 Mcal/days) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the impact of diet on neonatal calf growth, organ weight and skeletal muscle morphometry with time. Groups of calves (n = 4 or 5) were euthanised at 2, 4 and 8 week of age and organ and empty carcass weights were recorded. Body composition was measured by DXA. Longissimus muscle (LM) fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre/mm(2) and Pax7 were measured by immunohistology. Satellite cells were isolated at each time point and proliferation rates were measured by EdU incorporation. Calves fed a HPN had greater (p satellite cells per fibre. Proliferation rates of satellite cells isolated from HPN fed calves were greater (p satellite cell activity.

  15. AICAR administration affects glucose metabolism by upregulating the novel glucose transporter, GLUT8, in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Robinson, M A; Gruntmeir, K J; Liu, Y; Soma, L R; Lacombe, V A

    2015-09-01

    Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for this insidious disease. Glucose uptake is mediated by a family of glucose transporters (GLUT), and is regulated by insulin-dependent and -independent pathways, including 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Importantly, the activation of AMPK, by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) stimulates glucose uptake in both healthy and diabetic humans. However, whether AICAR promotes glucose uptake in horses has not been established. It is hypothesized that AICAR administration would enhance glucose transport in equine skeletal muscle through AMPK activation. In this study, the effect of an intravenous AICAR infusion on blood glucose and insulin concentrations, as well as on GLUT expression and AMPK activation in equine skeletal muscle (quantified by Western blotting) was examined. Upon administration, plasma AICAR rapidly reached peak concentration. Treatment with AICAR resulted in a decrease (P change in lactate concentration. The ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK was increased (P managing IR requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Raptor ablation in skeletal muscle decreases Cav1.1 expression and affects the function of the excitation–contraction coupling supramolecular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rubén J.; Mosca, Barbara; Treves, Susan; Maj, Marcin; Bergamelli, Leda; Calderon, Juan C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Romanino, Klaas; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Delbono, Osvaldo; Caputo, Carlo; Zorzato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating a number of biochemical pathways controlling cell growth. mTOR exists in two complexes termed mTORC1 and mTORC2. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) is associated with mTORC1 and is essential for its function. Ablation of raptor in skeletal muscle results in several phenotypic changes including decreased life expectancy, increased glycogen deposits and alterations of the twitch kinetics of slow fibres. In the present paper, we show that in muscle-specific raptor knockout (RamKO), the bulk of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is mainly associated in its cAMP-non-stimulated form with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. In addition, 3[H]–ryanodine and 3[H]–PN200-110 equilibrium binding show a ryanodine to dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) ratio of 0.79 and 1.35 for wild-type (WT) and raptor KO skeletal muscle membranes respectively. Peak amplitude and time to peak of the global calcium transients evoked by supramaximal field stimulation were not different between WT and raptor KO. However, the increase in the voltage sensor-uncoupled RyRs leads to an increase of both frequency and mass of elementary calcium release events (ECRE) induced by hyper-osmotic shock in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibres from raptor KO. The present study shows that the protein composition and function of the molecular machinery involved in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is affected by mTORC1 signalling. PMID:25431931

  17. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja; Holm, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P ...RNA expression and muscle collagen protein synthesis increased by 2.3-fold and 5.8-fold, respectively (P protein synthesis was unaffected by elevation of GH and IGF-I. Moderate exercise did not enhance the effects of GH manipulation. Thus, increased GH availability stimulates...... matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue....

  18. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  19. Uteroplacental insufficiency down regulates insulin receptor and affects expression of key enzymes of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA metabolism in skeletal muscle at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglianiello Antonella

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ligation of the uterine arteries in rats mimics uteroplacental insufficiency and serves as a model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and subsequent developmental programming of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and adiposity in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of uterine artery ligation on the skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor and key enzymes of LCFA metabolism. Methods Bilateral uterine artery ligation was performed on day 19 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats. Muscle of the posterior limb was dissected at birth and processed by real-time RT-PCR to analyze the expression of insulin receptor, ACCα, ACCβ (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and beta subunits, ACS (acyl-CoA synthase, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, alpha2 catalytic subunit, CPT1B (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta subunit, MCD (malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in 14 sham and 8 IUGR pups. Muscle tissue was treated with lysis buffer and Western immunoblotting was performed to assay the protein content of insulin receptor and ACC. Results A significant down regulation of insulin receptor protein (p Conclusion Our data suggest that uteroplacental insufficiency may affect skeletal muscle metabolism down regulating insulin receptor and reducing the expression of key enzymes involved in LCFA formation and oxidation.

  20. Framework of stock-recovery strategies: analyses of factors affecting success and failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Cornelius; Dorrien, Christian von; Hopkins, Christopher C. E.;

    2010-01-01

    The EU FP6 UNCOVER project was aimed at producing a rational scientific basis for developing recovery strategies for some ecologically and socio-economically important fish stocks/fisheries in European seas. The immediate objectives were to identify changes experienced during stock depletion/coll...

  1. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  2. Oxidative damage of workers in secondary metal recovery plants affected by smoking status and joining the smelting work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Taipau; Hsu, Ching Yi; Chen, Hsiu Ling

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, secondary copper smelters and zinc recovery plants primarily utilize recovering metal from scrap and dross, and handles mostly fly ash and slag with high temperature to produce ZnO from the iron and steel industry. The materials may contain organic impurities, such as plastic and organic chloride chemicals, and amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are produced during the smelting process. Therefore, secondary metal recovery industries are major emission sources of PCDD/Fs, which may have been demonstrated to elicit oxidative stress and to involve the production of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA). Many studies have also indicated that the intake of antioxidants, smoking, age and exposure to environmental pollutants may be implicated to DNA damage or lipid peroxidation. This study therefore aims to elucidate the roles of occupational exposure like joining the smelting work, age, smoking and alcohol status, and antioxidant intake on oxidative damage in secondary metal recovery workers in Taiwan. 73 workers were recruited from 2 secondary metal recovery plants. The analysis of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in urine, DNA strand breakage (comet assay) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in blood samples were completed for all of the workers. The results showed that the older subjects exhibited significantly lower levels of 8-OH-dG and MDA than younger subjects. Our investigation also showed that working departments were in related to plasma MDA and DNA strand breakage levels of nonsmokers, however, the observation become negligible in smokers. And it is implicated that cigarette type might affect 8-OH-dG levels in secondary metal recovery workers. Since, adding to results above, the MDA level in production workers was significantly higher than those in managerial departments, it is important for the employers to make efforts on improving occupational environments or serving protective equipments to protect workers

  3. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Does upper premolar extraction affect the changes of pharyngeal airway volume after bimaxillary surgery in skeletal class III patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ah; Park, Yang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pharyngeal airway volume change after bimaxillary surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and evaluate the difference in postoperative pharyngeal airway space between upper premolar extraction cases and nonextraction cases. Cone-beam computed tomographic scans were obtained for 23 patients (13 in extraction group and 10 in nonextraction group) who were diagnosed with mandibular prognathism before surgery (T0) and then 2 months (T2) and 6 months after surgery (T3). Using InVivoDental 3-dimensional imaging software, volumetric changes in the pharyngeal airway space were assessed at T0, T2, and T3. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine whether there were significant changes in pharyngeal airway volume between time points. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine whether there were significant differences in volumetric changes between the extraction and nonextraction groups. Volumes in all subsections of the pharyngeal airway were decreased (P bimaxillary surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperthermia Differently Affects Connexin43 Expression and Gap Junction Permeability in Skeletal Myoblasts and HeLa Cells

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    Ieva Antanavičiūtė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress kinases can be activated by hyperthermia and modify the expression level and properties of membranous and intercellular channels. We examined the role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK in hyperthermia-induced changes of connexin43 (Cx43 expression and permeability of Cx43 gap junctions (GJs in the rabbit skeletal myoblasts (SkMs and Cx43-EGFP transfected HeLa cells. Hyperthermia (42°C for 6 h enhanced the activity of JNK and its target, the transcription factor c-Jun, in both SkMs and HeLa cells. In SkMs, hyperthermia caused a 3.2-fold increase in the total Cx43 protein level and enhanced the efficacy of GJ intercellular communication (GJIC. In striking contrast, hyperthermia reduced the total amount of Cx43 protein, the number of Cx43 channels in GJ plaques, the density of hemichannels in the cell membranes, and the efficiency of GJIC in HeLa cells. Both in SkMs and HeLa cells, these changes could be prevented by XG-102, a JNK inhibitor. In HeLa cells, the changes in Cx43 expression and GJIC under hyperthermic conditions were accompanied by JNK-dependent disorganization of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers while in SkMs, the actin cytoskeleton remained intact. These findings provide an attractive model to identify the regulatory players within signalosomes, which determine the cell-dependent outcomes of hyperthermia.

  6. Dietary Methionine Affect Meat Qulity and Myostatin Gene Exon 1 Region Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Tissues of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-qing; ZONG Kai; ZHANG Li-li; CAO Shu-qing

    2010-01-01

    Dietary amino acids imbalance will result in stunted broiler performance and deteriorated meat quality,which are involved in various biochemical cycles in vivo.In this study,the effects of dietary methionine on meat quality and methylation of myostatin exon 1 were investigated.Drip loss of the broilers fed with diet of high methionine levels(0.2%)increased from(6.3±0.1)%(control group)to(10.1±1.0)%,and the muscle shearing force increased from(22.8±1.9)N(control group)to(26.3±2.3)N.Moreover,many CpG sites were found at the myostatin exon 1 region(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp).To further understand the regulation of broiler myostatin expression,the methylation status of broiler myostatin exon 1 and its mRNA expression were analyzed.At the myostatin exon 1 region where CG enriches(nucleotides 2360-2540 bp),the percentages of methylation were 46 and 84% in low Met and high Met content groups after 55-d feeding,respectively.In skeletal muscle tissues,the exon 1 hypermethylation status of myostatin gene was found to be negatively correlated with the gene expression.These results suggested that methylation of this gene is a dynamic process,which plays a dominant role in regulating gene expression for development of individuals.

  7. Hyperthermia differently affects connexin43 expression and gap junction permeability in skeletal myoblasts and HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Mildažienė, Vida; Stankevičius, Edgaras; Herdegen, Thomas; Skeberdis, Vytenis Arvydas

    2014-01-01

    Stress kinases can be activated by hyperthermia and modify the expression level and properties of membranous and intercellular channels. We examined the role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in hyperthermia-induced changes of connexin43 (Cx43) expression and permeability of Cx43 gap junctions (GJs) in the rabbit skeletal myoblasts (SkMs) and Cx43-EGFP transfected HeLa cells. Hyperthermia (42°C for 6 h) enhanced the activity of JNK and its target, the transcription factor c-Jun, in both SkMs and HeLa cells. In SkMs, hyperthermia caused a 3.2-fold increase in the total Cx43 protein level and enhanced the efficacy of GJ intercellular communication (GJIC). In striking contrast, hyperthermia reduced the total amount of Cx43 protein, the number of Cx43 channels in GJ plaques, the density of hemichannels in the cell membranes, and the efficiency of GJIC in HeLa cells. Both in SkMs and HeLa cells, these changes could be prevented by XG-102, a JNK inhibitor. In HeLa cells, the changes in Cx43 expression and GJIC under hyperthermic conditions were accompanied by JNK-dependent disorganization of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers while in SkMs, the actin cytoskeleton remained intact. These findings provide an attractive model to identify the regulatory players within signalosomes, which determine the cell-dependent outcomes of hyperthermia.

  8. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  9. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Brantley

    Full Text Available Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton Muhl. (Poaceae on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005 where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected

  10. Pulsed Ultrasound Does Not Affect Recovery From Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

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    Gauri Shankar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of pulsed Ultrasound (US in recovery from Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy male athletes (mean age 23.83±1.697 year performed an eccentric exercise protocol of non-dominant elbow flexors to induce muscle soreness on 2 occasions separated by 3 weeks. Subjects in experimental group received pulsed US (1 MHz, intensity 0.8 W/cm2, mark space ratio 1:10, whereas control group received sham US after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Perception of muscle soreness, active ROM and muscle strength were the parameters measured at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h with the help of VAS, manual goniometer and JONEX muscles master instrument respectively. Results: Post hoc t test analysis revealed significant differences (p <0.05 between 0 h and 72 h in the parameter of ROM (t = 6.18 and muscle power (t = 2.54 as well as between 24 h and 48 h in the parameter of muscle soreness (t = 3.13 in control group. Similar differences were also observed in the experimental group. No significant inter-group differences at α level of 0.05 was observed in any parameter at any level. Conclusion: The pattern of recovery from DOMS was not influenced by the application of pulsed Ultrasound at the parameters discussed here.

  11. Factors affecting recovery efficiency in isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from vegetables for standard method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    While recently published techniques for recovering parasites from fruits and vegetables demonstrate a marked increase in efficiency and utility, there is still scope for further improvement in developing a standard method, particularly with difficult, but important, sample matrices such as bean sprouts. Herein, a number of parameters used in published techniques are investigated more closely. While sample size reduction may improve recovery efficiency because of a range of factors, it is important to keep the sample large enough for detection of low-level contamination. Age of sample is also important, and samples should be as fresh as possible. Elution procedures may contribute to losses of Giardia and should be more thoroughly investigated. Improved immunomagnetic separation techniques currently coming onto the market also have the potential to increase recovery efficiency substantially, even with difficult samples such as aged bean sprouts. However, merely increasing magnetic strength of the capturing magnet does not affect recovery efficiency, which must be reliant on a superior bead system, buffering system, or both.

  12. p53 Regulates the neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic responses affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriddia, Elisa M; Rathore, Khizr I; Tedeschi, Andrea; Quadrato, Giorgia; Wuttke, Anja; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Kigerl, Kristina A; Popovich, Phillip G; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2012-10-01

    Following spinal trauma, the limited physiological axonal sprouting that contributes to partial recovery of function is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of neurons as well as the inhibitory glial environment. The transcription factor p53 is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, and axonal outgrowth, suggesting p53 as key modifier of axonal and glial responses influencing functional recovery following spinal injury. Indeed, in a spinal cord dorsal hemisection injury model, we observed a significant impairment in locomotor recovery in p53(-/-) versus wild-type mice. p53(-/-) spinal cords showed an increased number of activated microglia/macrophages and a larger scar at the lesion site. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggested p53 as a direct regulator of microglia/macrophages proliferation. At the axonal level, p53(-/-) mice showed a more pronounced dieback of the corticospinal tract (CST) and a decreased sprouting capacity of both CST and spinal serotoninergic fibers. In vivo expression of p53 in the sensorimotor cortex rescued and enhanced the sprouting potential of the CST in p53(-/-) mice, while, similarly, p53 expression in p53(-/-) cultured cortical neurons rescued a defect in neurite outgrowth, suggesting a direct role for p53 in regulating the intrinsic sprouting ability of CNS neurons. In conclusion, we show that p53 plays an important regulatory role at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury. Therefore, we propose p53 as a novel potential multilevel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury.

  13. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

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    Melkamu Merid Mengesha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design: Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result: 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06]. Conclusions: Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome.

  14. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, José Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Márcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5°C of temperature [SD ±1°]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

  15. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

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    Diobel M. Castner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HRR at 30 and 60 s in children. PWS (8–18 years and lean and obese controls (8–11 years completed a weighted step-up protocol (six sets x 10 reps per leg, separated by one-minute rest, standardized using participant stature and lean body mass. HRR was evaluated by calculated HRR value (HRRV = difference between HR at test termination and 30 (HRRV30 and 60 (HRRV60 s post-exercise. PWS and obese had a smaller HRRV30 than lean (p < 0.01 for both. Additionally, PWS had a smaller HRRV60 than lean and obese (p = 0.01 for both. Obesity appears to delay early parasympathetic reactivation, which occurs within 30 s following resistance exercise. However, the continued HRR delay at 60 s in PWS may be explained by either blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivation, delayed sympathetic withdrawal and/or poor cardiovascular fitness.

  16. Shortening amplitude affects the incomplete force recovery after active shortening in mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Pieter; Van Leemputte, Marc

    2009-12-11

    Compared to isometric contraction, the force producing capacity of muscle is reduced (force depression, FD) after a work producing shortening phase. It has been suggested that FD results from an inhibition of cross-bridge binding. Because the rate constants of the exponential force (re)development are thought to be primarily determined by cross-bridge attachment/detachment rate, we aimed to investigate the components of force redevelopment (REDEV) after 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4mm shortening, resulting in varying amounts of FD (from about 5% to about 16%), in mouse soleus muscle (n=11). Compared to isometric force development (DEV), the time to reach steady-state during REDEV was about 3 times longer (370 versus 1261ms) increasing with increasing amplitude. Contrary to a single, a double exponential function with one component set equal to the rate constant of DEV (14.3s(-1)), accurately described REDEV (RMSshortening amplitude and was associated with work delivered during shortening (R(2)=0.75) and FD (R(2)=0.77). We concluded that a work related slow exponential component is induced to the trajectory of incomplete force recovery after shortening, causing FD. These results suggest that after shortening, aside from cross-bridges with normal attachment/detachment rate, cross-bridges with reduced cycling rate are active.

  17. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. A range of antiepileptic drugs do not affect the recovery of consciousness in vegetative and minimally conscious states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Sant'angelo, Antonino; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    Since most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have cognitive effects, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of AED therapy on the recovery of consciousness in 103 consecutive patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state (VS, MCS). The levels of cognitive functioning (LCF) score was retrospectively compared after a three-month period of rehabilitation between patients who were medicated (n=54) and patients who were not medicated (n=49) with AEDs. Mean LCF scores in AED-medicated and nonmedicated patients were 2.2±0.7 and 2.3±0.8 at admission and 3.8±2.2 and 3.7±2.1 after three months, respectively (p values>0.05). These results did not change when we compared patients with the same etiology separately, with the same disorder of consciousness only, or patients treated with only one or more than one AED. In conclusion, AEDs did not affect the recovery of consciousness in a large cohort of patients in a VS or MCS following an acute brain injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Sleep Essential for Neural Plasticity in Humans, and How Does It Affect Motor and Cognitive Recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gorgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that sleep is strictly linked to memory, learning, and, in general, to the mechanisms of neural plasticity, and that this link may directly affect recovery processes. In fact, a coherent pattern of empirical findings points to beneficial effect of sleep on learning and plastic processes, and changes in synaptic plasticity during wakefulness induce coherent modifications in EEG slow wave cortical topography during subsequent sleep. However, the specific nature of the relation between sleep and synaptic plasticity is not clear yet. We reported findings in line with two models conflicting with respect to the underlying mechanisms, that is, the “synaptic homeostasis hypothesis” and the “consolidation” hypothesis, and some recent results that may reconcile them. Independently from the specific mechanisms involved, sleep loss is associated with detrimental effects on plastic processes at a molecular and electrophysiological level. Finally, we reviewed growing evidence supporting the notion that plasticity-dependent recovery could be improved managing sleep quality, while monitoring EEG during sleep may help to explain how specific rehabilitative paradigms work. We conclude that a better understanding of the sleep-plasticity link could be crucial from a rehabilitative point of view.

  20. Is sleep essential for neural plasticity in humans, and how does it affect motor and cognitive recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; D'Atri, Aurora; Lauri, Giulia; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Ferlazzo, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that sleep is strictly linked to memory, learning, and, in general, to the mechanisms of neural plasticity, and that this link may directly affect recovery processes. In fact, a coherent pattern of empirical findings points to beneficial effect of sleep on learning and plastic processes, and changes in synaptic plasticity during wakefulness induce coherent modifications in EEG slow wave cortical topography during subsequent sleep. However, the specific nature of the relation between sleep and synaptic plasticity is not clear yet. We reported findings in line with two models conflicting with respect to the underlying mechanisms, that is, the "synaptic homeostasis hypothesis" and the "consolidation" hypothesis, and some recent results that may reconcile them. Independently from the specific mechanisms involved, sleep loss is associated with detrimental effects on plastic processes at a molecular and electrophysiological level. Finally, we reviewed growing evidence supporting the notion that plasticity-dependent recovery could be improved managing sleep quality, while monitoring EEG during sleep may help to explain how specific rehabilitative paradigms work. We conclude that a better understanding of the sleep-plasticity link could be crucial from a rehabilitative point of view.

  1. Patient-centered rehabilitation, three years of gait recovery in a child affected by hemiplegia:. case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, M; Rossi, S; Bollea, L; Cappa, P; Castelli, E

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this report was to illustrate and to discuss a method capable of improving the person-oriented decision-making process during three years of gait rehabilitation based on the integration of: 1) the fundamental principles of motor learning and 2) the outcomes made available by both clinical standardized assessment tools (SAT) and measures made available by a gait analysis system (GA). The subject studied was a six-year-old child affected by hemiplegia after arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) who had limited upper and lower right-limb function but unaffected sensory and cognitive skills. Four different rehabilitative treatments were chosen when the child was inpatient or outpatient. Measurements of gait performance before and after selected treatments were evaluated using PEDI and GMFM (i.e., SAT) and kinematic and kinetic parameters (i.e., GA). Gait pattern and inter- and intralimb-joint coordination changed over time during the three examined years. However, after the first eight months of recovery, gait pattern modifications were detected by GA measures but not by SAT. The integration of SAT and GA findings, during the examined recovery evolution, resulted effective in the decision-making process for a person-oriented rehabilitative treatment.

  2. Determinants of property damage recovery time amongst households affected by an extreme flood event in Metro Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Paolo Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the factors that influence household recovery following an extreme flood event, measured in terms of the length of time to repair, rebuild or replace damaged private property. Data was obtained through a survey of 400 households in Marikina City in Metro Manila, Philippines. Results from the empirical analysis indicated that household income, access to credit (borrowing, the use of a flood alarm system, access to safe shelter, membership in a community organisation, adoption of disaster-specific anticipatory measures and adoption of general preventive measures significantly reduced the time it took for affected households to recover from property damage. Evacuation, relief aid, type of housing, education, household size and frequency of flooding in the area did not have significant effects.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 738, 1492, 1493), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 738, 1492, 1493), increase in endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise, skeletal muscle tissue repair, increase in endurance capacity, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, “energy metabolism”, and increasing L...

  4. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.

  5. Time of day affects heart rate recovery and variability after maximal exercise in pre-hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leandro; Peçanha, Tiago; Tinucci, Taís; Silva-Junior, Natan; Costa, Luiz; Forjaz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and variability (HRV) after exercise are non-invasive tools used to assess cardiac autonomic regulation and cardiovascular prognosis. Autonomic recovery is slower after evening than morning exercise in healthy individuals, but this influence is unknown in subjects with autonomic dysfunction, although it may affect prognostic evaluation. This study compared post-exercise HRR and HRV after maximal morning and evening exercise in pre-hypertensive men. Ten volunteers randomly underwent two maximal exercise tests conducted in the morning (8-10 a.m.) and evening (6-8 p.m.). HRR60s (HR reduction at 60 s of recovery - prognostic index), T30 (short-term time-constant of HRR - parasympathetic reactivation marker), rMSSD30s (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-R intervals on subsequent 30 s segments - parasympathetic reactivation marker), and HRRτ (time constant of the first order exponential fitting of HRR - marker of sympathetic withdraw and parasympathetic reactivation) were measured. Paired t-test and two-way ANOVA were used. HRR60s and HRRτ were similar after exercise in the morning and evening (27 ± 7 vs. 29 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.111, and 79 ± 14 vs. 96 ± 29 s, p = 0.119, respectively). T30 was significantly greater after evening exercise (405 ± 215 vs. 295 ± 119 s, p = 0.002) and rMSSD30s was lower in the evening (main factor session, p = 0.009). In conclusion, in pre-hypertensive men, the prognostic index of HRR, HRR60s, is not affected by the time of day when exercise is conducted. However, post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, evaluated by T30 and rMSSD30s, is blunted after evening exercise.

  6. A pharmacodynamic analysis of factors affecting recovery from anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil target controlled infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bon-nyeo KOO; Jeong-rim LEE; Gyu-jeong NOH; Jae-hoon LEE; Young-ran KANG; Dong-woo HAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To examine individual patient's demographic parameters and clinical variables related to return of consciousness (ROC) and the pharmacodynamic relationship between propofol effect-site concentration (Ce) and ROC from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.Methods:Ninety-four patients received propofol-remifentanil anesthesia using the effect-site target-controlled infusion (TCI) system.All clinical events were noted,and variables possibly related to propofol Ce at ROC were examined using linear correlation analyses.Pharmacodynamic modeling incorporating covariates was performed using NONMEM (Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modeling) Ⅶ software.Results:The Ce values of propofol at loss of consciousness (LOC) and ROC were 4.4±1.1 μg/mL and 1.1±0.3 μg/mL respectively.Age was negatively correlated with propofol Ce at ROC (r=-0.48,P<0.01).Including age as a covariate in Ce50 (the effect-site concentration associated with 50% probability of return of consciousness) and λ (the steepness of the concentration-versus-response relationship) significantly improved the performance of the basic model based on the likelihood ratio test,with a significant decrease in the minimum value of the objective function.The Ce50 in 25-,50-,and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 1.38,1.06,and 0.74 Iμg/mL,respectively.The λ,in 25-,50-,and 75-year-old patients was predicted to be 12.23,8.70,and 5.18,respectively.Conclusion:Age significantly affects the relationship between propofol Ce and ROC,and pharmacodynamic modeling including age could lead to better predictions of ROC during emergence from propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.

  7. Glucosamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress affects GLUT4 expression via activating transcription factor 6 in rat and human skeletal muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raciti, G A; Iadicicco, C; Ulianich, L

    2010-01-01

    Glucosamine, generated during hyperglycaemia, causes insulin resistance in different cells. Here we sought to evaluate the possible role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine in skeletal muscle cells....

  8. 负荷运动对人体骨骼肌卫星细胞的影响%Affect Human Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Analysis of the Load Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余群; 王丽平; 翁锡全

    2014-01-01

    骨骼肌在运动损伤、发育和重建等过程中卫星细胞具有重要的生理作用。适宜的运动训练可以激活肌卫星细胞,使之增殖并向成肌的肌卫星细胞转化。文章阐述了骨骼肌卫星细胞的特征、负荷运动对肌卫星细胞的影响,以及运动对卫星细胞的激活与增殖的作用机制;并对人体衰老过程中肌卫星细胞的变化规律进行分析与探讨。%Skeletal muscle satellite cells in skeletal muscle growth and development ,physiology and pathology of skeletal mus‐cle damage repair and remodeling process plays an important role .Appropriate exercise training can activate satellite cells ,satellite cells proliferate and promote myoblast differentiation .In addition ,skeletal muscle satellite cells are generally in a resting state ,it will not participate in the synthesis of gene expression and protein .But it can be activated in sports injuries ,mechanical traction or weight training and other specialized stress during differentiation and fusion into myotubes able to participate in the repair of skele ‐tal muscle .In this paper ,the origins of skeletal muscle satellite cells ,morphological characteristics and different exercise training on human skeletal muscle satellite cells as well as the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cell activation ,prolif‐eration and changes of the aging process of skeletal muscle satellite cells were analyzed and discussion .

  9. Skeletal muscle glycogen content and particle size of distinct subcellular localizations in the recovery period after a high-level soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...... subcellular localizations, but during the subsequent second day of recovery glycogen content located within the myofibrils (Intramyofibrillar glycogen, a minor deposition constituting 10-15% of total glycogen) did not increase further compared with an increase in subsarcolemmal glycogen (-7 vs. +25......%, respectively, P = 0.047). Conversely, from the second to the fifth day of recovery, glycogen content increased (53%) within the myofibrils compared to no change in subsarcolemmal or intermyofibrillar glycogen (P ...

  10. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV at maturity.Methods. Female rats (25 days old were assigned to a control (C group (n = 45 that received saline injections (.2 cc or an experimental group (GnRH-a (n = 45 that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a. The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R (n = 15 and (G-R (n = 15. The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX (n = 15 and (G-OVX (n = 15. After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX was computed.Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72% and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19% following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  11. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  12. Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant affecting hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Takashi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Oh, Sechang; Sawai, Akemi; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Ishige, Kazunori; Mizokami, Yuji; Yamagata, Kenji; Onizawa, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Shoda, Junichi

    2017-08-08

    Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis. When the SV ratio was stratified by quartiles (Q 1-Q 4), the SV ratio showed a negative relationship with the degree of body mass index, HOMA-IR, and liver stiffness (Q 1, 8.9 ± 7.5 kPa, mean ± standard deviation; Q 2, 7.5 ± 6.2; Q 3, 5.8 ± 3.7; Q 4, 5.0 ± 1.9) and steatosis (Q 1, 282 ± 57 dB/m; Q 2, 278 ± 58; Q 3, 253 ± 57; Q 4, 200 ± 42) measured by transient elastography. Levels of leptin and biochemical markers of liver cell damage, liver fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress, and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 than in those in Q 2, Q 3, or Q 4. Moreover, fat contents in femoral muscles were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 and the change was associated with weakened muscle strength. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD subjects with the decreased SV ratio were likely to have an increased risk of moderate-to-severe steatosis and that of advanced fibrosis. Decreased muscle mass coupled with increased visceral fat mass is closely associated with an increased risk for exacerbating NAFLD pathophysiology.

  13. Skeletal muscle glycogen content and particle size of distinct subcellular localizations in the recovery period after a high-level soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whole muscle glycogen levels remain low for a prolonged period following a soccer match. The present study was conducted to investigate how this relates to glycogen content and particle size in distinct subcellular localizations. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle...... biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...... subcellular localizations, but during the subsequent second day of recovery glycogen content located within the myofibrils (Intramyofibrillar glycogen, a minor deposition constituting 10-15% of total glycogen) did not increase further compared with an increase in subsarcolemmal glycogen (-7 vs. +25...

  14. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....... legs during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Muscle biopsies were obtained in both legs before and after the clamp. Four hours after exercise, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was improved (approximately 70%, P

  15. Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high-intensity athletes: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese-Bjornstal, D M

    2010-10-01

    This consensus statement summarizes key contemporary research themes relevant to understanding the psychology and socioculture of sport injury. Special consideration is given toward high-intensity sport in which elite athlete training and performance efforts are characterized by explosive physical speed and strength, mental fortitude to push physical limits, and maximum effort and commitment to highly challenging goals associated with achieving exceptional performance. Sport injury occurrence in high-intensity sport is an adverse and stressful health event associated with a complex multitude of risks, consequences and outcomes. A biopsychosocial (Engel, 1980) view is advocated which contextualizes an understanding of the psychological aspects of sport injury in light of influential sociocultural, ethical, and biomedical issues. Outcomes related to athlete health and performance excellence are of equal importance in considering how psychological scholarship, expertise and services can be used to improve efforts focused on the prevention and management of sport injury among high-intensity athletes. The consensus view is that psychology and socioculture do affect sport injury risk, response and recovery in high-intensity athletes, and that continued efforts in psychological research and professional practice are needed to protect athlete physical and mental health and contribute toward performance excellence and career longevity.

  16. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  17. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  18. Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Lucy R Green

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline pla...

  19. Phosphorus decreases in Lake Geneva but climate warming hampers the recovery of pristine oligochaete communities whereas chironomids are less affected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Lang

    2016-03-01

    temperature, the recovery of the pristine oligochaete community was perhaps impeded in 2009 because the transfer of organic matter to the sediment was increased by the impact of fish (mostly Coregonus feeding selectively on zooplankton. Finally, many micro pollutants (pesticides, drugs, and other substances which are present in the lake could have negatively affected sensitive oligochaete species.   

  20. Kinesiology Tape does not Affect Serum Creatine Kinase Level and Quadriceps Activity during Recovery from Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aminaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS causes muscle damage and edema that can hinder performance and increase risks for secondary injuries. Kinesiology Tape (KT may be an effective modality for aiding in recovery, however, no study has investigated the effects of KT on the physiological biomarkers such as serum creatine kinase (CK level, concurrently with measures of performance and function, during recovery from DOMS. Objective: Investigate the effects of KT on serum CK level, electromyographic (EMG activity of the quadriceps muscles, and performances of countermovement jump (CMJ and triple single-leg hop for distance (HopD during recovery from DOMS. Method: Fifty-eight healthy college-age participants were randomly assigned to KT (n=15, placebo (n=19, and control (n=24 groups. Serum CK level and quadriceps EMG activity and performance during CMJ and HopD were collected at baseline, immediately after repetitive eccentric quadriceps exercise, 48 hours, and 72 hours post-exercise. The EMG recording of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis during the CMJ and HopD were normalized to the baseline maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results: A significant main effect of time on the serum CK level, EMG activity, and performance (p0.05. Conclusion: Taping interventions did not improve the serum CK level or muscle activity and performance during recovery from DOMS. Kinesiology tape may not be the first choice of method for enhancing recovery from DOMS in otherwise healthy individuals.

  1. 骨骼肌细胞损伤致延迟性肌肉酸痛:如何有效提高损伤肌肉恢复的速度和质量%Damage to skeletal muscle cells leads to delayed muscle soreness:how to effectively improve muscle recovery both in recovery speed and quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 赵相轩; 潘诗农; 郭启勇

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is no simple and effective method to relieve delayed muscle soreness. OBJECTIVE:To conclude the injured mechanism and therapies of delayed muscle soreness by reviewing literature about damage and repair of the skeletal muscle. METHODWanfang and PubMed databases (from January 1991 to January 2014) were retrieved for articles related to morphological structure of the skeletal muscle, mechanism of delayed muscle soreness, and treatment and repair of the skeletal muscle using the keywords of“molecular mechanisms;delayed onset muscle soreness;pain;skeletal muscle;injury”in Chinese and English, respectively. Final y, 24 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Studies have shown that skeletal muscle injury is related to calcium imbalance, energy imbalance and high concentration of active oxygen. Skeletal muscle injury includes metabolic injury, mechanical injury and inflammatory injury. Insulin-like growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ-coactivator-1αpromoter and tumor necrosis factorαplay important roles in skeletal muscle repair process. Animal experiments have demonstrated that edaravone may reduce secondary damage and inflammatory infiltration by means of directly preventing rapid peroxidation injury of free radicals in the skeletal muscle. Clinical studies have shown that Chinese medicine preparations, massage and acupuncture can delay the occurrence of exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigue, to improve the speed and quality of the recovery of damaged muscles. The treatment of delayed muscle soreness can achieve satisfactory results by combining physiotherapy with traditional Chinese medicine.%背景:目前临床尚缺乏一种简单有效的防治延迟性肌肉酸痛的方法。  目的:查阅国内外有关骨骼肌损伤及修复的相关文献,归纳总结延迟性肌肉酸痛的损伤机制和治疗方法。  方法:检索1991年1月至2014年1月万方医学网和Pub

  2. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  3. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  4. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  5. Deficiency of Thrombospondin-4 in Mice Does Not Affect Skeletal Growth or Bone Mass Acquisition, but Causes a Transient Reduction of Articular Cartilage Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Anke; Bonitz, Martin; Simon, Maciej; Peters, Stephanie; Baum, Wolfgang; Schett, Georg; Ruether, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Andreas; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although articular cartilage degeneration represents a major public health problem, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly characterized. We have previously utilized genome-wide expression analysis to identify specific markers of porcine articular cartilage, one of them being Thrombospondin-4 (Thbs4). In the present study we analyzed Thbs4 expression in mice, thereby confirming its predominant expression in articular cartilage, but also identifying expression in other tissues, including bone. To study the role of Thbs4 in skeletal development and integrity we took advantage of a Thbs4-deficient mouse model that was analyzed by undecalcified bone histology. We found that Thbs4-deficient mice do not display phenotypic differences towards wildtype littermates in terms of skeletal growth or bone mass acquisition. Since Thbs4 has previously been found over-expressed in bones of Phex-deficient Hyp mice, we additionally generated Thbs4-deficient Hyp mice, but failed to detect phenotypic differences towards Hyp littermates. With respect to articular cartilage we found that Thbs4-deficient mice display transient thinning of articular cartilage, suggesting a protective role of Thbs4 for joint integrity. Gene expression analysis using porcine primary cells revealed that Thbs4 is not expressed by synovial fibroblasts and that it represents the only member of the Thbs gene family with specific expression in articular, but not in growth plate chondrocytes. In an attempt to identify specific molecular effects of Thbs4 we treated porcine articular chondrocytes with human THBS4 in the absence or presence of conditioned medium from porcine synovial fibroblasts. Here we did not observe a significant influence of THBS4 on proliferation, metabolic activity, apoptosis or gene expression, suggesting that it does not act as a signaling molecule. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Thbs4 is highly expressed in articular chondrocytes, where its presence in the

  6. Deficiency of Thrombospondin-4 in Mice Does Not Affect Skeletal Growth or Bone Mass Acquisition, but Causes a Transient Reduction of Articular Cartilage Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Jeschke

    Full Text Available Although articular cartilage degeneration represents a major public health problem, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly characterized. We have previously utilized genome-wide expression analysis to identify specific markers of porcine articular cartilage, one of them being Thrombospondin-4 (Thbs4. In the present study we analyzed Thbs4 expression in mice, thereby confirming its predominant expression in articular cartilage, but also identifying expression in other tissues, including bone. To study the role of Thbs4 in skeletal development and integrity we took advantage of a Thbs4-deficient mouse model that was analyzed by undecalcified bone histology. We found that Thbs4-deficient mice do not display phenotypic differences towards wildtype littermates in terms of skeletal growth or bone mass acquisition. Since Thbs4 has previously been found over-expressed in bones of Phex-deficient Hyp mice, we additionally generated Thbs4-deficient Hyp mice, but failed to detect phenotypic differences towards Hyp littermates. With respect to articular cartilage we found that Thbs4-deficient mice display transient thinning of articular cartilage, suggesting a protective role of Thbs4 for joint integrity. Gene expression analysis using porcine primary cells revealed that Thbs4 is not expressed by synovial fibroblasts and that it represents the only member of the Thbs gene family with specific expression in articular, but not in growth plate chondrocytes. In an attempt to identify specific molecular effects of Thbs4 we treated porcine articular chondrocytes with human THBS4 in the absence or presence of conditioned medium from porcine synovial fibroblasts. Here we did not observe a significant influence of THBS4 on proliferation, metabolic activity, apoptosis or gene expression, suggesting that it does not act as a signaling molecule. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Thbs4 is highly expressed in articular chondrocytes, where its

  7. Factors affecting establishment and recovery of Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an introduced predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) on eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, A; Grant, J F; Wiggins, G J; Lambdin, P L; Hale, F A; Buckley, D S; Rhea, J R; Parkman, J P; Taylor, G

    2013-12-01

    To reduce populations of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), >500,000 Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji and McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) have been released in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park since 2002. To determine factors affecting establishment and recovery of these predatory beetles, 65 single release sites were sampled using beat sheets from 2008 to 2012. Several abiotic and biotic factors were evaluated for their association with establishment and recovery of S. tsugae. Information on predatory beetle releases (location, year of release, number released, and season of release), topographic features (elevation, slope, Beers transformed aspect, and topographic relative moisture index), and temperature data (minimum and maximum temperatures 1 d after release and average minimum and maximum temperatures 7 d after release) were obtained from Great Smoky Mountains National Park personnel. These factors were evaluated using stepwise logistic regression and Pearson correlation. S. tsugae was recovered from 13 sites 2 to 10 yr after release, and the greatest number was recovered from 2002 release sites. Regression indicated establishment and recovery was negatively associated with year of release and positively associated with the average maximum temperature 7 d after release and elevation (generally, recovery increased as temperatures increased). Several significant correlations were found between presence and number of S. tsugae and year of release, season of release, and temperature variables. These results indicate that releases of S. tsugae should be made in warmer (≍10-25°C) temperatures and monitored for at least 5 yr after releases to enhance establishment and recovery efforts.

  8. Soil NH+4 Fixation and Fertilizer N Recovery as Affected by Soil Moisture and Fertilizer Application Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yah-An; O.EMTERYD; H.GRIP; LU Dian-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium fixation and the effects of soil moisture and application methods on fertilizer N recovery were investigated in two soils of Shaanxi Province,China,a Luvisol and an Entisol,through two experiments performed in the laboratory and in a glass shelter,respectively,by using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3). The laboratory closed incubation box experiment was conducted using the Luvisol to study NH4+ fixation rate at soil moisture levels of 10.1%,22.7% and 35.3% water filled pore space (WFPS). The fixed NH4+-N increased dramatically to 51% and 66%,67% and 74%,and 82% and 85% 1,2 and 36 h after fertilizer incorporation at moisture levels of 10.1% and 22.7% WFPS and 35.3%WFPS,respectively. The rapid NH4+ fixation rates at all moisture levels could help prevent NH4+ losses from ammonia volatilization. In the glass shelter pot experiment,N fertilizer was applied by either banding (in a concentrated strip)or incorporating (thoroughly mixing) with the Entisol and the Luvisol. An average of 74.2% of the added N fertilizer was recovered 26 days after application to the Luvisol,while only 61.4% could be recovered from the Entisol,due to higher NH4+ fixation capacity of the Luvisol. The amount of fixed NH4+ decreased with increasing WFPS. The amount of fixed NH4+ in the incorporated fertilizer treatment was,on average,10% higher than that in the banded treatment.Higher NH4+ fixation rates could prevent N loss and thus increase N recovery. The results from the Luvisol showed lower nitrogen recovery as soil moisture level increased,which could be explained by the fact that most of the fixed NH4+ was still not released when the soil moisture level was low. When the fertilizer was incorporated into the soil,the recovery of N increased,compared with the banded treatment,by an average of 26.2% in the Luvisol and 11.2% in the Entisol,which implied that when farmers applied fertilizer,it would be best to mix it well with the soil.

  9. Continuous intraoperative epidural infusions affect recovery room length of stay and analgesic requirements: a single-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aalap C; Nair, Bala G; Spiekerman, Charles F; Bollag, Laurent A

    2017-08-01

    Continuous intraoperative epidural analgesia may improve post-operative pain control and decrease opioid requirements. We investigate the effect of epidural infusion initiation before or after arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit on recovery room duration and post-operative opioid use. We performed a retrospective chart review of abdominal, thoracic and orthopedic surgeries where an epidural catheter was placed prior to surgery at the University of Washington Medical Center during a 24 month period. Patients whose epidural infusions were started prior to PACU arrival (Group 2: n = 540) exhibited a shorter PACU length of stay (p = .004) and were less likely to receive intravenous opioids in the recovery room (34 vs. 48%; p < .001) compared to patients whose infusions were started after surgery (Group 1: n = 374). Although the highest patient-reported pain scores were lower in Group 2 (5.3 vs. 6.0; p = .030), no differences in the pain scores prior to PACU discharge were observed. Intraoperative continuous epidural infusions decrease PACU LOS as discharge criteria for patient-reported NRS pain scores are met earlier.

  10. Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on functional and strength recovery of handgrip in patients affected by epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Quagliarella, Livio; Sasanelli, Nicola; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Fracella, Maria Rosaria; Forcignanò, Maria Immacolata; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is effective in the treatment of tendinopathy. We designed a prospective observational clinical study to assess the correlation between clinical and functional measures and recovery of strength after ESWT for epicondylitis. We analyzed 26 patients. We measured progressive improvement in visual analogue scale values (p 0.05). We found no correlation between degree of clinical function and muscle deficit during follow-up. After ESWT, there was a tendency toward a decrease in grip strength, especially in the dominant limb. This could be related to the effects of ESWT, which reduces spasticity in painful hypertonic muscles. These data may be useful in defining the expectations for function during ESWT for epicondylitis, particularly for elite athletes.

  11. Desflurane Allows for a Faster Emergence when Compared to Sevoflurane Without Affecting the Baseline Cognitive Recovery Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Werner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims, We compared the effect of desflurane and sevoflurane on anesthesia recovery time in patients undergoing urological cystoscopic surgery. The Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT measured and compared cognitive impairment between groups and coughing was assessed throughout the anesthetic.Methods and Materials, This investigation included 75 ambulatory patients. Patients were randomized to receive either desflurane or sevoflurane. Inhalational anesthetics were discontinued after removal of the cystoscope and once repositioning of the patient was final. Coughing assessment and awakening time from anesthesia were assessed by a blinded observer.Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for parametric variables and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric variables. Results, The primary endpoint, mean time to eye-opening, was 5.0±2.5 minutes for desflurane, and 7.9±4.1 minutes for sevoflurane (p <0.001. There were no significant differences in time to SOMCT recovery (p=0.109, overall time spent in the post anesthesia care unit (p=0.924 or time to discharge (p=0.363. Median time until readiness for discharge was nine minutes in the desflurane group, while the sevoflurane group had a median time of 20 minutes (p=0.020. The overall incidence of coughing during the perioperative period was significantly higher in the desflurane (p=0.030. Conclusions, We re-confirmed that patients receiving desflurane had a faster emergence and met the criteria to be discharged from the post anesthesia care unit earlier. No difference was found in time to return to baseline cognition between desflurane and sevoflurane.

  12. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  13. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-05-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there.

  14. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Page 1 of 14 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0216 TITLE: Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...30 Jun 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...cholinesterases and acetylcholine, which could affect activity at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle, muscarinic receptors affecting vascular smooth

  15. Metaplasticity and Behavior: How Training and Inflammation Affect Plastic Potential within the Spinal Cord and Recovery after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Grau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that spinal circuits have the capacity to adapt in response to training, nociceptive stimulation and peripheral inflammation. These changes in neural function are mediated by physiological and neurochemical systems analogous to those that support plasticity within the hippocampus (e.g., long-term potentiation and the NMDA receptor. As observed in the hippocampus, engaging spinal circuits can have a lasting impact on plastic potential, enabling or inhibiting the capacity to learn. These effects are related to the concept of metaplasticity. Behavioral paradigms are described that induce metaplastic effects within the spinal cord. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation, and peripheral inflammation, induce a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinal learning. Conversely, exposure to controllable or predictable stimulation engages a form of adaptive plasticity that counters these maladaptive effects and enables learning. Adaptive plasticity is tied to an up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Maladaptive plasticity is linked to processes that involve kappa opioids, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu receptor, glia, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Uncontrollable nociceptive stimulation also impairs recovery after a spinal contusion injury and fosters the development of pain (allodynia. These adverse effects are related to an up-regulation of TNF and a down-regulation of BDNF and its receptor (TrkB. In the absence of injury, brain systems quell the sensitization of spinal circuits through descending serotonergic fibers and the serotonin 1A (5HT 1A receptor. This protective effect is blocked by surgical anesthesia. Disconnected from the brain, intracellular Cl- concentrations increase (due to a down-regulation of the cotransporter KCC2, which causes GABA to have an excitatory effect. It is suggested that BDNF has a restorative effect because it up-regulates KCC2 and re-establishes GABA

  16. Metaplasticity and behavior: how training and inflammation affect plastic potential within the spinal cord and recovery after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, James W.; Huie, J. Russell; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Turtle, Joel D.; Strain, Misty M.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Miranda, Rajesh M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Garraway, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that spinal circuits have the capacity to adapt in response to training, nociceptive stimulation and peripheral inflammation. These changes in neural function are mediated by physiological and neurochemical systems analogous to those that support plasticity within the hippocampus (e.g., long-term potentiation and the NMDA receptor). As observed in the hippocampus, engaging spinal circuits can have a lasting impact on plastic potential, enabling or inhibiting the capacity to learn. These effects are related to the concept of metaplasticity. Behavioral paradigms are described that induce metaplastic effects within the spinal cord. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation, and peripheral inflammation, induce a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinal learning. Conversely, exposure to controllable or predictable stimulation engages a form of adaptive plasticity that counters these maladaptive effects and enables learning. Adaptive plasticity is tied to an up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Maladaptive plasticity is linked to processes that involve kappa opioids, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, glia, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Uncontrollable nociceptive stimulation also impairs recovery after a spinal contusion injury and fosters the development of pain (allodynia). These adverse effects are related to an up-regulation of TNF and a down-regulation of BDNF and its receptor (TrkB). In the absence of injury, brain systems quell the sensitization of spinal circuits through descending serotonergic fibers and the serotonin 1A (5HT 1A) receptor. This protective effect is blocked by surgical anesthesia. Disconnected from the brain, intracellular Cl- concentrations increase (due to a down-regulation of the cotransporter KCC2), which causes GABA to have an excitatory effect. It is suggested that BDNF has a restorative effect because it up-regulates KCC2 and re-establishes GABA-mediated inhibition

  17. Five years later: recovery from post traumatic stress and psychological distress among low-income mothers affected by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Christina; Fussell, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Jean; Waters, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group-low income mothers-from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longitudinal surveys of 532 low-income mothers from New Orleans were conducted approximately one year before, 7-19 months after, and 43-54 months after Hurricane Katrina. The surveys collected information on mental health, social support, earnings and hurricane experiences. We document changes in post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), as measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of psychological distress (PD), as measured by the K6 scale. We find that although PTSS has declined over time after the hurricane, it remained high 43-54 months later. PD also declined, but did not return to pre-hurricane levels. At both time periods, psychological distress before the hurricane, hurricane-related home damage, and exposure to traumatic events were associated with PTSS that co-occurred with PD. Hurricane-related home damage and traumatic events were associated with PTSS without PD. Home damage was an especially important predictor of chronic PTSS, with and without PD. Most hurricane stressors did not have strong associations with PD alone over the short or long run. Over the long run, higher earnings were protective against PD, and greater social support was protective against PTSS. These results indicate that mental health problems, particularly PTSS alone or in co-occurrence with PD, among Hurricane Katrina survivors remain a concern, especially for those who experienced hurricane-related trauma and had poor mental health or low socioeconomic status before the hurricane

  18. Assessment of Impact and Recovery Needs in Communities Affected by the Elk River Chemical Spill, West Virginia, April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, Sherry L; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Mark-Carew, Miguella; Thomas, Carrie; Bixler, Danae; Noe, Rebecca S; Hsu, Joy; Haddy, Loretta; Wolkin, Amy

    In January 2014, 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol spilled into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia, contaminating the water supply for about 120 000 households. The West Virginia American Water Company (WVAWC) issued a "do not use" water order for 9 counties. After the order was lifted (10 days after the spill), the communities' use of public water systems, information sources, alternative sources of water, and perceived impact of the spill on households were unclear to public health officials. To assist in recovery efforts, the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER). We used the CASPER 2-stage cluster sampling design to select a representative sample of households to interview, and we conducted interviews in 171 households in April 2014. We used a weighted cluster analysis to generate population estimates in the sampling frame. Before the spill, 74.4% of households did not have a 3-day alternative water supply for each household member and pet. Although 83.6% of households obtained an alternative water source within 1 day of the "do not use" order, 37.4% of households reportedly used WVAWC water for any purpose. Nearly 3 months after the spill, 36.1% of households believed that their WVAWC water was safe, and 33.5% reported using their household water for drinking. CASPER results identified the need to focus on basic public health messaging and household preparedness efforts. Recommendations included (1) encouraging households to maintain a 3-day emergency water supply, (2) identifying additional alternative sources of water for future emergencies, and (3) increasing community education to address ongoing concerns about water.

  19. Interleukin-15 Affects Patient Survival through Natural Killer Cell Recovery after Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Porrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells at day 15 (NK-15, after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT, is a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. The potential role of the immunologic (homeostatic environment affecting NK-15 recovery and survival post-APHSCT has not been fully studied. Therefore, we evaluate prospectively the cytokine profile in 50 NHL patients treated with APHSCT. Patients with an interleukin-15 (IL-15≥76.5 pg/mL at day 15 post-APHSCT experienced superior OS and PFS compared with those who did not; median OS; not reached versus 19.2 months, P<.002; and median PFS; not reached versus 6.8 months, P<.002, respectively. IL-15 was found to correlate with (rs=0.7, P<.0001 NK-15. Multivariate analysis showed only NK-15 as a prognostic factor for survival, suggesting that the survival benefit observed by IL-15 is most likely mediated by enhanced NK cell recovery post-APHSCT.

  20. Visible foliar injury and infrared imaging show that daylength affects short-term recovery after ozone stress in Trifolium subterraneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollsnes, Ane V; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Otterholt, Eli; Kvaal, Knut; Oxaal, Unni; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2009-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been investigated. Young Trifolium subterraneum plants kept in environmentally controlled growth rooms under long day (10 h bright light, 14 h dim light) or short day (10 h bright light, 14 h darkness) conditions were exposed to 6 h of 70 ppb ozone during daytime for three consecutive days. Leaves were visually inspected and imaged in vivo using thermal imaging before and after the daily exposure. In long-day-treated plants, visible foliar injury within 1 week after exposure was more severe. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the leaves of ozone-exposed long-day-treated plants were also warmer with more homogeneous temperature distributions than exposed short day and control plants, suggesting reduced transpiration. Temperature disruptions were not restricted to areas displaying visible damage and occurred even in leaves with only slight visible injury. Ozone did not affect the leaf temperature of short-day-treated plants. As all factors influencing ozone influx were the same for long- and short-day-treated plants, only the dim nocturnal light could account for the different ozone sensitivities. Thus, the twilight summer nights at high latitudes may have a negative effect on repair and defence processes activated after ozone exposure, thereby enhancing sensitivity.

  1. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  2. Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ecological recovery of affected areas by a forest fire in the Tintales watershed (Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Méndez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tintales watershed, located in the Santuario de Flora y Fauna (SFF of Iguaque, Boyaca, was affected by a wildfire. In that area, the natural regeneration was evaluated in 29 permanent plots. Two phyto-physiognomies, a rocky outcrop and oak were evaluated to compare their richness, diversity and dominance, with rocky outcrop yielding a greater richness and diversity. The Asteraceae family was the one that obtained greater representation, with a dominance of species such as Hypoxis decumbens, Pterídium aquilinum and Andropogon bicornis. The diversity in the whole sampling was low and uniform due to the repeated incidence of forest fires that have caused changes in the structure and composition of vegetation. The vegetation found did not differ substantially from other studies reported for this life zone and the region, where the dynamics of land use are similar, with high deforestation and fires. The vegetation established after the fire is dominated by colonizing and pioneering species. In the two phyto physiognomies studied after a year of the fire, two plant communities with statistically significant differences in wealth and homogeneity could be stablished. To start the restoration process, it is recommended to use as one of the inputs, the taxonomic differences found between oak  and rocky outcrop.

  4. Regulation of PDH, GS and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    as decreased protein level of HKII and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Iαn addition, the ability of acute exercise to increase insulin-stimulated glucose extraction was maintained after 7 days of bed rest. However, acute exercise after bed rest did not fully normalize the ability of skeletal muscle to extract....... Study IV demonstrated that an IL-6 injection reduced PDHa activity in skeletal muscle from fed mice and increased the PDHa activity in skeletal muscle from fasted mice without any change in phosphorylation level. An IL-6 injection increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle only...... with physical inactivity in humans, and physical inactivity did not affect the ability of exercise to enhance insulinmediated skeletal muscle glucose extraction. 2) Exercise training-improved glucose handling in aged human skeletal muscle was associated with increased content of key proteins in glucose...

  5. Effects of salvage logging on soil properties and vegetation recovery in a fire-affected Mediterranean forest: A two year monitoring research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, F; Arcenegui, V; Chrenková, K; Mataix-Solera, J; Moltó, J; Jara-Navarro, A B; Torres, M P

    2017-05-15

    Post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Salvage logging (SL) is a common practice in most fire-affected areas. The management of burnt wood can determine microclimatic conditions and seriously affect soil properties. In some cases, the way of doing it, using heavy machinery, and the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation can make this management potentially aggressive to soil. Research was done in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" (E Spain). A forest fire (>500ha) occurred in July 2012. In February 2013, SL treatment was applied in a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring this effect were installed in this area and in a similar nearby area where no treatment was done, used as control (C). Soil samplings were done immediately after treatment and every 6months during two years. Some soil properties were analysed, including organic matter (OM) content, nitrogen (N) available phosphorous (P) basal soil respiration (BSR), microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), bulk density (BD), water repellency (WR), aggregate stability (AS) and field capacity (FC). SL treatment caused an increase in BD, a decrease of AS, FC, OM and N. In the control area, in general the soil properties remained constant across the 2years of monitoring, and the microbial parameters (BSR and Cmic), initially affected by the fire, recovered faster in C than in the SL area. Plant recovery also showed some differences between treatments. No significant differences were observed in the number of plant species recorded (richness) comparing C versus SL plots, but the number of individuals of each species (evenness) was significantly higher in C plots. In conclusion, we can affirm that for the conditions of this study case, SL had a negative effect on the soil-plant system.

  6. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  7. Processes Affecting the Trihalomethane Concentrations Associated with the Third Injection, Storage, and Recovery Test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Fujii, Roger; Clark, Jordan F.

    2003-01-01

    bacteria did not degrade CHCl3 or CHBr3 under aerobic conditions, but did degrade CHBr3 under anaerobic conditions. However, the aquifer is naturally aerobic and CHCl3 is the dominant THM species; therefore, biodegradation is not considered an important attenuation mechanism for THMs in this aquifer. The alluvial-fan sediments comprising the aquifer have very low contents of organic matter; therefore, sorption is not considered to be an important attenuation mechanism for THMs in this aquifer. Laboratory experiments on formation of THMs in the injection water indicate that continued THM formation in the injection water after injection into the aquifer was limited by the amount of residual chlorine in the injection water at the time of injection. After accounting for THMs formed by reaction of this residual chlorine, THMs behaved as conservative constituents in the aquifer, and the only process affecting the concentration of THMs was mixing of the injection water and the ground water. The mixing process was quantified using mass balances of injected constituents, the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer that was added to the injected water, and a simple descriptive mathematical mixing model. Mass balance calculations show that only 67 percent of the injected THMs and chloride were recovered by the time that a volume of water equivalent to 132 percent of the injection water volume was extracted. Pumping 250 percent of the injection water volume only increased recovery of injected THMs to 80 percent. THM and SF6 concentrations in the extracted water decreased concomitantly during the extraction period, and THM concentrations predicted from SF6 concentrations closely matched the measured THM concentrations. Because SF6 is a conservative tracer that was initially only present in the injection water, parallel decreases in SF6 and THM concentrations in the extracted water must be due to dilution of injection water with ground water. The simple descriptive mixing mode

  8. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  9. Increased body fat mass and tissue lipotoxicity associated with ovariectomy or high-fat diet differentially affects bone and skeletal muscle metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Salles, Jérôme; Landrier, Jean-François; Giraudet, Christophe; Patrac, Véronique; Lebecque, Patrice; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Chanet, Audrey; Pouyet, Corinne; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Boirie, Yves; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the musculoskeletal effects induced by ovariectomy-related fat mass deposition against the musculoskeletal effects caused by a high-fat diet. A group of adult female rats was ovariectomized and fed a control diet. Two additional groups were sham-operated and fed a control or a high-fat diet for 19 weeks. Distal femur and serum bone parameters were measured to assess bone metabolism. Muscle protein metabolism, mitochondrial markers and triglyceride content were evaluated in tibialis anterior. Triglyceride content was evaluated in liver. Circulating inflammatory and metabolic markers were determined. The high-fat diet and ovariectomy led to similar increases in fat mass (+36.6-56.7%; p muscle tissues and inflammatory markers. Consumption of the high-fat diet led to decreased bone formation (-38.4%; p muscle mitochondrial metabolism, muscle lipotoxicity and a 20.9% increase in tibialis anterior protein synthesis rate (p increased +72.7% (p increased +76.4% (p muscle protein synthesis rate (p fat diet and ovariectomy triggered similar gains in fat mass but had different impacts on bone and muscle metabolism. The ovariectomy-induced mechanisms affecting the musculoskeletal system are mainly caused by estrogen depletion, which surpasses the potential-independent effect of adiposity.

  10. Type of carbohydrate in feed affects the expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and interleukins in skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingbø, M G; Pedersen, M E; Grøndahl, F; Kolset, S O; Veiseth-Kent, E; Enersen, G; Hannesson, K O

    2012-09-01

    Aquaculture requires feed that ensures rapid growth and healthy fish. Higher inclusion of plant ingredients is desirable, as marine resources are limited. In this study we investigated the effects of higher starch inclusion in feed on muscular extracellular matrix and interleukin expression in farmed cod. Starch was replaced by complex fibers in the low-starch diet to keep total carbohydrate inclusion similar. Blood glucose and fructosamine levels were elevated in the high-starch group. The group fed a high-starch diet showed up-regulation on mRNA level of proteoglycans biglycan and decorin. ELISA confirmed the real-time PCR results on protein level for biglycan and also showed increase of lumican. For decorin the protein levels were decreased in the high-starch group, in contrast to real-time PCR results. Disaccharide analyses using HPLC showed reduction of glycosaminoglycans. Further, there was up-regulation of interleukin-1β and -10 on mRNA level in muscle. This study shows that the muscular extracellular matrix composition is affected by diet, and that a high-starch diet results in increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes similar to diabetes in humans.

  11. Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  12. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  13. Recovery Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Berd, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    We derive an arbitrage free relationship between recovery swap rates, digital default swap spreads and conventional CDS spreads, and argue that the fair forward recovery rate used in recovery swaps must contain a convexity premium over the expected recovery value.

  14. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  15. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1α transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, were higher in the trained than the untrained leg prior to exercise. Exercise induced a marked transient increase (P 40-fold) and mRNA content (7- to 10-fold), peaking within 2 h after exercise. Activation of PGC-1α was greater in the trained leg despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1α in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α, and calcineurin Aα and Aβ mRNA were elevated (≈2- to 6-fold; P < 0.05) at 6 h of recovery in the untrained leg but did not change in the trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1α transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator, these findings suggest that PGC-1α may coordinate the activation of metabolic genes in human muscle in response to exercise. PMID:12563009

  16. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1alpha gene in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2003-02-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1alpha transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, were higher in the trained than the untrained leg prior to exercise. Exercise induced a marked transient increase (P 40-fold) and mRNA content (7- to 10-fold), peaking within 2 h after exercise. Activation of PGC-1alpha was greater in the trained leg despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1alpha in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, and calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta mRNA were elevated (approximately 2- to 6-fold; P < 0.05) at 6 h of recovery in the untrained leg but did not change in the trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1alpha transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator, these findings suggest that PGC-1alpha may coordinate the activation of metabolic genes in human muscle in response to exercise.

  17. X-ray diffraction analysis and metal physics modeling of static strain aging and thermal dislocation recovery in the mechanically affected zone of surface finished hardened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegner, Juergen [SKF GmbH, Dept. of Material Physics, Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    After heat treatment, finish machining of the hardened steel represents the last manufacturing step of machine elements. The practically most important operation of grinding is applied to achieve edge zone compressive residual stresses, best surface quality and dimensional accuracy. Metal removal involves high plastic deformation work. Glide and intersection processes raise the density and produce lower energy substructures of dislocations. The temperature and time behavior of post-machining thermal treatment is analyzed on ground and honed martensitic SAE 52100 rolling bearing steel. Microstructure stabilization is reflected in a large XRD line width decrease on the surface. The kinetics is modeled by rate-controlling carbide dissolution as the carbon source for Cottrell-type segregation at dislocations. This static strain aging is verified by the formation of a slight white etching surface layer. The metal physics model is extended to also consider superimposed thermal dislocation recovery. Both effects are separable. In rolling contact fatigue tests under mixed friction running conditions, air reheating of the samples below the tempering temperature, which avoids hardness loss, leads to a significant lifetime increase. Thermal post-treatment after cold working results in similar changes of the XRD line width in the larger mechanically affected edge zone.

  18. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA. Skeletal dysplasias. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 40. Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG. Skeletal system. In: Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG, eds. ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  19. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence......, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle...

  20. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level.

  1. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  2. A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach to Study the Long-Term Vegetation Recovery of a Fire-Affected Pine Forest in Southern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foula Nioti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management strategies and silvicultural treatments of fire-prone ecosystems often rely on knowledge of the regeneration potential and long-term recovery ability of vegetation types. Remote sensing and GIS applications are valuable tools providing cost-efficient information on vegetation recovery patterns and their associated environmental factors. In this study we used an ordinal classification scheme to describe the land cover changes induced by a wildfire that occurred in 1983 in Pinus brutia woodlands on Karpathos Aegean Island, south-eastern Greece. As a proxy variable that indicates ecosystem recovery, we also estimated the difference between the NDVI and NBR indices a few months (1984 and almost 30 years after the fire (2012. Environmental explanatory variables were selected using a digital elevation model and various thematic maps. To identify the most influential environmental factors contributing to woodland recovery, binary logistic regression and linear regression techniques were applied. The analyses showed that although a large proportion of the P. brutia woodland has recovered 26 years after the fire event, a considerable amount of woodland had turned into scrub vegetation. Altitude, slope inclination, solar radiation, and pre-fire woodland physiognomy were identified as dominant factors influencing the vegetation’s recovery probability. Additionally, altitude and inclination are the variables that explain changes in the satellite remote sensing vegetation indices reflecting the recovery potential. Pinus brutia showed a good post-fire recovery potential, especially in parts of the study area with increased moisture availability.

  3. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo...... insulin levels after 9 and 12 months, respectively, improved intra peritoneal glucose tolerance after 6 months, and a trend towards increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated skeletal muscle. Conclusions. The data suggests that overexpression of apoB decreases skeletal muscle lipid......Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design...

  4. The dark recovery rate in the photocycle of the bacterial photoreceptor YtvA is affected by the cellular environment and by hydration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pennacchietti

    Full Text Available We report thermal recovery kinetics of the lit state into the parental dark state, measured for the blue light-sensing photoreceptor YtvA inside overexpressing E. coli and B. subtilis bacterial cells, performed for the wild type and several mutated proteins. Recovery was followed as a recovery of the fluorescence, as this property is only found for the parental but not for the photochemically generated lit state. When cells were deposited onto a microscope glass plate, the observed thermal recovery rate in the photocycle was found ca. ten times faster in comparison to purified YtvA in solution. When the E. coli or B. subtilis colonies were soaked in an isotonic buffer, the dark relaxation became again much slower and was very similar to that observed for YtvA in solution. The observed effects show that rate constants can be tuned by the cellular environment through factors such as hydration.

  5. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, A. D; Beier, J. P; Stern‐Staeter, J; Horch, R. E

    2004-01-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue either lost by traumatic injury or tumor ablation or functional damage due to myopathies is hampered by the lack of availability of functional substitution...

  6. Insights on accelerated skeletal repair in Cushing's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Kim

    2015-06-01

    In this patient, spontaneous recovery of trabecular bone architecture was reflected by the early correction in TBS. Subsequent TPTD treatment was associated with marked improvement in BMD, presumably due to enhanced mineralization. Complete skeletal repair was achieved by this two-step mechanism in a very short time following successful surgical treatment for Cushing's disease.

  7. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  8. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    and especially the energy sensor 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated during exercise, has received increased attention. However, whether AMPK is an activator or inhibitor of lipolysis in skeletal muscle is not clear. Therefore, we in study I aimed to identify the role...... contraction. Accordingly, AMPK is suggested to be an important regulator of basal IMTG and lipid handling in skeletal muscle as well as an important activator of lipolysis by phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL during muscle contractions. Oversupply of energy and dietary fat leads to obesity and accumulation...... chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  9. Water-saving technologies affect the grain characteristics and recovery of fine-grain rice cultivars in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Riaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nasim, Wajid; Zaman, Umar; Fahad, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-05-01

    Growing rice with less water is direly needed due to declining water sources worldwide, but using methods that require less water inputs can have an impact on grain characteristics and recovery. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of conventionally sown flooded rice and low-water-input rice systems on the grain characteristics and recovery of fine rice. Three fine grain rice cultivars-Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, and Shaheen Basmati-were grown under conventional flooded transplanted rice (CFTR), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and aerobic rice systems. Grain characteristics and rice recovery were significantly influenced by different water regimes (production systems). Poor milling, including the lowest percentage of brown (head) rice (65.3%) and polished (white) rice (64.2-66.9%) and the highest percentage of broken brown rice (10.2%), husk (24.5%-26.3%), polished broken rice (24.7%), and bran (11.0-12.5%), were recorded in the aerobic rice system sown with Shaheen Basmati. With a few exceptions, cultivars sown in CFTR were found to possess a higher percentage of brown (head) and polished (white) rice and they had incurred the least losses in the form of brown broken rice, husk, polished broken rice, and bran. In conclusion, better grain quality and recovery of rice can be attained by growing Super Basmati under the CFTR system. Growing Shaheen Basmati under low-water-input systems, the aerobic rice system in particular, resulted in poor grain characteristics tied with less rice recovery.

  10. Simulated Space Radiation and Weightlessness: Vascular-Bone Coupling Mechanisms to Preserve Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Delp, M. D.; Castillo, A. B.; Globus, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Weightlessness causes a cephalad fluid shift and reduction in mechanical stimulation, adversely affecting both cortical and trabecular bone tissue in astronauts. In rodent models of weightlessness, the onset of bone loss correlates with reduced skeletal perfusion, reduced and rarified vasculature and lessened vasodilation, which resembles blood-bone symbiotic events that can occur with fracture repair and aging. These are especially serious risks for long term, exploration class missions when astronauts will face the challenge of increased exposure to space radiation and abrupt transitions between different gravity environments upon arrival and return. Previously, we found using the mouse hindlimb unloading model and exposure to heavy ion radiation, both disuse and irradiation cause an acute bone loss that was associated with a reduced capacity to produce bone-forming osteoblasts from the bone marrow. Together, these findings led us to hypothesize that exposure to space radiation exacerbates weightlessness-induced bone loss and impairs recovery upon return, and that treatment with anti-oxidants may mitigate these effects. The specific aims of this recently awarded grant are to: AIM 1 Determine the functional and structural consequences of prolonged weightlessness and space radiation (simulated spaceflight) for bone and skeletal vasculature in the context of bone cell function and oxidative stress. AIM 2 Determine the extent to which an anti-oxidant protects against weightlessness and space radiation-induced bone loss and vascular dysfunction. AIM 3 Determine how space radiation influences later skeletal and vasculature recovery from prolonged weightlessness and the potential of anti-oxidants to preserve adaptive remodeling.

  11. Human skeletal muscle glycogen utilization in exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2011-01-01

    to be influenced by fibre type prior to exercise, as well as carbohydrate availability during the subsequent period of recovery. These findings provide insight into the significance of fibre type-specific compartmentalization of glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle during exercise and subsequent recovery. .......Although glycogen is known to be heterogeneously distributed within skeletal muscle cells, there is presently little information available about the role of fibre types, utilization and resynthesis during and after exercise with respect to glycogen localization. Here, we tested the hypothesis...... contained more intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen than the latter. In highly glycogen-depleted fibres, the remaining small intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen particles were often found to cluster in groupings. In the recovery period, when the athletes received either a carbohydrate...

  12. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma glutamine during prolonged exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; Wagenmakers, A J

    1998-01-01

    Muscle glycogen and glucose have been suggested to be carbon-chain precursors for glutamine synthesis in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether carbohydrate supplementation affects plasma glutamine and other amino acids during exercise and 7 h of recovery....... Eight well-trained subjects cycled at an alternating workload of 50 and 80% Wmax until exhaustion (59 to 140 min). During the exercise bout the subjects received either water (control) or a carbohydrate (CHO) drink (83 g CHO x l(-1), 2 ml x kg(-1) per kg body weight every 15 min). Plasma glutamine...... concentration appeared not to be affected by exercise, as a significant increase was only observed at some points in time during the control test. During recovery, however, plasma glutamine concentration decreased from 682+/-24 and 685+/-19 micromol x l(-1) at exhaustion to 552+/-19 and 534+/-12 micromol x l(-1...

  13. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Fragala, Maren S; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Coday, Michael; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Carnipure tartrate (Lonza, Allendale, NJ) supplementation (total dose of 2 g/d of l-carnitine) on markers of performance and recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Normally active and healthy men (n = 9, 45.4 +/- 5.3 years old) and women (n = 9, 51.9 +/- 5.0 years old) volunteered to participate in the investigation. Double-blind, placebo, balanced treatment presentation and crossover design were used with 3 weeks and 3 days of supplementation followed by a 1-week washout period before the other counterbalanced treatment was initiated. After 3 weeks of each supplementation protocol, each participant then performed an acute resistance exercise challenge of 4 sets of 15 repetitions of squat/leg press at 50% 1-repetition maximum and continued supplementation over the recovery period that was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained at preexercise and at 0, 15, 30, and 120 minutes postexercise during the acute resistance exercise challenge and during 4 recovery days as well. Two grams of l-carnitine supplementation had positive effects and significantly (P supplementation. These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.

  14. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise-induced PDH...... in arm than leg muscles during exercise in humans may be the result of lower PDH-E1? content and not a muscle type dependent difference in PDH regulation. Both low muscle glycogen and increased plasma FFA are associated with upregulation of PDK4 protein and less exercise-induced increase in PDHa activity...... in human skeletal muscle. It may be noted that the increased PDK4 protein associated with elevated plasma FFA occurs already 2 hours after different dietary intake. A week of physical inactivity (bed rest), leading to whole body glucose intolerance, does not affect muscle PDH-E1? content, or the exercise...

  15. Mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ninna; Krustrup, Peter; Rasmussen, Hans N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that 1) skeletal muscles of elderly subjects can adapt to a single endurance exercise bout and 2) endurance trained elderly subjects have higher expression/activity of oxidative and angiogenic proteins in skeletal muscle than untrained elderly people...... in UT PGC-1a mRNA 11-fold and VEGF mRNA 4-fold at 2h of recovery, and AMPK phosphorylation ~5-fold immediately after exercise, relative to Pre, indicating an ability to adapt metabolically and angiogenically to endurance exercise. However, in ET PGC-1a mRNA only increased 5 fold and AMPK phosphorylation...

  16. Early Treatment Protocol for Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Oltramari-Navarro,Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira CONTI; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes,Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment...

  17. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Scarabelli, Carol; McCauley, Roy B; Yuan, Zhaokan; Di Rezze, Justin; Patel, David; Putt, Jeff; Raddino, Riccardo; Allebban, Zuhair; Abboud, John; Scarabelli, Gabriele M; Chilukuri, Karuna; Gardin, Julius; Saravolatz, Louis; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2008-06-02

    Sarcopenia is an inevitable age-related degenerative process chiefly characterized by decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and impaired mitochondrial function, leading to progressive loss of muscle mass. Here, we sought to probe whether long-term administration of oral amino acids (AAs) can increase protein and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged rats, enhancing functional performance. To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent treated group and underwent 1-month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30% reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50% reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats (p supplementation with mixed AAs significantly improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming their values to those of adult control animals (p energy substrates in the gastrocnemius muscle of treated aged rats paralleled a significant enhancement in functional performance assessed by swim test, with dramatic elongation of maximal exertion times compared with untreated senescent rats (p supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing functional performance and accelerating high-energy phosphate recovery after exhaustive exertion.

  18. [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Patrycja; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2015-02-21

    Antioxidant substances of plant origin, such as lycopene, may favorably affect the skeletal system. Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment, responsible for characteristic red color of tomatoes. It is believed that lycopene may play a role in the prevention of various diseases; despite theoretical premises and results of experimental studies, the effectiveness of lycopene has not yet been clearly demonstrated in studies carried out in humans. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of lycopene on the osseous tissue in in vitro and in vivo experimental models and on the skeletal system in humans. Results of the studies indicate that lycopene may inhibit bone resorption. Favorable effects of high doses of lycopene on the rat skeletal system in experimental conditions, including the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, have been demonstrated. The few epidemiological and clinical studies, although not fully conclusive, suggest a possible beneficial effect of lycopene present in the diet on the skeletal system.

  19. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  20. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  1. Skeletal muscle microvascular function in girls with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah L.; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.; Elzibak, Alyaa H.; Caterini, Jessica; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Rayner, Tammy; Hamilton, Jill; Wells, Greg D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is prevalent in individuals with Turner Syndrome (TS). We recently demonstrated that girls with TS have normal aerobic but altered skeletal muscle anaerobic metabolism compared to healthy controls (HC). The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral skeletal muscle microvascular function in girls with TS to HC after exercise. We hypothesized that girls with TS would have similar muscle blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal responses during recovery from exercise compared to HC. Methods Thirteen TS participants and 8 HC completed testing. BOLD MRI was used to measure skeletal muscle microvascular response during 60 second recovery, following 60 s of exercise at 65% of maximal workload. Exercise and recovery were repeated four times, and the BOLD signal time course was fit to a four-parameter sigmoid function. Results Participants were 13.7 ± 3.1 years old and weighed 47.9 ± 14.6 kg. The mean change in BOLD signal intensity following exercise at the end of recovery, the mean response time of the function/the washout of deoxyhemoglobin, and the mean half-time of recovery were similar between the TS and HC groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that compared to HC, peripheral skeletal muscle microvascular function following exercise in girls with TS is not impaired. General significance This study supports the idea that the aerobic energy pathway is not impaired in children with TS in response to submaximal exercise. Other mechanisms are likely responsible for exercise intolerance in TS; this needs to be further investigated. PMID:26676172

  2. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  3. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  4. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević Perica; Žabar Andrea; Aleksić Milena

    2014-01-01

    Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger...

  5. A leucine-rich diet and exercise affect the biomechanical characteristics of the digital flexor tendon in rats after nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Benevides, Gustavo Pereira; Alferes, Leda Maria Totti; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Gomes, Laurecir

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the capacity of athletic performance depends on adequate nutrition, which ensures optimal function of the musculoskeletal system, including tendon stability. However, little is known about the status of tendons and extracellular matrix modifications during malnutrition and nutritional recovery when leucine is used in response to exercise conditioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collagen content and biomechanical aspects of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in malnourished rats submitted to nutritional recovery (control diet or leucine-rich diet) and aerobic physical activity. After 60 days of undernourishment (6% protein diet), the malnourished rats were subsequently nutritionally recovered with a control diet or leucine-rich diet and trained or not (swimming, without overload) for 5 weeks. The biomechanical analysis and quantification of hydroxyproline were assessed in the DDFT in all experimental groups. The leucine-rich diet increased hydroxyproline content in the tension region, independently of the training. In the compression region, hydroxyproline content was higher in the malnourished and leucine-trained groups. Biomechanical analysis showed a lower load in the malnourished and all-trained groups. The lowest stress was observed with control-trained animals. The nutritional-recovered groups showed higher strain values corresponding to control group, while the lowest values were observed in malnourished and trained groups. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet stimulates collagen synthesis of the DDFT, especially when in combination with physical exercise, and seems to determine the increase of resistance and the biomechanical characteristics of tendons.

  6. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  7. Suspected fetal skeletal malformations or bone diseases: how to explore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie [Erasme Hospital, Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Although US has proved reliable for the prenatal detection of skeletal abnormalities, the precise diagnosis of a dysplasia is often difficult to make before birth (especially in the absence of a familial history) due to their various phenotypic presentations, the variability in the time at which they manifest and often, the lack of precise molecular diagnosis. In addition to the accuracy of the antenatal diagnosis, it is very important to establish a prognosis. This is a clinically relevant issue as skeletal dysplasias may be associated with severe disability and may even be lethal. We will therefore describe the respective role of two-dimensional (2-D) US, three-dimensional (3-D) US and CT in the antenatal assessment of skeletal malformations. (orig.)

  8. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Julie; Juleen R Zierath; Chibalin, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fa...

  9. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Julie; Zierath, Juleen R.; Chibalin, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fa...

  10. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  11. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite e...

  12. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  13. Recovery Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  14. Coping with floods after the severe event in 2002: Recent changes in preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Sarah; Pech, Ina; Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret

    2014-05-01

    In the aftermath of the severe flood in August 2002, a number of political changes on flood policies in Germany and Europe were launched aiming at an improved risk communication and management. The question arises, whether flood-affected private households are now better prepared than in 2002. Therefore, computer-aided telephone interviews with private households that suffered property damage due to flooding in 2005, 2006, 2010 or 2011 were performed. The obtained data were also compared to results from a similar investigation carried out by Thieken et al. (2007 - Hydrol. Sci. J. 52(5): 1016-1037) after the flood in 2002. After 2002, a larger part of people knew that they are at risk of flooding and the level of private precaution increased considerably. Yet this knowledge did not necessarily result in actual building retrofitting or flood proofing measures. Accordingly, the benefits and cost savings of these actions still have to be communicated in a better way. Best precaution before the flood event in 2011 and 2006 might be explained by more flood experience and overall greater awareness of the residents. Early warning and emergency response were substantially influenced by the floods' characteristics. In contrast to flood-affected people in 2006 or 2011, people affected by floods in 2005 or 2010 had to deal with shorter lead times, less time to take emergency measures and consequently suffered higher losses. Therefore, it is important to further improve early warning systems and communication channels, particularly in hilly areas with fast onset flooding.

  15. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  16. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  17. Postoperative factors affecting neurological recovery after laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy%影响单开门椎管扩大成形术治疗颈椎病疗效的术后相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海云; 顾锐; 朱本清; 邓树才; 贾占华; 吕工一; 刘建坤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elucidate possible postoperative factors affecting neurological recovery af-ter cervical expansive open-door laminoplasty in treatment of patients with multilevel cervical spondyiotic myelopathy. Methods This study involved the patients with multilevel cervical spondylotic myeiopathy who underwent expansive open-door laminoplasty between May 2001 and December 2006. They were classified into two groups according to the degree of neurological recovery: an excellent recovery group (group A), the recovery rotes greater than 75%, and a poor recovery group (group B), the recovery rates lower than 25%. Comparisons of various preoperative clinical and imaging parameters such as patient's age, gender, duration between symptom onset and surgery, follow-up time, preoperative JOA score, preoperative range of motion (ROM), preoperative cervical curvature index(CCI), preoperative Pavlov ratio, segments of myelopathy and so on, revealed that the mean age and mean preoperative JOA scores were significantly different. The cases with the age older than 60 years and preoperative JOA scores less than 6 were excluded. Therefore, group A re-mained 24 cases (group A1) and group B 18 cases (group B1). The same analyses were repeated between group A1 and group B1. There was no significant difference between two groups among the above mentioned parameters. Postoperative ROM and its reduction rate, postoperative CCI and its reduction rate, Pavlov ratio and its increasing rate were analyzed by t test, and the relationship between these six parameters and im-proving rate of JOA scores were also analyzed. Results Except postoperative ROM, other five indexes were statistical differences between A1 and B1 groups. Except postoperative ROM in group A1 and postoperative ROM and its reduction rate in group B1, other indexes had statistical correlation with improving rate of post-operative JOA scores. Conclusion Modulating postoperative ROM, maintaining cervical lordosis and achieving

  18. Dentoalveolar compensation according to skeletal discrepancy and overjet in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Baik, Hyoung-Seon

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate dentoalveolar compensation in untreated skeletal Class III patients with either positive or negative overjet. The positive overjet groups consisted of 104 adults, divided into group 1 (angle between sella-nasion to mandibular plane (SN-MP) > 38°, n = 30), group 2 (30° overjet groups (groups 4-6) consisted of 90 adults who were closely matched to the positive overjet groups with regard to the ANB and SN-MP angles. Twenty-two cephalometric measurements were compared between the matched groups. In the positive overjet groups, correlation analysis was performed between the skeletal and dental measurements, and regression analysis was performed to determine the incisor-mandibular plane angle. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the occlusal plane was more flattened in the positive overjet groups than in the negative overjet groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them with regard to mandibular incisor inclination. The inclinations of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were correlated with both the sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements. Eight regression equations for the incisor-mandibular plane angle were calculated with the highest coefficient of determination of 0.547. Proclination of the maxillary incisors and flattening of the occlusal plane contributed to a positive overjet. Mandibular incisor inclination was more closely associated with sagittal and vertical skeletal discrepancies and was not affected by the incisal relationship. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  20. Zebrafish Fins as a Model System for Skeletal Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marí-Beffa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the morphogenesis of the fins of Danio rerio (zebrafish during development and regeneration suggest that a number of inductive signals involved in the process are similar to some of those that affect bone and cartilage differentiation in mammals and humans. Akimenko et al. (2002 has shown that bone morphogenetic protein-2b (BMP2b is involved in the induction of dermal bone differentiation during fin regeneration. Many other groups have also shown that molecules from the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily (TGFβ, including BMP2, are effective in promoting chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo in higher vertebrates, including humans. In the present study, we review the state of the art of this topic by a comparative analysis of skeletal tissue development, regeneration and renewal processes in tetrapods, and fin regeneration in fishes. A general conclusion of this study states that lepidotrichia is a special skeletal tissue different to cartilage, bone, enamel, or dentine in fishes, according to its extracellular matrix (ECM composition. However, the empirical analysis of inducing signals of skeletal tissues in fishes and tetrapods suggests that lepidotrichia is different to any responding features with main skeletal tissues. A number of new inductive molecules are arising from fin development and regeneration studies that might establish an empirical basis for further molecular approaches to mammal skeletal tissues differentiation. Despite the tissue dissimilarity, this empirical evidence might finally lead to clinical applications to skeletal disorders in humans.

  1. Squeezing the muscle: compression clothing and muscle metabolism during recovery from high intensity exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Sperlich

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF and m. quadriceps femoris (QF 1 during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2 while wearing a compression short applying ~37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79 and BF (P = 0.90 did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01 and non-compressed QF (P<0.001 but not in compressed (P = 0.41 and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74. During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01 but not in BF (P = 0.26 compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68 and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06. During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01 with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02. These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ~37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF.

  2. Skeletal metastases - the role of the orthopaedic and spinal surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastley, Nicholas; Newey, Martyn; Ashford, Robert U

    2012-09-01

    Developments in oncological and medical therapies mean that life expectancy of patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) is often measured in years. Complications of MBD may dramatically and irreversibly affect patient quality of life, making the careful assessment and appropriate management of these patients essential. The roles of orthopaedic and spinal surgeons in MBD generally fall into one of four categories: diagnostic, the prophylactic fixation of metastatic deposits at risk of impending fracture (preventative surgery), the stabilisation or reconstruction of bones affected by pathological fractures (reactive surgery), or the decompression and stabilisation of the vertebral column, spinal cord, and nerve roots. Several key principals should be adhered to whenever operating on skeletal metastases. Discussions should be held early with an appropriate multi-disciplinary team prior to intervention. Detailed pre-assessment is essential to gauge a patient's suitability for surgery - recovery from elective surgery must be shorter than the anticipated survival. Staging and biopsies provide prognostic information. Primary bone tumours must be ruled out in the case of a solitary bone lesion to avoid inappropriate intervention. Prophylactic surgical fixation of a lesion prior to a pathological fracture reduces morbidity and length of hospital stay. Regardless of a lesion or pathological fracture's location, all regions of the affected bone must be addressed, to reduce the risk of subsequent fracture. Surgical implants should allow full weight bearing or return to function immediately. Post-operative radiotherapy should be utilised in all cases to minimise disease progression. Spinal surgery should be considered for those with spinal pain due to potentially reversible spinal instability or neurological compromise. The opinion of a spinal surgeon should be sought early, as delays in referral directly correlate to worse functional recovery following intervention

  3. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Julie; Zierath, Juleen R; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2014-06-24

    Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fast method to characterize lipid profiles in skeletal muscle using thin layer chromatography. The described method was specifically developed to assess lipid utilization in cultured and intact skeletal muscle. We determined the effect of a pan-diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) class I inhibitor (R59949) on lipid metabolism to validate the method. In human skeletal muscle cells, DGK inhibition impaired diacylglycerol (DAG) conversion to phosphatidic acid and increased triglyceride synthesis. In intact glycolytic mouse skeletal muscle, DGK inhibition triggered the accumulation of DAG species. Conversely, the DGK inhibitor did not affect DAG content in oxidative muscle. This simple assay detects rapid changes in the lipid species composition of skeletal muscle with high sensitivity and specificity. Determination of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle may further elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes or obesity.

  4. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  5. Space medicine considerations: Skeletal and calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Victor B.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the information obtained from space missions, particularly Skylab and the longer Salyut missions, it is clear that bone and mineral metabolism is substantially altered during space flight. Calcium balance becomes increasingly more negative throughout the flight, and the bone mineral content of the os calcis declines. The major health hazards associated with skeletal changes include the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia with rapid bone turnover, the risk of kidney stones because of hypercalciuria, the lengthy recovery of lost bone mass after flight, the possibility of irreversible bone loss (particularly the trabecular bone), the possible effects of metastated calcification in the soft tissues, and the possible increase in fracture potential. For these reasons, major efforts need to be directed toward elucidating the fundamental mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures to prevent both short-term and long-term complications.

  6. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  7. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  8. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise (ID 1577, , 1584), increase in lean body mass (ID 1579, 1582, 1583), increase in muscle strength (ID 1578, 1583, 1587), increase in endurance performance (ID 1580, 1581), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 1586) and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 1576, 1585) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise, increase in lean body mass, increase in muscle strength, increase in endurance performance, skeletal muscle tissue repair...... and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent...

  10. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  11. Gastropod skeletal defences: land, freshwater, and sea compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a primary agency of natural selection affecting the evolution of skeletal form in gastropods. The nature of antipredatory defence depends on how predators attack their prey as well as on the types and quantities of resources that are available to the potential victims. Here I review the

  12. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  13. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  14. Skeletal muscle responses to negative energy balance: effects of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, John W; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2012-03-01

    Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle during energy deprivation are not well described. Recent studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary protein at levels above the current recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) may attenuate the loss of skeletal muscle mass by affecting the intracellular regulation of muscle anabolism and proteolysis. However, the specific mechanism by which increased dietary protein spares skeletal muscle through enhanced molecular control of muscle protein metabolism has not been elucidated. This article reviews the available literature related to the effects of negative energy balance on skeletal muscle mass, highlighting investigations that assessed the influence of varying levels of dietary protein on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Further, the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance and alterations in dietary protein level are described.

  15. Grandpaternal-induced transgenerational dietary reprogramming of the unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter S. Alm

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Grandpaternal HFD-induced obesity transgenerationally affected the skeletal muscle transcriptome. This finding further highlights the impact of parental exposure to environmental factors on offspring's development and health.

  16. Spontaneous Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  17. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  18. Does skeletal muscle have an 'epi'-memory? The role of epigenetics in nutritional programming, metabolic disease, aging and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire E; Seaborne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass, quality and adaptability are fundamental in promoting muscle performance, maintaining metabolic function and supporting longevity and healthspan. Skeletal muscle is programmable and can 'remember' early-life metabolic stimuli affecting its function in adult life. In this review, the authors pose the question as to whether skeletal muscle has an 'epi'-memory? Following an initial encounter with an environmental stimulus, we discuss the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms enabling skeletal muscle to adapt, should it re-encounter the stimulus in later life. We also define skeletal muscle memory and outline the scientific literature contributing to this field. Furthermore, we review the evidence for early-life nutrient stress and low birth weight in animals and human cohort studies, respectively, and discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms culminating in skeletal muscle dysfunction, metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass across the lifespan. We also summarize and discuss studies that isolate muscle stem cells from different environmental niches in vivo (physically active, diabetic, cachectic, aged) and how they reportedly remember this environment once isolated in vitro. Finally, we will outline the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle memory and review the epigenetic regulation of exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, highlighting exercise interventions as suitable models to investigate skeletal muscle memory in humans. We believe that understanding the 'epi'-memory of skeletal muscle will enable the next generation of targeted therapies to promote muscle growth and reduce muscle loss to enable healthy aging.

  19. Highly extensible skeletal muscle in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Matthew; Perni, Stefano; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Cundall, David

    2014-07-15

    Many snakes swallow large prey whole, and this process requires large displacements of the unfused tips of the mandibles and passive stretching of the soft tissues connecting them. Under these conditions, the intermandibular muscles are highly stretched but subsequently recover normal function. In the highly stretched condition we observed in snakes, sarcomere length (SL) increased 210% its resting value (SL0), and actin and myosin filaments no longer overlapped. Myofibrils fell out of register and triad alignment was disrupted. Following passive recovery, SLs returned to 82% SL0, creating a region of double-overlapping actin filaments. Recovery required recoil of intracellular titin filaments, elastic cytoskeletal components for realigning myofibrils, and muscle activation. Stretch of whole muscles exceeded that of sarcomeres as a result of extension of folded terminal tendon fibrils, stretching of extracellular elastin and independent slippage of muscle fibers. Snake intermandibular muscles thus provide a unique model of how basic components of vertebrate skeletal muscle can be modified to permit extreme extensibility.

  20. Factors Affecting Postsurgery Hip Fracture Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Wallace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After hip fracture surgery, patients seldom return to their prefracture functional state and there is a 43% rate of mortality and institutionalisation of postsurgery hip fracture patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and psychosocial factors that may hinder postsurgery hip fracture patients from returning to previous functionality. Factors that were identified as being associated with postsurgical outcomes were age, muscle strength, prefracture living arrangements, number of daily medications taken, oxygen levels, fracture type and location, haemoglobin (Hb level, wait time prior to surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS, and dementia or depression.

  1. Skeletal Dysplasias Associated with Mild Myopathy—A Clinical and Molecular Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Piróg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is a complex assembly of tissues which acts as scaffold for the body and enables locomotion. It is often overlooked that different components of this system may biomechanically interact and affect each other. Skeletal dysplasias are diseases predominantly affecting the development of the osseous skeleton. However, in some cases skeletal dysplasia patients are referred to neuromuscular clinics prior to the correct skeletal diagnosis. The muscular complications seen in these cases are usually mild and may stem directly from the muscle defect and/or from the altered interactions between the individual components of the musculoskeletal system. A correct early diagnosis may enable better management of the patients and a better quality of life. This paper attempts to summarise the different components of the musculoskeletal system which are affected in skeletal dysplasias and lists several interesting examples of such diseases in order to enable better understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal system.

  2. Contractile Properties of Esophageal Striated Muscle: Comparison with Cardiac and Skeletal Muscles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Shiina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The external muscle layer of the mammalian esophagus consists of striated muscles. We investigated the contractile properties of esophageal striated muscle by comparison with those of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Electrical field stimulation with single pulses evoked twitch-like contractile responses in esophageal muscle, similar to those in skeletal muscle in duration and similar to those in cardiac muscle in amplitude. The contractions of esophageal muscle were not affected by an inhibitor of gap junctions. Contractile responses induced by high potassium or caffeine in esophageal muscle were analogous to those in skeletal muscle. High-frequency stimulation induced a transient summation of contractions followed by sustained contractions with amplitudes similar to those of twitch-like contractions, although a large summation was observed in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrate that esophageal muscle has properties similar but not identical to those of skeletal muscle and that some specific properties may be beneficial for esophageal peristalsis.

  3. 改良白膜法制备浓缩血小板及回收率的影响因素%Improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and factors affecting platelet recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单泓; 王姣杰; 别立莉; 刘敏; 戚正; 段艳丽

    2014-01-01

    divided into improved buffy-coat group, buffer-coat group and platelet-rich plasma after 4-6 hours. The 3-step centrifugal method was used for improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates:step 1, centrifugation at 2 300 r/min for 12 minutes at (22±2)℃ with a deceleration of 5;step 2, centrifugation at 910 r/min for 10 minutes at (22±2)℃;step 3, centrifugation at 2 800 r/min for 12 minutes at (22±2)℃. After centrifugation, the upper layer containing few platelets was removed, and the rest 30 mL platelet suspension was platelet concentrates. Factors affecting platelet recovery were analyzed through literature retrieval. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There was no difference in platelet number among the three groups before preparation of platelet concentrates (P>0.05). A higher rate of platelet recovery was found in the platelet-rich plasma group and improved buffy-coat group compared with the buffy-coat group (P0.05). There were less residual red blood cells and white blood cells in the two buffy-coat groups than the platelet-rich plasma group (P0.05). The recovery rate of prepared platelet concentrates was affected by the whole blood amount, centrifugal speed, centrifugation time and methods. Improved buffy-coat method for preparation of platelet concentrates can be generalized in blood centers or blood stations, because it can reduce residual red blood cells and white blood cells and increase rate of platelet recovery.

  4. Recovery post ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  5. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  6. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  7. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function. PMID:25352808

  8. Fasting- and Exercise-Induced PDH Regulation in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Anders

    for maintaining short-term metabolic flexibility, as muscle IL-6 was not necessary for exercise-induced switches in substrate utilization and neither lack of skeletal muscle IL-6 or PGC-1α affected fasting–induced switch to fat oxidation. Lack of muscle PGC-1α did however blunt the fasting-induced increase...... on skeletal muscle PDH, whereas muscle IL-6 is not required for fasting-induced substrate switch and skeletal muscle PDH regulation in mice. Study III demonstrated that lack of muscle PGC-1α did not affect the switch from carbohydrate to predominant fat utilization in the transition from the fed to the fasted...... state. Fasting-induced down-regulation of PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of control mice was associated with increased phosphorylation of all four known sites in PDH-E1α as well as with increased PDK4 and SIRT3 protein without changes in total acetylation of PDH-E1α. Lack of muscle PGC-1α reduced PDH...

  9. Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Search ...

  10. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment. This...

  11. Effect of Thyroid Disorders on Skeletal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVS Krishna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid physiology is linked to skeletal health. T3 and TSH independently affect bone growth and development, mineralization and remodeling. Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by excess thyroid hormone is one of the commonly recognized conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes accelerated bone remodeling and serves as one of the risk factors for osteoporosis. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and decreases fracture risk. Though treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, it is not necessarily to normal levels. The effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the bone are controversial. Thyroidectomy and methimazole may decrease the risk of fractures in these patients compared with treatment with radioiodine. Hypothyroidism may also be risk factor for fractures. Replacement therapy with levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients may temporarily reduce bone density after initiation of therapy. However it is not associated with osteoporosis or increased fracture risk. TSH suppressing doses of levothyroxine may reduce BMD, especially in post menopausal women. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in hyperthyroid patients should be considered. There are limited studies in India pertinent to reversibility of these changes. In this review, we have discussed about the effects of various aspects of skeletal health in thyroid disorders Turk Jem 2012; 16: 19-25

  12. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yashiro

    Full Text Available Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS. Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz, both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health.

  13. A Bridge to Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Loya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence can trigger adverse economic events for survivors, including increased expenses and decreased earnings. Using interview data, this exploratory study examines how access to assets (liquid assets, familial financial assistance, and homeownership affects survivors’ economic well-being during recovery. In keeping with asset theory, liquid assets and familial assistance can help offset post-assault expenses and facilitate access to services. Homeownership, meanwhile, appears to have mixed effects on survivors’ economic well-being. These findings suggest that the economic costs of sexual violence can burden survivors with fewer financial resources more heavily than those who own significant assets. As such, these findings shift the focus toward a dimension of inequality in recovery from sexual violence that is often overlooked in research and that may have implications for public policy and victim services.

  14. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  15. Postinjury Exercise and Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapies Improve Skeletal Muscle Healing in Rats But Are Not Synergistic When Combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Muñoz, Paola; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Serres, Xavier; Rizo-Roca, David; De la Varga, Meritxell; Viscor, Ginés; Martínez-Ibáñez, Vicente; Peiró, José Luis; Järvinen, Tero A H; Rodas, Gil; Marotta, Mario

    2017-07-01

    percentage of dMHC-positive regenerating fibers (35% and 47% decrease in dMHC expression, respectively), indicating that exercise therapies accelerated the muscle healing process witnessed by the more rapid replacement of the embryonic-developmental myosin isoform by mature muscle myosin isoforms. Intramuscular PRP injection and, especially, treadmill exercise improve histological outcome and force recovery of the injured skeletal muscle in a rat injury model that imitates sports-related muscle injuries in athletes. However, there was not a synergistic effect when both treatments were combined, suggesting that PRP does not add any beneficial effect to exercise-based therapy in the treatment of injured skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an early active rehabilitation protocol or single intramuscular PRP injection on muscle recovery. The data also reveal that the outcome of the early active rehabilitation is adversely affected by the PRP injection when the two therapies are combined, and this could explain why PRP therapies have failed in randomized clinical trials where the athletes have adhered to postinjection rehabilitation protocols based on the principle of early, active mobilization.

  16. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    and fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole-body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone......It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender-specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have...

  17. Acute and chronic response of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, P J; Jürimäe, J; Logan, P A; Taylor, A W; Thayer, R E

    1994-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is sensitive to the acute and chronic stresses associated with resistance training. These responses are influenced by the structure of resistance activity (i.e. frequency, load and recovery) as well as the training history of the individuals involved. There are histochemical and biochemical data which suggest that resistance training alters the expression of myosin heavy chains (MHCs). Specifically, chronic exposure to bodybuilding and power lifting type activity produces shifts towards the MHC I and IIb isoforms, respectively. However, it is not yet clear which training parameters trigger these differential expressions of MHC isoforms. Interestingly, many programmes undertaken by athletes appear to cause a shift towards the MHC I isoform. Increments in the cross-sectional area of muscle after resistance training can be primarily attributed to fibre hypertrophy. However, there may be an upper limit to this hypertrophy. Furthermore, significant fibre hypertrophy appears to follow the sequence of fast twitch fibre hypertrophy preceding slow twitch fibre hypertrophy. Whilst some indirect measures of fibre number in living humans suggest that there is no interindividual variation, postmortem evidence suggests that there is. There are also animal data arising from investigations using resistance training protocols which suggest that chronic exercise can increase fibre number. Furthermore, satellite cell activity has been linked to myotube formation in the human. However, other animal models (i.e. compensatory hypertrophy) do not support the notion of fibre hyperplasia. Even if hyperplasia does occur, its effect on the cross-sectional area of muscle appears to be small. Phosphagen and glycogen metabolism, whilst important during resistance activity appear not to normally limit the performance of resistance activity. Phosphagen and related enzyme adaptations are affected by the type, structure and duration of resistance training. Whilst endogenous

  18. Insulin Signalling and TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Szekeres, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has taken the form of a pandemic disease globally as people adopt a more western lifestyle. High circulating glucose levels indicates that an individual is in the risk zone for developing T2DM. One of the hallmarks for T2DM is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is the primary target for insulinstimulated glucose uptake. Thus, it is of clinical importance to understand of how the key hormone, insulin, affects the sensitivity of...

  19. Factors affecting the recovery of spinal functions in patients with spinal metastatic carcinoma%影响脊柱转移癌患者脊髓功能恢复的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖思海; 杨志雄; 唐志

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor spinal metastasis is often complicated with pain,limitations in movement, paralysis and poor prognosis.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors affecting the recovery of the spinal functions in patients with spinal metastatic carcinoma and its therapeutic methods so as to improve the living quality of the patients with a terminal cancer.DESIGN: A case-controlled observation.SETTING: The Department of Tumor and Department of Radiotherapy of the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: We selected 162 patients with spinal metastatic carcinoma with different degrees of paralysis who received treatment at the Department of Oncology and the Department of Radiotherapy of the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College between March 1992 and June 2001. They participated in this experiment voluntarily.METHODS:①Radiotherapy and chemotherapy; All the patients were given symptomatic treatment with simple radiotherapy or a combined therapy of simple radiotherapy and chemotherapy, in which the dose of chemotherapy was 2 Gy/time,5 times a week,3 weeks in total. A combined method was used for chemotherapy according to the nature of the different primary tumors. The chemotherapy was conducted for 3 therapeutic courses in average ranging from 2 to 6 courses of treatment with 21 days for each course. ② Physical rehabilitation therapy included exercise therapy, massage (twice/day), functional electrical stimulation (once a day),bladder training and toilet training (once or twice every day), 10 days as a therapeutic course, 3 successive therapeutic courses in total. After the treatment, analgesic pain, muscle power of the limbs and the recovery of defecation function were observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain-alleviating, muscle power of the limbs and the recovery of defecation function after the operation. RESULTS: Totally 162 patients with spinal metastasis carcinoma were recruited, and all the patients entered the stage of result

  20. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics in aging and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sophia Z; Marcinek, David J

    2017-03-01

    Changes in mitochondrial capacity and quality play a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. In vivo measurements of mitochondrial capacity provide a clear link between physical activity and mitochondrial function in aging and heart failure, although the cause and effect relationship remains unclear. Age-related decline in mitochondrial quality leads to mitochondrial defects that affect redox, calcium, and energy-sensitive signaling by altering the cellular environment that can result in skeletal muscle dysfunction independent of reduced mitochondrial capacity. This reduced mitochondrial quality with age is also likely to sensitize skeletal muscle mitochondria to elevated angiotensin or beta-adrenergic signaling associated with heart failure. This synergy between aging and heart failure could further disrupt cell energy and redox homeostasis and contribute to exercise intolerance in this patient population. Therefore, the interaction between aging and heart failure, particularly with respect to mitochondrial dysfunction, should be a consideration when developing strategies to improve quality of life in heart failure patients. Given the central role of the mitochondria in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction, mitochondrial quality may provide a common link for targeted interventions in these populations.

  1. Pathogenesis and treatment of skeletal metastasis: studies in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Buijs, Jeroen Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common organs to be affected by metastatic disease. However, only a restricted number of solid cancers, especially those of the breast and prostate, are responsible for the majority of the bone metastases. Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity, characterized by severe pain and high incidence of fractures, spinal cord compression and bone marrow aplasia requiring hospitalization. Despite the high frequency of skeletal metastases, the molecular mechanism...

  2. Recovery of the pubic symphysis on primiparous young and multiparous senescent mice at postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Rosa, Renata Giardini; Nascimento, Maria Amália Cavinato; Vinagre, Cristiane Mendes; Toledo, Olga Maria Szymanski; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    It has been observed that parturition has a significant effect on female skeletal architecture and that age alters musculoskeletal tissues and their functions. We therefore hypothesized that multiparity affects the recovery of the pubic symphysis in senescent mice at postpartum and the morphology of the interpubic tissues. The pubic symphysis of primiparous young, virgin senescent (VS) and multiparous senescent (MS) Swiss mice was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry. The mouse pubic symphysis was remodeled during the first pregnancy: the cellular phenotype and morphology changed to ensure a structurally safe birth canal, followed by recovery of the interpubic articulation after birth. The morphology of the pubic symphysis in the VS group was maintained in a state similar to that observed in virgin young mice. In contrast, MS mice exhibited an interpubic ligament characterized by extended fibrocyte-like cells, an opened interpubic articulation gap, compacted and thin collagen fibrils and scarce galectin-3-positive cells. Thus, we found that the cellular and extracellular characteristics of the pubic symphysis were altered by multiparity in senescent mice. These particular tissue characteristics of the MS group might be associated with an impaired recovery process at postpartum. Thus, a better understanding of the alterations that occur in the birth canal, including the pubic symphysis, due to multiparity in reproductively aged mice may contribute to our comprehension of the biological mechanisms that modify the skeleton and pelvic ligaments and even play a role in the murine model of pelvic organ prolapse.

  3. Peritoneal lavage fluid′s temperature′s affections to neonate′s abdominal postoperative recovery%腹腔冲洗液温度对新生儿腹部手术术后恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀珍; 纪会娟; 王彦华; 尹维宁; 刘学英; 石磊

    2012-01-01

    minutes more than experimental group,P <0.01. The control group' s body temperature does not rise after operation, scleredema's ratio increased significantly. There were significant difference( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion: The peritoneal lavage fluid heating to 37 ℃ have less affections to neonate's postoperative recovery.

  4. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  5. An in vitro model of skeletal muscle volume regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wibberley

    Full Text Available Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response.The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay.Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200 mM sucrose. Addition of 200 mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30 mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%.We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death.

  6. Effects of immediate vs. delayed massage-like loading on skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Scott K; Haas, Caroline; Butterfield, Timothy A; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yi; Best, Thomas M

    2014-06-01

    This study compared immediate versus delayed massage-like compressive loading on skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties following eccentric exercise. Eighteen rabbits were surgically instrumented with peroneal nerve cuffs for stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle. Rabbits were randomly assigned to a massage loading protocol applied immediately post exercise (n=6), commencing 48h post exercise (n=6), or exercised no-massage control (n=6). Viscoelastic properties were evaluated in vivo by performing a stress-relaxation test pre- and post-exercise and daily pre- and post-massage for four consecutive days of massage loading. A quasi-linear viscoelastic approach modeled the instantaneous elastic response (AG0), fast (g1(p)) and slow (g2(p)) relaxation coefficients, and the corresponding relaxation time constants τ1 and τ2. Exercise increased AG0 in all groups (Pmassage. However, within-day (pre- to post-massage) analysis revealed a decrease in AG0 in both massage groups. Following exercise, g1(p) increased and g2(p) and τ1 decreased for all groups (P0.05). After four days of massage, there was no significant recovery of the relaxation parameters for either massage loading group compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that massage loading following eccentric exercise has a greater effect on reducing muscle stiffness, estimated by AG0, within-day rather than affecting recovery over multiple days. Massage loading also has little effect on the relaxation response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  8. Paucity of Skeletal Manifestations in Hispanic Families with FBN1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, Carlos; Regalado, Ellen S.; Fadulu, Van Tran; Hasham, Sumera N.; Gupta, Prateek; Willing, Marcia C.; Kuang, Shao-Qing; Guo, Dongchuan; Muilenburg, Ann; Yee, Richard W.; Fan, Yuxin; Towbin, Jeffrey; Coselli, Joseph S.; LeMaire, Scott A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with pleiotropic manifestations involving the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical involvement of these and other systems, referred to as the Ghent criteria. We have identified three Hispanic families from Mexico with cardiovascular and ocular manifestations due to novel FBN1 mutations but with paucity of skeletal features. The largest family, hMFS001, had a frameshift mutation in exon 24 (3075delC) identified as the cause of aortic disease in the family. Assessment of eight affected adults revealed no major skeletal manifestation of MFS. Family hMFS002 had a missense mutation (R1530C) in exon 37. Four members fulfilled the criteria for ocular and cardiovascular phenotype but lacked skeletal manifestations. Family hMFS003 had two consecutive missense FBN1 mutations (C515W and R516G) in exon 12. Eight members fulfilled the ocular criteria for MFS and two members had major cardiovascular manifestations, however none of them met criteria for skeletal system. These data suggest that individuals of Hispanic descent with FBN1 mutations may not manifest skeletal features of the MFS to the same extent as Caucasians. We recommend that echocardiogram, ocular examination and FBN1 molecular testing be considered for any patients with possible MFS even in the absence of skeletal features, including Hispanic patients. PMID:19941982

  9. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Valentina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    During embryogenesis a timely and coordinated expression of different subsets of genes drives the formation of skeletal muscles in response to developmental cues. In this review, we will summarize the most recent advances on the “epigenetic network” that promotes the transcription of selective groups of genes in muscle progenitors, through the concerted action of chromatin-associated complexes that modify histone tails and microRNAs (miRNAs). These epigenetic players cooperate to establish fo...

  10. Comprehensive resource: Skeletal gene database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L; Ho, N C; Park, S S; Powell, J; Francomano, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Skeletal Gene Database (SGD) is an integrated resource that provides comprehensive information about bone-related genes, mRNA, and proteins expressed in human and mouse, with rich links to numerous other electronic tools. SGD contains expressed sequence tag (EST) data from all the skeletal-related cDNA libraries that are available to the public. It supplies the query/data access analytic tools for users to search and compare each gene expressed in skeletal tissue(s). The results derived from EST tissue expression profiling will allow users to get the data on the mRNA copy numbers of each gene expressed in each tissue and its normalized value. From the SGD, researchers can obtain information regarding the name, symbol, size, exon/intron number, chromosomal location, LocusLink, and related disease (if any is known) of each gene. This electronic compendium also furnishes information on the protein of the corresponding gene including the protein size (amino acid number and molecular weight). It provides swift and ready access to other useful databases including OMIM, UniGene and PUBMED. The data will be updated regularly in step with current and future research, thereby providing what we hope will serve as a highly useful source of information and a powerful analytic tool to the scientific community.

  11. Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Dieter, Brad P; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance. Therefore, maintaining higher levels of vitamin D could prove beneficial for athletic performance. Despite this situation, large portions of athletic populations are vitamin D deficient. Currently, the research is inconclusive with regards to the optimal intake of vitamin D, the specific forms of vitamin D one should ingest, and the distinct nutrient-nutrient interactions of vitamin D with vitamin K that affect arterial calcification and hypervitaminosis. Furthermore, it is possible that dosages exceeding the recommendations for vitamin D (i.e. dosages up to 4000-5000 IU/day), in combination with 50 to 1000 mcg/day of vitamin K1 and K2 could aid athletic performance. This review will investigate these topics, and specifically their relevance to athletic performance.

  12. Antioxidants and skeletal muscle performance: ’Common knowledge’ vs. experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eHernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly ‘prescribed’ by the media, supplement industry, and ‘fitness experts’ for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This mini review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made.

  13. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Mounier, Remi; Plomgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of recovery without any changes in muscle IL-15 protein content or plasma IL-15 at any of the investigated time points. In conclusion, IL-15 mRNA level is enhanced in skeletal muscles dominated by type 2 fibres and resistance exercise induces increased muscular IL-15 mRNA levels. IL-15 mRNA levels in skeletal......The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects in cell culture systems. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15 is predominantly expressed by type 2 skeletal muscle fibres, and that resistance exercise regulates IL-15 expression in muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus...... lateralis quadriceps and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers (n = 14), because these muscles are characterized by having different fibre-type compositions. In addition, healthy, normally physically active male subjects (n = 8) not involved...

  14. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B, carbon (δ13C, oxygen (δ18O isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that

  15. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of

  16. Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of

  17. Assessing the Utility of Soil DNA Extraction Kits for Increasing DNA Yields and Eliminating PCR Inhibitors from Buried Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebda, Lisa M; Foran, David R

    2015-09-01

    DNA identification of human remains is often necessary when decedents are skeletonized; however, poor DNA recovery and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibition are frequently encountered, a situation exacerbated by burial. In this research, the utility of integrating soil DNA isolation kits into buried skeletal DNA analysis was evaluated and compared to a standard human DNA extraction kit and organic extraction. The soil kits successfully extracted skeletal DNA at quantities similar to standard methods, although the two kits tested, which differ mechanistically, were not equivalent. Further, the PCR inhibitors calcium and humic acid were effectively removed using the soil kits, whereas collagen was less so. Finally, concordant control region sequences were obtained from human skeletal remains using all four methods. Based on these comparisons, soil DNA isolation kits, which quickened the extraction process, proved to be a viable extraction technique for skeletal remains that resulted in positive identification of a decedent. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  19. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  20. Intact initiation of autophagy and mitochondrial fission by acute exercise in skeletal muscle of patientswith type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Sørensen, Rikke; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysregulation, and, in some studies, exercise resistance in skeletal muscle. Regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics during exercise and recovery is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis......, and these responses may be altered in T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of acute exercise on markers of autophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (n=13) and weight-matched controls (n=14) before, immediately after and 3h after an acute bout...... of exercise. RESULTS: While mRNA levels of most markers of autophagy ( PIK3C, MAP1LC3B, SQSTM1, BNIP3, BNIP3L ) and mitochondrial dynamics ( OPA1, FIS1 ) remained unchanged, some either increased during and after exercise (GABARAPL1 ), decreased in the recovery period ( BECN1, ATG7, DNM1L ), or both ( MFN2...

  1. The clinical spectrum and pathophysiology of skeletal complications in lysosomal storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorne A; Hollak, Carla E M

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders affect multiple organs including the skeleton. Disorders with prominent skeletal symptoms are type 1 and 3 Gaucher disease, the mucopolysaccharidoses, the glycoproteinoses and pycnodysostosis. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic radiographical evidence of bone pathology to overt bone crises (Gaucher), short stature with typical imaging features known as dysostosis multiplex (MPS), with spine and joint deformities (mucopolysaccharidoses, mucolipidosis), or osteopetrosis with pathological fractures (pynodysostosis). The pathophysiology of skeletal disease is only partially understood and involves direct substrate storage, inflammation and other complex alterations of cartilage and bone metabolism. Current treatments are enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, effects of these interventions on skeletal disease manifestations are less well established and outcomes are highly dependent on disease burden at treatment initiation. It is now clear that adjunctive treatments that target skeletal disease are needed and should be part of future research agenda.

  2. Making skeletal muscle from progenitor and stem cells: development versus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Ming; Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E; Lepper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based biomachinery that is attached to skeletal elements to affect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made toward uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Derived IL-6 in Liver and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet

    Summary Physical activity can lead to metabolic disease and treatment of several metabolic diseases include exercise training. Skeletal muscle has, due to its central role in glucose and fat metabolism at rest and during exercise been studied in detail with regard to exercise training. The role...... and adipose tissue metabolism is unknown. It has been suggested that myokines, such as IL-6, released from skeletal muscle affects liver and adipose tissue and are involved in the regulation of exercise training adaptations. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle derived...... indicate that during 1h of exercise the liver utilizes carbohydrates for oxidation rather than gluconeogenesis and that gluconeogenic activity during 1h of exercise is not regulated through increases in protein content. The aim of study III was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle derived IL-6...

  4. In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times of 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    The T1 relaxation times were estimated for 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle. Five healthy volunteers were examined in a 1.5 Tesla wholebody imaging system using an inversion recovery pulse sequence. The calculated T1 relaxation times ranged from 5.517 sec for phosphocreatine to 3.603 sec...

  5. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cermak, N.M.; Res, P.T.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolon

  6. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cermak, N.M.; Res, P.T.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to

  7. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Beamer, Wesley G; Economides, Aris N; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr 61), CTGF, nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) (CCN) family of proteins, is synthesized by osteoblasts, and its overexpression inhibits osteoblastogenesis and causes osteopenia. The global inactivation of Ctgf leads to defective endochondral bone formation and perinatal lethality; therefore, the consequences of Ctgf inactivation on the postnatal skeleton are not known. To study the function of CTGF, we generated Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous null mice and tissue-specific null Ctgf mice by mating Ctgf conditional mice, where Ctgf is flanked by lox sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the paired-related homeobox gene 1 (Prx1) enhancer (Prx1-Cre) or the osteocalcin promoter (Oc-Cre). Ctgf(+/LacZ) heterozygous mice exhibited transient osteopenia at 1 month of age secondary to decreased trabecular number. A similar osteopenic phenotype was observed in 1-month-old Ctgf conditional null male mice generated with Prx1-Cre, suggesting that the decreased trabecular number was secondary to impaired endochondral bone formation. In contrast, when the conditional deletion of Ctgf was achieved by Oc-Cre, an osteopenic phenotype was observed only in 6-month-old male mice. Osteoblast and osteoclast number, bone formation, and eroded surface were not affected in Ctgf heterozygous or conditional null mice. In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  8. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Minett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e. team sports induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise.

  9. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  10. Unusual florid skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Muhtaseb, Sayeed A.; Aduh, Prosper [Department of Radiology, Al-Adan Hospital (Kuwait)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with advanced and unusual skeletal manifestations - a rare occurrence in developed countries nowadays. The literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Depression Can Slow Hospital Patients' Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166427.html Depression Can Slow Hospital Patients' Recovery: Study Screening for ... 9, 2017 FRIDAY, June 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression affects about one-third of hospital patients and ...

  12. Cardiac and skeletal muscles show molecularly distinct responses to cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Angie M Y; Fung, David C Y; Corley, Susan M; McGill, Max C; Bentley, Nicholas L; Tan, Timothy C; Wilkins, Marc R; Polly, Patsie

    2015-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is a systemic, paraneoplastic syndrome seen in patients with advanced cancer. There is growing interest in the altered muscle pathophysiology experienced by cachectic patients. This study reports the microarray analysis of gene expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle in the colon 26 (C26) carcinoma mouse model of cancer cachexia. A total of 268 genes were found to be differentially expressed in cardiac muscle tissue, compared with nontumor-bearing controls. This was fewer than the 1,533 genes that changed in cachectic skeletal muscle. In addition to different numbers of genes changing, different cellular functions were seen to change in each tissue. The cachectic heart showed signs of inflammation, similar to cachectic skeletal muscle, but did not show the upregulation of ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes or downregulation of genes involved in cellular energetics and muscle regeneration that characterizes skeletal muscle cachexia. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate a subset of inflammatory genes in the cardiac and skeletal muscle of independent cachectic samples; this revealed that B4galt1, C1s, Serpina3n, and Vsig4 were significantly upregulated in cardiac tissue, whereas C1s and Serpina3n were significantly upregulated in skeletal tissue. Our skeletal muscle microarray results were also compared with those from three published microarray studies and found to be consistent in terms of the genes differentially expressed and the functional processes affected. Our study highlights that skeletal and cardiac muscles are affected differently in the C26 mouse model of cachexia and that therapeutic strategies cannot assume that both muscle types will show a similar response.

  13. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  14. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in the absence of fibrosis during hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andres-Mateos

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur as a consequence of immobilization and/or starvation in the majority of vertebrates studied. In contrast, hibernating mammals are protected against the loss of muscle mass despite long periods of inactivity and lack of food intake. Resident muscle-specific stem cells (satellite cells are known to be activated by muscle injury and their activation contributes to the regeneration of muscle, but whether satellite cells play a role in hibernation is unknown. In the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel we show that muscles ablated of satellite cells were still protected against atrophy, demonstrating that satellite cells are not involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during hibernation. Additionally, hibernating skeletal muscle showed extremely slow regeneration in response to injury, due to repression of satellite cell activation and myoblast differentiation caused by a fine-tuned interplay of p21, myostatin, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways. Interestingly, despite long periods of inflammation and lack of efficient regeneration, injured skeletal muscle from hibernating animals did not develop fibrosis and was capable of complete recovery when animals emerged naturally from hibernation. We propose that hibernating squirrels represent a new model system that permits evaluation of impaired skeletal muscle remodeling in the absence of formation of tissue fibrosis.

  15. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  16. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-03-24

    User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  17. Regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholnick, D A; Gleeson, T T

    1996-11-01

    Changes in liver and skeletal muscle fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) concentrations were compared during fasting, exercise, and recovery in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis and in outbred mice (Mus musculus). We present the first correlative evidence that suggests that a decrease in the content of Fru-2,6-P2 may mediate elevated gluconeogenesis in lizard skeletal muscle. Contents of Fru-2,6-P2 in lizard gastrocnemius and red and white iliofibularis (IF) were significantly lower (as much as 55% in white IF) during recovery from exhaustive exercise than at rest. Recovery from exhaustive exercise had no significant effect on Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations in any mouse muscle examined. Fasting significantly depressed lizard and mouse liver Fru-2,6-P2 contents and decreased lizard red IF by over 84% from the fed condition. Lizard red and white muscle fiber bundles incubated in 20 mM lactate had significantly lower Fru-2,6-P2 (94 and 61% depression, respectively) than those incubated in 8.5 mM glucose. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Fru-2,6-P2 acts as a signal for controlling gluconeogenesis in lizard skeletal muscle.

  18. Skeletal muscle expression of the adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 deletion induces an abnormal structure of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum but does not impair skeletal muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Zyryanova

    Full Text Available CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR. Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR, was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA, a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR or ryanodine (RYR, located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function.

  19. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  20. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  1. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  2. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  3. Skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics before and after energy restriction in human obesity: fibre type, enzymatic beta-oxidative capacity and fatty acid-binding protein content.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kuipers, H.; Glatz, J.F.; van der Vusse, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle has the ability to adapt as result of dietary, hormonal or pharmacological interventions affecting energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of energy restriction on skeletal muscl

  4. Soothing the sleeping giant: improving skeletal muscle oxygen kinetics and exercise intolerance in HFpEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-09-15

    Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have similar degrees of exercise intolerance and dyspnea as patients with heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF). The underlying pathophysiology leading to impaired exertional ability in the HFpEF syndrome is not completely understood, and a growing body of evidence suggests "peripheral," i.e., noncardiac, factors may play an important role. Changes in skeletal muscle function (decreased muscle mass, capillary density, mitochondrial volume, and phosphorylative capacity) are common findings in HFrEF. While cardiac failure and decreased cardiac reserve account for a large proportion of the decline in oxygen consumption in HFrEF, impaired oxygen diffusion and decreased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity can also hinder aerobic performance, functional capacity and oxygen consumption (V̇o2) kinetics. The impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction and abnormal oxidative capacity may be even more pronounced in HFpEF, a disease predominantly affecting the elderly and women, two demographic groups with a high prevalence of sarcopenia. In this review, we 1) describe the basic concepts of skeletal muscle oxygen kinetics and 2) evaluate evidence suggesting limitations in aerobic performance and functional capacity in HFpEF subjects may, in part, be due to alterations in skeletal muscle oxygen delivery and utilization. Improving oxygen kinetics with specific training regimens may improve exercise efficiency and reduce the tremendous burden imposed by skeletal muscle upon the cardiovascular system.

  5. Progressive skeletal myopathy, a phenotypic variant of desmin myopathy associated with desmin mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, Marinos C; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Goudeau, Bertrand; Park, Kye-Yoon; Takeda, Kazuyo; Simon-Casteras, Monique; Vasconcelos, Olavo; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Shatunov, Alexey; Nagle, James W; Sivakumar, Kumaraswamy; Vicart, Patrick; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2003-03-01

    Desmin myopathy is a familial or sporadic disorder characterized by the presence of desmin mutations that cause skeletal muscle weakness associated with cardiac conduction block, arrhythmia and heart failure. Distinctive histopathologic features include intracytoplasmic accumulation of desmin-reactive deposits and electron-dense granular aggregates in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. We describe two families with features of adult-onset slowly progressive skeletal myopathy without cardiomyopathy. N342D point mutation was present in the desmin helical rod domain in patients of family 1, and I451M mutation was found in the non-helical tail domain in patients of family 2. Of interest, the same I451M mutation has previously been reported in patients with cardiomyopathy and no signs of skeletal myopathy. Some carriers of the I451M mutation did not develop any disease, suggesting incomplete penetrance. Expression studies demonstrated inability of the N342D mutant desmin to form cellular filamentous network, confirming the pathogenic role of this mutation, but the network was not affected by the tail-domain I451M mutation. Progressive skeletal myopathy is a rare phenotypic variant of desmin myopathy allelic to the more frequent cardio-skeletal form.

  6. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology: integrating genotype and phenotype information in the skeletal dysplasia domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane; Zankl, Andreas

    2012-03-26

    Skeletal dysplasias are a rare and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting skeletal development. Patients with skeletal dysplasias suffer from many complex medical issues including degenerative joint disease and neurological complications. Because the data and expertise associated with this field is both sparse and disparate, significant benefits will potentially accrue from the availability of an ontology that provides a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and enables data integration, cross-referencing and advanced reasoning across the relevant but distributed data sources. We introduce the design considerations and implementation details of the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. We also describe the different components of the ontology, including a comprehensive and formal representation of the skeletal dysplasia domain as well as the related genotypes and phenotypes. We then briefly describe SKELETOME, a community-driven knowledge curation platform that is underpinned by the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. SKELETOME enables domain experts to use, refine and extend and apply the ontology without any prior ontology engineering experience--to advance the body of knowledge in the skeletal dysplasia field. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology represents the most comprehensive structured knowledge source for the skeletal dysplasias domain. It provides the means for integrating and annotating clinical and research data, not only at the generic domain knowledge level, but also at the level of individual patient case studies. It enables links between individual cases and publicly available genotype and phenotype resources based on a community-driven curation process that ensures a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and its continuous incremental evolution.

  7. Skeletal malocclusion: a developmental disorder with a life-long morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nishitha; Hamdan, Ahmad M; Fakhouri, Walid D

    2014-12-01

    The likelihood of birth defects in orofacial tissues is high due to the structural and developmental complexity of the face and the susceptibility to intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations. Skeletal malocclusion is caused by the distortion of the proper mandibular and/or maxillary growth during fetal development. Patients with skeletal malocclusion may suffer from dental deformities, bruxism, teeth crowding, trismus, mastication difficulties, breathing obstruction and digestion disturbance if the problem is left untreated. In this review, we focused on skeletal malocclusion that affects 27.9% of the US population with different severity levels. We summarized the prevalence of class I, II and III of malocclusion in different ethnic groups and discussed the most frequent medical disorders associated with skeletal malocclusion. Dental anomalies that lead to malocclusion such as tooth agenesis, crowding, missing teeth and abnormal tooth size are not addressed in this review. We propose a modified version of malocclusion classification for research purposes to exhibit a clear distinction between skeletal vs. dental malocclusion in comparison to Angle's classification. In addition, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on orthodontic (malocclusion) data through the BigMouth Dental Data Repository to calculate potential association between malocclusion with other medical conditions. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the need to identify genetic and environmental factors that cause or contribute risk to skeletal malocclusion and the possible association with other medical conditions to improve assessment, prognosis and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    . One group (n = 13) were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF) while the other group (n = 13) where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. RESULTS: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively....... Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05) difference...... between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal...

  9. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available

  10. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2016-11-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) caused by placental insufficiency is one of the most common and complex problems in perinatology, with no known cure. In pregnancies affected by placental insufficiency, a poorly functioning placenta restricts nutrient supply to the fetus and prevents normal fetal growth. Among other significant deficits in organ development, the IUGR fetus characteristically has less lean body and skeletal muscle mass than their appropriately-grown counterparts. Reduced skeletal muscle growth is not fully compensated after birth, as individuals who were born small for gestational age (SGA) from IUGR have persistent reductions in muscle mass and strength into adulthood. The consequences of restricted muscle growth and accelerated postnatal "catch-up" growth in the form of adiposity may contribute to the increased later life risk for visceral adiposity, peripheral insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in individuals who were formerly IUGR. This review will discuss how an insufficient placenta results in impaired fetal skeletal muscle growth and how lifelong reductions in muscle mass might contribute to increased metabolic disease risk in this vulnerable population.

  11. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (D.I.S.H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Leonardis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (D.I.S.H. is a common disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by exuberant hyperostosis of the antero-lateral aspect of the spinal column, that sometimes leads to bone ankilosis, and by ossification of extra-spinal entheses. This condition is often associated with the metabolic derangement of type 2 diabetes. Primary hypertension, its cardiovascular aftereffects and lithiasis are also often present in these patients. D.I.S.H. has to be distinguished from osteoarthritis, althought they often coexist in the same patient. The mean difference lies in the anatomical target of the pathological process, that is represented by articular cartilage in osteoarthritis and by entheses in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. The enthesopathy leads to the ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and causes the formation of flowing osteophytes, while intervertebral disc space is quite preserved in early phases of the disease. Symptoms of spine involvement are not typical of the disease and consist of pain and stiffness, usually worsened by inaction and damp. It has also been described the ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament which can lead to medullary canal stenosis. Appendicular skeleton is symmetrically involved in early phases of the disease, the most distinctive affected sites being feet, olecranus and patella. Hip involvement is also frequent and may lead to severe disability and represents an important cause of invalidity. The purpose of the present review is to remark on aetiopathogenetic and clinical aspects of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

  12. Grandpaternal-induced transgenerational dietary reprogramming of the unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Petter S; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Barrès, Romain

    2017-01-01

    . Activation of the stress sensor (ATF6α), may be a pivotal point whereby this pathway is activated. Interestingly, skeletal muscle from F1-offspring was not affected in a similar manner. No major changes were observed in the skeletal muscle lipidome profile due to grandpaternal diet. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: Parental nutrition and lifestyle impact the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We have reported that grandpaternal chronic high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally impairs glucose metabolism in subsequent generations. Here we determined whether grandpaternal diet transgenerationally......: Grandpaternal HFD-induced obesity transgenerationally affected the skeletal muscle transcriptome. This finding further highlights the impact of parental exposure to environmental factors on offspring's development and health....

  13. Skeletal muscle fat metabolism after exercise in humans: influence of fat availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Nicholas E; Cameron-Smith, David; McGee, Sean L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms facilitating increased skeletal muscle fat oxidation following prolonged, strenuous exercise remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability on intramuscular malonyl-CoA concentration and the regulation of whole-body fat metabolism during a 6-h postexercise recovery period. Eight endurance-trained men performed three trials, consisting of 1.5 h high-intensity and exhaustive exercise, followed by infusion of saline, saline + nicotinic acid (NA; low FFA), or Intralipid and heparin [high FFA (HFA)]. Muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of exercise (0 h) and at 3 and 6 h in recovery. Ingestion of NA suppressed the postexercise plasma FFA concentration throughout recovery (P increase in whole-body fat oxidation during the 6-h period for HFA (52.2 ± 4.8 g) relative to NA (38.4 ± 3.1 g; P muscle malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)β phosphorylation, suggesting mechanisms other than phosphorylation-mediated changes in ACC activity may have a role in regulating fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during postexercise recovery. Despite marked changes in plasma FFA availability, no significant changes in intramuscular triglyceride concentrations were detected. These data suggest that the regulation of postexercise skeletal muscle fat oxidation in humans involves factors other than the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase-ACCβ-malonyl-CoA signaling pathway, although malonyl-CoA-mediated regulation cannot be excluded completely in the acute recovery period.

  14. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  15. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  16. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  17. Effect of exercise on insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Mikines, K J; Galbo, Henrik

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1 h of dynamic one-legged exercise on insulin action in human muscle was studied in 6 healthy young men. Four hours after one-legged knee extensions, a three-step sequential euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterial and bilateral femoral vein catheterization was perfo...... recovery of human skeletal muscle.......The effect of 1 h of dynamic one-legged exercise on insulin action in human muscle was studied in 6 healthy young men. Four hours after one-legged knee extensions, a three-step sequential euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterial and bilateral femoral vein catheterization...... consumption and at some insulin concentrations on potassium exchange. In contrast, no change in insulin effects on limb exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine or tyrosine were found after exercise. Glycogen concentration in rested vastus lateralis muscle did not increase measurably during the clamp...

  18. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  19. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Dan

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia.Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples.Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential to be used to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis

  20. Disaster Recovery Planning as part of Business Continuity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pinta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a well functioning ICT infrastructure belongs to the most critical factors of companies across all branches of business. An importance of ensuring the continued operation of information systems, or the rapid recovery of the systems in the case of emergency, has increased. These needs require creating business continuity management plan and disaster recovery planning. This paper describes the creation of emergency and recovery plans and setting recovery objectives significantly affecting their efficiency.

  1. [In vitro construction of skeletal muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Takeuchi, Shoji

    In conventional culture methods using culture dishes, myotubes formed by fusion of myoblasts adhere to the surface of the culture dishes. Because the adherence causes interruption of myotube contractions and immobilization of myotubes from the culture dishes, the conventional culture methods have limitations to applications of the myotubes into drug developments and medical treatments. In order to avoid their adherence, many researchers have proposed in vitro construction of skeletal muscle tissues which both ends are fixed to anchors. The skeletal muscle tissues achieve their contractions freely according to electrical stimulations or optical stimulations, and transfer of them to other experimental setup by releasing them form the anchors. By combining the skeletal muscle tissues with force sensors, the skeletal muscle tissues are available to drug screening tests based on contractile force as a functional index. Furthermore, survival of the skeletal muscle tissues are demonstrated by implantation of them to animals. Thus, in vitro constructed skeletal muscle tissues is now recognized as attractive tools in medical fields. This review will summarize fabrication methods, properties and medical applicability of the skeletal muscle tissues.

  2. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Skeletal abnormalities of acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.; White, S.J.; Rasmussen, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    We report the skeletal abnormalities in a 4 1/2-year-old boy with acrogeria, a progeroid syndrome of premature aging of the skin without the involvement of internal organs seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges, delayed cranial suture closure with wormian bones, linear lucent defects of the metaphyses, and antegonial notching of the mandible are the predominant skeletal features of the disorder. The skeletal features described in 21 other reported cases of acrogeria are summarized.

  4. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  5. Influence of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on remnant myocyte volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竑; 朱洪生; 卫洪超; 张臻

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarcted myocardium on the volume of remnant myocytes.Methods Thirty-six adult mongrel canines were divided randomly into implantation group and control group. In the implantation group, skeletal muscle satellite cells taken from the gluteus maximus muscles of the dogs were cultured, proliferated and labeled with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (DAPI) in vitro. In both groups, a model of acute myocardial infarction was established in every dog. In the implantation group, each dog was injected with M199 solution containing autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs in the control group received M199 solution without skeletal muscle satellite cells. The dogs of both groups were killed 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation (six dogs in a separate group each time). Both infarcted myocardium and normal myocytes distal from the infracted regions isolated were observed under optical and fluorescent microscope. Their volumes were determined using a confocal microscopy image analysis system and analyzed using SAS. A P<0.05 was considered significant.Results A portion of the implanted cells differentiated into muscle fiber with striations and were connected with intercalated discs. Cross-sectional area and cell volume were increased in normal myocardium. Hypertrophy of remnant myocytes in the infarcted site after skeletal muscle cell implantation was much more evident than in the control group. Cross-sectional area, cell area and cell volume differed significantly from those of the control group (P< 0.05). Hypertrophy of the cells occurred predominantly in terms of width and thickness, whereas cell length remained unchanged. Conclusion Skeletal muscle satellite cells implanted into infarct myocardium, could induce the hypertrophy of remnant myocyte cells in the infarcted site and could also aid in the recovery of the contractile force of the infarcted myocardium.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  7. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  8. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  9. Local depletion of glycogen with supramaximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik; Plomgaard, Peter; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nielsen, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    Glycogen is stored in local spatially distinct compartments within skeletal muscle fibres and is the main energy source during supramaximal exercise. Using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that supramaximal exercise induces a differential depletion of glycogen from these compartments and also demonstrate how this varies with fibre types. Repeated exercise alters this compartmentalized glycogen depletion. The results obtained in the present study help us understand the muscle metabolic dynamics of whole body repeated supramaximal exercise, and suggest that the muscle has a compartmentalized local adaptation to repeated exercise, which affects glycogen depletion. Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneously distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 3-13% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen is of particular importance to muscle function. The present study aimed to investigate the depletion of these three subcellular glycogen compartments during repeated supramaximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (aged 25 ± 4 years, V̇O2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg(-1)  min(-1) ; mean ± SD) performed four ∼4 min supramaximal sprint time trials (STT 1-4) with 45 min of recovery. The subcellular glycogen volumes in musculus triceps brachii were quantified from electron microscopy images before and after both STT 1 and 4. During STT 1, the depletion of intramyofibrillar glycogen was higher in type 1 fibres [-52%; (-89:-15%)] than type 2 fibres [-15% (-52:22%)] (P = 0.02), whereas the depletion of intermyofibrillar glycogen [main effect: -19% (-33:0%), P = 0.006] and subsarcolemmal glycogen [main effect: -35% (-66:0%), P = 0.03] was similar between fibre types. By contrast, only intermyofibrillar glycogen volume was significantly reduced during STT 4, in both fibre types [main effect: -31% (-50:-11%), P = 0

  10. The influence of estrogen on skeletal muscle: sex matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Deborah L; Tiidus, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    As women enter menopause, the concentration of estrogen and other female hormones declines. This hormonal decrease has been associated with a number of negative outcomes, including a greater incidence of injury as well as a delay in recovery from these injuries. Over the past two decades, our understanding of the protective effects of estrogen against various types of injury and disease states has grown immensely. In skeletal muscle, studies with animals have demonstrated that sex and estrogen may potentially influence muscle contractile properties and attenuate indices of post-exercise muscle damage, including the release of creatine kinase into the bloodstream and activity of the intramuscular lysosomal acid hydrolase, beta-glucuronidase. Furthermore, numerous studies have revealed an estrogen-mediated attenuation of infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages into the skeletal muscles of rats following exercise or injury. Estrogen has also been shown to play a significant role in stimulating muscle repair and regenerative processes, including the activation and proliferation of satellite cells. Although the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its influence upon indices of skeletal muscle damage, inflammation and repair have not been fully elucidated, it is thought that estrogen may potentially exert its protective effects by: (i) acting as an antioxidant, thus limiting oxidative damage; (ii) acting as a membrane stabilizer by intercalating within membrane phospholipids; and (iii) binding to estrogen receptors, thus governing the regulation of a number of downstream genes and molecular targets. In contrast to animal studies, studies with humans have not as clearly delineated an effect of estrogen on muscle contractile function or on indices of post-exercise muscle damage and inflammation. These inconsistencies have been attributed to a number of factors, including age and fitness level of subjects, the type and intensity of exercise

  11. Concomitant cutaneous metastatic tuberculous abscesses and multifocal skeletal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Betul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans is caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease usually affects the lungs, although, in up to one third of cases, other organs are involved. Metastatic tuberculosis abscess is a rare form of skin tuberculosis. It is characterized by nodule and abscess formation throughout the body after hematogenous spread of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary focus during a period of impaired immunity. Tuberculosis osteomyelitis is also a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in pediatric age group. Skeletal tuberculosis pathogenesis is related to reactivation of hematogenous foci or spread from adjacent paravertebral lymph nodes. Weight-bearing joints are affected most commonly. Bilateral hand and foot bone involvement is rarely reported. We present a five-year-old girl with two very rare presentations of the disease such as osteomyelitis and metastatic skin abscess.

  12. Skeletal muscle adaptation to immobilization and subsequent retraining in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K; Boesen, A P; Kristiansen, J F;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may enhance resistance training induced gain in skeletal muscle mass and strength, but it is unknown if NSAIDs affects muscle loss during periods of inactivity in elderly individuals. Thus, we studied the influence of NSAID treatment...

  13. Signaling Pathways and Molecular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress in Skeletal Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibing HU; Wenjing LI; Zhi FANG; Bo XUE; Longzhou LIU; Ye YANG

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor affecting animal health and production performance. This paper briefly introduced the signaling pathways(i.e. NF-κB signal-ing pathway, MAPK, AP-1 and PGC-1α) of oxidative stress and the main genes regulating the signals of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, providing a theoretical basis for reducing oxidative stress damage.

  14. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  15. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  16. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  17. Animal cancer models of skeletal metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hibberd, Catherine; Cossigny, Davina A F; Quan, Gerald M Y

    2013-01-01

    ... ability, and poorer quality of life. Animal cancer models of skeletal metastases are essential for better understanding of the molecular pathways behind metastatic spread and local growth and invasion of bone, to enable analysis of host...

  18. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  19. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac......, skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), psmooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p

  20. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  1. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  2. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  3. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    degradation at early time points that predominantly affected slow-twitch muscle fibers. A second study examined the use of exercise as a means of recovery from disuse atrophy. Contrary to previous reports, a short duration of exercise following disuse provided a functional benefit to contractile mechanisms and increased resistance to fatigue---possibly due to increased expression of fast-twitch fibers. Two additional studies examined the efficacy of a myostatin inhibitor in combination with hindlimb unloading and in spaceflight. Myostatin inhibition increased expression of markers within the muscle synthesis pathway in both models. The myostatin inhibitors were potent enough for the skeletal muscles to overcome the atrophying effects of musculoskeletal unloading as demonstrated by increased mass and strength. Myostatin inhibition is demonstrated to be a very promising and effective treatment for disuse muscle atrophy that may benefit astronauts and patients with muscle wasting diseases. This dissertation provides the first analyses of an unloading model in combination with a myostatin inhibitor as a countermeasure for skeletal muscle disuse atrophy while exploring the specific roles of muscle function, morphology, and translational signaling pathways.

  4. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  5. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  6. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  7. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  8. Effects of curcumin on the skeletal system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the discovery of natural compounds that could favorably affect the skeletal system. Curcumin is a constituent of turmeric, a plant which has been used for centuries as a dietary spice and a traditional Indian medicine. Curcumin has been reported to affect differentiation, activity and the lifespan of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on the skeletal system of rats in vivo. Curcumin (10 mg/kg, po daily) was administered for four weeks to normal (non-ovariectomized) and bilaterally ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) three-month-old female Wistar Cmd:(WI)WU rats. Ovariectomy was performed seven days before the start of curcumin administration. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, as well as the mechanical properties of the bone, were examined. Serum total cholesterol and estradiol levels were also determined. In rats with normal estrogen levels, curcumin decreased serum estradiol level and slightly increased cancellous bone formation, along with decreased mineralization. Estrogen deficiency induced osteoporotic changes in the skeletal system of the ovariectomized control rats. In ovariectomized rats, curcumin decreased body mass gain and serum total cholesterol level, slightly improved some bone histomorphometric parameters impaired by estrogen deficiency, but did not improve bone mineralization or mechanical properties. In conclusion, the results of the present in vivo study in rats did not support the hypothesis that curcumin, at doses that are readily achievable through dietary intake, could be useful for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  10. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: a broad and variable pattern of skeletal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J M; Hanson, J W; Graham, C B; Smith, D W

    1977-12-01

    A family is described in which 15 persons in five generations are affected with a complex of skeletal malformations which variably includes peculiar asymmetric facies, delayed closure of large fontanels, brachycephaly, acrocephaly, brachydactyly, cutaneous syndactyly, broad great toes, and mild shortness of stature. Although craniosynostosis is either lacking or relatively mild in the members of this family, their features are otherwise strikingly similar to those of patients with the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. We believe the findings in this family indicate that the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome comprises a broad pattern of carniofacial and other skeletal malformations in which craniosynostosis may sometimes occur.

  11. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-09-29

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria.

  13. Skeletal development in Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Elizabeth H.

    1984-08-01

    Monthly linear extension and calcium carbonate accretion were measured over a year in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. X-radiographs were made of cross sections of branches to analyze radial growth. Correlations were made between parameters of skeletal growth and four environmental parameters monitored over the same sampling periods: temperature, daylight hours, sun hours, plankton abundance. The results indicate that linear extension does not change during the year with the possible exception of April. It is suggested that temperatures outside an optimal range (ca. 26° 29°C for staghorn Acroporas) might cause a decrease in linear extension, however. Specific accretion (mg. mm-1) does show significant variations through the year. Calcium carbonate accretion (mean specific accretion times mean linear extension, mg. tip-1) is most strongly correlated with number of sun hours. A comparison is made between diel patterns of extension and accretion and longer term measurements. It is suggested that the accretion process is probably most influenced by some activity influenced by light. There are no annual growth bands in X-radiographs of cross-sections of the branches of A. cervicornis. This may result from secondary infilling in the skeleton.

  14. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  15. Diagnosis of skeletal muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Jennifer; Fialho, Doreen; Hanna, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare disorders of muscle membrane excitability. Their episodic nature may result in diagnostic difficulty and delays in diagnosis. Advances in diagnostic clinical electrophysiology combined with DNA-based diagnosis have improved diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Ascribing pathogenic status to identified genetic variants in muscle channel genes may be complex and functional analysis, including molecular expression, may help with this. Accurate clinical and genetic diagnosis enables genetic counselling, advice regarding prognosis and aids treatment selection. An approach to accurate and efficient diagnosis is outlined. The importance of detailed clinical evaluation including careful history, examination and family history is emphasised. The role of specialised electrodiagnostics combined with DNA testing and molecular expression is considered. New potential biomarkers including muscle MRI using MRC Centre protocols are discussed. A combined diagnostic approach using careful clinical assessment, specialised neurophysiology and DNA testing will now achieve a clear diagnosis in most patients with muscle channelopathies. An accurate diagnosis enables genetic counselling and provides information regarding prognosis and treatment selection. Genetic analysis often identifies new variants of uncertain significance. In this situation, functional expression studies as part of a diagnostic service will enable determination of pathogenic status of novel genetic variants.

  16. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K(+) levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are "channelopathies" caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1), and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, and Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  17. Approaches for skeletal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyibizi, Christopher; Wallach, Corey J; Mi, Zhibao; Robbins, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    The role of gene therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders continues to be an active area of research. As the etiology of many musculoskeletal diseases becomes increasingly understood, advances in cellular and gene therapy maybe applied to their potential treatment This review focuses on current investigational strategies to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a varied group of genetic disorders that result in the diminished integrity of connective tissues as a result of alterations in the genes that encode for either the pro alpha1 or pro alpha2 component of type I collagen. Because most forms of OI result from dominant negative mutations, isolated gene replacement therapy is not a logical treatment option. The combined use of genetic manipulation and cellular transplantation, however, may provide a means to overcome this obstacle. This article describes the recent laboratory and clinical advances in cell therapy, highlights potential techniques being investigated to suppress the expression of the mutant allele with antisense gene therapy, and attempts to deliver collagen genes to bone cells. The challenges that the investigators face in their quest for the skeletal gene therapy are also discussed.

  18. Music therapy on infant hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy recovery hearing affect curative effect observation%音乐疗法对幼儿缺氧缺血性脑病恢复期听力影响的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令莉; 卢璐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe music therapy to treat infant hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy re-covery the curative effect of hearing.Methods In June 2013 to June 201 5 Zhongxiang Maternal and Child Health Care of Family Planning Service Center of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is admitted in pediatric recovering from significant hearing impairment of children with 228 cases,1 14 cases were randomly divided into observation group and control group each.Control group using hyperbaric oxygen joint muscle injection of single silica acid has four sugar ganglioside treatment,observation group in the control group therapy based on join music therapy,and listen to music every day 4 times,each time for 20 min,1 month compared two groups of children listening to improve the situation.Results the observation group treatment the total effec-tive rate was 92.1%(105/114),significantly higher than that of control group 69.3%(79/1 14),the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).All the children in the process of music therapy without any resist-ance,exclusion,pain and other adverse reactions.Conclusion compared with conventional treatment meth-ods,combination of music therapy can significantly improve hypoxia ischemic encephalopathy recovery has children with hearing impairment of hearing recovery effect,and gentle treatment is simple,treatment con-tents,easily accepted by children,no side effects.%目的:观察音乐疗法治疗幼儿缺氧缺血性脑病恢复期听力的疗效。方法2013年6月至2015年6月钟祥市妇幼保健计划生育服务中心儿科收治的缺氧缺血性脑病正处于恢复期有明显听力障碍的患儿228例,随机分为观察组和对照组各114例。对照组采用高压氧联合肌内注射单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂进行治疗,观察组对照组治疗基础上加入音乐疗法,每天听音乐4次,每次20 min,治疗1个月对比两组患儿听力改善情况。结果观察组治疗总有效率为92.1%(105/114),

  19. Alterations of the In Vivo Torque-Velocity Relationship of Human Skeletal Muscle Following 30 Days Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 30 d of 6 deg headdown bedrest (BR) on the in vivo strength of skeletal muscle. Peak angle specific (0.78 rad below horizontal) torque of the knee extensor (KE) and flexor (KF) muscle groups of both limbs was assessed during unilateral efforts at four speeds (0.52, 1.74, 2.97 and 4.19 rad/s) during concentric and at three speeds (0.52, 1.74 and 2.97 rad/s) during eccentric actions. The average decrease (P less than 0.05) of peak angle specific torque directly post-BR for the KE across speeds of concentric and eccentric actions was about 19% (n = 7). Recovery for 30 d following BR markedly improved strength to about 92% (P greater than 0.05) of 'normal'. Strength of the KF was not altered (P greater than 0.05) by BR (about a 6% decrease independent of speed and type of muscle action). Changes of strength were not affected by the type or speed of muscle action. The results indicate that strength of ex-tensor more than of flexor muscle groups of the lower limb is decreased by 30 d of bedrest and that this response does not alter the nature of the in vivo torque-velocity relation.

  20. Metformin protects skeletal muscle from cardiotoxin induced degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Langone

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable capacity to regenerate upon injury. Recent studies have suggested that this regenerative process is improved when AMPK is activated. In the muscle of young and old mice a low calorie diet, which activates AMPK, markedly enhances muscle regeneration. Remarkably, intraperitoneal injection of AICAR, an AMPK agonist, improves the structural integrity of muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Building on these observations we asked whether metformin, a powerful anti-hyperglycemic drug, which indirectly activates AMPK, affects the response of skeletal muscle to damage. In our conditions, metformin treatment did not significantly influence muscle regeneration. On the other hand we observed that the muscles of metformin treated mice are more resilient to cardiotoxin injury displaying lesser muscle damage. Accordingly myotubes, originated in vitro from differentiated C2C12 myoblast cell line, become more resistant to cardiotoxin damage after pre-incubation with metformin. Our results indicate that metformin limits cardiotoxin damage by protecting myotubes from necrosis. Although the details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect remain to be elucidated, we report a correlation between the ability of metformin to promote resistance to damage and its capacity to counteract the increment of intracellular calcium levels induced by cardiotoxin treatment. Since increased cytoplasmic calcium concentrations characterize additional muscle pathological conditions, including dystrophies, metformin treatment could prove a valuable strategy to ameliorate the conditions of patients affected by dystrophies.

  1. Defective Homocysteine Metabolism: Potential Implications for Skeletal Muscle Malfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C. Tyagi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation and cellular antioxidant potential and imbalances in Hcy production and/or catabolism impacts gene expression and cell signaling including GPCR signaling. Furthermore, HHcy might damage the vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and affects various GPCR functions; therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. Understanding cellular targets of Hcy during HHcy in different contexts and its role either as a primary risk factor or as an aggravator of certain disease conditions would provide better interventions. In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. Overall, the impact of HHcy in various skeletal muscle malfunctions is underappreciated; future studies in this area will provide deeper insights and improve our understanding of the association between HHcy and diminished physical function.

  2. Androgens and skeletal muscle: cellular and molecular action mechanisms underlying the anabolic actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vanessa; Laurent, Michaël; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2012-05-01

    Androgens increase both the size and strength of skeletal muscle via diverse mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss the different cellular targets of androgens in skeletal muscle as well as the respective androgen actions in these cells leading to changes in proliferation, myogenic differentiation, and protein metabolism. Androgens bind and activate a specific nuclear receptor which will directly affect the transcription of target genes. These genes encode muscle-specific transcription factors, enzymes, structural proteins, as well as microRNAs. In addition, anabolic action of androgens is partly established through crosstalk with other signaling molecules such as Akt, myostatin, IGF-I, and Notch. Finally, androgens may also exert non-genomic effects in muscle by increasing Ca(2+) uptake and modulating kinase activities. In conclusion, the anabolic effect of androgens on skeletal muscle is not only explained by activation of the myocyte androgen receptor but is also the combined result of many genomic and non-genomic actions.

  3. Influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on masticatory function in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T; Yagi, T; Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Miyawaki, S

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal Class III patients exhibit malocclusion characterised by Angle Class III and anterior crossbite, and their occlusion shows total or partially lateral crossbite of the posterior teeth. Most patients exhibit lower bite force and muscle activity than non-affected subjects. While orthognathic surgery may help improve masticatory function in these patients, its effects have not been fully elucidated. The aims of the study were to evaluate jaw movement and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic treatment in skeletal Class III patients in comparison with control subjects with normal occlusion. Jaw movement variables and EMG data were recorded in 14 female patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 15 female controls with good occlusion. Significant changes in jaw movement, from a chopping to a grinding pattern, were observed after orthognathic treatment (closing angle P Class III patients improves the masticatory chewing pattern and muscle activity. However, the chewing pattern remains incomplete compared with controls.

  4. Effects of IL-6 on pyruvate dehydrogenase regulation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Brandt, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regulates substrate choice according to demand and availability and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is central in this regulation. Circulating interleukin (IL)-6 increases during exercise and IL-6 has been suggested to increase whole body fat oxidation. Furthermore, IL-6 has been...... not affect plasma glucose or muscle glycogen, but increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and tended to decrease p38 protein content in skeletal muscle in fasted mice. In addition IL-6 injection reduced PDHa activity in fed mice and increased PDHa activity in fasted mice without significant changes in PDH-E1α...... reported to increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK suggested to regulate PDHa activity. Together, this suggests that IL-6 may be involved in regulating PDH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single injection of IL-6 on PDH regulation in skeletal muscle...

  5. Epoxy putty external skeletal fixation in a tibiotarsal fracture of a wild choroy parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Arias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibiotarsal fractures are common in birds because in most birds this is the longest, most exposed bone in the leg. Transverse fractures are most common and rotational and shear forces must be stabilized in order to achieve good bone regeneration. A 230g male Slender-billed Parakeet or Choroy parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus, with more than five years of age, was received with non-weight bearing lameness with 24 hours duration. X-rays were taken, and these revealed a closed, complete, non-comminuted transverse fracture of the distal diaphysis of the left tibiotarsal bone. Fixation was planned with 10-minute fast-setting epoxy putty. In order to assess the temperature of polymerization of the epoxy dough and the possibility of heat-bone necrosis, the temperature was recorded every 30 seconds for 12 minutes with three different amounts of the epoxy material in an ex vivo test. The temperature of the pieces reached a peak of 50-60ºC, where the highest peak corresponds to the highest amount of material. When approximately 6g of putty were used, the peak temperature reached only 51ºC. This peak changed to 58ºC when 4 times more epoxy was mixed and measured. If the temperature of the pins inserted in the bone exceeds 70ºC, bone necrosis could occur. In light of these results, the fracture was treated with 6 g of epoxy putty that was allowed to polymerize over a 1A 2/2 external skeletal fixation, with 1-mm pins bent at 90º and joined together with cerclage wire. At 6 weeks after surgery the bird had formed a good primary bone callus, and the external fixators were therefore removed. With this approach a satisfactory recovery of the patient was achieved with normal use of the affected limb.

  6. Involvement of the muscle-tendon junction in skeletal muscle atrophy: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Palma, L; Marinelli, M; Pavan, M; Bertoni-Freddari, C

    2011-01-01

    The muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) is a physiologically vital tissue interface and a highly specialized region in the muscle-tendon unit. It is the weakest point in the muscle-tendon unit, making it susceptible to strain injuries. Nonetheless, knowledge of the pathological changes affecting this region and of its response to the atrophy process is very limited. The aim of the study was to examine MTJ ultrastructural morphology in patients with different conditions that induce skeletal muscle atrophy and to attempt a grading of the atrophy process. Fifteen patients undergoing amputation in the distal or proximal third of the lower leg due to chronic or acute conditions were divided into two groups. Specimens of gastrocnemius muscle collected at the time of surgery were analyzed by histology and electron microscopy. The contact between muscle and tendon was measured using a dedicated software that calculated semi-automatically the base (B) and perimeter (P) of muscle cell finger-like processes at the MTJ. Electron microscopy. The cells in the atrophic muscle of the chronic group were shallow and bulky. In the acute group, the myotendinous endings differed significantly in their structure from those of the chronic group. In atrophic muscle, the contact between muscle and tendon was reduced by quantitative and qualitative changes in the myotendinous endings. The B/P ratio allowed definition of three grades of myotendinous ending degeneration. It is unclear whether degenerative changes induced by immobilization in muscle and, specifically, the MTJ are temporary and reversible or permanent. This preliminary study suggested a classification of ultrastructural MTJ changes into grade 0, reflecting a quite normal MTJ; grade 1, an intermediate process that might lead to irreversible atrophy or to recovery, spontaneously or with drug therapy; and grade 2, irreversible process with complete structural alteration.

  7. IMPACT OF OVERHEAT ON DISABLED SWIMMERS’ SKELETAL MUSCLE STIFFNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prystupa Tetyana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary athletic recovery involves the range of treatments combined with training and restitution processes and are designed to optimize rest as well as minimize the effects of sports overstrain. Sportsmen benefit enormously from recovery treatments during both preparation and competition phases as they help remove frequent pathogenic pre-start conditions which could reduce work capacity and affect adversely results achieved. Purpose: The paper is aimed to specify the impact of overheat on easing the stiffness of disabled sportspeople’s biceps muscle of arm and the central part of the deltoid muscle. It has been assumed that overheating in a Finnish sauna will facilitate muscle condition and recovery of a swimmer’s body. Material: The research involved 20 disabled swimmers - 10 competitors based in the Start sports club in Kalisz and 10 contestants based in Start sports club in Wroclaw. The Tonus-1 myotonometer was used to measure the stiffness of biceps muscle of arm (biceps brachii and the central part of the deltoid muscle (deltoideus - pars acromialic. The research was carried out in two stages: training mesocycle with no recovery and training mesocycle with recovery. The mesocycles comprised three one-week-long microcycles each. Results: The research proved the overheating to ease rest muscle stiffness . Conclusions: The upshot of the discussion was that the Finnish sauna has a tonic effect on a disable swimmer’s body. Reduction of post work-out muscle stiffness will facilitate effective recovery and bring forward next training activities.

  8. Effect of carnitine, acetyl-, and propionylcarnitine supplementation on the body carnitine pool, skeletal muscle composition, and physical performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Réjane; Bouitbir, Jamal; Felser, Andrea; Hench, Jürgen; Handschin, Christoph; Frank, Stephan; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Pharmacokinetics and effects on skeletal muscle and physical performance of oral acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine are not well characterized. We therefore investigated the influence of oral acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and carnitine on body carnitine homeostasis, energy metabolism, and physical performance in mice and compared the findings to non-supplemented control animals. Mice were supplemented orally with 2 mmol/kg/day carnitine, acetylcarnitine, or propionylcarnitine for 4 weeks and studied either at rest or after exhaustive exercise. In the supplemented groups, total plasma and urine carnitine concentrations were significantly higher than in the control group receiving no carnitine, whereas the skeletal muscle carnitine content remained unchanged. The supplemented acylcarnitines were hydrolyzed in intestine and liver and reached the systemic circulation as carnitine. Bioavailability of carnitine and acylcarnitines, determined as the urinary excretion of total carnitine, was in the range of 19 %. Skeletal muscle morphology, including fiber-type composition, was not affected, and oxygen consumption by soleus or gastrocnemius fibers was not different between the groups. Supplementation with carnitine or acylcarnitines had no significant impact on the running capacity, but was associated with lower plasma lactate levels and a higher glycogen content in white skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise. Oral supplementation of carnitine, acetylcarnitine, or propionylcarnitine in mice is associated with increased plasma and urine total carnitine concentrations, but does not affect the skeletal muscle carnitine content. Despite better preservation of skeletal muscle glycogen and lower plasma lactate levels, physical performance was not improved by carnitine or acylcarnitine supplementation.

  9. Inferring the Skeletal Muscle Developmental Changes of Grazing and Barn-Fed Goats from Gene Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Jiao, Jinzhen; Tan, Zhi-Liang; He, Zhixiong; Beauchemin, Karen A; Forster, Robert; Han, Xue-Feng; Tang, Shao-Xun; Kang, Jinghe; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-09-14

    Thirty-six Xiangdong black goats were used to investigate age-related mRNA and protein expression levels of some genes related to skeletal muscle structural proteins, MRFs and MEF2 family, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition during skeletal muscle growth under grazing (G) and barn-fed (BF) feeding systems. Goats were slaughtered at six time points selected to reflect developmental changes of skeletal muscle during nonrumination (days 0, 7, and 14), transition (day 42), and rumination phases (days 56 and 70). It was observed that the number of type IIx in the longissimus dorsi was increased quickly while numbers of type IIa and IIb decreased slightly, indicating that these genes were coordinated during the rapid growth and development stages of skeletal muscle. No gene expression was affected (P > 0.05) by feeding system except Myf5 and Myf6. Protein expressions of MYOZ3 and MEF2C were affected (P nutrition or feeding regimen mainly influences the expression of skeletal muscle growth genes.

  10. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS.

  11. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    KAUST Repository

    Conti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS\\'s pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. unveiling skeletal fragility in patients diagnosed with MGUS: no longer a condition of undetermined significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew T

    2014-12-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common finding in clinical practice, affecting greater than 3% of adults aged 50 years and older. As originally described, the term MGUS reflected the inherent clinical uncertainty of distinguishing patients with a benign stable monoclonal plasma cell disorder from subjects destined to progress to malignancy. There is now clear epidemiologic evidence, however, that patients with MGUS suffer from a significantly increased fracture risk and that the prevalence of MGUS is increased in patients with osteoporosis. Despite this relationship, no clinical care guidelines exist for the routine evaluation or treatment of the skeletal health of patients with MGUS. Recent work has demonstrated that circulating levels of at least two cytokines (CCL3/MIP-1α and DKK1) with well-recognized roles in bone disease in the related monoclonal gammopathy multiple myeloma are also increased in patients with MGUS. Further, recent imaging studies using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT have documented that patients with MGUS have substantial skeletal microarchitectural deterioration and deficits in biomechanical bone strength that likely underlie the increased skeletal fragility in these patients. Accordingly, this Perspective provides evidence that the "undetermined significance" portion of the MGUS acronym may be best replaced in favor of the term "monoclonal gammopathy of skeletal significance" (MGSS) in order to more accurately reflect the enhanced skeletal risks inherent in this condition. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline V. Bacurau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers, is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF.

  14. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E

    2015-12-09

    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282 mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2 yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype.

  15. Triennial Growth Symposium--A role for vitamin D in skeletal muscle development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, J D

    2014-03-01

    Although well known for its role in bone development and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D is capable of functioning as a regulator of skeletal muscle development and hypertrophic growth. This review will focus on the relatively limited body of evidence regarding the impact of vitamin D on prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle in meat animal species. Recent evidence indicating that improvement of maternal vitamin D status through dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation can positively affect fetal skeletal muscle fiber number and myoblast activity in swine as well as work demonstrating that posthatch vitamin D status enhancement stimulates a satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy response in broiler chickens is discussed. The relative lack of information regarding how and when to best supply dietary vitamin D to promote optimal prenatal development and postnatal growth of skeletal muscle provides an exciting field of research. Expansion of knowledge in this area will ultimately improve our ability to efficiently and effectively produce the livestock required to meet the increasing worldwide demand for meat products.

  16. The skeletal phenotype of chondroadherin deficient mice.

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    Lovisa Hessle

    Full Text Available Chondroadherin, a leucine rich repeat extracellular matrix protein with functions in cell to matrix interactions, binds cells via their α2β1 integrin as well as via cell surface proteoglycans, providing for different sets of signals to the cell. Additionally, the protein acts as an anchor to the matrix by binding tightly to collagens type I and II as well as type VI. We generated mice with inactivated chondroadherin gene to provide integrated studies of the role of the protein. The null mice presented distinct phenotypes with affected cartilage as well as bone. At 3-6 weeks of age the epiphyseal growth plate was widened most pronounced in the proliferative zone. The proteome of the femoral head articular cartilage at 4 months of age showed some distinct differences, with increased deposition of cartilage intermediate layer protein 1 and fibronectin in the chondroadherin deficient mice, more pronounced in the female. Other proteins show decreased levels in the deficient mice, particularly pronounced for matrilin-1, thrombospondin-1 and notably the members of the α1-antitrypsin family of proteinase inhibitors as well as for a member of the bone morphogenetic protein growth factor family. Thus, cartilage homeostasis is distinctly altered. The bone phenotype was expressed in several ways. The number of bone sialoprotein mRNA expressing cells in the proximal tibial metaphysic was decreased and the osteoid surface was increased possibly indicating a change in mineral metabolism. Micro-CT revealed lower cortical thickness and increased structure model index, i.e. the amount of plates and rods composing the bone trabeculas. The structural changes were paralleled by loss of function, where the null mice showed lower femoral neck failure load and tibial strength during mechanical testing at 4 months of age. The skeletal phenotype points at a role for chondroadherin in both bone and cartilage homeostasis, however, without leading to altered longitudinal

  17. Identification of the gene-regulatory landscape in skeletal development and potential links to skeletal regeneration

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    Hironori Hojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A class of gene-regulatory elements called enhancers are the main mediators controlling quantitative, temporal and spatial gene expressions. In the course of evolution, the enhancer landscape of higher organisms such as mammals has become quite complex, exerting biological functions precisely and coordinately. In mammalian skeletal development, the master transcription factors Sox9, Runx2 and Sp7/Osterix function primarily through enhancers on the genome to achieve specification and differentiation of skeletal cells. Recently developed genome-scale analyses have shed light on multiple layers of gene regulations, uncovering not only the primary mode of actions of these transcription factors on skeletal enhancers, but also the relation of the epigenetic landscape to three-dimensional chromatin architecture. Here, we review findings on the emerging framework of gene-regulatory networks involved in skeletal development. We further discuss the power of genome-scale analyses to provide new insights into genetic diseases and regenerative medicine in skeletal tissues.

  18. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagr...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Nicotine acts on growth plate chondrocytes to delay skeletal growth through the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

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    Atsuo Kawakita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking adversely affects endochondral ossification during the course of skeletal growth. Among a plethora of cigarette chemicals, nicotine is one of the primary candidate compounds responsible for the cause of smoking-induced delayed skeletal growth. However, the possible mechanism of delayed skeletal growth caused by nicotine remains unclarified. In the last decade, localization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, a specific receptor of nicotine, has been widely detected in non-excitable cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine affect growth plate chondrocytes directly and specifically through nAChR to delay skeletal growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of nicotine on human growth plate chondrocytes, a major component of endochondral ossification. The chondrocytes were derived from extra human fingers. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and hypertrophic differentiation in human growth plate chondrocytes in suspension culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Both human and murine growth plate chondrocytes expressed alpha7 nAChR, which constitutes functional homopentameric receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA, a specific antagonist of alpha7 nAChR, reversed the inhibition of matrix synthesis and functional calcium signal by nicotine in human growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. To study the effect of nicotine on growth plate in vivo, ovulation-controlled pregnant alpha7 nAChR +/- mice were given drinking water with or without nicotine during pregnancy, and skeletal growth of their fetuses was observed. Maternal nicotine exposure resulted in delayed skeletal growth of alpha7 nAChR +/+ fetuses but not in alpha7 nAChR -/- fetuses, implying that skeletal growth retardation by nicotine is specifically mediated via fetal alpha7 nAChR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nicotine, from cigarette smoking, acts directly on growth plate chondrocytes to decrease

  1. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Birk, Jesper B; Hellsten, Ylva; Schjerling, Peter; Vaulont, Sophie; Neufer, P Darrell; Richter, Erik A; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body alpha2- and alpha1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmill running (90 min), and in recovery. Running increased alpha1-AMPK kinase activity, phosphorylation (P) of AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)beta in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO muscles and increased alpha2-AMPK kinase activity in alpha2-WT. In alpha2-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P were markedly lower compared with alpha2-WT. However, in alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P levels were identical at rest and increased similarly during exercise in the two genotypes. The alpha2-KO decreased peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), and hexokinase II (HKII) transcription at rest but did not affect exercise-induced transcription. Exercise increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, Forkhead box class O (FOXO)1, HKII, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) similarly in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO mice, whereas glucose transporter GLUT 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPTI), lipoprotein lipase, and UCP3 mRNA were unchanged by exercise in both genotypes. CPTI mRNA was lower in alpha2-KO muscles than in alpha2-WT muscles at all time-points. In alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, running increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha and FOXO1 similarly. The alpha2-KO was associated with lower muscle adenosine 5'-triphosphate content, and the inosine monophosphate content increased substantially at the end of exercise only in alpha2-KO muscles. In addition, subcutaneous injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, HKII, FOXO1, PDK4, and UCP3, and alpha2-KO abolished the AICAR-induced increases in PGC-1alpha and HKII mRNA. In

  2. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

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    Pradeep Raghav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  3. Skeletal muscle vasodilation during systemic hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-01-15

    In humans, the net effect of acute systemic hypoxia in quiescent skeletal muscle is vasodilation despite significant reflex increases in muscle sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity. This vasodilation increases tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery to maintain tissue oxygen consumption. Although several mechanisms may be involved, we recently tested the roles of two endothelial-derived substances during conditions of sympathoadrenal blockade to isolate local vascular control mechanisms: nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). Our findings indicate that 1) NO normally plays a role in regulating vascular tone during hypoxia independent of the PG pathway; 2) PGs do not normally contribute to vascular tone during hypoxia, however, they do affect vascular tone when NO is inhibited; 3) NO and PGs are not independently obligatory to observe hypoxic vasodilation when assessed as a response from rest to steady-state hypoxia; and 4) combined NO and PG inhibition abolishes hypoxic vasodilation in human skeletal muscle. When the stimulus is exacerbated via combined submaximal rhythmic exercise and systemic hypoxia to cause further red blood cell (RBC) deoxygenation, skeletal muscle blood flow is augmented compared with normoxic exercise via local dilator mechanisms to maintain oxygen delivery to active tissue. Data obtained in a follow-up study indicate that combined NO and PG inhibition during hypoxic exercise blunts augmented vasodilation and hyperemia compared with control (normoxic) conditions by ∼50%; however, in contrast to hypoxia alone, the response is not abolished, suggesting that other local substances are involved. Factors associated with greater RBC deoxygenation such as ATP release, or nitrite reduction to NO, or both likely play a role in regulating this response.

  4. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

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    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  5. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-28

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  6. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  7. A high resolution δ13C record in a modern Porites lobata coral: Insights into controls on skeletal δ13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2012-05-01

    δ13C was determined at a high spatial resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) across a 1 year section of a modern Porites lobata coral skeleton from Hawaii. Skeletal δ13C is dominated by large oscillations of 5-7‰ that typically cover skeletal distances equivalent to periods of ˜14-40 days. These variations do not reflect seawater temperature and it is unlikely that they reflect variations in the δ13C of local seawater. We observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and the pH of the calcification fluid (estimated from previous measurements of skeletal δ11B). We conclude that either the proportion of skeletal carbon derived from metabolic CO2 is not reflected by estimated ECF pH (as the [CO2] in the overlying coral tissue varies) and/or the δ13C composition of the metabolic CO2 is highly variable. We also observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and previous δ18O SIMS measurements. Variations in skeletal δ13C and δ18O do not have a common timing, providing no evidence that skeletal δ13C and δ18O vary in response to a single factor. This suggests that skeletal δ13C is principally driven by variations in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 rather than by the abundance of metabolic CO2, which would also affect skeletal δ18O. The δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 reflects the processes of photosynthesis, heterotrophic feeding and respiration in the overlying coral tissue. Corals catabolise stored lipid reserves to meet energetic demands when photosynthesis conditions are sub-optimal. Variations in the amounts and types of reserves utilised could induce changes in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 and the resultant skeleton which are temporally offset from skeletal δ18O records.

  8. Aetiology of skeletal muscle 'cramps' during exercise: a novel hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, M P; Derman, E W; Noakes, T D

    1997-06-01

    The aetiology of exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC), defined as 'painful, spasmodic, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle during or immediately after physical exercise', has not been well investigated and is therefore not well understood. This review focuses on the physiological basis for skeletal muscle relaxation, a historical perspective and analysis of the commonly postulated causes of EAMC, and known facts about EAMC from recent clinical studies. Historically, the causes of EAMC have been proposed as (1) inherited abnormalities of substrate metabolism ('metabolic theory') (2) abnormalities of fluid balance ('dehydration theory'), (3) abnormalities of serum electrolyte concentrations ('electrolyte theory') and (4) extreme environmental conditions of heat or cold ('environmental theory'). Detailed analyses of the available scientific literature including data from recent studies do not support these hypothesis for the causes of EAMC. In a recent study, electromyographic (EMG) data obtained from runners during EAMC revealed that baseline activity is increased (between spasms of cramping) and that a reduction in the baseline EMG activity correlates well with clinical recovery. Furthermore, during acute EAMC the EMG activity is high, and passive stretching is effective in reducing EMG activity. This relieves the cramp probably by invoking the inverse stretch reflex. In two animal studies, abnormal reflex activity of the muscle spindle (increased activity) and the Golgi tendon organ (decreased activity) has been observed in fatigued muscle. We hypothesize that EAMC is caused by sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity which appears to be secondary to muscle fatigue. Local muscle fatigue is therefore responsible for increased muscle spindle afferent and decreased Golgi tendon organ afferent activity. Muscles which cross two joints can more easily be placed in shortened positions during exercise and would therefore decrease the Golgi tendon organ

  9. Skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Marzetti, Emanuele; Rosa, Fausto; Pacelli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Muscle wasting is the most important phenotypic and clinical feature of cancer cachexia, and the principal cause of impaired physical function, fatigue, and respiratory complications. Muscle loss has been attributed to a variable combination of reduced nutritional intake and an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. It has been suggested that defective skeletal muscle regeneration may also contribute to muscle wasting in cancer patients. However, there is little in vitro or in vivo data available, in either animals or in humans, regarding skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer wasting. The aim of the present review is to define the role of skeletal muscle regeneration in the muscle wasting of cancer patients and to determine possible therapeutic implications.

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk...... factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review...... of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer-reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)’. A catalogue...

  12. Skeletal muscle as an immunogenic organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years, a possible link between skeletal muscle contractile activity and immune changes has been established. This concept is based on the finding that exercise provokes an increase in a number of cytokines. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced......; expressed and released by muscle fibers and exert either paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Human skeletal muscle has the capacity to express several myokines belonging to distinct different cytokine classes and contractile activity plays a role in regulating the expression...... of cytokines in skeletal muscle. In the present review, we focus on the myokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-15 and their possible anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and metabolic roles....

  13. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  14. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  15. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis: imaging findings in 19 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppa, M.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Greenspan, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); McGahan, J.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Laorr, A. [Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Steinbach, L.S. [Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and radiologic appearance of skeletal coccidioidomycosis in 19 documented cases. Medical records of 19 patients with clinically confirmed skeletal occidioidomycosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were studied with plain radiography, skeletal scintigraphy and MRI. Multiple lesions were seen in 11 of 19 patients (58%). Of a total of 46 lesions, 27 (59%) were described as punched-out lytic, 10 (22%) as permeative/destructive, and 9 (17%) as involving a joint and/or disk space. Lesions were identified in almost every bone (with the exception of the facial bones, ulna, carpus, and fibula) and were most commonly found in the axial skeleton (20 of 46; 43%). Plain radiographs are effective in the initial evaluation of bones and joints, scintigraphic studies can identify disseminated disease, and CT and MRI are effective in determining soft tissue involvement and spinal abnormalities. (orig./MG)

  16. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  17. "Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…

  18. "Sizing Up" Codependency Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes codependency related, self-help literature with a dramatistic lens to explore M. Beattie's bibliotherapeutic portrayal of codependency and codependency recovery. Depicts Beattie's "stylistic medicine" for codependency recovery as a three-step, rebirth experience: (1) recognize the codependent pollution within; (2) engage in…

  19. Recovery of Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Çelebi, Özlem; Hamit, Bahtiyar; Baki, Ahmet; Yiğit, Özgür

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to identify and evaluate factors that may influence the recovery rate in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss between 2009 and 2013. Those with an identified etiology were excluded. The patients were divided into four treatment groups: (i) systemic corticosteroids (SC) only, (ii) SC+low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), (iii) SC+hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), and (iv) SC+LMWH+HBO. Recovery was evaluated according to Siegel's criteria. Age, initial hearing level, onset, treatment and audiogram types, comorbidities, and associated tinnitus and vestibular symptoms were investigated for their impact on prognosis. Two hundred five patients with ISSNHL were included. Recovery was seen in 59% of the patients. The complete recovery rate was significantly lower in patients older than 60 years and in patients presenting with profound hearing loss. Different audiogram curves had no significant effect on recovery. Sudden hearing loss was accompanied by tinnitus in 107 (52.1%) patients and vestibular symptoms in 55 (26.8%); however, neither was noted to affect prognosis. Different treatment combinations did not significantly affect prognosis. However, hypertension and a delay in treatment by more than 10 days from the onset of hearing loss were associated with a worse prognosis. Profound hearing loss, older than 60 years, a delay in treatment by more than 10 days, and hypertension were negative prognostic factors in this study, whereas, the type of audiogram curve and addition of HBO to SC did not affect prognosis.

  20. Skeletal muscle as a therapeutic target for delaying type 1 diabetic complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samantha; K; Coleman; Irena; A; Rebalka; Donna; M; D’Souza; Thomas; J; Hawke

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease targeting the pancreatic beta-cells and rendering the person hypoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic. Despite exogenous insulin therapy, individuals with T1 DM will invariably develop long-term complications such as blindness, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Though often overlooked, skeletal muscle isalso adversely affected in T1 DM, with both physical and metabolic derangements reported. As the largest metabolic organ in the body, impairments to skeletal muscle health in T1 DM would impact insulin sensitivity, glucose/lipid disposal and basal metabolic rate and thus affect the ability of persons with T1 DM to manage their disease. In this review, we discuss the impact of T1 DM on skeletal muscle health with a particular focus on the proposed mechanisms involved. We then identify and discuss established and potential adjuvant therapies which, in association with insulin therapy, would improve the health of skeletal muscle in those with T1 DM and thereby improve disease managementultimately delaying the onset and severity of other longterm diabetic complications.

  1. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal mus

  2. Skeletal Fixation in a Mutilated Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Sankaran, Ajeesh; Sabapathy, S Raja

    2016-11-01

    Hand fracture fixation in mutilating injuries is characterized by multiple challenges due to possible skeletal disorganization and concomitant severe injury of soft tissue structures. The effects of skeletal disruption are best analyzed as divided into specific locales in the hand: radial, ulnar, proximal, and distal. Functional consequences of injuries in each of these regions are discussed. Although a variety of implants are now in vogue, K-wire fixation has stood the test of time and is especially useful in multiple fracture situations. Segmental bone loss is quite common in such injuries, which can be safely reconstructed in a staged manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occipital projections in the skeletal dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamine, Yuji; Field, Fiona M. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Department of Pediatrics and the Medical Genetics-Birth Defects Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lachman, Ralph S. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Department of Pediatrics and the Medical Genetics-Birth Defects Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences and Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rimoin, David L. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Department of Pediatrics and the Medical Genetics-Birth Defects Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Occipital projections of the cranium have been reported in a number of skeletal dysplasias and syndromes. We observed two cases of atelosteogenesis type I with a bony occipital projection. This finding has neither been noted nor reported in any form of atelosteogenesis. This led us to search the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry for occipital projections, and we found them in four other syndromes in which they had not been reported. Thus occipital spurs are a non-diagnostic feature that can be found in at least ten distinct disorders as well as a normal variant. (orig.)

  4. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is closely coupled to metabolic demand, and its regulation is believed to be mainly the result of the interplay of neural vasoconstrictor activity and locally derived vasoactive substances. Muscle blood flow is increased within the first second after a single contraction...... and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid rise...

  5. Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery following exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Girard, Olivier; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether competitive intermittent exercise in the heat affects recovery, aggravates markers of muscle fiber damage, and delay the recovery of performance and muscle glycogen stores. METHODS: Plasma creatine kinase, serum myoglobin, muscle glycogen and performance parameters (...

  6. 76 FR 36779 - Revision of Fee Schedules; Fee Recovery for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I budgeted costs. This commenter... fees for power reactors and uranium recovery facilities have decreased while fees for spent fuel... (DOE) uranium recovery and transportation activities have increased. Another factor affecting ]...

  7. Promotion of The Human Skeletal Heritage: A Milanese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The history and cultural heritage of a city can be evaluated not only through the study of the works of art, artifacts or buildings, but also through the examination of the remains of persons who walked the city in the past millennia. Therefore several thousands of skeletal remains found in Lombardia, especially in Milano, act as cultural assets, though in an the ethical scenario of full respect of human remains. In this way the skeletons tell a history concerning the conditions of health, the richness, culture and even violence, which may confirm, integrate or deny the historical sources when available. Preliminary studies performed on skeletons from different areas of Lombardia have already demonstrated the potential of skeletal material in highlighting for example the evolution of infectious diseases from the Roman age to the Middle Ages, the multiethnicity of Milan at the time of St Ambrose, the heavy labor of children which seems to be present among the Longobards who inhabited the geographic areas of Bergamo as well as Manzoni’s plague affecting the remains found under the Spanish walls. How were they different from us for what concerns life expectancy, diseases, interpersonal violence and lifestyle? In this the skeleton comes through as a true cultural asset.

  8. Desmin splice variants causing cardiac and skeletal myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K Y; Dalakas, M C; Goebel, H H; Ferrans, V J; Semino-Mora, C; Litvak, S; Takeda, K; Goldfarb, L G

    2000-11-01

    Desmin myopathy is a hereditary or sporadic cardiac and skeletal myopathy characterised by intracytoplasmic accumulation of desmin reactive deposits in muscle cells. We have characterised novel splice site mutations in the gene desmin resulting in deletion of the entire exon 3 during the pre-mRNA splicing. Sequencing of cDNA and genomic DNA identified a heterozygous de novo A to G change at the +3 position of the splice donor site of intron 3 (IVS3+3A-->G) in a patient with sporadic skeletal and cardiac myopathy. A G to A transition at the highly conserved -1 nucleotide position of intron 2 affecting the splice acceptor site (IVS2-1G-->A) was found in an unrelated patient with a similar phenotype. Expression of genomic DNA fragments carrying the IVS3+3A-->G and IVS2-1G-->A mutations confirmed that these mutations cause exon 3 deletion. Aberrant splicing leads to an in frame deletion of 32 complete codons and is predicted to result in mutant desmin lacking 32 amino acids from the 1B segment of the alpha helical rod. Functional analysis of the mutant desmin in SW13 (vim-) cells showed aggregation of abnormal coarse clumps of desmin positive material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first report on the pathogenic potentials of splice site mutations in the desmin gene.

  9. Nanosecond electric pulses modulate skeletal muscle calcium dynamics and contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Chris; Jirjis, Michael B.; Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2017-02-01

    Irreversible electroporation therapy is utilized to remove cancerous tissues thru the delivery of rapid (250Hz) and high voltage (V) (1,500V/cm) electric pulses across microsecond durations. Clinical research demonstrated that bipolar (BP) high voltage microsecond pulses opposed to monophasic waveforms relieve muscle contraction during electroporation treatment. Our group along with others discovered that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can activate second messenger cascades, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement, and depending on the nsEP duration and frequency, initiate apoptotic pathways. Of high interest across in vivo and in vitro applications, is how nsEP affects muscle physiology, and if nuances exist in comparison to longer duration electroporation applications. To this end, we exposed mature skeletal muscle cells to monopolar (MP) and BP nsEP stimulation across a wide range of electric field amplitudes (1-20 kV/cm). From live confocal microscopy, we simultaneously monitored intracellular calcium dynamics along with nsEP-induced muscle movement on a single cell level. In addition, we also evaluated membrane permeability with Yo-PRO-1 and Propidium Iodide (PI) across various nsEP parameters. The results from our findings suggest that skeletal muscle calcium dynamics, and nsEP-induced contraction exhibit exclusive responses to both MP and BP nsEP exposure. Overall the results suggest in vivo nsEP application may elicit unique physiology and field applications compared to longer pulse duration electroporation.

  10. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  11. [Energy reactions in the skeletal muscles of rats following space flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailian, E S; Bruavkova, L B; Kokoreva, L V

    1982-01-01

    The respiration of mitochondria isolated from mixed skeletal muscles of hindlimbs of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 was investigated polarographically. At R + 10 hours the rate of mitochondrial respiration in different metabolic states during the oxidation of succinic acid and NAD-dependent substrates declined. The enzyme activity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and cytosol lactate dehydrogenase diminished. At R + 25 days both aerobic and anaerobic oxidative processes increased, thus leading to the recovery of the parameters (sometimes they not only returned to the norm but exceeded it).

  12. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Levas

    Full Text Available Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13C of the skeletal, δ(13C, and δ(15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions. Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic

  13. Characterising skeletal muscle under large strain using eccentric and Fourier Transform-rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kristy; Cheng, Shaokoon; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E

    2015-11-05

    Characterising the passive anisotropic properties of soft tissues has been largely limited to the linear viscoelastic regime and shear loading is rarely done in the large deformation regime, despite the physiological significance of such properties. This paper demonstrates the use of eccentric rheology, which allows the anisotropy of skeletal muscle to be investigated. The large amplitude oscillatory strain properties of skeletal muscle were also investigated using Fourier Transform-rheology. Histology was used to qualitatively assess the microstructure changes induced by large strain. Results showed that skeletal muscle was strongly anisotropic in the linear regime. The storage and loss moduli were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between the three fibre alignment groups; for the group tested with fibres perpendicular to plane of shear was 12.3±1.3 kPa and 3.0±0.35 kPa, parallel to shear direction was 10.6±1.2 kPa and 2.4±0.23 kPa, and perpendicular to shear direction was 5.5±0.90 kPa and 1.3±0.21 kPa. The appearance and growth of higher order harmonics at large strain was different in the three testing directions indicating that the anisotropy of muscle affects skeletal muscle behaviour in the nonlinear regime. Histological analysis showed an increasing destruction of extracellular matrix and the rearrangement of fibres with increasing strain indicating mechanical damage at strains of larger than 10%. These microstructural changes could contribute to the complex nonlinear behaviour in skeletal muscle. This paper demonstrates a method of characterising the anisotropic properties in skeletal muscle under large strain whilst giving meaningful information on the physical response of tissue at various strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic deletion of myostatin from the heart prevents skeletal muscle atrophy in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Joerg; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Xu, Jian; Sargent, Michelle; York, Allen; Welle, Stephen; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2010-01-26

    Cardiac cachexia is characterized by an exaggerated loss of skeletal muscle, weakness, and exercise intolerance, although the cause of these effects remains unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the heart functions as an endocrine organ in promoting systemic cachexia by secreting peptide factors such as myostatin. Myostatin is a cytokine of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that is known to control muscle wasting. We used a Cre/loxP system to ablate myostatin (Mstn gene) expression in a cell type-specific manner. As expected, elimination of Mstn selectively in skeletal muscle with a myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f)-cre allele induced robust hypertrophy in all skeletal muscle. However, heart-specific deletion of Mstn with an Nkx2.5-cre allele did not alter baseline heart size or secondarily affect skeletal muscle size, but the characteristic wasting and atrophy of skeletal muscle that typify heart failure were not observed in these heart-specific null mice, indicating that myocardial myostatin expression controls muscle atrophy in heart failure. Indeed, myostatin levels in the plasma were significantly increased in wild-type mice subjected to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy but not in Mstn heart-specific deleted mice. Moreover, cardiac-specific overexpression of myostatin, which increased circulating levels of myostatin by 3- to 4-fold, caused a reduction in weight of the quadriceps, gastrocnemius, soleus, and even the heart itself. Finally, to investigate myostatin as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle wasting in heart failure, we infused a myostatin blocking antibody (JA-16), which promoted greater maintenance of muscle mass in heart failure. Myostatin released from cardiomyocytes induces skeletal muscle wasting in heart failure. Targeted inhibition of myostatin in cardiac cachexia might be a therapeutic option in the future.

  15. Environmental conditioning of skeletal anomalies typology and frequency in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m(3)). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  16. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology: integrating genotype and phenotype information in the skeletal dysplasia domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groza Tudor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal dysplasias are a rare and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting skeletal development. Patients with skeletal dysplasias suffer from many complex medical issues including degenerative joint disease and neurological complications. Because the data and expertise associated with this field is both sparse and disparate, significant benefits will potentially accrue from the availability of an ontology that provides a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and enables data integration, cross-referencing and advanced reasoning across the relevant but distributed data sources. Results We introduce the design considerations and implementation details of the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. We also describe the different components of the ontology, including a comprehensive and formal representation of the skeletal dysplasia domain as well as the related genotypes and phenotypes. We then briefly describe SKELETOME, a community-driven knowledge curation platform that is underpinned by the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. SKELETOME enables domain experts to use, refine and extend and apply the ontology without any prior ontology engineering experience--to advance the body of knowledge in the skeletal dysplasia field. Conclusions The Bone Dysplasia Ontology represents the most comprehensive structured knowledge source for the skeletal dysplasias domain. It provides the means for integrating and annotating clinical and research data, not only at the generic domain knowledge level, but also at the level of individual patient case studies. It enables links between individual cases and publicly available genotype and phenotype resources based on a community-driven curation process that ensures a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and its continuous incremental evolution.

  17. Changes of some functional speech disorders after surgical correction of skeletal anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez Ambrožič, Mojca; Hočevar Boltežar, Irena; Ihan Hren, Nataša

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal anterior open bite (AOB) or apertognathism is characterized by the absence of contact of the anterior teeth and affects articulation parameters, chewing, biting and voice quality. The treatment of AOB consists of orthognatic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment on voice quality, articulation and nasality in speech with respect to skeletal changes. The study was prospective; 15 patients with AOB were evaluated before and after surgery. Lateral cephalometric x-ray parameters (facial angle, interincisal distance, Wits appraisal) were measured to determine skeletal changes. Before surgery, nine patients still had articulation disorders despite speech therapy during childhood. The voice quality parameters were determined by acoustic analysis of the vowel sound /a/ (fundamental frequency-F0, jitter, shimmer). Spectral analysis of vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ was carried out by determining the mean frequency of the first (F1) and second (F2) formants. Nasality in speech was expressed as the ratio between the nasal and the oral sound energies during speech samples. After surgery, normalizations of facial skeletal parameters were observed in all patients, but no statistically significant changes in articulation and voice quality parameters occurred despite subjective observations of easier articulation. Any deterioration in velopharyngeal insufficiency was absent in all of the patients. In conclusion, the surgical treatment of skeletal AOB does not lead to deterioration in voice, resonance and articulation qualities. Despite surgical correction of the unfavourable skeletal situation of the speech apparatus, the pre-existing articulation disorder cannot improve without professional intervention.

  18. Injectable skeletal muscle matrix hydrogel promotes neovascularization and muscle cell infiltration in a hindlimb ischemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA DeQuach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD currently affects approximately 27 million patients in Europe and North America, and if untreated, may progress to the stage of critical limb ischemia (CLI, which has implications for amputation and potential mortality. Unfortunately, few therapies exist for treating the ischemic skeletal muscle in these conditions. Biomaterials have been used to increase cell transplant survival as well as deliver growth factors to treat limb ischemia; however, existing materials do not mimic the native skeletal muscle microenvironment they are intended to treat. Furthermore, no therapies involving biomaterials alone have been examined. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix and examine its potential for treating PAD as a stand-alone therapy by studying the material in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. We tested the mitogenic activity of the scaffold’s degradation products using an in vitro assay and measured increased proliferation rates of smooth muscle cells and skeletal myoblasts compared to collagen. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, the femoral artery was ligated and resected, followed by injection of 150 µL of skeletal muscle matrix or collagen 1 week post-injury. We demonstrate that the skeletal muscle matrix increased arteriole and capillary density, as well as recruited more desmin-positive and MyoD-positive cells compared to collagen. Our results indicate that this tissue-specific injectable hydrogel may be a potential therapy for treating ischemia related to PAD, as well as have potential beneficial effects on restoring muscle mass that is typically lost in CLI.

  19. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  20. Domestic wastewater heat recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Veijola, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study and explain the purpose and the function of drain water heat exchangers. The thesis goes over theory behind heat transfer and heat exchangers and presents the general solutions of domestic drain water heat recovery systems. Systems gone over in detail are the different general shower drain water heat recovery systems. Another part of the thesis is a case study of an actual shower drain water heat recovery system of a Finnish household. The purpose of th...

  1. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, Pim; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Mensink, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion improves exercise recovery by increasing glycogen resynthesis. However, recent research into the effects of glyc

  2. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, Pim; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Mensink, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion improves exercise recovery by increasing glycogen resynthesis. However, recent research into the effects of

  3. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  4. Skeletal maturation determined by cervical vertebrae development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, Paloma; Palma, Juan Carlos; Oteo, M Dolores; Nevado, Esther

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of cervical vertebrae radiographic assessment to predict skeletal maturation. Left hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 958 Spanish children from 5 to 18 years of age were measured. On the left hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Grave and Brown was used to assess skeletal maturation. Cervical vertebrae maturation was evaluated with lateral cephalometric radiographs using the stages described by Lamparski and by Hassel and Farman. A new method to evaluate the cervical maturation by studying the changes in the concavity of the lower border, height, and shape of the vertebral body was created. Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between skeletal maturation values obtained by the three classifications of vertebral and skeletal maturation measured at the wrist. All correlation values obtained were statistically significant (P vertebral bodies to evaluate the maturation stage has been designed. In the population investigated, this method is as accurate as the Hassel and Farman classification and superior to the Lamparski classification. The morphological vertebral parameter best able to estimate the maturation is the concavity of the lower border of the body.

  5. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  6. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  7. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations.

  8. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  9. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, K.G. van

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transp

  10. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rodrigo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    : A total of 33 consecutive patients underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion with a mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) measured at B-point and postoperative skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation for 16 weeks. Skeletal stability was evaluated using lateral cephalometric...

  11. Annexin VI is attached to transverse-tubule membranes in isolated skeletal muscle triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, G; Hidalgo, C

    2002-07-15

    Annexin VI is a 68-kDa protein of the Annexin family, a group of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins widely distributed in mammalian tissues including skeletal muscle. We investigated a) which membrane system contributes Annexin VI to skeletal muscle triads, and b) whether Annexin VI removal affects triad integrity or function. Annexin VI was present in isolated triads and transverse tubules but not in heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, indicating that Annexin VI binds to either free or triad-attached transverse tubules. Extraction with EGTA of Annexin VI from triads did not alter their migration as a single band in sucrose density gradients or their ouabain binding-site density, indicating that triad integrity does not require Annexin VI. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ release kinetics and Ca2+ uptake rates were likewise not affected by Annexin VI removal from triads, suggesting that Annexin VI is not involved in these functions. Annexin VI purified from rabbit skeletal muscle displayed Ca2+-dependent binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine. Binding saturated at 1/20 molar ratio phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate/phosphatidylcholine and was optimal at free [Ca2+] > or = 20 mM. Extraction of Annexin VI from triads did not affect the generation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid by endogenous lipid kinases, suggesting that despite its capacity to bind to negatively charged phospholipids, Annexin VI does not affect the kinase activities responsible for their generation.

  12. Role of skeletal muscle in lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Gugic, Dijana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2012-07-01

    Skeletal (striated) muscle is one of the four basic tissue types, together with the epithelium, connective and nervous tissues. Lungs, on the other hand, develop from the foregut and among various cell types contain smooth, but not skeletal muscle. Therefore, during earlier stages of development, it is unlikely that skeletal muscle and lung depend on each other. However, during the later stages of development, respiratory muscle, primarily the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles, execute so called fetal breathing-like movements (FBMs), that are essential for lung growth and cell differentiation. In fact, the absence of FBMs results in pulmonary hypoplasia, the most common cause of death in the first week of human neonatal life. Most knowledge on this topic arises from in vivo experiments on larger animals and from various in vitro experiments. In the current era of mouse mutagenesis and functional genomics, it was our goal to develop a mouse model for pulmonary hypoplasia. We employed various genetically engineered mice lacking different groups of respiratory muscles or lacking all the skeletal muscle and established the criteria for pulmonary hypoplasia in mice, and therefore established a mouse model for this disease. We followed up this discovery with systematic subtractive microarray analysis approach and revealed novel functions in lung development and disease for several molecules. We believe that our approach combines elements of both in vivo and in vitro approaches and allows us to study the function of a series of molecules in the context of lung development and disease and, simultaneously, in the context of lung's dependence on skeletal muscle-executed FBMs.

  13. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  15. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  16. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  17. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  18. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  19. A Bumpy Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN FENGYING

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world economic situation has been extremely complicated in 2010. This year saw fluctuating market confidence,changing commodity prices, imbalanced economic recovery, diverse economic policies, lingering trade protectionism, and fierce currency battles.

  20. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  1. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  2. Silver recovery system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  3. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  4. Evaluation of ubiquinone concentration and mitochondrial function relative to cerivastatin-induced skeletal myopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, William H; Lawrence, Jeffery W; Loughlin, Amy F; Stoffregen, Dana A; Mixson, Lori A; Dean, Dennis C; Raab, Conrad E; Yu, Nathan X; Lankas, George R; Frederick, Clay B

    2004-01-01

    As a class, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors can potentially cause skeletal myopathy. One statin, cerivastatin, has recently been withdrawn from the market due to an unacceptably high incidence of rhabdomyolysis. The mechanism underlying statin-induced myopathy is unknown. This paper sought to investigate the relationship among statin-induced myopathy, mitochondrial function, and muscle ubiquinone levels. Rats were administered cerivastatin at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 (mg/kg)/day or dose vehicle (controls) by oral gavage for 15 days. Samples of type I-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) and type II-predominant skeletal muscle [quadriceps and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)], and blood were collected on study days 5, 10, and 15 for morphological evaluation, clinical chemistry, mitochondrial function tests, and analysis of ubiquinone levels. No histological changes were observed in any of the animals on study days 5 or 10, but on study day 15, mid- and high-dose animals had necrosis and inflammation in type II skeletal muscle. Elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels in blood (a clinical marker of myopathy) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis of myopathy. Ultrastructural characterization of skeletal muscle revealed disruption of the sarcomere and altered mitochondria only in myofibers with degeneration, while adjacent myofibers were unaffected and had normal mitochondria. Thus, mitochondrial effects appeared not to precede myofiber degeneration. Mean coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9) levels in all dose groups were slightly decreased relative to controls in type II skeletal muscle, although the difference was not significantly different in most cases. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle was not affected by the changes in ubiquinone levels. The ubiquinone levels in high-dose-treated animals exhibiting myopathy were not significantly different from low-dose animals with no observable toxic effects. Furthermore, ubiquinone levels did not correlate

  5. Grandpaternal-induced transgenerational dietary reprogramming of the unfolded protein response in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Petter S; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Barrès, Romain; Krook, Anna; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-07-01

    Parental nutrition and lifestyle impact the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We have reported that grandpaternal chronic high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally impairs glucose metabolism in subsequent generations. Here we determined whether grandpaternal diet transgenerationally impacts the transcriptome and lipidome in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to identify tissue-specific pathways involved in transgenerational inheritance of environmental-induced phenotypes. F0 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD or chow for 12 weeks before breeding with chow-fed females to generate the F1 generation. F2 offspring were generated by mating F1 males fed a chow diet with an independent line of chow-fed females. F1 and F2 offspring were fed chow or HFD for 12 weeks. Transcriptomic and LC-MS lipidomic analyses were performed in extensor digitorum longus muscle from F2-females rats. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to determine pathways reprogrammed by grandpaternal diet. GSEA revealed an enrichment of the unfolded protein response pathway in skeletal muscle of grand-offspring from HFD-fed grandfathers compared to grand-offspring of chow-fed males. Activation of the stress sensor (ATF6α), may be a pivotal point whereby this pathway is activated. Interestingly, skeletal muscle from F1-offspring was not affected in a similar manner. No major changes were observed in the skeletal muscle lipidome profile due to grandpaternal diet. Grandpaternal HFD-induced obesity transgenerationally affected the skeletal muscle transcriptome. This finding further highlights the impact of parental exposure to environmental factors on offspring's development and health.

  6. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shouta; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD.

  7. Oxidative stress and peripheral skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with emphysema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-lei; PANG Bao-sen; HOU Xiao-li; WANG Jun; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)may be due to the disease per se or as a result of concomitant confounding factors. Although the mechanistic basis forthis functional impairment is uncertain, oxidative stress may play a role. The purpose of this study was to investigatewhether local oxidative stress is associated with the reduced peripheral skeletal muscle performance in rats withemphysema.Methods In situ mechanical properties of gastrocnemius were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats 5 months afterintratracheal instillation of either elastase (EMP, n=10) or normal saline (CON, n=10). Lipofuscin inclusions, myocyteapoptosis and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the gastrocnemius muscle.Results Lipofuscin inclusions were significantly higher in the gastrocnemius muscle of EMP compared with CON(3.2±0.4 vs. 1.7±0.4, P0.05). EMP decreased the fatigue endurance of gastrocnemius muscle (half-time to fatiguerecovery: (150.0±55.4) seconds vs. (55.2±29.3) seconds, P 0.05). A significantly positive correlation was found between the level of lipofuscininclusions and the half-time to fatigue recovery of gastrocnemius muscle in EMP (/to.664, P<0.05).Conclusion Local oxidative stress may have important functional consequences for peripheral skeletal muscle in ratswith EMP.

  8. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Morton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS and muscle protein breakdown (MPB. In healthy humans, MPS is more sensitive (varying 4-5 times more than MPB to changes in protein feeding and loading indicating that it is the primary locus determining gains in muscle mass. Performing resistance exercise (RE followed by the consumption of protein results in an augmentation of MPS and, over time, can lead to muscle hypertrophy. The magnitude of the RE-induced increase in MPS (and potentially subsequent hypertrophy is dictated by a variety of factors including: the dose of protein, source of protein, and possibly the distribution and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion. In addition, RE variables such as frequency of sessions, time under tension, volume, and training status play roles in regulating MPS. This review provides a brief overview of our current understanding of how RE and protein ingestion can influence gains in skeletal muscle mass in young, healthy individuals. It is the goal of this review to provide nutritional recommendations for optimal skeletal muscle adaptation. Specifically, we will focus on how the manipulation of protein intake during the recovery period following RE augments the adaptive response.

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

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    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  10. Small teleost fish provide new insights into human skeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Harris, M P; Huysseune, A; Winkler, C

    2017-01-01

    Small teleost fish such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly studied as models for human skeletal diseases. Efficient new genome editing tools combined with advances in the analysis of skeletal phenotypes provide new insights into fundamental processes of skeletal development. The skeleton among vertebrates is a highly conserved organ system, but teleost fish and mammals have evolved unique traits or have lost particular skeletal elements in each lineage. Several unique features of the skeleton relate to the extremely small size of early fish embryos and the small size of adult fish used as models. A detailed analysis of the plethora of interesting skeletal phenotypes in zebrafish and medaka pushes available skeletal imaging techniques to their respective limits and promotes the development of new imaging techniques. Impressive numbers of zebrafish and medaka mutants with interesting skeletal phenotypes have been characterized, complemented by transgenic zebrafish and medaka lines. The advent of efficient genome editing tools, such as TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, allows to introduce targeted deficiencies in genes of model teleosts to generate skeletal phenotypes that resemble human skeletal diseases. This review will also discuss other attractive aspects of the teleost skeleton. This includes the capacity for lifelong tooth replacement and for the regeneration of dermal skeletal elements, such as scales and fin rays, which further increases the value of zebrafish and medaka models for skeletal research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane Cholesterol in Skeletal Muscle: A Novel Player in Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, G.; Sánchez-Aguilera, P.; Jaimovich, E.; Hidalgo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane cholesterol is critical for signaling processes in a variety of tissues. We will address here current evidence supporting an emerging role of cholesterol on excitation-contraction coupling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. We have centered our review on the transverse tubule system, a complex network of narrow plasma membrane invaginations that propagate membrane depolarization into the fiber interior and allow nutrient delivery into the fibers. We will discuss current evidence showing that transverse tubule membranes have remarkably high cholesterol levels and we will address how modifications of cholesterol content influence excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we will discuss how membrane cholesterol levels affect glucose transport by modulating the insertion into the membrane of the main insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. Finally, we will address how the increased membrane cholesterol levels displayed by obese animals, which also present insulin resistance, affect these two particular skeletal muscle functions. PMID:28367451

  12. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Ross, Ann H; Jurda, Mikoláš; Šplíchalová, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies. As a result, a variety of PC-assisted imaging techniques, collectively referred to as the virtual approach, have been made available to treat fragmentary skeletal remains. The present study employs a 3D virtual approach to assess mechanisms of skeletal injuries, and provides an expert opinion of causative tools in three forensic cases involving human skeletal remains where integrity was compromised by multiple peri- or postmortem alterations resulting in fragmentation and/or incompleteness. Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a desktop laser scanner. The digitized skeletal elements were reassembled in the virtual workspace using functionalities incorporated in AMIRA(®) version 5.0 software, and simultaneously in real physical space by traditional reconstructive approaches. For this study, the original skeletal fragments were substituted by replicas built by 3D printing. Inter-method differences were quantified by mesh-based comparison after the physically reassembled elements had been re-digitized. Observed differences were further reinforced by visualizing local variations using colormaps and other advanced 3D visualization techniques. In addition, intra-operator and inter-operator error was computed. The results demonstrate that the importance of incorporating the virtual approach into the

  13. Dystrophin deficiency exacerbates skeletal muscle pathology in dysferlin-null mice

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    Han Renzhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the genes coding for either dystrophin or dysferlin cause distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin links the cytoskeleton to the sarcolemma through direct interaction with β-dystroglycan. This link extends to the extracellular matrix by β-dystroglycan's interaction with α-dystroglycan, which binds extracellular matrix proteins, including laminin α2, agrin and perlecan, that possess laminin globular domains. The absence of dystrophin disrupts this link, leading to compromised muscle sarcolemmal integrity. Dysferlin, on the other hand, plays an important role in the Ca2+-dependent membrane repair of damaged sarcolemma in skeletal muscle. Because dysferlin and dystrophin play different roles in maintaining muscle cell integrity, we hypothesized that disrupting sarcolemmal integrity with dystrophin deficiency would exacerbate the pathology in dysferlin-null mice and allow further characterization of the role of dysferlin in skeletal muscle. Methods To test our hypothesis, we generated dystrophin/dysferlin double-knockout (DKO mice by breeding mdx mice with dysferlin-null mice and analyzed the effects of a combined deficiency of dysferlin and dystrophin on muscle pathology and sarcolemmal integrity. Results The DKO mice exhibited more severe muscle pathology than either mdx mice or dysferlin-null mice, and, importantly, the onset of the muscle pathology occurred much earlier than it did in dysferlin-deficient mice. The DKO mice showed muscle pathology of various skeletal muscles, including the mandible muscles, as well as a greater number of regenerating muscle fibers, higher serum creatine kinase levels and elevated Evans blue dye uptake into skeletal muscles. Lengthening contractions caused similar force deficits, regardless of dysferlin expression. However, the rate of force recovery within 45 minutes following lengthening contractions was hampered in DKO muscles compared to mdx muscles or dysferlin

  14. Roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle tissues.

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    Takeuchi, Shiho; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Ozoe, Atsufumi; Chien, Peggie; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Saeki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2016-10-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue and fibrous tissue are observed in some skeletal muscle pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia, and affect muscle strength and myogenesis. They originate from common fibrogenic/adipogenic cells in the skeletal muscle. Thus, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying fibrogenic/adipogenic cell differentiation is an important step toward the mediation of these disorders. Previously, we established a highly adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11, from rat skeletal muscle and showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is pro-adipogenic in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that 2G11 cells give rise to fibroblasts upon transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation, indicating that they possess mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC)-like characteristics. The previously reported MPC marker PDGFRα is expressed in other cell populations. Accordingly, we produced monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to 2G11 cell surface antigens and identified chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) as a potential MPC marker. Based on an RNA interference analysis, we found that CSPG4 is involved in both the pro-adipogenic effect of bFGF and in TGF-β-induced alpha smooth muscle actin expression and stress fiber formation. By establishing an additional marker for MPC detection and characterizing its role in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation, these results will facilitate the development of effective treatments for skeletal muscle pathologies.

  15. Needle muscle biopsy: technique validation and histological and histochemical methods for evaluating canine skeletal muscles

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    Sérgio de Almeida Braga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the needle muscle biopsy technique using a 6G Bergström percutaneous needle combined with histological and histochemical methods to analyze the skeletal muscle of dogs. There are few studies about canine skeletal muscles and a lack of reports in the literature about tissue collection and analysis for canine species. Evaluation of 32 German Shepherd samples collected from the gluteus medius, at a depth of 3 cm, was performed. The choice of gluteus medius and the 3-cm depth provided good quantity fragments with sufficient sizes (3–5 mm, which permitted optimal visualization of muscle fibers. Myosin ATPase, at pH 9.4, 4.6, and 4.3, and SDH reactions revealed that all muscle samples analyzed had fibers in the classic mosaic arrangement, enabling counting and typification. The mean percentages of fibers were 29.95% for type I and 70.05% for type II. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the percutaneous needle biopsy technique for canine skeletal muscles is a safe and easy procedure that obtains fragments of proper sizes, thereby enabling the study of muscle fibers. Standardization of the muscle of choice and the depth of muscle sample collection significantly contributed to this success. This is an important method to evaluate muscle fiber types of dogs and diagnose important diseases affecting the skeletal muscles.

  16. Chronic hypobaric hypoxia mediated skeletal muscle atrophy: role of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and calpains.

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    Chaudhary, Pooja; Suryakumar, Geetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Som Nath; Ali, Shakir; Ilavazhagan, Govindsamy

    2012-05-01

    The most frequently reported symptom of exposure to high altitude is loss of body mass and decreased performance which has been attributed to altered protein metabolism affecting skeletal muscles mass. The present study explores the mechanism of chronic hypobaric hypoxia mediated skeletal muscle wasting by evaluating changes in protein turnover and various proteolytic pathways. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 200 g were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7,620 m) for different durations of exposure. Physical performance of rats was measured by treadmill running experiments. Protein synthesis, protein degradation rates were determined by (14)C-Leucine incorporation and tyrosine release, respectively. Chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and calpains were studied fluorimetrically as well as using western blots. Declined physical performance by more than 20%, in terms of time taken in exhaustion on treadmill, following chronic hypobaric hypoxia was observed. Compared to 1.5-fold increase in protein synthesis, the increase in protein degradation was much higher (five-folds), which consequently resulted in skeletal muscle mass loss. Myofibrillar protein level declined from 46.79 ± 1.49 mg/g tissue at sea level to 37.36 ± 1.153 (P calpains (three-fold) has been found to be important factors for the enhanced protein degradation rate. The study provided strong evidences suggesting that elevated protein turnover rate lead to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and calpains.

  17. Follistatin in chondrocytes: the link between TRPV4 channelopathies and skeletal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Holly A; McNulty, Amy L; Lee, Suk Hee; Rothfusz, Nicole E; Gloss, Bernd; Kirby, Margaret L; Hutson, Mary R; Cohn, Daniel H; Guilak, Farshid; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Point mutations in the calcium-permeable TRPV4 ion channel have been identified as the cause of autosomal-dominant human motor neuropathies, arthropathies, and skeletal malformations of varying severity. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which TRPV4 channelopathy mutations cause skeletal dysplasia. The human TRPV4(V620I) channelopathy mutation was transfected into primary porcine chondrocytes and caused significant (2.6-fold) up-regulation of follistatin (FST) expression levels. Pore altering mutations that prevent calcium influx through the channel prevented significant FST up-regulation (1.1-fold). We generated a mouse model of the TRPV4(V620I) mutation, and found significant skeletal deformities (e.g., shortening of tibiae and digits, similar to the human disease brachyolmia) and increases in Fst/TRPV4 mRNA levels (2.8-fold). FST was significantly up-regulated in primary chondrocytes transfected with 3 different dysplasia-causing TRPV4 mutations (2- to 2.3-fold), but was not affected by an arthropathy mutation (1.1-fold). Furthermore, FST-loaded microbeads decreased bone ossification in developing chick femora (6%) and tibiae (11%). FST gene and protein levels were also increased 4-fold in human chondrocytes from an individual natively expressing the TRPV4(T89I) mutation. Taken together, these data strongly support that up-regulation of FST in chondrocytes by skeletal dysplasia-inducing TRPV4 mutations contributes to disease pathogenesis. © FASEB.

  18. Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Mark E. Warner; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui,Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Andréa G Grottoli

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ1...

  19. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  20. Skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles related to different training intensities and detraining in Standardbred horses: A search for overtraining biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Wijnberg, I.D.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Graaf-Roelfsema, de E.; Keizer, H.; Breda, van E.; Ducro, B.J.; Kolk, van der J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Training horses improves athletic capabilities by inducing skeletal muscle-specific and systemic adaptations. However, rest is required to recover from exercise or else overtraining may occur and affect performance and welfare. Biomarkers would be useful to identify early chronic overtraining in ani

  1. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 beta in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2 ex

  2. Partial hexokinase II knockout results in acute ischemia-reperfusion damage in skeletal muscle of male, but not female, mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeele, K.M.; Eerbeek, O.; Koeman, A.; Bezemer, R.; Ince, C.; Heikkinen, S.; Laakso, M.; de Haan, A.; Schaart, G.; Drost, M.R.; Hollmann, M.W.; Zuurbier, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular studies have demonstrated a protective role of mitochondrial hexokinase against oxidative insults. It is unknown whether HK protective effects translate to the in vivo condition. In the present study, we hypothesize that HK affects acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle of the

  3. Impairment of Myocardial and Skeletal Mitochondria in Mice with Viral Myocarditis and Their Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jin; GAO Dengfeng; NIU Xiaolin; LIU Jian; CHEN Mingxia

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the impairment of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization and DNA3867 (mtDNA3867) deletion and the correlation between cardiac and skeletal muscle cells in mice with viral myocarditis, 50 BALB/c mice were divided into two groups randomly. In experimental group (n=40), the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 mL Eagle liquid with CVB3 (TCID50=108), while in the control group (n=10), the mice were subjected to equal volume of Eagle liquid. The impairment of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization and mtDNA3867 deletion rate of cardiac and skeletal muscle were detected separately at day 3, 11 and 24 after injection. The correlation of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization and mtDNA3867 deletion rate between cardiac and skeletal muscle cells cells was analyzed using Spearman method. At the day 3 after injection, in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, mtDNA3867 deletion rate was significantly higher in experimental group than in control group (P<0.05), but the localization of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid showed no difference between two groups (P>0.05). At day 11 after injection, the mtDNA3867 deletion rate of both cells in experimental group was increased to the peak level (P<0.05), and the impairment of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization of both cells also increased markedly in experimental group as compared with control group (P>0.05). At the day 24 after injection, the impairment of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization and mtDNA3867 deletion of both cells showed a recovery tendency, but still severer than those at the day 3 after injection (P<0.05). The impairment of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid localization and mtDNA3867 deletion were consistent and synchronistic between cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and showed good correlations (P<0.05). The impairment of mitochondria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocardifis, and the

  4. Effect of treatment of Cushing's syndrome on skeletal muscle structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleeli, A A; Betteridge, D J; Edwards, R H; Round, J M; Ross, E J

    1983-10-01

    The time course of recovery in the myopathy of Cushing's syndrome was studied before and after removal of a pituitary adenoma at hypophysectomy in three patients and an adrenal adenoma in another. Serial measurements were performed of quadriceps force, total muscle mass/body weight, individual fibre size on needle biopsies of the lateral muscle mass of the thigh and skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and force/unit CSA on computed (CT) scans of thighs and calves. All patients were weak, and recovery was slow but substantial except in one patient who had persistent Cushing's syndrome. An accompanying increase in overall and type II mean fibre area (MFA) occurred after surgery in the patients with a pituitary adenoma, as did an increase in skeletal muscle CSA and force/unit CSA in both patients having CT scans. The only patient with pronounced muscle wasting showed severe type II fibre atrophy with a reduced total muscle mass/body weight, but muscle morphology and total muscle mass were normal in the other patients. Only in this patient was a significant increase in total muscle mass/body weight noted after surgery. These findings suggest that the increase in muscle mass which may follow hypophysectomy in Cushing's syndrome is due to an increase in individual cell size.

  5. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training?

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    Merry, Troy L; Ristow, Michael

    2016-09-15

    A popular belief is that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced during exercise by the mitochondria and other subcellular compartments ubiquitously cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue and impair recovery. However, the importance of ROS and RNS as signals in the cellular adaptation process to stress is now evident. In an effort to combat the perceived deleterious effects of ROS and RNS it has become common practice for active individuals to ingest supplements with antioxidant properties, but interfering with ROS/RNS signalling in skeletal muscle during acute exercise may blunt favourable adaptation. There is building evidence that antioxidant supplementation can attenuate endurance training-induced and ROS/RNS-mediated enhancements in antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular defence mechanisms and insulin sensitivity. However, this is not a universal finding, potentially indicating that there is redundancy in the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, meaning that in some circumstances the negative impact of antioxidants on acute exercise response can be overcome by training. Antioxidant supplementation has been more consistently reported to have deleterious effects on the response to overload stress and high-intensity training, suggesting that remodelling of skeletal muscle following resistance and high-intensity exercise is more dependent on ROS/RNS signalling. Importantly there is no convincing evidence to suggest that antioxidant supplementation enhances exercise-training adaptions. Overall, ROS/RNS are likely to exhibit a non-linear (hormetic) pattern on exercise adaptations, where physiological doses are beneficial and high exposure (which would seldom be achieved during normal exercise training) may be detrimental.

  7. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone and their in vitro effects on lizard skeletal muscle lactate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T T; Dalessio, P M; Carr, J A; Wickler, S J; Mazzeo, R S

    1993-09-01

    Lizard skeletal muscles utilize primarily lactate as a gluconeogenic substrate for glycogen replenishment following exercise. To understand the influence of selected hormones on this process, we measured changes in plasma catecholamines and corticosterone resulting from exercise in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis and then investigated the physiological effects of those hormones on skeletal muscle lactate and glucose metabolism in vitro. Plasma epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine, and corticosterone (Cort) increased 5.8, 10.2, and 2.2 times, respectively, after 5 min of exhaustive exercise. Epi and Cort levels remained elevated after 2 h of recovery. Skeletal muscle fiber bundles isolated from the red and white regions of the iliofibularis muscle were incubated 2 h at 40 degrees C in the presence of postexercise concentrations of [14C]lactate (15 mM) and glucose (8.5 mM) in the presence and absence of Epi or Cort. Red muscle oxidized both substrates at 2-3 times the rate of white muscle, and both red and white fibers oxidized lactate at 5-10 times the rate of glucose oxidation. Epi had a stimulatory effect on lactate oxidation by white muscle. Lactate incorporation into glycogen proceeded at 2-3 times the rate of glucose incorporation in both muscle types, with rates in red muscle again 2-3 times that for white muscle. Epi stimulated lactate carbon incorporation into glycogen by 50-140% in both red and white muscle but had no effect on glucose incorporation into glycogen in either tissue. We interpret these data as evidence that epinephrine stimulates lactate removal by skeletal muscle. Cort had no effect on lactate metabolism in either muscle type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

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    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  9. Rats bred for low aerobic capacity become promptly fatigued and have slow metabolic recovery after stimulated, maximal muscle contractions.

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    Sira Torvinen

    Full Text Available AIM: Muscular fatigue is a complex phenomenon affected by muscle fiber type and several metabolic and ionic changes within myocytes. Mitochondria are the main determinants of muscle oxidative capacity which is also one determinant of muscle fatigability. By measuring the concentrations of intracellular stores of high-energy phosphates it is possible to estimate the energy production efficiency and metabolic recovery of the muscle. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is known to be associated with reduced mitochondrial function. Whether low intrinsic aerobic capacity also results in slower metabolic recovery of skeletal muscle is not known. Here we studied the influence of intrinsic aerobic capacity on in vivo muscle metabolism during maximal, fatiguing electrical stimulation. METHODS: Animal subjects were genetically heterogeneous rats selectively bred to differ for non-trained treadmill running endurance, low capacity runners (LCRs and high capacity runners (HCRs (n = 15-19. We measured the concentrations of major phosphorus compounds and force parameters in a contracting triceps surae muscle complex using (31P-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS combined with muscle force measurement from repeated isometric twitches. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that phosphocreatine re-synthesis after maximal muscle stimulation was significantly slower in LCRs (p<0.05. LCR rats also became promptly fatigued and maintained the intramuscular pH poorly compared to HCRs. Half relaxation time (HRT of the triceps surae was significantly longer in LCRs throughout the stimulation protocol (p≤0.05 and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD was significantly lower in LCRs compared to HCRs from 2 min 30 s onwards (p≤0.05. CONCLUSION: We observed that LCRs are more sensitive to fatigue and have slower metabolic recovery compared to HCRs after maximal muscle contractions. These new findings are associated with reduced running capacity and with previously found

  10. Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Neufer, P Darrell

    2004-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has a key position in skeletal muscle metabolism as it represents the entry of carbohydrate-derived fuel into the mitochondria for oxidation. PDC is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the complex. PDK exists in four isoforms, of which the PDK4 isoform is predominantly expressed in skeletal and heart muscle. PDK4 transcription and PDK4 mRNA are markedly increased in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise and after both short-term high-intensity and prolonged low-intensity exercise. The exercise-induced transcriptional response of PDK4 is enhanced when muscle glycogen is lowered before the exercise, and intake of a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet during recovery from exercise results in increased transcription and mRNA content of PDK4 when compared with intake of a high-carbohydrate diet. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is increased during the first 2 h of low-intensity exercise, followed by a decrease towards resting levels, which is in line with the possibility that the increased PDK4 expressed influences the PDH activity already during prolonged exercise. PDK4 expression is also increased in response to fasting and a high-fat diet. Thus, increased PDK4 expression when carbohydrate availability is low seems to contribute to the sparing of carbohydrates by preventing carbohydrate oxidation. The impact of substrate availability on PDK4 expression during recovery from exercise also underlines the high metabolic priority given to replenishing muscle glycogen stores and re-establishing intracellular homeostasis after exercise.

  11. Effect of acute exercise and exercise training on VEGF splice variants in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lotte; Pilegaard, Henriette; Neufer, P Darrell; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an acute exercise bout on the mRNA response of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splice variants in untrained and trained human skeletal muscle. Seven habitually active young men performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise training at an intensity corresponding to approximately 70% of the maximal workload in an incremental test five times/week for 4 wk. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the trained and untrained leg 40 h after the last training session. The subjects then performed 3 h of two-legged knee-extensor exercise, and biopsies were obtained from both legs after 0, 2, 6, and 24 h of recovery. Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of VEGF mRNA containing exon 1 and 2 (all VEGF isoforms), exon 6 or exon 7, and VEGF(165) mRNA. Acute exercise induced an increase (P < 0.05) in total VEGF mRNA levels as well as VEGF(165) and VEGF splice variants containing exon 7 at 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery. The increase in VEGF mRNA was higher in the untrained than in the trained leg (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in human skeletal muscle, acute exercise increases total VEGF mRNA, an increase that appears to be explained mainly by an increase in VEGF(165) mRNA. Furthermore, 4 wk of training attenuated the exercise-induced response in skeletal muscle VEGF(165) mRNA.

  12. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  13. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  14. 耐力训练对大鼠骨骼肌Mfn2蛋白表达及线粒体功能的影响%Endurance Training Affects Mfn2 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Function in Skeletal Muscles of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛耀君; 谢敏; 刘子泉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of endurance training on Mfn2 protein expression and mitochondrial function. Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sedentary control group(CN) and endurance training group (ET). Rats in ET were forced to swim for 12 weeks. The gas-trocnemius muscle of rats were removed after 12 weeks,then the muscle mitochondria were rapidly extracted, and MDA,MnSOD,respiration function,and the expression of Mfn2 mRNA and protein were measured. Results Comparing with group NC,the activity of MnSOD increased significantly (P < 0.01), and the MDA content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in group ET;the state 3 respiration and Mfn2 protein expression increased significantly (P < 0.05); the respiration control ratio and Mfn2 gene expression increased obviously (P < 0.01);and the state 4 respiration remained unchanged. Conclusion 12-week endurance training markedly increases the expression of mitochondrial Mfn2 mRNA and protein in the skeletal muscle,which seems to be related to the elevation of aerobic capacity in skeletal muscle.%目的:观察耐力训练对大鼠骨骼肌线粒体Mfn2蛋白表达及线粒体功能的影响,探讨耐力训练提高骨骼肌有氧代谢能力的线粒体机制.方法:20只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组(CN)和耐力训练组(ET),每组10只.ET组大鼠进行12周游泳耐力训练,CN组不训练正常饲养.12周后取大鼠腓肠肌,差速离心法提取线粒体,测定锰超氧化物歧化酶(MnSOD)活力、丙二醛(MDA)含量、线粒体呼吸功能、Mfn2基因和蛋白表达.结果:ET组大鼠腓肠肌线粒体MnSOD活性显著高于CN组(P<0.01),MDA含量低于CN组(P<0.05),态3呼吸和Mfn2蛋白表达水平显著高于CN组(P<0.05),呼吸控制比和Mfn2基因表达水平显著高于CN组(P<0.01),态4呼吸无明显变化.结论:12周游泳运动显著上调了Mfn2基因及蛋白表达,这可能是耐力训练提高骨骼肌有氧代谢能力的线粒体机制.

  15. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy: an 18 Months Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hartlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion. One group (n = 13 were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF while the other group (n = 13 where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. Results: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05 difference between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. Conclusions: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal intermaxillary fixation group and the no skeletal intermaxillary fixation group. Because of selection-bias and the reduced number of patients it still remains inconclusive whether to recommend skeletal intermaxillary fixation or not in the prevention of relapse after mandibular advancement.

  16. YAP-mediated mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eFischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralogue, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different r