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Sample records for recovering rat thymus

  1. Structural changes in the regenerating rat thymus after irradiation

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    Fukumoto, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu-Hsueh; Hashimoto, Noriko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sawada, Tomoo [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The structural changes of the rat thymus after irradiation were examined. Thymocytes regenerate rapidly after irradiation and the mechanism responsible for this rapid regeneration was examined analyzing vascular and immunohistochemical changes in the thymus. Following results were obtained: Vascular fine mesh works in the cortex were destroyed on day 3 after 6 Gy irradiation, while on day 5 these changes appeared to be restored to almost normal. Massive macrophage accumulations were observed in the cortex on day 3-5 after irradiation. This may be due to clean up the damaged thymocytes, although other possibility, as production of cytokines which may contribute to the rapid proliferation must be intensively examined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti MHC class II molecule showed relatively strong staining in the medulla compared to the cortex in the normal thymus, while this finding was reversed and cortex stained heavily compared to the medulla on day 5-7 after irradiation suggesting the importance of the cortical MHC class II positive thymic epithelial cells in regeneration of thymocytes. Anti FTS antibody stained relatively strongly in the irradiated and recovering thymus compared to the normal. These results may partly explain the abrupt proliferation of thymocytes after irradiation and further studies on cytokine message changes and thymic epithelial characterization responsible to produce the cytokines for the effective thymocyte proliteration are on the way of analysis. (author)

  2. Thymus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The removal of thymus of mice at birth before the leukemia virus was injected ..... finger proteins which mediate the differentiation of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid .... thymus undergoes an acute loss in thymic architecture and cellu- larity.

  3. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  4. Effect of Interleukin 1b on rat thymus microenvironment

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    M Artico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of interleukin 1b on the thymus of control and chemically sympathectomized adult and aged rats was studied with the aim of assessing the importance of adrenergic nerve fibres (ANF in the regulation of some immunological functions.The whole thymus was removed from normal, sympathectomized (with the neurotoxin 6-OH-dopamine and treated (interleukin 1b rats. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange (for the recognition of microanatomical details of the thymic microenvironment and with Bodian’s method for staining of nerve fibres. Histofluorescence microscopy was employed for staining ANF and immunofluorescence was used for detecting NPY-like immunoreactivity. All images were submitted to quantitative morphometrical analysis and statistical analysis of data. Moreover, the amount of proteins and noradrenaline was measured on thymic homogenates. The results indicate that in normal conditions the formation of the thymic nerve plexi in the rat is complex: the majority of ANF are destroyed after chemical sympathectomy with 6-OH-dopamine and do not change after treatment with interleukin 1b; on the contrary, treatment with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the fresh weight of the thymus, the thymic microenvironment, thymic nerve fibers, ANF, NPY-like positive nerve fibres, and on the total amount of proteins and noradrenaline in rat thymic tissue homogenates.Immunostimulation with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the whole thymus, in its microenvironment and in ANF and NPY-like nerve fibres. After chemical sympathectomy, no significant immune response was evoked by interleukin 1b, since the majority of ANF was destroyed by chemical sympathectomy.

  5. NADPH-d activity in rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid

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    F. Dorko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the localization of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity as the marker for synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in the rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid (RA on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of gestation. The given results can build the basis for understanding of the role of NOS in rat thymus. NADPH-d positive cells were represented with dark-blue color and were localized on corticomedullar junction of the thymus. These cells were of different intensity of coloring and were shaped in oval, circle or irregular forms. NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were observed in perivascular topography. They were marked more strongly in the case of control group. The result of application of RA to gravid rats was that the birth weights of newborn rats and their thymuses were smaller, but without statistically significance.

  6. Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in rats irradiated with sup 60 Co-. gamma. -rays

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    Yongjian, Geng; Zijun, Mao; Zhiwei, Yin [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1990-03-01

    Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in Wistar rats irradiated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays was preliminarily investigated with a stereological method. The results of experiments suggest that the number of lymphocytes of thymus which adhered to aortic endothelial cells significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after irradiation at doses of 2 and 8 Gy. However, when both thymus and aorta were irradiated, there were more lymphocytes adhering to endothelial cells than that when only thymus was irradiated.

  7. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  8. Repopulation of the atrophied thymus in diabetic rats by insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binz, K.; Joller, P.; Froesch, P.; Binz, H.; Zapf, J.; Froesch, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Atrophy of the thymus is one of the consequences of severe insulin deficiency. The authors describe here that the weight and the architecture of the thymus of diabetic rats is restored towards normal not only by insulin but also by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. In contrast to insulin, this effect of IGF-I occurs despite persisting hyperglycemia and adrenal hyperplasia. They also investigated the in vivo effect of IGF-I on replication and differentiation of thymocytes from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thymocytes from diabetic rats incorporated less [ 3 H]thymidine than did thymocytes from healthy rats. Insulin, as well as IGF-I treatment of diabetic rats increased [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by thymocytes. Flow cytometry of thymocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies revealed a decreased expression of the Thy-1 antigen in diabetic rats compared with control rats. In addition, a major deficiency of thymocytes expressing simultaneously the W3/25 and the Ox8 antigens was observed. These changes were restored towards normal by insulin as well as by IGF-I treatment. The antibody response to a T cell-dependent antigen (bovine serum albumin) was comparable in normal and diabetic rats. They conclude that IGF-I has important effects on the thymocyte number and the presence of CD4 + /CD8 + immature cells in the thymus of diabetic rats despite persisting hyperglycemia. However, helper T-cell function for antibody production appears to be preserved even in the severely diabetic state

  9. Histological investigations on thymus of male rats prenatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Işıl; Kum, Şadiye; Tuğlu, Mehmet İbrahim

    2018-04-27

    Bisphenol A is called as a endocrine-distrupting chemical because of the its steroid-like activity and it used in the construction of plastic containing materials. It is indicated that bisphenol A can pass the human serum, urine, follicular fluid, placenta and umblical cord as a result of the use of substances containing this agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of bisphenol A on the development of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ which plays an important role in the specific immunity. The adult pregnant female rats were administered orally with bisphenol A (for 21 days) and postnatal thymus samples were obtained on day 21, 45 and 90 and were performed for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a and TUNEL assay for the apoptotic cells. Evaluation of all groups, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a stainings were decreased in the experimental groups compared with control group. The apoptotic cells were determined in the all groups on day 90 as a result of the thymus involution. It is noted that there was not any histological and morphological damages in the rats prenatally exposed the bisphenol A. The effect of the bisphenol A is unknown in the future, but there is no problem in the adult rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicogenomic study in rat thymus of F1 generation offspring following maternal exposure to silver ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiugong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female rats (26-day-old were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 4 or 40 mg/kg body weight silver acetate (AgAc in drinking water for 10 weeks prior to and during mating. Sperm-positive females remained within their dose groups and were exposed to silver acetate during gestation and lactation. At postnatal day 26, the effect of silver ions on the developing F1 generation rat thymus was evaluated at the transcriptional level using whole-genome microarrays. Gene expression profiling analyses identified a dozen differentially expressed genes (DEGs in each dose group using a loose criterion of fold change (FC >1.5 and unadjusted p < 0.05, regardless of whether the analysis was conducted within each gender group or with both gender groups combined. No dose-dependent effect was observed on the number of DEGs. In addition, none of these genes had a false discovery rate (FDR <0.05 after correction for multiple testing. These results in combination with the observation that thymus-to-body-weight ratios were not affected and no histopathological abnormalities were identified indicate that in utero exposure to silver ions up to 26.0 mg/kg (equivalent to 40.0 mg/kg silver acetate did not have an adverse effect on the developing thymus.

  11. Regulation of ODC activity in the thymus and liver of rats by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, S L; Prahlad, K V; Mitchell, J L

    1986-01-01

    The activity of L-ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17, ODC) has become a useful indicator of hormone responsiveness. Various regimens of dexamethasone, aldosterone and epinephrine, alone or in combination, were administered to adrenalectomized rats either in acute or chronic doses. In addition, adrenalectomized rats, which were chronically treated with aldosterone and epinephrine, were given a single injection of 50 micrograms dexamethasone and sacrificed at various time intervals after hormone treatment. Hepatic and thymic ODC activity was measured. The expected dexamethasone effect, an increase in hepatic and a decrease in thymic ODC, was observed. This study also revealed that aldosterone induced similar responses in these tissues. Epinephrine had the opposite effect since chronic administration of dexamethasone or aldosterone with epinephrine resulted in control levels of ODC. Furthermore, when aldosterone and epinephrine were chronically administered to adrenalectomized rats, to study the acute effects of dexamethasone on rat thymus and liver, the time course of the response in each tissue was found to be distinct. The influence of the adrenal gland on rat thymus and liver is not restricted only to glucocorticoids, but may also involve other hormones which it secretes.

  12. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  13. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum (T.vitulorum) is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) oil has used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine for several complaints. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical, parasitological, histopathological and hematological changes in Toxocara vitulorum-infected rat after treatment with Thymus vulgaris oil. In the present study, 50 rats divided into 4 groups. The first group: normal control, the second group :animals given with thyme oil, the third group: rats infected with 1500 T.vitulorum eggs/rat, the fourth group: rats treated with (42.5 mg/kg body weight ) thyme oil for 7 consecutive days pre-infection with T.vitulorum eggs, the fifth group: infected with T.vitulorum and treated with thyme orally for 7 days starting 1hour from infection. Rats were scarified at 7th and 14th days after last treatment. Blood were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver, kidney and heart were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Larvae of Toxocara were counted in a part of the studied organs tissues. In the present study, Toxocara infection resulted in decrease in RBCs count and Hb %, lymphocyte %, and MCHC% while a remarkable increase was observed in WBCs count and monocytes % and granulocytes %. Also, there was increase in lipid peroxidation concentration as malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in organs tissue. Serum biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the activities, Asparta amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, albumin and globulin of untreated infected rats in untreated infected rats compared to normal control. Administration of thyme pre , or after infection ameliorate the observed changes occurred by

  14. Oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in thymus of malnourished lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavia-García, Graciela; González-Martínez, Haydeé; Miliar-García, Ángel; Bonilla-González, Edmundo; Rosas-Trejo, María de Los Ángeles; Königsberg, Mina; Nájera-Medina, Oralia; Luna-López, Armando; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with oxidative damage by altered antioxidant protection mechanisms. Specifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative damage (DNA and lipid) and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and catalase [CAT] mRNA, and protein expression) in thymus from malnourished rat pups. Malnutrition was induced during the lactation period by the food competition method. Oxidative DNA damage was determined quantifying 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct by high-performance liquid chromatography. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Levels of gene and protein expression of SOD, GPx, and CAT were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation significantly increased in second-degree (MN-2) and third-degree malnourished (MN-3) rats compared with well-nourished rats. Higher amounts of oxidative damage, lower mRNA expression, and lower relative concentrations of protein, as well as decreased antioxidant activity of SOD, GPx, and CAT were associated with the MN-2 and MN-3 groups. The results of this study demonstrated that higher body-weight deficits were related to alterations in antioxidant protection, which contribute to increased levels of damage in the thymus. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated for the first time that early in life, malnutrition leads to increased DNA and lipid oxidative damage, attributable to damaged antioxidant mechanisms including transcriptional and enzymatic activity alterations. These findings may contribute to the elucidation of the causes of previously reported thymus dysfunction, and might explain partially why children and adults who have overcome child undernourishment experience immunologic deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of radiation on the polypeptidsynthetase activity of liver and thymus chromatic of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umanskij, S.R.; Matinyan, K.S.; Tokarskaya, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation with a dose of 800 rad decreases rapidly the polypeptidsynthetase activity (PPSA) of liver and thymus chromatin of rats. The effect is accounted for by the breakdown of poly (ADP - ribose) involved in activation of amino acids within this system. Two hours after exposure PPSA of the chromatin of both organs is restored. When nuclei or chromatin are irradiated in vitro PPSA progressively decreases with dose increase. 18 hours after partial hepataectomy, PPSA of the chromatin of the regenerating liver is twice as high as that in the controls. Exposure of rats to 800 rad 30 min before operation prevents the PPSA increase in the regenerating liver. Possible mechanisms of radiation disturbance of the chromatin PPSA are discussed

  16. A change in the composition of supramolecular DNA-bound phospholipids in thymus and liver of gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasichkova, Z.I.; Strazhevskaya, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of supramolecular DNA (SM DNA)-bound phospholipids (PL) of thymus and liver of intact rats and those 2 min, 2, 6 and 24 h after γ-irradiation (9.7 Gy) was studied. In norm, supramolecular DNA of the thymus was shown to contain 6.7 μg PL/mg DNA, and that of the liver, 6.1 μg PL/mg DNA, the main components of PL being cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA). Substantial changes were detected in the PL composition of SM DNA of γ,irradiated rat organs. During the postirradiation period the concentration of PEA and CL in thymus SM DNA changed symbatically and irreversibly decAeased to traces; whereas in SM DNA of the liver, their concentrations changed antibatically and decreased only to a definite level thus maintaining the necessary ''lipid volume''. It was shown that PL were not restored in SM DNA of the radiopesistant liver

  17. Phosphorylation of rat thymus histones, its control and the effects thereon of γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonagy, A.; Ord, M.G.; Stocken, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The phosphate content of rat thymus histones was determined. As expected for a replicating tissue, histones 1 and 2B were more phosphorylated and had higher 32 P uptakes than did histones from resting liver nuclei; the other histones all showed 32 P uptake, but the phosphate content and uptake of histone 2A was about half that for liver histone 2A. When thymus nuclei were incubated in a slightly hypo-osmotic medium, non-histone proteins and phosphorylated histones were released into solution; this was enhanced if ATP was present in the medium. [γ- 32 P]ATP was incorporated into non-histone proteins, including Pl, and into the ADP-ribosylated form of histone 1; negligible 32 P was incorporated into the other, bound, histones. Histones 1 and 2B added to the incubation medium were extensively, and histones 2A and 4 slightly, phosphorylated. Histones released by increasing the ionic strength of the medium were phosphorylated. Added lysozyme and cytochrome c were neither bound nor phosphorylated, but added non-histone protein Pl was phosphorylated, causing other histones to be released from the nuclei, especially histones 2A and 3. The released histones were phosphorylated. γ-irradiation decreased 32 P uptake into the non-ADP-ribosylated histones 1 and 4; phosphorylation of histone 1 in vitro was unaffected. The importance of non-histone proteins, ATP availability and nuclear protein kinases to the control of histone phosphorylation in vivo is discussed. (author)

  18. Decomposition of nuclear chromatin of the rat thymus within the postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of DNP histones and of salt extracts of the thymus of rats has been studied 2 to 8 hours after γ-irradiation with 600r (Co 60 ). Simultaneously, histones/DNA ratio has been determined in the nucleoprotein and in its salt-soluble fragments after fractionation of the salt extracts on phosphatecellulose. It has been shown that 2 to 4 hours following the exposure, the histone/DNA ratio in DNP preparations does not vary from the control. Subsequently, however, it slightly decreases. It has been found that the postirradiation DNP decomposition is accompanied by the formation of fragments which, in addition to a free DNA, comprise complexes with the decreased and increased histone/DNA ratio as compared to the original DNP

  19. The effect of radiation on processing of nuclear RNA and chromatin ribonuclease activity in rat liver and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, V.I.; Skotnikova, O.I.; Umansky, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the kinetics of nuclear RNA degradation was studied during actinomycin chase. The intranuclear breakdown of RNA in thymus was inhibited for the first 30 to 120 min after 800 R irradiation of rats. In liver the degradation of nuclear RNA was unchanged for 60 min after irradiation. By the second hour, the breakdown of the rRNA precursor accelerated and the processing of D-RNA slowed down. Rat thymus and liver chromatin showed RNAase activity with two optimal pH values - in the acidic (pH 5.0 to 5.5) and weakly alkaline (pH 7.5) regions. The activity of the acidic RNAase of thymus (but not the liver) chromatin fell after 5 to 20 kR irradiation in vitro. The activity of the alkaline RNAase did not change under these conditions. The data indicate that a fall in activity of the acidic RNAase in irradiated thymus chromatin may be related to disturbance in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction. A possible contribution of the chromatin acidic RNAase to the processing of nuclear RNA in control and after irradiation is discussed. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on rat thymus arginine-rich H3 histone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, M.S.; Narasimhan, Saroja; Sreenivasan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of rat thymus H3 histone have been studied following gamma radiation (25-90 krad) in 0.2 N HCl. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern (PGE) of H3 histone indicated that aggregates were formed in the histone fraction following gamma irradiation. The PGE pattern of the irradiated-histone fraction remained unaltered even after it was treated with 8.0 M urea to eliminate noncovalent bonding. On the other hand, the irradiated sample treated with β-mercaptoethanol exhibited the PGE pattern which was essentially similar to that of unirradiated sample. These results indicate that the aggregates seen in the PGE pattern of irradiated-H3 histone may be formed through interpolypeptide chain disulphide linkeges rather than by noncovalent bonding. This contention is also supported by the fact that irradiated-H3 histone exhibited hyperchromic shift at 240-250 nm region as well as increased disulphide content. Other results revealed that DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro was inhibited to a greater extent by irradiated-H3 histone than by unirradiated-H3 histone. (author)

  1. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  2. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  3. Thymus dependent immune competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are described which are concerned with changes in cellular immunocompetance in ageing and tumour-bearing animals. The possible therapeutical application of thymic humoral factors in restoration of diminished T cell functions initiated the more fundamental studies on the humoral function of the thymus are also described. Irradiated mice and rats were used. (Auth.)

  4. Influence of a radioprotector WR-638 on the lymphoid compartment of the irradiated rat thymus: a flow cytometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragojevic-Simic, V.; Colic, M.; Gasic, S.

    1994-01-01

    The T cell composition of the thymus of X-ray irradiated (3.5 Gy) Wistar rat protected with WR-638 was analyzed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies directed to the Thy 1.1, CD43, CD2, CD5, CD4, CD8 and class I and II MHC antigens. It was shown that this dose of X-rays caused cyclic changes in thymic cellularity manifested as: primary involution (until day 2), primary regeneration (from days 2 to 14), secondary involution (from days 14 to 21) and secondary regeneration (from days 21 to 30). WR-638 reduced the magnitude of thymocyte depletion in the primary involutive phase of the irradiated thymi. (author)

  5. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat's thymus cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkevich, T I; Bokut', T B; Netukova, N I

    2001-01-01

    Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes.

  6. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  7. Application of Photoshop-based image analysis and TUNEL for the distribution and quantification of dexamethasone-induced apoptotic cells in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Piret; Tokin, Ivan; Hussar, Ulo; Filimonova, Galina; Suuroja, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the target site cells in the rat thymus after exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, at therapeutic doses. The findings of histology and histochemistry (Feulgen, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling--TUNEL) with quantification by computerized histomorphometry are described. A quantified investigation of apoptotic and mitotic thymic lymphocytes in 36 young adult Wistar rats was performed at 1-7 days after a 3-day injection of dexamethasone (a total dose of 1.2 mg/rat intraperitoneally). At the first day after dexamethasone administration the moderate involution and atrophy of thymus histology were observed with simultaneous fall in cortical cellularity and mitotic activity of thymocytes. More rapid fall appeared in the inner cortex. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL-positive) cells was significantly increased. On the days 5 and 7 the expression of apoptosis and the cell proliferation were at almost normal level. The findings suggest that dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of cortical thymic lymphocytes, mainly correlated with synchronous inhibition of mitosis and cell number fall in thymus. The main target sites of dexamethasone injury were cells in the inner cortex of lobuli thymi.

  8. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-06-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains.

  9. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  10. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione recover rats with experimental endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, L V; Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Stepanian, A A; Sonova, M M; Vanin, A F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione on endometrioid tumors in rats with experimental endometriosis has been studied. The latter was induced by an autotransplantation model, where two fragments of endometrium with myometrium (2 x 2 mm) from the left uterine horn was grafted to the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The test animals received intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml DNIC-glutathione at the dose of 12.5 micromole per kg daily for 12 days 28 days after operation. The injections resulted in more than a 2-fold decrease in the total volume of both large tumors formed from grafts and small additive tumors formed nearby grafts. The disappearance of the additive tumors was also observed in test animals. The EPR signal with g(av) = 2.03 characteristic of protein bound DNIC with thiol-containing ligands was recorded in livers, graft and additive tumors of test and control animals pointing out intensive generation of nitric oxide in rats with experimental endometriosis. Ribonucleotide reductase activation discovered by doublet the EPR signal at g = 2.0 with 2.3 mT hyperfine structure splitting was found in small tumors. The cytotoxic effect of DNIC-glutathione on endometrioid tumors was suggested to be due to DNIC degradation nearby the tumors induced by iron chelating compounds released from the tumors. The degradation resulted in release of a high amount of nitric oxide molecules and nitrosonium ions from DNICs affecting the tumors by way of the cytotoxic effect.

  11. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  12. Malignant mast cell tumor of the thymus in an Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 152-week-old male Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat kept as a non-treated animal in a long-term animal study presented with a soft mass in the anterior mediastinum, which adhered to the pleura of the lung. Histopathologically, the mass mainly consisted of round to short spindle-shaped tumor cells that had infiltrated through the hyperplastic thymic tissue. The tumor cells were arranged in loose to dense sheets. Nuclei were moderate in size and round to spindle-shaped, with small nucleoli. Almost all tumor cells exhibited abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, including eosinophilic granules of a range of sizes. The granules of tumor cells exhibited metachromasia with toluidine blue stain and were positive for c-kit and mast cell protease II. These findings indicate that the tumor described here represents a rare case of spontaneous malignant mast cell tumor with thymic epithelial hyperplasia.

  13. The glycoconjugate sugar residues of the sessile and motile cells in the thymus of normal and cyclosporin-A-treated rats: lectin histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Gheri Bryk, S; Riccardi, R; Sgambati, E; Cirri Borghi, M B

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that cell surface glycoconjugates play a determinant role in cellular recognition, cell-to-cell adhesion and serve as receptor molecules. T-lymphocytes are in strict contact with the thymic epithelial cells, which control their process of maturation and proliferation. On the other hand the normal maturation of the epithelial cells is believed to be induced by T-lymphocytes. For these reasons we have studied the glycoconjugates saccharidic moieties of the sessile and motile cells in the thymus of normal male albino Wistar rats and their changes following cyclosporin-A treatment, using a battery of seven HRP-lectins. Cytochemical controls were performed for specificity of lectin-sugar reaction. Some sections were pre-treated with neuraminidase prior to staining with HRP-lectins. Our results have demonstrated, in the control rats, a large amount and a variety of terminal and subterminal oligosaccharides within and/or on the epithelial thymic cells and in macrophages. After cyclosporin-A treatment, among the thymic epithelial cells, the subcapsular, paraseptal and perivascular cells showed the loss of some sugar residues, which characterized the same cells in the intact thymus. Some hypotheses are reported on the role played by the glycoconjugate sugar residues in control and cyclosporin-A treated rats.

  14. Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors recovers sensory responsiveness in acute spinal neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Hillary E; Kauer, Sierra D; Allmond, Jacob T; Brumley, Michele R

    2017-02-01

    Quipazine is a 5-HT 2A -receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats. Rat pups were secured in the supine posture with limbs unrestricted. Quipazine or saline was administered intraperitoneally and after a 10-min period, a tail pinch was administered. A 1-min baseline period prior to tail-pinch administration and a 1-min response period postpinch was observed and hind-limb motor activity, including locomotor-like stepping behavior, was recorded and analyzed. Neonatal rats showed an immediate and robust response to sensory stimulation induced by the tail pinch. Quipazine recovered hind-limb movement and step frequency in spinal rats back to intact levels, suggesting a synergistic, additive effect of 5-HT-receptor and sensory stimulation in spinal rats. Although levels of activity in spinal rats were restored with quipazine, movement quality (high vs. low amplitude) was only partially restored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Influence of ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. II: Role in recovering osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Bertoni, Laura; Cavani, Francesco; Zavatti, Manuela; Resca, Elisa; Carnevale, Gianluca; Benelli, Augusta; Zanoli, Paola; Palumbo, Carla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation, which represents an extension of a previous study, was to investigate the effect of ferutinin in recovering severe osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency after rat ovariectomy and to compare phytoestrogen effects with those of estrogens commonly used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The animal model used was the Sprague–Dawley ovariectomized rat. Ferutinin was orally administered (2 mg kg−1 per day) for 30 or 60 days starting from 2 months after ovariectomy (i.e. when osteoporosis was clearly evident) and its effects were compared with those of estradiol benzoate (1.5 μg per rat twice a week, subcutaneously injected) vs. vehicle-treated ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on trabecular bone of lumbar vertebrae (4th and 5th) and distal femoral epiphysis, as well as on cortical bone of femoral diaphysis. Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that ferutinin seems to display the same effects on bone mass recorded with estradiol benzoate, thus suggesting that it could enhance the recovery of bone loss due to severe estrogen deficiency in OVX rats. On this basis, the authors propose listing ferutinin among the substances representing a potential alternative for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which occurs as a result of estrogen deficiency. PMID:20492429

  16. Studies on the termination of immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population induced by the intravenous injection of deaggregated bovine gamma globulin was terminated by whole body irradiation. After irradiation, the weight of the thymus recovered biphasically, and the termination of tolerance occurred as early as in the first phase. Both Thy-1 antigen expression and helper activity of the thymus cell population in irradiated mice recovered in parallel with the recovery of the thymus weight. Sensitivity of the regenerating thymus cells to the tolerogen was not different from that of the normal thymus cells. The first phase of thymus regeneration may be caused by the proliferation and differentiation of relatively radioresistant and tolerogen insensitive precursors residing in the thymus. Tolerogen and/or immunogen reactive thymus cells may originate from the precursor. (author)

  17. Enhanced fear recall and emotional arousal in rats recovering from chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Herman, James P; Horn, Paul S; Sallee, Floyd R; Sah, Renu

    2010-11-02

    Emergence of posttraumatic-like behaviors following chronic trauma is of interest given the rising prevalence of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress associated with combat usually involves chronic traumatization, composed of multiple, single episode events occurring in an unpredictable fashion. In this study, we investigated whether rats recovering from repeated trauma in the form of chronic variable stress (CVS) express posttraumatic stress-like behaviors and dysregulated neuroendocrine responses. Cohorts of Long-Evans rats underwent a 7 day CVS paradigm followed by behavioral and neuroendocrine testing during early (16 h post CVS) and delayed (7 day) recovery time points. A fear conditioning-extinction-reminder shock paradigm revealed that CVS induces exaggerated fear recall to reminder shock, suggestive of potentiated fear memory. Rats with CVS experience also expressed a delayed expression of fearful arousal under aversive context, however, social anxiety was not affected during post-CVS recovery. Persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticotropic response to a novel acute stressor was observed in CVS exposed rats. Collectively, our data are consistent with the constellation of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress syndrome, such as re-experiencing, and arousal to fearful contexts. The CVS-recovery paradigm may be useful to simulate trauma outcomes following chronic traumatization that is often associated with repeated combat stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparative study between two different sources of n-3 poliunsaturated fatty acids and it effect on thymus and lipid profile in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Inés; Pallaro, Anabel N; Slobodianik, Nora H

    2007-06-01

    In the present paper we analyzed the effect caused by different recovery diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n-3) on thymus and serum lipid pattern. Severe depleted weanling Wistar rats (D) were divided in three groups that received during 10 days a 20% casein diet supplemented with EPA+DHA (group Cas), a 20% protein milk diet prepared using a commercial reduced-fat product enriched with linolenic and linoleic acids (group L) and a 20% casein diet as control group C. Cas and L gave each other 24 mg/day of PUFA n-3 being the ratio n-6/n-3 8.1/1 and 7.6/1, respectively. Thymus was removed and weighted and cell number were determined; blood was recollected and Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol fractions and myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, araquidonic, EPA and DHA fatty acid concentrations were measured in serum. Statistical analysis was performed using Anova test. Cell number were higher (p<0.01) in Cas (44.48+/-8.20) and in L (56.45+/-14.72) when compared to group D (1.80+/-0.70) and group C (23.70+/-4.04). L presented lower values of cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and higher values of triacylglycerol (p<0.05) when compared to Cas, being EPA (p<0.05) and DHA (p<0.01) higher in Cas. Being PUFA n-3 contribution the same in Cas and L, both diets were able to reverse the thymic athropy presenting a different hipolipemic behavior due to the different sources of PUFA n-3 used in the diets.

  19. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  20. Ionizing radiation and the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of whole body irradiation with fast fission neutrons and X-rays on the murine thymus are studied. Young adult CBA mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with either fast fission neutrons or X-rays. The results of the investigation of short- and long-term effects of the irradiation on the thymus showed a biphasic regeneration pattern followed by a marked decrease in relative thymus weight and cellularity which lasted up to at least 250 days. This late effect is attributed to possible loss of pluripotent stem cells and residual damage in the surviving stem cells in the bone marrow. The immunohistology of T cell subpopulations in the thymus of normal CBA/H mice was analyzed in order to describe the T cell composition of the irradiated thymus. The effects of irradiation with fast fission neutrons on the stromal cells of the thymus are studied in order to investigate whether the thymic stromal cells are involved in the regeneration process. The effect of graded doses of fission neutrons or X-rays on the lymphoid compartment on the thymus are studied in order to investigate the radiosensitivity of thymocyte subpopulations for these radiation types. Also the effects on the stromal compartment of the thymus are investigated. (Auth.)

  1. Construction of Thymus Organoids from Decellularized Thymus Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Asako; Pradhan, Isha; Geng, Xuehui; Trucco, Massimo; Fan, Yong

    2016-10-12

    One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma. Here, we describe the construction of functional thymus organoids from decellularized thymus scaffolds repopulated with isolated TECs. Thymus decellularization was achieved by freeze-thaw cycles to induce intracellular ice crystal formation, followed by detergent-induced cell lysis. Cellular debris was removed with extensive wash. The decellularized thymus scaffolds can largely retain the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that can support the recolonization of TECs. When transplanted into athymic nude mice, the reconstructed thymus organoids can effectively promote the homing of bone marrow-derived lymphocyte progenitors and support the development of a diverse and functional T cell repertoire. Bioengineering of thymus organoids can be a promising approach to rejuvenate/modulate the function of T-cell mediated adaptive immunity in regenerative medicine.

  2. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  3. Nonmonotonous changes of thymus nuclei lipid metabolism upon chronic gamma-radiation of rats at a dose-rate of 3 c Gy/Day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagina, T.P.; Kolomijtseva, I.K.; Moiseeva, S.A.; Kuzin, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in the thymus nuclei lipid metabolism under chronic gamma-radiation in low doses with the dose rate of 3 cGy/day is studied. It is shown, that at the 25 cGy dose rate there takes place activation of exchange in the fatly-acid part of the phospholipid molecule with simultaneous activation of the cholesterol and fatty acids synthesis. The synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids at 50 cGy remains activated, whereas metabolism of the fatty-acid part of the phospholipids molecule is sharply depressed. The identified changes reveal the similarity with the processes, proceeding by the apoptose induction. At the same time the dynamics of the thymocyte nuclei lipid exchange in the process of adaptation to the long radiation effect as nonmonotonous metabolic response to low dose impact is characterized for the first time [ru

  4. Expression of preprotachykinin-A and neuropeptide-Y messenger RNA in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, A; Geenen, V; Robert, F; Legros, J J; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y; Franchimont, P; Brene, S; Persson, H

    1990-08-01

    The preprotachykinin-A gene, the common gene of mRNAs encoding both substance-P (SP) and neurokinin-A (NKA), was shown to be expressed in Sprague-Dawley rat thymus by detection of specific mRNA in gel-blot analyses. In situ hybridization revealed dispersed PPT-A-labeled cells in sections from rat thymus, with a concentration of grains over a subpopulation of cells in the thymic medulla. Also, neuropeptide-Y mRNA-expressing cells were found in the rat thymus, primarily in the thymic medulla. Rat thymic extracts contained SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI), and the major part of the immunoreactivity coeluted with authentic SP and SP sulfoxide standards. SP-LI was also detected in human thymus, which contained between 0.09-0.88 ng SP-LI/g wet wt. Evidence for translation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the rat thymus was obtained from the demonstration of NKA-LI in thymic cells with an epithelial-like cell morphology. Combined with previous observations on the immunoregulatory roles of tachykinin peptides and the existence of specific receptors on immunocompetent cells, the demonstration of intrathymic synthesis of NKA suggests a role for NKA-LI peptides in T-cell differentiation in the thymus.

  5. Role Of Thymus Vulgaris And/Or Origanum Majorana L. Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity Induced By 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenyl imidazo (4,5-b)Pyridine (PHIP) In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, F.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the watery extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum majorana L. (marjoram) or their mixture on the toxicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) which is one of the most abundant toxic heterocyclic amines (HCA) in cooked meat. Oral administration of PhIP (75 ml/kg) twice a week for four weeks resulted in a significant increase in liver function (AST, ALT and ALP) with a percentage change recording 33.79% , 70.96% and 127.64%, respectively, accompanied with decrease in total protein content. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in both creatinine (45.33%) and blood urea (109.17%), whereas serum T3 and T4 recorded significant decrease with a percentage change of -57.32% and -42.44%, respectively. A marked significant reduction (P<0.05) in monoamine contents (DA and NE) in total brain was observed after the ingestion of PhIP recording -13.23% and -13.47%, respectively, as percentage change from control. The daily oral administration of thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) in dose of 500 mg/kg alone, before or after PhIP administration caused a decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels and increase in total protein in serum and also cause decrease in serum creatinine and urea. Non-significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in rats received the herbal extract. On the other hand, the herbal extract improved T3 and T4 levels before and after PhIP treatment bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, rats that received pre and post treatment with thyme, marjoram and their mixture (W/W) after being treated with PhIP showed high significant reduction in the elevated levels of DA and NE produced by PhIP treatment. From the current investigation, it could be concluded that the watery extract polyphenol flavonoids of thyme and marjoram has the protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity produced by heterocyclic

  6. de Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Les huiles essentielles sont conservées à 4°C et à l'abri de la lumière. 2-3. Analyse physicochimique de l'huile essentielle du. Thymus fontanesii. Ces analyses sont faites en conformité aux normes A.F.N.O.R [4] Nous avons déterminé les: Caractères physiques : densité, indice de réfraction, pouvoir rotatoire, solubilité dans.

  7. Ultrastructure of the cortical epithelium of the rat thymus after in vivo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, E.J. de (National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Rademakers, L.H.P.M. (Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Schuurman, H.J. (National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands) Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands) Dept. of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Loveren, H. van (National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Vos, J.G. (National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    The present study was conducted to provide ultrastructural evidence for the cortical epithelium to be a target for TCDD in vivo. Juvenile male Wistar rats were orally intubated once with either 50 or 150 [mu]g/kg TCDD and killed 4 or 10 days thereafter. Major changes were found in the cortical thymic epithelium. First, a relative shift occurred from 'pale' to darker cortical epithelial cell types, as judged by their nuclear and cytoplasmic electron density. This effect was most prominent at 10 days after exposure to 150 [mu]g/kg TCDD. The increased electron density of the cortical epithelium indicates an altered state of cellular differentiation. Secondly, at the 150 [mu]g/kg dose level focal epithelial cell aggregated were seen both at day 4 and day 10 after administration. This aggregation may either be compound induced or represent a secondary event to the collapse of the thymic stroma. Thirdly, increased vacuolation of cortical epithelial cells was apparent. This effect is interpreted as a consequence rather than a cause of thymocyte depletion from the cortex. (orig./MG)

  8. Isolation of thymus gland fractions and the determination of their biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILENA RADETA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A calf thymus extract was prepared and fractionated into lipid and non-lipid fractions. The non-lipid fraction was isolated from the calf thymus extract using the Folch method. The components isolated from the non-lipid fraction were characterized by IR, NMR, biuret and HPLC method. The results of the analyses indicated the presence of peptides. The lipid fraction contained phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. The biological activity of both the isolated lipid and peptide fractions was determined by the in vivo hemolytic plaques method in Wistar rats with an involuted thymus. The peptide and phospholipid fractions of the thymus extract showed a significant increase of hemolytic plaques. The glycolipid and neutral lipid fraction failed to express a significant immunological response.

  9. Regenerating computer model of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    This computer model simulates the cell population kinetics of the development and later degeneration of the thymus. Nutritional factors are taken into account by the growth of blood vessels in the simulated thymus. The stem cell population is kept at its maximum by allowing some stem cells to divide into two stem cells until the population reaches its maximum, thus regenerating the thymus after an insult such as irradiation. After a given number of population doublings the maximum allowed stem cell population is gradually decreased in order to simulate the degeneration of the thymus. Results show that the simulated thymus develops and degenerates in a pattern similar to that of the natural thymus. This simulation is used to evaluate cellular kinetic data for the the thymus. The results from testing the internal consistency of available data are reported. The number of generations which most represents the natural thymus includes seven dividing generations of lymphocytes and one mature, nondividing generation of small lymphocytes. The size of the resulting developed thymus can be controlled without affecting other variables by changing the maximum stem cell population allowed. In addition, recovery from irradiation is simulated

  10. CT findings of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1987-01-01

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  11. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  12. Ação da melatonina sobre a dinâmica sanguínea de ratas prenhes e sobre a histogênese do baço e do timo da prole The action of melatonin on the blood dynamics of pregnant rats and on the histogenesis of the spleen and thymus of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C. Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a influência da melatonina sobre o hemograma de ratas prenhes e dos filhotes e sobre a histogênese e morfometria do baço e do timo dos filhotes. A melatonina foi administrada na dose 0,5mg/kg de peso corporal, dissolvida em 0,1mL de etanol e diluída em 0,3mL de solução salina. Para análise do hematócrito, contagem total de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial dos leucócitos, amostras de sangue foram coletadas no sétimo, 14ºe 21ºdias de prenhez e aos 10 dias de nascimento dos filhotes. Cortes histológicos do baço e do timo da prole foram utilizados para histoquímica e morfometria. A ausência da melatonina promoveu alterações no hemograma apenas no terço final da gestação, sem interferir no hemograma dos filhotes, e induziu modificações morfológicas e morfométricas no timo e no baço nos primeiros dias de vida dos filhotes. Concluiu-se que a melatonina materna é importante para a modulação do hemograma em ratas prenhes e para o desenvolvimento normal do baço e do timo dos filhotes.We investigated the influence of melatonin on the hemogram of pregnant rats and puppies, and on the histogenesis and morphology of the spleen and thymus of puppies. Melatonin was administered at a dose 0.5mg/kgbody weight, dissolved in 0.1mL of ethanol and diluted in 0.3mL of saline. For hematocrit analysis, total erythrocyte count and total and differential leukocyte count, blood samples were collected on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy and the offspring at 10 days of birth. Histological sections of spleen and thymus of the offspring were used for histochemistry and morphometry. The absence of melatonin promoted changes in blood count only in the final third of gestation, without interfering with the hemogram of the puppies, and induced morphological and morphometric changes in the thymus and spleen in the first days of life of the puppies. It was concluded that maternal melatonin is important for the modulation of

  13. Resistance exercise recovers the structure of cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint of rats after sciatic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizyana Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim to determine the effects of sciatic compression and treatment with resistance exercise on the morphology of the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Methods 32 male rats, aged 10 ± 1 week, weighing 376±22 grams were divided into the following four groups (n=8/group: CG (control, LG (lesion, EG (exercise and LEG (lesion and exercise. Three days after sciatic compression, the animals in the EG and LEG were submitted to resistance exercise by climbing stairs (five days/week for three weeks and a load of 100 grams was added. The exercise was carried out in two sets of ten consecutive ascents of the steps. The ankle joint tissues were analyzed for their morphometry and morphology using light microscopy. Results Regarding the number of chondrocytes, the LG and EG had more cells in the anterior articular cartilage in the tibia (62 and 43% and in the talus (57 and 45% when compared to the CG. In the LEG there was a 25% and 26% reduction of chondrocytes in the anterior cartilage in the tibia and talus when compared to the LG. Changes were observed in the tibia and talus in the LG, with the presence of flocculation, invagination of the subchondral bone, discontinuity of tidemark and pannus covering the subchondral bone in the talus, as well as changes in the synovial membrane. These alterations were minimized in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane in the LEG. Conclusions exercise restores the tissue morphology of ankle joint in Wistar rats after sciatic compression.

  14. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of chromatin and its fragments formed in the rat thymus during postirradiation autolysis and under the influence of DNA-ase and protease on DNP preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaeva, N.V.; Vodolazskaya, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    It has been shown that the thymus chromatin degradation 2-8 hr after irradiation is followed by its cross-splitting and accumulation of several types of fragments differing in the degree of DNA association with the protein. Participation of proteases in the formation of fragments is hardly probable. Acid DNAase is involved in the autolysis perhaps in his maximum later 6 hr after irradiation

  16. On the effect of small radiation doses: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and DNA repair of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow cells in the rat after fractionated total body X-ray irradiation. Zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen: Desoxyribonukleinsaeure-(DNA-)Synthese und DNA-Reparatur von Thymus-, Milz- und Knochenmarkszellen der Ratte nach fraktionierter Ganzkoerperroentgenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Ehling, G. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie)

    1989-09-01

    After three to seven days following to fractionated total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) (four expositions with doses of 0.3 to 5.0 cGy per fraction at intervals of 24 hours), a maximum 50 percent stimulation of the semiconservative DNA synthesis (SDS) of spleen cells was measured in vitro. This was not dependent of the fact if an acute high-dose (400 and/or 800 cGy) unique irradiation was applied after the fractionated TBI at the moment of stimulation. A significant increase of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of bone marrow and thymus cells was only found when doses of 1.25 cGy per fraction had been used. After fractionated TBI with doses of {ge}5 cGy per fraction, an increase of DNA synthesis resistant to hydroxyurea ('unprogrammed' DNA synthesis, UDS) was demonstrated in spleen cells. The UV-simulated UDS decreased proportionately. The sedimentation of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow nucleoids in a neutral saccharose gradient gave no evidence of an increased DNA repair capacity after fractionated TBI. Whereas the SDS stimulation by fractionated TBI with small doses can be explained by a modified proliferation behavior of exposed cells, the UDS behavior of spleen cells after considerably higher radiation doses suggests regenerative processes correlated with an increased number of cells resistant to hydroxyurea and cells presenting an UV repair deficiency. These findings can be considered to be a further proof of the assumed immune-stimulating effect of small radiation doses. (orig.).

  17. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  18. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  19. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Guk Hee [Insung Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness.

  20. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness

  1. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  2. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  3. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...

  4. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Tanaka, Makoto; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1982-01-01

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients. (J.P.N.)

  5. Gigantic enlargement of the thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regal, Mohamed A.

    2007-01-01

    True massive thymic hyperplasia is a very rare entity, characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the thymus gland without an apparent cause. Surgery has been required in patients with severe respiratory distress. We present an idiopathic true massive thymic hyperplasia in a 5-month-old boy. (author)

  6. Effect of a probiotic fermented milk on the thymus in Balb/c mice under non-severe protein-energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ivanna Novotny; Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2013-08-28

    Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) causes a significant impairment of the immune system, the thymus being one of the most affected organs. It has been demonstrated that the administration of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) recovered the intestinal barrier, histological alterations and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a non-severe malnutrition model using BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in the same model of malnutrition, the effect of a PFM added to a re-nutrition diet on the recovery of the thymus, analysing histological and functional alterations caused by malnutrition. Mice were undernourished and divided into three groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition: milk, PFM or its bacterial-free supernatant (BFS). They were compared with well-nourished and malnourished mice. PFM was the most effective re-nutrition supplement to improve the histology of the thymus, decreasing cellular apoptosis in this organ and recovering the percentage of CD4þ/CD82 single-positive thymocytes. Immature doublepositive thymocytes were increased in the malnourished control (MC). The production of different cytokines in the thymus was increased in mice given PFM, compared with the mice that received other dietary supplements and MC. Mice given the BFS presented an improvement in the thymus similar to those that received milk. We demonstrated the importance of the whole PFM supplementation on the histological and functional recovery of the thymus in a non-severe PEM model.

  7. Low dose X-irradiation of thymus filler cells in limiting dilution cultures of LPS-reactive B cells reduces the background Ig-secreting cells without affecting growth-supporting capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijkaas, H.; Preesman, A.A.; Benner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reactive B cells in the mouse can be determined in the limiting dilution culture system developed by Andersson et al. (1976, 1977) which is completely dependent upon the presence of thymus filler cells, usually of rat origin. The assessment of B cell clones of mouse origin, however, can be hampered by the occurrence of varying numbers of thymus-derived immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells. The number of these background Ig-secreting cells can be significantly reduced by low dose (110 mgray = 11 rad) X-irradiation of the rat thymus filler cells, without affecting their growth-supporting capacity. (Auth.)

  8. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in rat organs and tissues under artificial hypobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, G E; Logvinovich, O S; Fialkovskaya, L A; Afanasyev, V N; Ignat'ev, D A; Kolomiytseva, I K

    2010-09-01

    The influence of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) activities in rat organs and tissues and also on the thymocyte distribution throughout the cell cycle stages was studied. The state of artificial hypobiosis in rats on decrease in the body temperature to 14.4-18.0°C during 3.0-3.5 h was accompanied by drops in the ODC activities in the neocortex and liver by 50-60% and in rapidly proliferating tissues (thymus, spleen, and small intestine mucosa) by 80% of the control value. In kidneys the ODC activity raised to 200% of the control level. Twenty-four hours after termination of the cooling and replacing the rats under the standard conditions, the ODC activities in the neocortex, liver, kidneys, spleen, and intestinal mucosa returned to the control values, but remained decreased in the thymus. Forty-eight hours later the ODC activities in the thymus and spleen exceeded the normal level. The distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages did not change in rats in the state of hypothermia (hypobiosis); 24 and 48 h after termination of the cooling the fraction of thymocytes in the S stage was decreased and the fraction of the cells in the G(0)+G(1) stage was increased. The normal distribution of thymocytes throughout the cell cycle stages recovered in 72 h. Thus, in the thymus the diminution of the ODC activity preceded the suppression of the cell proliferation rate. The tissue-specific changes in the ODC activity are suggested to reflect adaptive changes in the functional and proliferative activities of organs and tissues during the development of hypobiosis under conditions of hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia.

  9. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of `reticular pattern`, many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of `reticular pattern` on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author).

  10. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of 'reticular pattern', many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of 'reticular pattern' on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author)

  11. Thymus species in Ethiopia: Distribution, medicinal value, economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant specimens from these localities were authenticated by experts in the National Herbarium of Addis Ababa University as Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi. The plants were rated by local informants as treatments for ailments like blood pressure (30.7%), general pain syndrome (10%), influenza (10%), ...

  12. Thymus transplantation for complete DiGeorge syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, E Graham; Cheung, Melissa; Gilmour, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a ...

  13. Thymus: The site for Development of Cellular Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The immune system protects our bodies against infectionsand cancers. This review introduce readers to the thymus. – a primary lymphoid organ – which is the site of developmentand maturation of functional T lymphocytes. Progenitorstem cells arise from the bone marrow and undergo sequentialdevelopment in the thymus ...

  14. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.) [de

  15. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia, E-mail: natalias@hadassah.org.il [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel); Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-11-15

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14-78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  16. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14–78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  17. Alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos submetidos a manipulação tímica com células não-parenquimatosas Allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver after allogenic nonparenchymal cells injection in the thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Chaib

    2006-12-01

    éticos, antes do alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado, ao contrário de inibir a reação do receptor contra o enxerto, prolongando a sobrevida média das ilhotas e, possivelmente, levando ao estado de tolerância imunológica, induziu ao processo de rejeição aguda precoce.BACKGROUD: The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control AIM: We studied allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver, Wistar (RT1u to Lewis (RT1¹ as a recipient. Control group (n = 8 and nonparenchymal cell group (n = 8 respectively with injection of Hanks solution and nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before islet transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With the method of isolation and purification of the islets we obtained both in the control group 3.637 ± 783,3 islets with purity of 85 ± 3,52% and nonparenchymal cell group 3.270 ± 770 islets with purity of 84,25 ± 2,76%. The nonparenchymal cells were retrieved from the liver and we obtained 2 x 106 cells. Diabetes was induced by i.v. streptozotocin RESULTS: Control group the transplantation of 3.637 ± 783,3 islets in the rat liver normalized glucose test, 7,21 ± 0,57 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. Acute rejection came in the 6th postoperative day with significantly increase of glucose test in nonparenchymal cell group, the transplantation of 3.270 ± 770 islets in the rat liver, almost normalized the glucose test was 17,95 ± 5,33 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. From the 4th postoperative day to 10th postoperative day. The glucose test increase significantly showing an early acute rejection CONCLUSION: The injection of nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before allogenic islet transplantation in the rat liver lead to an early acute rejection.

  18. Kinetic analysis of thymocyte attachment to thymus stromal cells in culture by using phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRochelle, G.G.; Jones, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Direct cellular contact between thymocytes and thymus stromal cells within the thymus appears to contribute to the maturation of thymocytes. Thymocyte-stromal cell complexes, formed in vivo, have been isolated by others and postulated to play a role in T-cell differentiation. These previous studies have been hampered, however, by a time-consuming isolation procedure from which only small numbers of these complexes are recovered. We have examined a model to study thymocyte-stromal cell complexes in vitro in which thymocytes are added to primary cultures of thymus stromal cells. In the present study, we found that thymocytes were histotypically selective in their attachment to thymus stromal cells. We also investigated the kinetics of thymocyte attachment to these thymus stromal cells. Cultures were examined at selected time intervals from 5 min through 3 days of incubation. Thymocyte attachment to stromal cells was a biphasic interaction, with maximum surface attachment at 15 min of cocultivation, followed by migration of thymocytes into the cultures. Morphological studies were confirmed by using 3 H-leucine-labeled thymocytes and liquid scintigraphy. With increased time in culture, thymocytes became amoeboid and migrated between the layers of stromal cells where thymocyte mitotic figures were seen at 4 and 8 hr. In some cases it appeared that stromal cells, which often grew two to three cell layers deep, played an active role in enclosing thymocytes within the cultures. Large numbers of viable thymocytes were observed in the cultures at 24 hr. The number of thymocytes then decreased progressively on days 2 and 3, when relatively few were found within the layers of the culture

  19. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  20. Neuro-immune modulation of the thymus microenvironment (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Mattioli, Laura; Cosenza, Monica; Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    The thymus is the primary site for T-cell lympho-poiesis. Its function includes the maturation and selection of antigen specific T cells and selective release of these cells to the periphery. These highly complex processes require precise parenchymal organization and compartmentation where a plethora of signalling pathways occur, performing strict control on the maturation and selection processes of T lymphocytes. In this review, the main morphological characteristics of the thymus microenvironment, with particular emphasis on nerve fibers and neuropeptides were assessed, as both are responsible for neuro-immune‑modulation functions. Among several neurotransmitters that affect thymus function, we highlight the dopaminergic system as only recently has its importance on thymus function and lymphocyte physiology come to light.

  1. 81-92, 2015 81 Thymus species in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1: Data/Sample Collection Sites of Thymus species for the present study ..... ly reduced level of Systolic Atrial Pressure (SAP) and ... T. schimperi is a big challenge owing to their suitabil- .... of Local Hybrid Maize Seed Production and.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of normal thymus in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, L.; Marconi, V.; Remy, J.; Avni, F.

    1987-05-01

    Sonography has been used to evaluate 50 'asymptomatic' infants (aged from birth up to two years) with typical appearing thymus on chest X-ray. The ultrasonic features of the normal gland are described. Moreover, the contribution of ultrasound is illustrated by five cases of partially ectopic thymus and by one case of prominent gland in a teenager. Ultrasound may help in differentiating normal gland from mediastinal masses by defining echogenicity, location and extension.

  3. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. (author)

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  5. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  6. The entry of the prothymocyte into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, A.H.; Visser, J.W.M.; Zoetelief, J.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1988-01-01

    The time of entry of prothymocytes into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was determined by exposing the thymus only or the whole body with the thymus shielded to a second irradiation after different intervals. The repopulation of the thymus by donor type cells was determined by a thymus repopulation assay using donor specific markers. Reirradiation of the thymus kills the prothymocytes that have entered the thymus during the interval. It was found that reirradiation of the thymus from 48 hours after BMT onwards increasingly delayed thymus regeneration. This shows that donor prothymocytes do not enter the thymus until about 2 days after BMT and that they continue to do so during at least 3 subsequent days. In the second reirradiation protocol thymus regeneration occurred earlier in the shielded thymus than in thymuses of whole body irradiated mice. Earlier thymus regeneration was not seen in mice that were reirradiated at 24 hours after BMT, but occurred only when irradiation took place at 48 hours and later. These data are consistent with those obtained in the first protocol. The results are in contradiction with results of direct homing experiments, which showed entrance of donor cells within 3 hours after BMT. A functional assay demonstrated that the early appearing cells cannot be prothymocytes. In retransplantation experiments it was shown that the bone marrow may indeed be the initial homing site of prothymocytes. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  7. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of 32 P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca 2+ - and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation

  8. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  9. Sequential appearance of thymocyte subpopulations and T cell antigen receptor gene messages in the mouse thymus after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomooka, S.; Matsuzaki, G.; Kishihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Yoshikai, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Himeno, K.; Nomoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    The sequential differentiation patterns of thymocyte were observed with cell surface phenotypes and the expression of T cell antigen receptor in 800 rad irradiated adult mice. Thymus was severely reduced in size and cell number by day 5 after whole body irradiation and rapidly recovered from day 7 to day 14. Surface marker analysis on day 5 after irradiation showed thymocytes with Thy-1low L3T4+/Lyt-2- dominantly existed and suggested that these cells were radioresistant-survived cells. On the other hand, thymocytes on day 7 were composed of a large number of Thy-1high L3T4+/Lyt-2+ blast-like cells and a relatively high proportion of Thy-1high L3T4-/Lyt-2- cells which expressed a large amount of gamma-chain gene messages but scarcely any alpha- and beta-chain gene messages similar to the fetal thymocytes. On day 14, thymocytes were composed mostly of Thy-1high H-2low L3T4+/Lyt-2+ subpopulation which expressed a remarkably low level of gamma-chain gene messages, and high levels of alpha- and beta-chain transcripts analogous to those of normal adult thymus. Taken together, intrathymic radioresistent stem cells for T thymocytes seem to proliferate and differentiate after irradiation with the same pattern as was seen in a fetal thymus development

  10. A Case of Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation with a Rapidly Lethal Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy for carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE. The patient was referred to our hospital after the tumor was found to have directly invaded the cervical esophagus and the entire circumference of the trachea. A total thyroidectomy was performed, followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea, suprahyoid release and dissection of bilateral pulmonary ligaments. No major complications, including anastomotic dehiscence or stenosis, were observed. The patient experienced some swallowing disturbances and hoarseness during the perioperative period but fully recovered. Radiotherapy to the neck was performed as an adjuvant therapy. Eleven months after surgery, lower back pain and right leg numbness developed and led to gait inability. Multiple lung and bone recurrences were observed, but no local recurrence. Palliative radiotherapy to the bone metastasis was performed. The patient died of pleural metastasis 14 months after the initial diagnosis of CASTLE.

  11. Lung development and postnatal survival for rats exposed in utero to a high-boiling coal liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Miller, R.A.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The study reported determines postnatal viability and development of survivors following in utero exposure to Harmarville process solvent (HPS), a wide-boiling-range (150 to > 455/sup 0/C) coal liquid. For this study, 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ of the coal liquid was administered (by intragastric intubation) to rats from 12 to 14 dg. Offspring were evaluated for postnatal survival, growth and lung and thymus weights. Fifty-four percent of the exposed pups and 9% of the control pups died between birth and 3 days postpartum. Of the treated pups that died, 10% (6/5; pups/litters) had cleft palate, 27% (17/9) had small lungs and 33% (21/8) had both cleft palate and small lungs. No gross malformations were observed in the remaining 30% of the dead pups. Microscopic examination of lungs from HPS-treated pups revealed no evident histological abnormalities. Body, lung and thymus weights for treated animals that died were significantly less than those of controls. Surviving exposed pups weighed significantly less than control pups from 0.25 to 21 days postpartum and their thymus weights were also depressed through 21 days postpartum. These data suggest that retarded lung growth during prenatal life as a result of in utero exposure to the coal liquid contributes to a significant portion of the observed neonatal mortality. Furthermore, lung weights of survivors, although significantly lower than control values through 7 days postpartum, appeared to have recovered by 21 days postpartum.

  12. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  13. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial...... in Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated...... thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors...

  14. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  15. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garly, May-Lill; Trautner, Sisse Lecanda; Marx, Charlotte; Danebod, Kamilla; Nielsen, Jens; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, Cesário Lourenco; Balé, Carlito; Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida Maria

    2008-11-01

    To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in Guinea-Bissau. Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or were vaccinated with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors predisposing to small thymus size.

  16. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Uranium oxide recovering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Teramae, Naoki; Onoue, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates containing uranium nitrate are charged in a molten salt electrolytic vessel, and a heat treatment is applied to prepare molten salts. An anode and a cathode each made of a graphite rod are disposed in the molten salts. AC voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode to conduct electrolysis of the molten salts. Uranium oxides are deposited as a recovered product of uranium, on the surface of the anode. The nitrates containing uranium nitrate are preferably a mixture of one or more nitrates selected from sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate with uranium nitrate. The nitrates may be liquid wastes of nitrates. The temperature for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably from 150 to 300degC. The voltage for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably an AC voltage of from 2 to 6V, more preferably from 4 to 6V. (I.N.)

  18. Process for recovering uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  19. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  20. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  1. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...

  2. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  3. Dark reticular cells in the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaerplid, B [Foersvarets Forskningsanstalt, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1974-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of dark reticular cells in the thymus of normal mice, of irradiated mice, and of mice with thymic lymphoma are described. It is concluded that dark cells are epithelial reticular cells and the hypothesis is suggested that dark and light epithelial reticular cells may be different modes of expression of the same cell type. (auth)

  4. Updates in MRI characterization of the thymus in myasthenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, G A; Preda, E M; Scheau, C; Vilciu, C; Lupescu, I G

    2012-06-12

    To evaluate the imaging appearance of the thymus in the myasthenic patients by using chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging, and, to correlate the chemical shift ratio (CSR) with pathologic findings after surgical excision. In the past year, a total of 11 myasthenic patients (4 males, 7 females; age range of 26-65 years), have been investigated by MRI centered at the thymic lodge. Our protocol included a Dual-Echo technique, T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase MR images in all patients. A chemical shift ratio (CSR) was calculated by comparing the signal intensity of the thymus gland with that of the chest wall muscle for quantitative analysis. For this purpose, we have used standard region-of-interest electronic cursors at a slice level of the maximum axial surface of the thymus. We have identified two patients groups: a thymic hyperplasia group and a thymic tumoral group. With the decrease in the signal intensity of the thymus gland at chemical shift, the MR imaging was evident only in the hyperplasia group. The mean CSR in the hyperplasia group was considerably lower than that in the tumor group, 0,4964 ± 0,1841, compared with 1,0398 ± 0,0244. The difference in CSR between the hyperplasia and tumor groups was statistically significant (P=0,0028). MR imaging using T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase images could be a useful diagnostic tool in the preoperative assessment of the thymic lodge and may help differentiate thymic hyperplasia from tumors of the thymus gland.

  5. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glathe, S.; Neufang, K.F.R.; Haupt, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.) [de

  6. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  7. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Rabiei; Shiva; Mokhtari; Samira; Asgharzade; Mostafa; Gholami; Samira; Rahnama; Mahmoud; Rafieian-kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm.Methods: A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow:control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine + T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine and T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups:received T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days.Results: Administration of T. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test.Conclusions: T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  9. Gap junction modulation by extracellular signaling molecules: the thymus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC can be modulated by several extracellular soluble factors such as classical hormones, neurotransmitters, interleukins, growth factors and some paracrine substances. Herein, we discuss some aspects of the general modulation of GJIC by extracellular messenger molecules and more particularly the regulation of such communication in the thymus gland. Additionally, we discuss recent data concerning the study of different neuropeptides and hormones in the modulation of GJIC in thymic epithelial cells. We also suggest that the thymus may be viewed as a model to study the modulation of gap junction communication by different extracellular messengers involved in non-classical circuits, since this organ is under bidirectional neuroimmunoendocrine control.

  10. Quantitative analysis of thymus lymphoid cells during murine radioleukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniver, J.; Simar, L.J.; Courtoy, R.; Betz, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation by four doses of 150 R leads to the development of lymphoma in the thymus of C57BL mice, after a long latent period (4 to 12 months) during which thymic subcapsular blast cells undergo neoplastic transformation. Electron microscope studies on this blast cell population have revealed several types that are distinguishable on the basis of nuclear ultrastructure and activity in the cell cycle. These blast cells are lymphoblasts, ring-shaped nucleolus cells, and x-cells. A stereological analysis demonstrates that the result of the irradiations is not an increase of the thymic blast cell number during the preleukemic period, as generally thought before, but important modifications in the relative proportion of the three cell types forming the blastic population. X-cells, which essentially appear in S phase, are more numerous after the third and fourth doses of radiation. They might be more ''sensitive'' to the action of the leukemogenic virus and facilitate the leukemogenic process. In contrast, in the preleukemic atrophic thymus just before the appearance of the lymphoma, x-cells are scarce, and ring-shaped nucleolus cells are more frequent than in the controls, suggesting important changes in thymus cell kinetics. The only modification detected in the blast cells at any time after irradiation concerns the surface of Golgi membranes, which decreases in x-cells and ring-shaped nucleolus cells of the atrophic thymus. Because the same change is observed later on in the lymphomatous cells, it is suggested that the change might be related to the transformation of the thymic blast cells into cancerous cells

  11. Prognosis of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Chanchan; Li, Tao; Li, Chengyan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the post-thymectomy prognosis in different conditions of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with thymus hyperplasia. Collecting medical record and carrying out the follow-up study of 123 myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who have underwent thymectomy during the period between 2003 and 2013. Dividing into different groups based on gender, age of onset, duration of disease and Myasthenia Gravis Association of America (MGFA) clinical classification to analyze different prognosis in different groups. Complete stable remission (CSR) was achieved in 71 of 123 patients (59.5%). There is no gender-related difference in achieving CSR. Patients with early onset of MG (≤40 years old) or disease duration less than 12 months had significantly higher CSR rates than those with late onset of MG (>40 years old) or disease duration more than 12 months respectively, while no difference was found in remission rate between MGFA clinical classification I and MGFA II. Myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who had thymectomy are proved to possess greater chance of achieving CSR. The onset age of disease and duration are the prognostic factors.

  12. Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus were studied in three sets of experiments. When TXB mice were grafted with 1-week-old thymus which had been previously irradiated at various doses, an exponential decrease was observed in the morphological regeneration of the thymus grafts and in their T-cell-inducing function at doses of 600 R and over, showing about 10% that of the control at 1500 R. When in situ thymus of adult mice was locally irradiated, the radiation effect on T-cell-inducing function was less pronounced as compared with the first experiment; i.e., about 40% of the control at 1797 R. When in situ thymus of 1-day-old newborn mice was locally irradiated, regeneration potential of 1-day-old newborn thymus was highly resistant to radiation exposure and no effect on immunological functions was observed even by local irradiation of 2000 R

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PIGMENTS ON REGENERANTS FROM IN VITRO AND SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF THYMUS sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. ROŞU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quantitative determination of pigments extract of Thymus sp. from in vitro culture and spontaneous flora. For in vitro culture were used phytohormones (indoleacetic acid-IAA, indole-3-butyric acid-IBA and benzylaminopurine-BAP in order to obtain a high yield in development of Thymus sp. plants. The source of spontaneous flora of Thymus sp. was Bacau (Magura, Romania. The biochemical investigations realised on Thymus sp. using Thin Layer Chromatography and the UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed that the production of assimilating pigments is influenced by growth and lighting conditions of plants.

  14. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus. Normal and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-09-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus.

  15. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyan; Qi Yali; Gong Shouliang; Song Xiangfu; Liu Liping; Chen Yubing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the migration,colonization and repairing effects of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice. Methods: MSCs of C57BL/6 mice were isolated, purified and cultivated in vitro. Their migration and colorization were observed with laser confocal microscopy 1, 5 and 10 d after DAPI labeled. MSCs were injected into the thymus tissue of mice through tail vein. The model of thymus tissue injury induced by whole-body X-irradiation was established. The mice were divided into four groups: normal, irradiation, irradiation+saline, and irradiation+MSCs groups. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the repairing effect of MSCs on thymus tissue injury was observed by histological method 3 months later. Results: The occurrence of MSCs in the thymus was observed 1 d after MSCs injection, the diffusion of MSCs in the thymus appeared 5 d later, and widely dispersed 10 d later. The apoptotic rate of thymocytes in irradiation group was higher than that in normal (P<0.05) and was lower than that in MSCs group (P<0.05). The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were clear in mice in normal group, there were a large number of lymphocytes in the cortex and small number of lymphocytes in the medulla. The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were unclear in mice in both irradiation, irradiation and saline groups. The lymphocytes in thymus showed extensive coagulation necrosis. There were remnants or newborn lymphoid tissue in the cortex and medulla in mice in irradiation+MSCs groups. Conclusion: MSCs can be rapidly enriched in thymus tissue and promote regeneration and repair of damaged thymus. (authors)

  16. Effect Of Small Doses On THE Thymus In Pediatric Chest X - Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Anzic, S. A.; Zagar, I.

    2015-01-01

    The thymus, pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ is immediately beneath the breastbone at the level of the heart, therefore chest X-ray covers the position of thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobes, lying on either side of the midline of the body. Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. It has big responsibility helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity diseases. It is well known from literature data that thymus size reduced at radiotherapy irradiation. After many years of experience in X-ray chest diagnostics with children a fairly regular thymus size reduction after exposure to diagnostic low doses was noticed. Therefore it was analysed at what percentage of children patients their control radiograms would exhibit a thymus shade decrease compared to the primary image taken at the illness out-set. In the Children Hospital Srebrnjak in one year 1972 children in the age group 0 - 5 years underwent X-ray exam. In our earlier study at PA and profile projections of lung examinations of this age group 0.15 mSv and 0.11 mSv average doses were measured on the back and on the chest, respectively. From this group the radiograms of those 119 children were analysed who were exposed, according to medical indication, to control examinations. 58 of the investigated patients showed enlarged thymus at the first exam. It could be seen from the control radiogram that 52 children of these 58 patients had significant or discrete decrease in size of thymus. Taking into account that thymus has very important role in maturity of T-lymphocytes and development of immunology tolerance these empiric statements are important for radiation protection of children in X-ray diagnostic of chest. (author).

  17. Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction During Late Pregnancy on the Development of the Ovine Fetal Thymus and the T-Lymphocyte Subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingchun; He, Shan; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhang, Chongzhi; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-01

    The retarded development of fetal thymus in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy destroys the tridimensional structure and modifies the development of fetal T lymphocytes. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IUGR during late pregnancy on the development of the ovine fetal thymus and the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. Eighteen time-mated ewes with singleton fetuses were allocated to three groups at day 90 of pregnancy: restricted group 1 (RG1, 0.18 MJ ME/BW(0.75) /day, n = 6), restricted group 2 (RG2, 0.33 MJ ME/BW(0.75) /day, n = 6) and a control group (CG, ad libitum, 0.67 MJ ME/BW(0.75) /day, n = 6). Fetuses were recovered at slaughter on day 140. Fetuses in RG1 exhibited decreased (P restricted groups. In addition, there was reduced mRNA expression (P < 0.05) of T-cell receptor, apoptosis antigen 1 ligand, and RAG2 in the RG1 group. In contrast, increases in glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, caspase-3, Cytochrome c, and CD4(+) T cells were observed (P < 0.05), and higher mRNA expressions (P < 0.05) of protein 53, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and apoptosis antigen 1 (Fas) were found in RG1 fetuses; and thymuses of RG2 fetuses had increased caspase-3, and expression of Fas and Bax (P < 0.05), relative to control fetuses. These results indicate that reduced cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and increased cell apoptosis were the potential mechanisms for impaired development and microenvironment of IUGR fetal thymus, and for modifying the maturation of CD4(+) CD8(+) thymocytes underlying their reduced numbers . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  19. T cell dysfunction in the diabetes-prone BB rat. A role for thymic migrants that are not T cell precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Lagarde, A.C.; Bellgrau, D.

    1988-01-01

    Diabetes-prone BB (BB-DP) rats express several T cell dysfunctions which include poor proliferative and cytotoxic responses to alloantigen. The goal of this study was to determine the origin of these T cell dysfunctions. When BB-DP rats were thymectomized, T cell depleted, and transplanted with neonatal thymus tissue from diabetes-resistant and otherwise normal DA/BB F1 rats, the early restoration of T cell function proceeded normally on a cell-for-cell basis; i.e., peripheral T cells functioned like those from the thymus donor. Because the thymus in these experiments was subjected to gamma irradiation before transplantation and there was no evidence of F1 chimerism in the transplanted BB-DP rats, it appeared that the BB-DP T cell precursors could mature into normally functioning T cells if the maturation process occurred in a normal thymus. If the F1 thymus tissue was treated with dGua before transplantation, the T cells of these animals functioned poorly like those from untreated BB-DP rats. dGua poisons bone marrow-derived cells, including gamma radiation-resistant cells of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineages, while sparing the thymic epithelium. Therefore, the reversal of the T cell dysfunction depends on the presence in the F1 thymus of gamma radiation-resistant, dGua-sensitive F1 cells. Conversely, thymectomized and T cell-depleted F1 rats expressed T cell dysfunction when transplanted with gamma-irradiated BB thymus grafts. T cell responses were normal in animals transplanted with dGua-treated BB thymus grafts. With increasing time after thymus transplantation, T cells from all animals gradually expressed the functional phenotype of the bone marrow donor. Taken together these results suggest that BB-DP bone marrow-derived cells that are not T cell precursors influence the maturation environment in the thymus of otherwise normal BB-DP T cell precursors

  20. Ultrastructural apoptotic lesions induced in rat thymocytes after borax ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, I C; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Several chemical compounds induce apoptotic lesions in the thymus. Male Wistar rats received 2000 ppm of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in their food for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 2, 5, 9, 12, 19, 21, 26 and 28 days after the beginning of treatment. Thymus samples of all rats were taken. A Philips EM 300 electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural morphology. Serious nuclear and cytoplasmic lesions were observed. Moreover, numerous macrophages containing apoptotic cells were present in the thymus. The alterations were observed from the 2nd to the 28th day. The extent of damage was much more important in the rats sacrificed 21, 26 and 28 days after borax ingestion.

  1. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  2. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  3. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.N.; Bel'chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  4. The absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of Di-n-Octylten dichloride in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninks, A.H.; Hilgers, Luuk; Seinen, Willem

    1987-01-01

    In this study the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of 14 C-labeled di-n-octyltin dichloride ([ 14 C] DOTC) in rats were investigated after oral and intravenous (i.v.) administration with 6.3 mg [ 14 C] DOTC/Kg body weight, the relative tissue accumulation was found to be the same after oral and i.v. dosage. The highest amount of radioactivity was found in liver and kidney, and to a lesser degree in adrenal, pituitary and thyroid glands. The lowest activity was recovered from blood and brain. No selective accumulation was observed in thymus, although it has been reported that thymus atrophy is the most sensitive parameter of DOTC toxicity in rats. For all tissues a time dependent decrease in radioactivity was found, except for kidney. The excretion of radioactivity in feces and urine was determined after a single i.v. or oral dose of l.2 and 2 mg [ 14 C] DOTC, respectively. After i.v. administration most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces which was characterized by a biphasic excretion pattern. In orally treated rats more than 80% of the radioactivity was already excreted in the feces during the first day after administration. This indicated that only a small part of the DOTC was absorbed, which was calculated to be approximately 20% of the dose. Similar half-life values of 8.3 and 8.9 days were obtained from the fecal excretion of radioactivity after the i.v. and oral administration, respectively. The urinary excretion of radioactivity appeared to be independent of the body burden, since the daily amount of radioactivity excreted in urine was nearly the same independent of the route of administration as well as the time after administration. 26 refs. (author)

  5. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  6. Process of recovering bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A modification of the process covered by German Patent 389,393 for recovering bituminous materials from oil shale by extraction is disclosed consisting, in place of or besides wood spirit oil, of acetone oil, suitably of boiling point 80 to 130/sup 0/C, being used as the extraction medium.

  7. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... from immunized thymus grafted animals provided only limited protective effect, and treatment with cells from athymic animals had no effect. The study shows that although isogeneic thymus-grafted nude rats become resistent to reinfection with S. typhimurium, only large doses of spleen cells from...

  8. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  9. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

    1989-08-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author).

  10. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki; Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author)

  11. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2

    2004-01-01

    metabolism through regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG production, the estrogen is involved in the processes of thymocyte development although aromatase mRNA has not been detectable in the thymus. While the increase of TNC number during lactation may be linked to the process of reconstruction of the thymic lymphoid population, the increased activity of lymphoepithelial interactions on GD14 may be associated with thymic engagement in pregnancy-induced immune processes [27,29] The major antigens in the experimental autoimmune hypophysitis in rats are growth hormone, thyrotropin, and luteinizing hormone [12]. The intrathymic T-lymphocyte selection is a complex, multistep process, influenced by several functionally specialised RE cells and under immuno-neuroendocrine regulation control reflecting the dynamic changes of the mammalian organism. In HIV-1-infected adults treated with growth hormone [25 ], thymic mass and circulating naive CD4 T cells are increased. The treatment would be easier for the diseased, as well as to us, the physicians, if we were aware of two millennia old wisdom - that the disease is a visit of God.

  12. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  13. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  14. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  15. Two thymus-related autoimmune disorders: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtavoos-Mahyari H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirtavoos-Mahyari Hanifeh,1 Adnan Khosravi,2 Esfahani-Monfared Zahra,1 Shadmehr Mohammad Behgam31Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Thymoma is the most common tumor in the anterior mediastinum. A 56-year-old man presented unremitting and periodic chronic diarrhea of 9 weeks duration, and clinical examination revealed a huge nonhomogeneous mass lesion in the right lung and leukocytosis. He was treated with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide 1,200 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 and prednisolone 75 mg/m2 × 5 days based on lung mass computed tomography-guided biopsy, but he was reevaluated because neither symptom improved. Surprisingly, celiac disease was documented with increased titer of immunoglobulin antibodies to gliadin and tissue transglutaminase. Lung mass rebiopsy and thymectomy demonstrated thymoma. After surgery, the patient showed aplastic anemia that responded well to cyclosporine. At 2-year follow-up, the patient’s hematologic status and diarrhea were completely recovered and no symptom and/or sign of thymoma recurrence was seen.Keywords: thymus, thymoma, celiac, aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorder

  16. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Luis F Razgado-Hernandez

    Full Text Available The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old, immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy

  17. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  18. Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses: dynamics of colonization by progenitor cells and regeneration of resident cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehr, R.; Fridkis-Hareli, M.; Abel, L.; Segel, L.; Globerson, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses was analyzed using two complementary strategies: an in vitro experimental model and computer simulations. In the in vitro model, fetal thymus lobes were irradiated and the regeneration of cells that survived irradiation were examined, with the results compared to those of reconstitution of the thymus by donor bone marrow cells and their competition with the thymic resident cells. In vitro measurements of resident cell kinetics showed that cell proliferation is slowed down significantly after a relatively low (10Gy) irradiation dose. Although the number of thymocytes that survived irradiation remained low for several days post-irradiation, further colonization by donor cells was not possible, unless performed within 6 h after irradiation. These experimental results, coupled with the analysis by computer simulations, suggest that bone marrow cell engraftment in the irradiated thymus may be limited by the presence of radiation-surviving thymic resident cells and the reduced availability of seeding niches. (Author)

  19. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals

  20. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells

  1. Laser de baixa intensidade (830 nm na recuperação funcional do nervo isquiático de ratos Low intensity laser (830 nm functional to recover of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na melhora funcional da marcha de ratos após esmagamento do nervo ciático. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos divididos alea-to-riamente em dois grupos: controle (sham e irradiado com densidade de energia de 40J/cm², em 21 dias consecutivos, utilizando o laser 830nm (AsGaAl. Os animais foram submetidos ao esmagamento do nervo ciático direito com o dispositivo portátil de peso morto e avaliados pelo "Índice Funcional do Ciático" (IFC. As pegadas foram coletadas no pré-operatório, 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do IFC foram significantes quando comparados os grupos no 7º e 14º dia pós-operatório (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser on functional improvement of the walking of rats after sciatic nerve axonotmesis. METHODS: We used 18 rats divided randomly in two groups: control (Sham and irradiated with an energy density of 40J/cm² for 21 consecutive days, using 830nm laser (AsGaAl. The animals were subjected to right sciatic nerve crushing by a portable device and assessed by the "Sciatic Functional Index" (SFI at an acrylic platform through video recorded by a digital camera. The footprints were collected preoperatively, and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. RESULTS: The results of the SFI were significant when comparing the groups on the 7th and 14th postoperative day (p<0.05. On the 21st postoperative day there was no difference between groups. There were intra-group differences detected in each evaluated week (p<0.01. The irradiated animals showed improvement in motion pattern, shown by the SFI values in the initial periods, but after 3 weeks, there was a similar recovery. CONCLUSION: The low-intensity laser has shown to be effective in accelerating regeneration of the sciatic nerve of rats after crushing.

  2. Clonally Expanding Thymocytes Having Lineage Capability in Gamma-Ray-Induced Mouse Atrophic Thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Morita, Shin-ichi; Go, Rieka; Obata, Miki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Fujita, Yukari; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize, in the setting of γ-ray-induced atrophic thymus, probable prelymphoma cells showing clonal growth and changes in signaling, including DNA damage checkpoint. Methods and Materials: A total of 111 and 45 mouse atrophic thymuses at 40 and 80 days, respectively, after γ-irradiation were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for D-J rearrangements at the TCRβ locus, flow cytometry for cell cycle, and Western blotting for the activation of DNA damage checkpoints. Results: Limited D-J rearrangement patterns distinct from normal thymus were detected at high frequencies (43 of 111 for 40-day thymus and 21 of 45 for 80-day thymus). Those clonally expanded thymocytes mostly consisted of CD4 + CD8 + double-positive cells, indicating the retention of lineage capability. They exhibited pausing at a late G1 phase of cell cycle progression but did not show the activation of DNA damage checkpoints such as γH2AX, Chk1/2, or p53. Of interest is that 17 of the 52 thymuses showing normal D-J rearrangement patterns at 40 days after irradiation showed allelic loss at the Bcl11b tumor suppressor locus, also indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: The thymocytes of clonal growth detected resemble human chronic myeloid leukemia in possessing self-renewal and lineage capability, and therefore they can be a candidate of the lymphoma-initiating cells.

  3. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  4. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  5. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison of pneumomediastinography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia.

  6. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  7. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  8. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  9. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Salas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  10. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  11. Functional activity of symphathetic-adrenal system under chronic and fractionated irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musagalieva, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of rats at 5 R twice a week (total dose 400 R) significantly increased adrenaline concentration in the brain, liver and kidney and dophamine and DOPA concentration in liver tissue, adrenal glands and thymus. Fractionated irradiation (chronic irradiation at 400 R plus acute single irradiation at 400 R) increased the adrenaline level in the brain and heart muscle and led to a higher concentration of dophamine and DOPA in the liver, thymus and heart muscle [ru

  12. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  13. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  14. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  16. Activité antifongique des huiles essentielles de Thymus bleicherianus Pomel et Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link contre les champignons de pourriture du bois d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarti F.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of the Thymus bleicherianus Pomel and Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link essential oils againstwood-decay fungi. Essential oils and their constituents have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but theiruse as wood preservatives has rarely been reported. This study deals with the antifungal activity of two medicinal and aromaticplants essential oils of the Moroccan flora against four wood-decay fungi, in order to find new bioactive natural products. Thechemical composition of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus bleicherianus Pomel andThymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major components of T. bleicherianus oil wereα-terpinene (42.2% and thymol (23.9%. Carvacrol (70.92% was the predominant constituent in the essence of T. capitatus.Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the essential oils added to malt agar medium in defined concentrations were determinedby a screening test with the agar dilution method. The oils, object of the survey, showed a strong antifungal activity againstall tested fungi.

  17. Uranium material removing and recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Shin-ichi.

    1997-01-01

    A uranium material removing and recovering device for use in removing surplus uranium heavy metal (UO 2 ) generated in a uranium handling facility comprises a uranium material removing device and a uranium material recovering device. The uranium material removing device comprises an adsorbing portion filled with a uranium adsorbent, a control portion for controlling the uranium adsorbent of the uranium adsorbing portion by a controlling agent, a uranium adsorbing device connected thereto and a jetting device for jetting the adsorbing liquid to equipments deposited with uranium. The recovering device comprises a recovering apparatus for recovering uranium materials deposited with the adsorbent liquid removed by the jetting device and a recovering tank for storing the recovered uranium materials. The device of the present invention can remove surplus uranium simply and safely, mitigate body's load upon removing and recovering operations, facilitate the processing for the exchange of the adsorbent and reduces the radioactive wastes. (T.M.)

  18. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis. (orig.) [de

  19. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis.

  20. Correlates of thymus size and changes during treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impairment of immune functions associated with malnutrition may be one reason for the high mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and thymus atrophy has been proposed as a marker of this immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to identify nutritional....... CONCLUSION: Malnutrition and inflammation are associated with thymus atrophy, and thymus area seems positively associated with plasma phosphate. Substituting therapeutic formula with unfortified rice porridge with the aim of alleviating diarrhea may impair regain of thymus size with nutritional...

  1. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  2. MRI manifestations of thymus in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Peng Xi; Li Zhizhao; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Dong Tianfa; Xiao Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI findings of the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in different age groups and to analyze the relationship between the morphological changes of thymus and the MG. Methods: In total 90 patients with MG (male: female=43:47) received MR scan and were divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D) by age. Fourteen patients out of 90 received additional enhanced scan. Group A included 33 patients aged under 10 years (m:f=18:15); 27 patients aged 11-25 years were in group B (m:f=12:15); group C had 17 patients aged 26-50 years (m:f=6:11); and in group D there were 13 patients whose ages were over 51 years (m:f=7:6). And 30 Non-MG patients aged 8-75 years were selected as control group, in which the thickness, the fat collection, and glandulous atrophy of thymus was studied on CT. Results: 1) The thymus was unremarkable in 44 cases out of 90 (48.88%). 2) Enlarged thymus was shown in 42 cases out of 90 (46.66%), in which non-nodular enlargement was revealed in 34 cases and nodular enlargement in 8 cases. There were 27 cases with abnormality of thymus out of 33 (81.81%) in group A, 12 cases out of 27 (44.44%) in group B and 3 cases in group C, but no abnormality was found in group D. 3) Only 4/90 patients (4.44%) had thymic mass that respectively seen in one case of group B, two of group C and one of group D. No evidence of the involvement of the adjacent structure was found on MRI in the cases of thymic mass. No thymus enlargement was revealed in control group. Fat collection in thymus was seen in both study groups and control group. Conclusion: Intimate relationship between the abnormality of the thymus gland and MG exists in children and teenagers. While in the middle-aged patients or the seniors, further studies should be made to find out whether there is a correlation

  3. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, P; Nolan, L K; Lamont, S J

    2016-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  5. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  6. Anatomical variations of the thymus in relation to the left brachiocephalic vein, findings of necropsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Oscar Alonso; Moreno, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    Two cases of anatomical variations of the thymus are presented with respect to the anatomical relations with the left brachiocephalic vein and found during the necropsy process. Less than 2 days after birth with Noonan Syndrome, when the left brachiocephalic vein was scanning behind the upper thymus horns, there were other adjacent lesions consisting of three supernumerary spleens and three hepatic veins. The second case was an 8-year-old infant with child malpractice who died from urinary sepsis due to obstructive uropathy, in which case the upper lobes of the thymus were fused and formed a ring through which the left brachiocephalic vein passed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  9. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated.

  10. Binding of /sup 125/I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis.

  11. Binding of 125I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis

  12. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  13. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated

  14. Activation Kinetics and Off-Target Effects of Thymus-Initiated Cre Transgenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun; Petrie, Howard T.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteriophage enzyme Cre is a site-specific recombinase widely used to delete loxP-flanked DNA sequences in lineage-specific fashion. Several mouse lines that direct Cre expression to lymphoid progenitors in the thymus have been established, but a side-by-side comparison of when they first become active, and/or their relative efficiency at various developmental stages, has been lacking. In this study, we evaluated these in four common Cre transgenic strains with thymus-initiated promoters (Lck, Cd2, or Cd4). We found that while all of them eventually labeled nearly all thymocytes, their kinetics were dramatically different, and other than Cd4[Cre], did not faithfully recapitulate the expression pattern of the corresponding endogenous gene. Perhaps even more importantly, while thymuses from some strains compared favorably to thymuses from control (Cre-negative) mice, we found that Cre expression could also result in off-target effects, including moderate to severe decreases in thymic cellularity. These effects occurred in the absence of loxP-flanked DNA target genes, and were dose and copy number dependent. Loss of cellularity was attributable to a specific decrease in CD4+8+ immature cells, and corresponds to an increased rate of programmed cell death. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of activation kinetics in thymus-initiated Cre transgenes, our data show that Cre is toxic to CD4+8+ cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and emphasize that the choice of thymus-initiated Cre strain is critically important for minimizing off-target effects of Cre. PMID:23049709

  15. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  16. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesche, K D

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed.

  17. Fascial relationship of the thymus: radiologic-pathologic correlation in neonatal pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.L.; Foley, L.C.; Bowen, A.D.; Weisman, L.; Hernandez, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic appearance of retrothymic pneumomediastinum is quite specific. The findings include elevation of the thymus away from other mediastinal structures with increased lucency beneath it, visualization of a radiodense line extending from the inferior pole of the thymus to the midportion of the heart, and tenting of the pericardium at the point of attachment of this line. This constellation of findings will aid in the differential diagnosis of medial anterior pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, and intrapulmonary cyst in the infant with air block. The paper details the mediastinal anatomy with special emphasis on a previously undescribed layer of connective tissue that accounts for this specific radiographic appearance

  18. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  19. Importance of thymus and its humoral factors in radiation syndrome treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high radiosensitivity is emphasised of lymphoid tissues and of the immunological response of the organism. The red--uced immunity of the irradiated organism even after sublethal doses lasts for a number of months. The thymus is not only an important lymphoid organ but it also secerns hormones having lymph-stimulating effects. The shielding of the thymus during irradiation or the application of thymosine favourably affected in gamma or X-ray irradiated mice not only the regeneration of damaged lymphoid tissues and of immunological response but also the regeneration of blood formation. (A.K.)

  20. Evidence of cytotoxic T and B immunoblasts in the thoracic duct of rats bearing tumor grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, S.; Wrathmell, A.B.; Alexander, P.

    1975-01-01

    Wistar rats were immunized with allogeneic or xenogeneic tumour before collection of their thoracic duct lymph. Specifically cytotoxic effector cells were found in the lymph between 3 and 8 days after immunization, and their occurrence coincided with an increased number of immunoblasts in the lymphocyte population. The immune response in lymph to allogeneic cells appeared to be affected solely by radiosensitive thymus-dependent lymphocytes; no complement-dependent killing was evident and cytotoxic cells failed to appear when immunized animals were deprived of thymus-dependent lymphocytes. In contrast, the response to immunization with xenogeneic cells elicited both complement-dependent and complement-independent cytotoxicity, but only the former could be detected in animals deprived of thymus-dependent lymphocytes. In normal animals and in animals deprived of thymus-dependent cells, the cytotoxic cells in the thoracic duct lymph appeared to be large lymphocytes or immunoblasts. (U.S.)

  1. What happens in the thymus does not stay in the thymus: how T cells recycle the CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment transcriptional circuitry to control their function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchio, Melanie S.; Bosselut, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell are at the core of most adaptive immune responses. Although these cells carry distinct functions, they arise from a common precursor during thymic differentiation, in a developmental sequence that matches CD4 and CD8 expression and functional potential with MHC restriction. While the transcriptional control of CD4+-CD8+ lineage choice in the thymus is now better understood, less was known about what maintains the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage integrity of mature T cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that establish in the thymus, and maintain in post-thymic cells, the separation of these lineages. We focus on recent studies that address the mechanisms of epigenetic control of Cd4 expression and emphasize how maintaining a transcriptional circuitry nucleated around Thpok and Runx proteins, the key architects of CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment in the thymus, is critical for CD4+ T cell helper functions. PMID:27260768

  2. Synergy among rat T cells in the proliferative response to alloantigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.W.; Loop, S.M.; Bernstein, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    A synergistic interaction in the proliferative response to alloantigen is described for mixtures of rat thymus and lymph node cells. The optimal conditions for synergy are quantitatively defined. Regression analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve has been utilized to estimate the degree of interaction in thymus--lymph node cell mixtures. The slope of the response of cell mixtures was noted to be significantly greater than the slope for the response of lympth node cells alone. Irradiation was shown to have a differential effect on the response of thymus and lymph node cells in mixtures. Irradiated thymus cells retained the capacity for synergy in mixtures, whereas irradiated lymph node cells did not. Additional studies have demonstrated that both de novo protein synthesis and specific antigen recognition by both responding cell populations in mixtures was required for maximal synergy. These studies demonstrate that synergy cannot be explained as an artifact of altered cell density in vitro. They establish that thymus cells and lymph node cells represent distinct subsets which manifest qualitatively different functions in the proliferative response to alloantigen. Thymus cells can respond directly to alloantigen by proliferation but also have the capacity to amplify the proliferative response of lymph node cells, a capacity which is resistant to X irradiation but requires recognition of alloantigen and de novo protein synthesis. Lymph node cells may similarly respond by proliferation to alloantigen but lack the amplifier activity of thymus cells. Synergy for rat lymphoidcells, like mouse lymphoid cells, has been shown to involve an interaction of thymus-derived lymphocytes

  3. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...

  4. Effect of foliar nutrition on the essential oil yield of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 112 (2018), s. 762-765 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Thymus * Essential oils * Aromatic plants * Plant nutrition * Plant technology Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  5. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Radical Scavengers from Thymus vulgaris Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapkevicius, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Lelyveld, G.P.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Venskutonis, R.

    2002-01-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity-guided fractionation of a leaf extract of Thymus vulgaris led to the isolation of the radical scavengers rosmarinic acid 1, eriodictyol, taxifolin, luteolin 7-glucuronide, p-cymene 2,3-diol, p-cymene 2,3-diol 6-6'-dimer, carvacrol,

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of normal thymus in pediatric patients: Aspects and features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumeda, A.; Romero, G.; Sanchez-Cid, M.; Ceballos, J.; Blanco, A.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the viewing rate and ultrasound features of normal thymus. We analyzed the thymuses of 60 healthy children using ultrasound. The ages of the children ranged from one month to three years. a 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used in every case. Trans, supra and para sternal approaches were employed to procure sagittal and transverse sections. We analyzed the dimensions of the gland according to age, sex and body surface. We also studied the internal architecture, echogenicity and relation to adjacent mediastinal structures. We were able to study and measure the thymus in its entirety in every case. The examination never took more than 15 minutes. In longitudinal sections, the left lobe had the appearance of a shark fin or sickle and the right lobe was tear-shaped or rhomboid. The size of the thymus did not vary significantly according to age, sex or body surface. Its internal echogenicity was homogeneous. We consider ultrasonography to be an easy, wide available and safe method for examining the features of the thymic gland in children; moreover, it aids in the assessment of suspicious plain chest x-ray images. (Author)

  7. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THYMUS KOTSCHYANUS BOISS. & HOHEN. FROM IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHOSSEIN RUSTAIYAN

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil of Thymus kotschyarms Boiss<& Hohen. was examined by GC and GC/MS. Fifteen constituents representing 80.7% of the oil were characterized of which thymol (38.0%, carvacrol (14.2% and 1,8- cineole (13.2% were the main compounds which were identified.

  8. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison between pneumomediastinography and CT of the anterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Tanaka, Makoto; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku; Heshiki, Atsuko (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients.

  9. Suppression of a thymus dependent humoral response in mice by Concanavalin A in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, H.S.; Ekstedt, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Mice treated with Concanavalin A prior to immunization with sheep erthyrocytes exhibit a markedly reduced plaque forming spleen cell response. This immunosuppressive effect could be reversed by using higher doses of antigen or priming the animals with nonimmunizing doses of antigen prior to Concanavalin A injection designed to either by-pass or enhance thymus derived lymphocyte functions. It was also demonstrated that Concanavalin A in vivo activated the thymus derived lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleen, and this activation was dose dependent and correlated with the immunosuppression observed. Animals injected with Concanavalin A at various times prior to whole body lethal irradiation would not support the plaque forming cell response of adoptively transferred normal syngeneic spleen cells. This effect was shown to be time and dose of Concanavalin A dependent. It was also shown that the route of injection of Concanavalin A prior to irradiation determined the results observed, in that the intravenous route resulted in the suppression of transferred cells, while the intraperitoneal route showed no effect. It is suggested that Concanavalin A induced immunosuppression of the humoral, thymus dependent immune response in mice results for the activation of a subpopulation of thymus derived suppressors cells, and that the effect is short lived, radiation resistant, and dose of Concanavalin A and antigen dependent

  10. Interaction between thymic cells and hemopoietic stem cells. Enhanced repopulation of the irradiated thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daculsi, Richard; Legrand, Elisabeth; Duplan, J.-F.

    1977-01-01

    In irradiated mice engrafted with hemopoietic cells, the thymus is repopulated more rapidly by bone marrow-derived than by spleen-derived cells. Admixing thymic cells with restorative suspension stimulates the thymic repopulation by spleen-derived cells whereas it has no effect on the repopulation by bone marrow-derived cells [fr

  11. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  12. Influence of the thymus on the capacity of female mice to reject male skin grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pirro, E.S.; Goldberg, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of female mice to reject H-Y-incompatible, but otherwise histocompatible, male skin grafts differs greatly from strain to strain, as is illustrated particularly by the C57BL strain (B6 and other sublines), termed ''H-Y rejector,'' because females invariably and promptly reject C57BL male skin, in comparison with the C3H strain, termed ''H-Y nonrejector,'' because females characteristically accept male C3H skin. To assess the extent to which the thymus governs this rejector vs. nonrejector status, two studies were made. In the first, lethally irradiated B6 (C57BL) and C3H females were restored with (B6 X C3H)F1 female cells, providing a graft-vs.-host-free milieu for differentiation of the same immunopoietic cell population in B6 vs. C3H hosts. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, B6 hosts responded as rejectors and C3H hosts as nonrejectors, signifying that rejector vs. nonrejector status was determined by the host during immunopoiesis. That the main organ responsible for rejector vs. nonrejector determination is the thymus was shown in a second study. Previously thymectomized (B6 X C3H)F1 females received a histocompatible graft of thymus from either B6 or C3H neonatal females and were restored with donor-marked (B6-Ly-5a X C3H)F1 female cells after lethal irradiation. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, the recipients of B6 thymus grafts responded generally as rejectors and the recipients of C3H thymus grafts responded uniformly as nonrejectors

  13. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

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    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  14. The frequency and spectrum of thymus 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake patterns in hyperthyroidism patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Kung; Yeh, Chia-Lu; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wang, Su-Chen; Cheng, Ru-Hwa; Kao, Pan-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Thymic hyperplasia is associated with hyperthyroidism. Increased thymus 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in hyperthyroidism patients has been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the FDG positron emission tomography (PET) thymus uptake spectrum in patients with active hyperthyroidism with correlation with serum hormones. The prospective study included FDG PET scans from 65 hyperthyroidism patients and 30 subjects with euthyroid status as control group. The intensity of FDG uptake in thyroid and thymus regions was graded subjectively on a five-point scale and semi-quantitatively by measuring standard uptake value (SUV). Correlation coefficient between thymus SUV and serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab), thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TR Ab), and thymulin were analyzed. Among 65 hyperthyroidism patients, 30 (46.2%) and 39 (60%) patients showed thyroid and thymus FDG uptake, respectively. The frequency of thymus uptake FDG was high in patients younger than age 40 (28/31, 90.3%). The patterns of the thymic FDG uptake include inverted V or triangular, separated triangular, united nontriangular, unilateral right or left extension, and focal midline. Focal midline FDG uptake was the most common pattern (15/39, 38.5%). None of the control group showed thymus FDG uptake. The correlation coefficient between the FDG uptake SUV levels in thymus and serum hormones, thyrotropin, TPO Ab, TR Ab, and thymulin levels were all low (P > .05). In FDG PET scan, thymus activity was common in hyperthyroidism patients; this should not be misdiagnosed as a malignancy in patients exhibiting weight loss. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  16. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  17. Cell Proliferation during Lymphopoiesis in the Thymus of Normal and Continuously Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J. I. [Department of Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1968-08-15

    The patterns of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus and spleen in normal and continuously irradiated young C57BL mice have been examined with techniques of flash and repeated labelling with tritiated thymidine and high resolution autoradiography. Changes in percentage labelling indices and labelled mitoses data have provided information on sites and rates of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus cortex (reticular cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes) and the spleen white pulp (germinal centre cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes). Labelling rates were fastest in the more primitive cell forms; in both lymphoid organs, the stem-cell labelling - reticular cells and germinal centre cells - reached 100% rapidly, whereas this was not the case for the different lymphocyte populations, and thymic lymphopoiesis was more rapid than splenic lymphopoiesis. Mean cycle times for thymus lymphoid cells were {approx} 12.5 hours for reticular cells, {approx} 9.5 hours for large lymphocytes, and {approx} 10.0 hours for medium and small lymphocytes; in the spleen, representative cycle times were significantly longer. Small lymphocytes were replaced at a greater rate in the thymus than in the spleen. Under continuous {gamma}-irradiation (caesium-137) at 45 rad/day and 75 rad/day for 15 days, there was a progressive depopulation of all lymphoid cell classes, an increase in the relative proportion of the more primitive forms, and a marked decrease in the numbers of small lymphocytes in both tissues. In the thymus and in the spleen, there was an increase in proliferation rates in both stem-cell populations and in all lymphoid cell forms, a decrease in mean cell cycle times to shorter values and a possible reduction in the spread of cell cycle times. In irradiated tissues, there was little evidence for lymphoid cell emigration. Tentative patterns of lymphopoiesis in the normal thymus and spleen based on the autoradiographic data aredescribed and changes in the

  18. A comparative immunohistochemical study of aplastic thymuses for lymphocytic, epithelial, proliferative and apoptotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoub F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immune deficiency is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Primary immunodeficiency comprises a wide range of disorders that mainly manifest in early childhood as devastating infections with opportunistic organisms. Thymic aplasia is found on autopsy of some patients afflicted with immune deficiency disorders, such as DiGeorge syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. After a thorough search of the literature, we found little information on the cellular characteristics of these thymuses. Our study aims to elucidate role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of thymic aplasia and compare various lymphocytic and epithelial markers in normal and aplastic thymuses. Methods: We selected 12 subjects who died of severe infections with aplastic thymus found on autopsy, and 11 control subjects who died of unrelated causes, such as congenital heart disease. The presence of several markers, including Bcl2, P53, lymphocytic markers, and CD68, was examined using immunohistochemical methods on paraffin-embedded thymus sections. Positively-stained cells were counted per 1000 cells and the results stated as percentage of positive cells.                        Results: The mean age of the control group was between 7 days to 18 months (mean: 4.5 months. Parental consanguinity was present in 45.5% and 9.1% of the control and case groups, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant. We found significantly lower expression of Bcl2 in the case group (p value: 0.038. Furthermore, expression of CD68 was significantly higher in the case group. Epithelial markers were significantly higher in case subjects, although CD8 expression was higher in the control group. The presence of other markers was not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions: Increase in apoptosis has a role in aplastic thymuses and prevention of apoptosis may halt this process. Also high CD68

  19. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  20. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  2. Basic study on low dose radiation effect: SOD activity of immune organs and hemogram in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kaneko, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeo; Nakano, Kazushiro; Edamatsu, Rei; Mori, Akitane.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the effect of low dose radiation on SOD activities of immune organs such as thymus, spleen, bone marrow in rats and hematological findings changes. Animals were exposed to radiation in a wholebody fashion, 4 hours before sacrifice. SOD activities in thymus and bone marrow cells from the rats X-ray irradiated at doses of 0.25∼0.50 Gy/10 min were enhanced in comparison with those of non-irradiated rats. The enhancement was also observed in spleen cells obtained from group of rats irradiated at 0.05 Gy/10 min. Radiation exposure with over 0.50 Gy/10 min gave rats inhibitory responses in those immune organs. The changes in homogram were not observed with γ-ray exposure of less than 0.10 Gy/10 min. (author)

  3. Concurrent intrathyroidal thymus and parathyroid in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Velimezis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient’s history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch, it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and migration during organogenesis.

  4. [Extraction and analysis of chemical components of essential oil in Thymus vulgaris of tissue culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li; Xu, Shi-Qian; Li, Jian-Guo; Cheng, Zhi-Hui; Dang, Jian-Zhang

    2011-10-01

    To extract the essential oils from the Seedlings, the Aseptic Seedlings and the Tissue Culture Seedlings of Thymus vulgaris and analyze their chemical components and the relative contents. The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, the chemical components and the relative contents were identified and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and peak area normalization method. The main chemical components of essential oil in these three samples had no significant difference, they all contained the main components of essential oil in Thymus vulgaris: Thymol, Carvacrol, o-Cymene, gamma-Terpinene, Caryophyllene et al. and only had a slight difference in the relative content. This study provides important theoretical foundation and data reference for further study on production of essential oil in thyme by tissue culture technology.

  5. Radioiodine concentration by the thymus in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Maria Eduarda; Flamini, Rodrigo C.; Corbo, Rossana; Mamede, Marcelo [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear], e-mail: mamede@inca.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The radioactive iodine has been used with great value as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma previously submitted to total thyroidectomy. False-positive whole-body scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the radioisotope or lack of knowledge on the existence of other pathologies that could eventually present radioiodine uptake. Thymic uptake is an uncommon cause of false-positive whole-body scan, and the mechanism through which it occurs is not completely understood. The present paper reports five cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who presented a mediastinum uptake of radioiodine in a whole-body scan during follow-up. The patients had either histological or radiological confirmation of the presence of residual thymus gland. It is very important to know about the possibility of iodine uptake by the thymus in order to avoid unnecessary treatment, such as surgery or radioiodine therapy. (author)

  6. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

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    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  7. Myasthenia gravis: 75Se-seleno-methionine scanning of thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szobor, A.; Fornet, B.

    1986-01-01

    The 75 Se-seleno-methionine isotope thymus scanning was examined in a series of patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients were given 4 μC/kg hence a total of 250-300 μC 75 Se-seleno-methionine, intravenously. The method proved useful and informative in the diagnostics of myasthenia. Prior to thymectomy, the thymic tumour or a large gland could be observed and some hints could be gained for the biological activity of the gland. After the operation, the success of thymectomy could be checked and later a possible recidive could be shown or excluded. In non-operative cases the change in thymic activity could be followed which was an important sign of a malignant or tumorous growth of the thymus. (author)

  8. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after 60Co 2000R local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hideo; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki; Shibata, Moritoshi; Ishibashi, Hirofumi; Uehara, Masaomi

    1974-01-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea pigs weighing about 300g were irradiated locally with 60 Co 2000 R and the animals were sacrificed on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days after the irradiation. The thymus was weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained by the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the sections stained with haematoxylin-eosin and it was found that the weight of the thymus in 60 Co 2000 R irradiation decreased remarkably and that the tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge was more remarkable in the 2000 R group than in the 800 R group. (author)

  9. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after /sup 60/Co 2000R local irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, H; Sugiyama, S; Shibata, M; Ishibashi, H; Uehara, M [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1974-12-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea pigs weighing about 300g were irradiated locally with /sup 60/Co 2000 R and the animals were sacrificed on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days after the irradiation. The thymus was weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained by the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the stained sections and it was found that the weight of the thymus in /sup 60/Co 2000 R irradiation decreased remarkably and that the tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge was greater in the 2000 R group than in the 800 R group.

  10. Mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on bcl-2 protein expression and apoptosis in mouse thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Chen Dong; Liu Shuzheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation in varied doses of X-rays on bcl-2 express and apoptosis in mouse thymus. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, image analysis and transmission electron microscope were used in the study. Results: The expression of bcl-2 protein was limited within thymic medulla, decreased with 2 Gy, however, increased with 0.075 Gy after whole-body irradiation. Some typical apoptotic cells were found in thymic cortex after 2 Gy irradiation. The apoptotic cells decreased and mitotic metaphase increased after 0.075 Gy irradiation. Conclusion: The mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on apoptosis of thymus was related with the expression of bcl-2 proteins

  11. The localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus – a retrograde tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is a sophisticated and independent structure composed of two antagonistic (opposing divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic that control many vital functions including: homeostasis maintenance, heart rate, blood circulation, secretion, etc. Thymus is one of the most important primary lymphoid organs playing a role in the developing of a juvenile’s immune system mainly by maturation, development, and migration of T-cells (T lymphocytes. In the last decades, several studies identifying sources of the thymic autonomic supply have been undertaken in humans and several laboratory rodents but not in higher mammals such as the pig. Therefore, in the present work, retrograde tracing technique of Fast Blue and DiI was used to investigate the sources of sympathetic efferent supply to the porcine thymus. After Fast Blue injection into the right lobe of the thymus, the presence of Fast Blue-positive neurons was found in the unilateral cranial cervical ganglion (82.8 ± 3.0% of total Fast Blue-positive neurons as well as in the middle cervical ganglion (17.2 ± 3.0%. Injection of DiI resulted in the presence of retrograde tracer in neurons of the cranial cervical ganglion (80.4 ± 2.3% of total amount of DiI-labelled neurons, the middle cervical ganglion (18.4 ± 1.9%, and the cervicothoracic ganglion (1.2 ± 0.8%. The present report provides the first data describing in details the localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus.

  12. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.M. van [Department of Immunology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breeman, W.A.P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, J.C. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Postema, P.T.E. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kwekkeboom, D.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Laissue, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Waser, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Lamberts, S.W.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves` disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren`s syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 {mu}g) [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Salgueiro, L; Miguel, M G; Faleiro, M L

    2008-01-01

    Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. The present work reports on the state of the art on the information available on the taxonomy, ethnobotany, cell and molecular biology of the Portuguese representatives of these genera and on the chemotaxonomy and antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of their essential oils and other volatile-containing extracts.

  14. Irradiated fetal thymus transplantation in a patient with combined immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shigenori; Yanabe, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Akahoshi, Izumi; Migita, Masahiro; Matsuda, Ichiro; Udaka, Keiji.

    1993-01-01

    A 6 month old boy was diagnosed as a case of combined immunodeficiency (with predominant T cell defect by previous classification). His T cell count was decreased, his B cell count in peripheral blood was increased, his serum IgG level was decreased, his serum IgM level was normal and the thymus was not evident on CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging. Administration of the thymus hormone, thymosin, led to a partial recovery of T cell function without normalization of the T cell count. At age 26 months the patient received an irradiated thymus transplantation from a 16 week old female fetus. After the transplantation, the T cell count (mainly CD4 + cells) increased by 50-70%. A mild graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) occurred and several immunosuppressants were prescribed. Chromosome analysis showed that the T cells have both 46 XY and 46 XX karyotypes while the B cells have the 46 XY karyotype alone. His cellular immunity (skin tests, DNA synthesis, mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic activity and natural killer cell function) and his serum IgG level remained low. However, being on regular γ-globulin therapy and oral anti-fungal drugs, he is now living normally with almost no trouble at age 6 years and 3 months. This case showed that irradiated thymus transplantation might be a useful method when an adequate donor for bone marrow transplantation is not available. The unexpected observation that the increased T cells were mainly CD4 may be related to the mild GVHR and the clinical improvement. (author)

  15. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.M. van; Breeman, W.A.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Postema, P.T.E.; Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Laissue, J.; Waser, B.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves' disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren's syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 μg) [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceredig, R.; Schreyer, M.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of CBA (Thy-1.2) host and AKR (Thy-1.1) donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of AKR → CBA radiation bone marrow chimeras was investigated. Cryostat sections of chimeric thymuses were incubated with biotin-conjugated monoclonal anti-Thy-1 antibodies specific for host and donor-derived cells and the distribution of the corresponding Thy-1 antigen revealed by the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The thymus was initially repopulated by Thy-1.2 + host-derived cells, but by 28 days following bone marrow reconstitution the few remaining host cells were found mostly in the thymus medulla. However, occasional Thy-1.2 + cells were still present in extramedullary, primarily cortical, sites. Donor-derived (Thy-1.1 + ) cells were first seen in the 11-day chimeric thymus as single cells frequently closely associated with blood vessels in medullary areas. By 17 days, the cortex contained many Thy-1.1 + cells, although occasional single positive cells were still present in the medulla. Changes in the anatomical distribution of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating chimeric thymus appeared to correlate with changes in their Thy-1 fluorescence profile as determined by flow microfluorometry. (Auth.)

  17. Recovery response of dividing cells in the thymus of whole-body γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Maniu, M.

    1976-01-01

    Mice were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays 30 min after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate. The dose-response curves determined at 72 hours after exposure showed an inflection point in the total activity present in the DNA in thymus and spleen. In the low dose-range, the dose-response curves have D 0 = 55 rad(n = 2.5) for thymus and D 0 = 95 rad (n = 2.5) for the spleen. Thirty minutes after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate, the dividing cells from thymus were partially synchronized by the administration of 80 mg per kg body-weight hydroxyurea. At different time-intervals, the mice were irradiated with 80 rad, and the total activity of DNA was determined at 72 hours after synchronization. A significant maximum of recovery was found at 5 hours (S phase) after the administration of hydroxyurea. In similar conditions, the dose-response curves corresponding to the G 1 , S and M phase of the division cycle were also determined. The synchronization of dividing cells induced by hydroxyurea failed in the spleen. (author)

  18. Cortisol decreases 2[125I] iodomelatonin binding sites in the duck thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Liu, Z.M.; Tang, F.; Pang, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effect of chronic glucocorticoid treatment on 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding in the duck thymus was studied. Two-week-old ducks were injected intraperitoneally with either 1 mg of cortisol per day (experimental group) or an equivalent volume of vehicle (control group) in the middle of the light period for seven days. 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding assays were performed on thymic membranes. Cortisol injection reduced the body weight gain, size of the bursa of Fabricius and absolute weights of the primary lymphoid organs but had no effect on the spleen weights. The relative weights of the spleen were increased while those of the primary lymphoid organs were unchanged. The density of the thymus 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites was decreased while the affinity was not affected. The modulation of the thymic 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites by changes in the immune status of the duck suggests that these binding sites represent physiologically relevant melatonin receptors and that melatonin exerts its action on the lymphoid tissues directly. The authors findings support the hypothesis that the thymus is the target site for the immunomodulatory interactions between the pineal melatonin and the adrenal steroids. A possible inhibitory influence of adrenal steroids on the immuno-enhancing effect of melatonin is also suggested. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Study of the argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue after exposure to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletskij, V.K.; Beletskaya, L.V.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii)

    1980-01-01

    Studied are argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue - histiocytes (appendiculate macrophages) and reticuline fibers after the bulk of lymphoid cells has migrated from the organ due to irradiation of animals with X-rays. 10 intact and 16 experimental guinea pigs subjected to the whole-body irradiation with X-rays in the dose of 1000-3000 rad have been used for investigations. It is shown that argyrophil stroma elements of thymus connective tissue, histiocytes and reticular cells, are rather resistant to X-rays and preserve their argyrophily property in the irradiation with high doses, as well as the epithelial cells of the organ. Paraplastic structures in irradiated animals are expressed more completely being demasked as a result of lymphocyte migration and death. The expressed hypertrophy and proliferation of reticular cells and appendiculate macrophages are probably the response to the alternative process in the organ tissues caused by irradiation. A close structural connection of reticular and epithelial tissues on the territory of both layers of thymus sections is noted

  20. Homeostatic properties and phenotypic maturation of murine CD4+ pre-thymic emigrants in the thymus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dong

    Full Text Available After a tightly regulated developmental program in the thymus, "mature" single positive (SP thymocytes leave the thymus and enter the periphery. These newly arrived recent thymic emigrants (RTEs are phenotypically and functionally immature, and will complete a dynamic maturation in the peripheral lymphoid organs before being licensed to be resident naïve T cells. To study the early events occurring in the RTE maturation process, we identified the phenotype of CD4(+ pre-RTEs, a population of CD4(+ SP thymocytes that have acquired the thymus egress capability. Compared to peripheral naïve T cells, CD4(+ pre-RTEs displayed superior survival capability in lymphoreplete mice and faster proliferation under lymphopenic condition. The differences in Bcl2/Bim expression and/or heightened IL-7 signaling pathway may account for the pre-RTEs' better responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Qa2, the expression of which indicates the phenotypic maturation of SPs and RTEs, was found to be upregulated in CD4(+ pre-RTEs in thymic perivascular space. Migratory dendritic cells that surround this region contribute to Qa2 expression in pre-RTEs. The dendritic cell-driven Qa2 induction of CD4(+ pre-RTEs is independent of MHC class II and Aire molecules.

  1. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  2. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  3. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  4. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  5. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  6. Department of Defense Recovering Warrior Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    accessible and available to the Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ) as soon as possible381; however, because military service records include health...programs are meeting expectations ........................................... 35 Facilitating Access to Health Care...Enduring RW Mission, Facilitating RW Recovery and Transition, and Facilitating Access to Health Care. SUMMARY 2  DoD Recovering Warrior Task Force

  7. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  8. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  9. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  10. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  11. Changes in endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer under the action of combined treatment including non-specific active immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendyug, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency

  12. Efficacy of Nanoencapsulated Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus Essential Oils by a Mesoporous Material MCM-41 Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Aliakbar, Alireza

    2017-12-05

    Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5.72%), ρ-cymene (3.60%), and 1,8-cineole (3.57%) in the essential oil of T. eriocalyx, and camphene (35.59%), linalyl acetate (20.47%), linalool (14.75%), α-terpineol (13.87%), and geranyl acetate (3.07%) in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus. The essential oils had strong fumigant toxicity on the adult females of Te. urticae and their fumigation persistence was prolonged until 6 and 5 d, respectively, for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Loading of essential oils in MCM-41 increased their stability and persistence was extended up to 20 and 18 d for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Further, mite mortality increased from 80 to 203 mites by T. eriocalyx and from 58 to 186 mites by T. kotschyanus nanoencapsulated essential oils. Based on these results, nanoencapsulation of T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus essential oils in MCM-41 may be a useful method for their application in the management of Te. urticae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  14. Ontogeny of the thymus in a teleost fish, Cyprinus carpio L.: developing thymocytes in the epithelial microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Fanelli, M; Baldassini, M R; Abelli, L; Mastrolia, L; Van Muiswinkel, W B; Rombout, J H

    1999-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, WCL9, specific for membrane molecules of a thymocyte subpopulation was used to detect these cells in situ during the ontogeny of thymus. Cryo-sections revealed WCL9+ cells in the rudiment of the thymus (day 4 post fertilization); thereafter, the positive cells were observed exclusively in the cortex from the first appearance of thymic regionalization (week 4 post fertilization) until adult age. Whole-mount immunostaining of the thymus with WCL9 revealed the three-dimensional structure of the cortex by specific staining. The presence and distribution of apoptotic cells during thymus development was studied by in situ end-labelling of fragmented DNA. From week 4 post fertilization onwards, apoptotic cells were more frequently detected in the cortex than medulla, suggesting a continuous selection of thymocytes in the cortex. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the presence of numerous cortical apoptotic cells inside macrophages. Electron microscopy provided evidence for the existence of epithelial heterogeneity in the thymus. During the ontogeny, the differentiation of epithelial cells was followed from the first weeks until the juvenile age. Cell types were classified on the basis of their localization and cytological characteristics as: i) limiting epithelial cells located in subcapsular, perivascular and peritrabecular zones; ii) reticular epithelial cells situated in medullary and cortical zones; iii) nurse-like cells at the border between the cortex and medulla, iiii) Hassall's body-like structures localized in the medulla. This study could suggest the occurrence of a wide range of lympho-epithelial interactions throughout thymocytes differentiation.

  15. Method for recovering uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwochau, K.; Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Schmitz, J.

    1977-04-01

    In view of the augmenting uranium demand for energy supply and of the anticipated depletion of the actually assured and economic uranium resources the possibility of recovering uranium from sea water receives increasing attention. It is the purpose of the present report to give a detailed discussion of fundamental problems involved and a critical survey of hitherto proposed processes of recovery and to recommend some general directives for further work. (orig.) [de

  16. Production of an anthocyanin-rich food colourant from Thymus moroderi and its application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Miriam Cristina; Castellar, María Rosario; Obón, José María; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Rivera, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from flowers and bracts of Thymus sp. are studied. An anthocyanin-rich food colourant with interesting high antioxidant activity from Thymus moroderi has been obtained, and applied to colour foods. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols from T. moroderi and another five Thymus sp. were extracted in methanol/hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol L(-1) (50/50, v/v) 2 h stirring at 50 °C. They were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS and UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence, as total individual polyphenols. Total polyphenols were also determined. Flowers had higher anthocyanins and other polyphenols concentrations than bracts; for example, total polyphenols content of T. moroderi were 131.58 and 61.98 g GAE kg(-1) vegetal tissue, respectively. A liquid concentrated colourant was obtained from T. moroderi using water/citric acid as solvent. It was characterised and compared with other two commercial anthocyanin-rich food colourants from red grape skin and red carrot (colour strength of 1.7 and 3.6 AU, respectively). T. moroderi colourant had 1.2 AU colour strength, and high storage stability (>97.1% remaining colour after 110 days at 4 °C). It showed a higher polyphenols content than commercial colourants. Its antioxidant activity was 0.707 mmol Trolox eq. g(-1) plant dry weight, 69.5 times higher than red carrot. The three colourants were applied to colour yogurts, giving pinky tonalities. The colour did not change evidently (ΔE*(ab)  antioxidant activity. This colourant gives a stable colour to a yogurt during 1 month. These results expand the use of natural colourants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  18. Thymus repair compared with hemopoiesis repair in spleen after protracted irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.

    1987-01-01

    Matured female mice of ICR strain were irradiated from a 60 Co source with a daily dose rate of 5 Gy till total accumulated dose of 10 Gy for 2 days. Animals were examined in various intervals within 42 days after irradiation. The results revealed that protracted irradiation will induce a massive injury to hemopoiesis. The first repair processes occurred in thymus and were characterized by two phases. The first repair wave peaked about the day 10 and the second about the day 30 after irradiation. The repair processes observed in the red pulp of the spleen reached their highest intensity approximately between the days 14-16 after irradiation. (author)

  19. Quantitation of human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen by radioimmunoassay in different forms of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechik, B E; Jason, J; Shore, A; Baker, M; Dosch, H M; Gelfand, E W

    1979-12-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay, increased levels of a human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen (HThy-L) have been detected in leukemic cells and plasma from most patients with E-rosette-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a number of patients with E-rosette-negative ALL, acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute monomyelocytic leukemia (AMML), and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AVL). Low levels of HThy-L have been demonstrated in white cells from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (stable phase) and in mononuclear cells from patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. The relationship between HThy-L and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is discussed.

  20. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, S.V.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-01-01

    a principal component analysis of the CD spectra, we extract fingerprint spectra of both the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoadduct (64PP). Extending the CD measurements to the vacuum ultraviolet region in combination with systematic examinations of size effects...... of terminal thymines, i.e., the reaction does not occur preferentially at the extremities of the single strands as previously stated. It is even possible to form two dimers with only two bridging thymines. Finally, experiments conducted on calf thymus DNA provided a similar signature of the photodimer...

  1. Chemical composition and fungicidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris against Alternaria citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica A. Soto Mendívil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó químicamente el aceite esencial de tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L. por Cromatografía de Gases/Espectroscopia de Masas y se evaluó su actividad fungicida. Los principales constituyentes fueron borneol (28.4%, timol (16.6%, carvacrol metil eter (9.6%, camfeno (6.9%, α-humulene (6.4% y carvacrol (5.0%. Las pruebas de actividad fungicida (in vitro indicaron que la concentración de 1000ppm del aceite esencial de tomillo fue efectivo para inhibir a Alternaria citri, cuando se adicionó al medio de cultivo agar papa dextrosa

  2. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  3. An occasional diagnosis of myasthenia gravis - a focus on thymus during cardiac surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainese Luca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myasthenia gravis, an uncommon autoimmune syndrome, is commonly associated with thymus abnormalities. Thymomatous myasthenia gravis is considered to have worst prognosis and thymectomy can reverse symptoms if precociously performed. Case report We describe a case of a patient who underwent mitral valve repair and was found to have an occasional thymomatous mass during the surgery. A total thymectomy was performed concomitantly to the mitral valve repair. Conclusion The diagnosis of thymomatous myasthenia gravis was confirmed postoperatively. Following the surgery this patient was strictly monitored and at 1-year follow-up a complete stable remission had been successfully achieved.

  4. Effects of gamma-rays on morphology of the thymus of the adult fish of Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, M.M.H.; Ijiri, Ken-ichi; Egami, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The effects of gamma-rays on the thymus in the adult fish of Oryzias latipes were studied. Fish were subjected to a single whole-body irradiation of the dose ranging from 0 to 8 kR. Through the histological sections, the quantitative treatment was performed on the changes in thymus volume and mitotic activity of thymocytes after irradiation. The thymus in the irradiated fish exhibited a sudden drop in its volume on day 1-3 post-irradiation, subsequently followed by its regeneration. The change in mitotic index of thymocytes, especially in the regeneration phase, showed a dose-dependent behavior (same level as the control for 10 and 25 R; and overshoot for 100 and 200 R; a gradual recovery for 1 and 2 kR; no mitosis for 4 and 8 kR). (author)

  5. Fragmentation of chromatin DNA in mouse thymus cells after whole body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang; Liu Xueying; Zhu Xuefen

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of soluble chromatin in mouse thymus nuclei after whole body γ-irradiation were investigated by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After deproteinization and electrophoresis eight regular DNA bands were revealed. The molecular weights of these bands were estimated by comparing their migration rates with those of the standard fragments obtained from PBR 322 digested completely by restrictive endonuclease Hae III. The molecular weight of the first band was calculated to be 186 base pairs corresponding approximately to the size of DNA fragment from a single nucleosome, and those of other bands appeared to be its multiples. The results suggested that the disintegration of chromatin DNA after γ-irradiation might have occurred at the linkage regions of chromatin. The autolysis product of normal thymus chromatin under sterile condition were also analyzed and its electrophoretic pattern was found to be just the same as that of the postirradiation product. It seems, therefore, that the endonuclease existing in normal tissues might be responsible for the postirradiation chromatin degradation. The mechanism of this kind of enzymatic digestion remains to be elucidated in further investigation. (author)

  6. Split tolerance in nude mice transplanted with 2'-deoxyguanosine-treated allogeneic thymus lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, G.; Moriyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawase, Y.; Habu, S.

    1989-01-01

    To elucidate the acquisition of self tolerance in the thymus, full-allogeneic thymic chimeras were constructed. Athymic C3H and BALB/c nude mice were reconstituted with the thymic lobes of BALB/c and B10.BR fetuses, respectively, that were organ cultured for 5 days in the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine. T cells in these chimeras were tolerized to the host MHC in both MLR and CTL assays. In contrast, T cells in the chimeras exhibited split tolerance for the thymic MHC haplotype. CTL specific for class I MHC of the thymic haplotype were generated not only from the peripheral T cells of the chimeras but also from thymocytes re-populated in the engrafted thymic lobes. However, T cells in these chimeras responded poorly to the class II MHC of the thymic haplotype in a standard MLR assay. In a syngeneic MLR culture upon stimulation with enriched APC of the thymic haplotype, only 22 to 48% of the responses were mediated by CD4+ cells, and proliferations of CD4- cells were prominent. There were no haplotype-specific suppressor cells detected which would cause the unresponsiveness to the thymic class II MHC. These results indicated that the thymic lobes treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine were defective in the ability to induce the transplantation tolerance for the class I MHC expressed on the thymus, although the same thymic lobes were able to induce the transplantation tolerance for the thymic class II MHC

  7. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn 2+ and [γ- 32 P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  8. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear, applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration.

  9. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Multilineage Potential and Self-Renewal Define an Epithelial Progenitor Cell Population in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlia Wong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are critical for T cell development and self-tolerance but are gradually lost with age. The existence of thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPCs in the postnatal thymus has been inferred, but their identity has remained enigmatic. Here, we assessed the entire adult TEC compartment in order to reveal progenitor capacity is retained exclusively within a subset of immature thymic epithelium displaying several hallmark features of stem/progenitor function. These adult TEPCs generate mature cortical and medullary lineages in a stepwise fashion, including Aire+ TEC, within fetal thymus reaggregate grafts. Although relatively quiescent in vivo, adult TEPCs demonstrate significant in vitro colony formation and self-renewal. Importantly, 3D-cultured TEPCs retain their capacity to differentiate into cortical and medullary TEC lineages when returned to an in vivo thymic microenvironment. No other postnatal TEC subset exhibits this combination of properties. The characterization of adult TEPC will enable progress in understanding TEC biology in aging and regeneration.

  12. A case of congenital Langerhans cell histiocytosis with skin and thymic lesions: Exploring the prognostic value of thymus involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Escudero-Góngora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymus evaluation is not included in the guidelines of the Histiocyte Society, so its prevalence, management and prognosis are not well established. We present a newborn with self-healing cutaneous LCH and thymic involvement that was evaluated with a thoracic ultrasound. With the current evidence we are unable to predict the prognosis of the thymus association in neonatal LCH. We suggest that performing thymic ultrasound study, which is a non-invasive technique, would allow us to know the incidence of thymic involvement and its role on prognosis.

  13. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  14. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  15. Process and system for recovering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a system for heating a room or similar, using a 'dibare' cycle working with a less volatile fluid and a more volatile fluid and employing a coupling between a fractionated separation area working at high pressure and a fractionated mixing zone working at low pressure. The invention relates to the following uses: heating a room or building, drying any material and recovering the thermal discharge from a motive cycle, particularly the recovery of the thermal discharge of an electric nuclear power station to carry out district heating [fr

  16. Apparatus for recovering oil from Posidonien shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-04-13

    Equipment for recovering oil from shale and the like, as well as the distilling of coal is characterized in that a number of chambers provided in a known way with upper and lower air supply are arranged open to the receiver of the oil vapors through removable domes which can be attached to the usual oil-vapor carry-off. Arrangement is characterized in that the domes are movable to the side, so that they can be interchangeably attached to the different chambers.

  17. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by an aqueous conversion and precipitation reaction using a critical stoichiometric excess of a water-soluble permanganate to form solid cesium permanganate (CsMnO 4 ) free from cesium alum. The other metal salts remain in solution, providing the final pH does not cause hydroxides of aluminium or iron to form. The precipitate is separated from the residual solution to obtain CsMnO 4 of high purity

  18. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2009-05-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  19. Long-term storage of recovered krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    1983-01-01

    Various storage methods for krypton-85 recovered from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are under development in many countries. These methods include:(1) direct storage in pressurized cylinders, (2) storage of krypton adsorbed on charcoal or zeolite in pressurized cylinders and (3) immobilization (encapsulation) in zeolite. A krypton storage facility using pressurized cylinders has been constructed in the krypton recovery pilot plant in Tokaimura and other methods are now under development. These three methods are evaluated and the features of the constructed facility are also reported. (author)

  20. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  1. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  2. Relation of type-C RNA virus infectivity and leukemogenesis in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kenji; Ito, Takaaki; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1976-01-01

    Observation was made as to movement of type-C RNA virus infectivity in the process of leukemogensis induced by Gross virus, N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), or, x-ray. Total dose of 680 R in 4 times was given to the whole body or parts of the body at intervals of 5 days. Thymic leukemia occurred in 100% or rats which were inoculated with type-C RNA virus at the period of newborn 64 days after, on the average. Infectious titer of virus rose only in thymus toward leukemogenesis. Thymic leukemia was induced 100% in mice by NEU 122 days after, but its incidence was 9% of mice of which thymus was extracted. Leukemia virus was not detected in non-extracted thymus of mice, and pattern of virus infectivity in other organs did not show any difference with that of mice of which thymus was extracted. Virus showed high infectious titer in uterus of mice of both groups. Leukemia occurred 87% in the whole body irradiated mice, 15% in partially irradiated mice, and 39% in mice of which thymus was extracted and the whole body was irradiated. Virus did not show any homeostatic infectious titer in three kinds of leukemia, but it showed high infectious titer in uterus. (Kanao, N.)

  3. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  5. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  6. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  7. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  8. Interaction between insulin and calf thymus DNA, and quantification of insulin and calf thymus DNA by a resonance Rayleigh scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, L.; Liu, Z.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of insulin with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) leads to a complex that displays remarkably enhanced resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS). The complex and its formation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and by absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. We show that the Tyr B16, Tyr B26 and Phe B24 amino acids near the active center (Phe B25) were influenced by the interaction, whereas Tyr A14, Tyr A19 and Phe B1 (which are located far away from the active center) were less influenced. The interaction provide a way in the quantitation of both ctDNA and insulin with high sensitivity. When ctDNA is used as a probe to quantify insulin, the detection limit (3σ) is 6.0 ng mL -1 . If, inversely, insulin is used as a probe to quantify ctDNA, the detection limit (3σ) is 7.2 ng mL -1 . The analysis of synthetic DNA samples and an insulin infection sample provided satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Recovering heat from waste air from stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A milk cow gives off 35.7 kW h/d via its body, excreta and urine. 68.4% of this is body heat. Part of this waste heat escapes with the waste air from the cowsheds. The heat can be recovered from the waste air by an air/air heat exchanger. The air is collected and taken to a heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, fresh air is heated by the waste air, and is distributed over the cowshed by a system of ducts. The heated waste air escapes through a central chimney at the end of the heat exchanger. It is sensible to fit the heat exchanger above the cowshed roof, if there is sufficient space available and the chimney should run upwards from the cowshed. A double heat exchanger makes it possible to allocate each half of the cowshed to half of the heat exchanger.

  10. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by a two-reaction sequence in which the cesium alum is first dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution to form cesium alum hydroxide, CsAl(OH) 3 , and potassium sulfate, K 2 SO 4 . Part of the K 2 SO 4 precipitates and is separated from the supernatant solution. In the second reaction, a water-soluble permanganate, such as potassium permanganate, KMnO 4 , is added to the supernatant. This reaction forms a precipitate of cesium permanganate, CsMnO 4 . This precipitate may be separated from the residual solution to obtain cesium permanganate of high purity, which can be sold as a product or converted into other cesium compounds

  11. Process for recovering cesium from pollucite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from a cesium-bearing mineral such as pollucite by extraction with hydrochloric acid to obtain an extract of cesium chloride and other alkali metal and polyvalent metal chlorides. The iron and aluminum chlorides can be precipitated as the hydroxides and separated from the solution of the alkali metal chlorides to which is added potassium permanganate or other water-soluble permanganate to selectively precipitate cesium permanganate. The cesium precipitate is then separated from the residual solution containing the metal chlorides. The cesium permanganate, which is in a very pure form, can be converted to other cesium compounds by reaction with a reducing agent to obtain cesium carbonate and cesium delta manganese dioxide

  12. Increased periodontal bone loss in temporarily B lymphocyte-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Fiehn, N E

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T-lym......-lymphocyte deficiency did not interfere with the development of periodontal disease in this model, whereas a temporary and moderate reduction in B-lymphocyte numbers seemed to predispose for aggravation of periodontal bone loss.......In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T...... had significantly less periodontal bone support than controls. Anti-mu treated inoculated rats had significantly less periodontal bone support than nude and normal rats, whereas no difference was found between normal, nude, and thymus-grafted rats. It is concluded that permanent T...

  13. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45. In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  14. Analysis of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and receptors and implications in thymus biology and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatli, Irem; Akkaya, Bahar; Uysal, Hilmi; Kahraman, Sevim; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad

    2017-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis is an autoantibody-mediated, neuromuscular junction disease, and is usually associated with thymic abnormalities presented as thymic tumors (~10%) or hyperplastic thymus (~65%). The exact role of thymus in Myasthenia Gravis development is not clear, yet many patients benefit from thymectomy. The apoptotic ligand TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand is thought to be involved in the regulation of thymocyte counts, although conflicting results are reported. We investigated differential expression profiles of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its transmembrane receptors, Nuclear Factor-kB activation status, and apoptotic cell counts in healthy thymic tissue and pathological thymus from Myasthenia Gravis patients. All tissues expressed TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand and its receptors, with hyperplastic tissue having the highest expression levels of death receptors DR4 and DR5. No detectable Nuclear Factor-kB activation, at least via the canonical Protein Kinase A-mediated p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, was evident in any of the tissues studied. Apoptotic cell counts were higher in MG-associated tissue compared to the normal thymus. Possible use of the TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand within the concept of an apoptotic ligand-mediated medical thymectomy in thymoma- or thymic hyperplasia-associated Myasthenia Gravis is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism of Exciplex Formation Between Cu-Porphyrin and Calf-thymus DNA as Revealed by Saturation Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvedko, A.G.; Kruglik, S.; Kruglik, S.G.; Ermolenkov, V.V.; Turpin, P.Y.; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis

    1999-01-01

    The excited-state complex (exciplex) formation that results from the photoinduced interaction of water-soluble cationic copper(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyl)]porphyrin [Cu(TMpy-P4)] with calf-thymus DNA has been studied in detail by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy using both ~10 ns

  16. Changes in Hassall's corpuscles of the guinea-pig thymus after /sup 60/Co irradiation twice administered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M; Kinoshita, H; Sugiyama, S; Ishibashi, H; Uehara, M [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1975-02-01

    Changes in Hassall's corpuscles of the guinea-pig thymus after /sup 60/Co irradiating twice are shown in microscopical photographs. Certain types of Hassall's corpuscles after irradiation can be seen more clearly in aldehyde-fuchsin stained patterns than in the hematoxylineosin stained ones.

  17. Expression of T cell antigen receptor genes in the thymus of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, G.; Yoshikai, Y.; Kishihara, K.; Nomoto, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sequential appearance of the expression of T cell antigen receptor genes was investigated in the thymus of irradiated mice at the early stage after transplantation of Thy-1 congeneic H-2 compatible allogeneic bone marrow cells. The first cells to repopulate the thymus on day 7 after bone marrow transplantation were intrathymic radioresistant T cell precursors, which expanded mainly to CD4+CD8+ host-type thymocytes by day 14. A high level of gamma gene expression but a much reduced level of alpha and beta gene expression were detected in the host-type thymocytes on day 7. During regeneration of these cells, gamma-chain messages fell to low level and alpha and beta mRNA levels increased. The thymus of the recipients began to be repopulated by donor-derived T cells about 2 wk after bone marrow transplantation and was almost completely replaced by the third week. An ordered expression of gamma then beta and alpha-chain gene transcript was also observed in the donor-type thymocytes at the early stage after bone marrow transplantation. The use of thymocytes at early stage in whole-body irradiated bone marrow chimera provides a pertinent source for investigating the molecular mechanism of T cell differentiation in adult thymus

  18. Lipid metabolism in rat tissues exposed to the chronic effects of γ-irradiation and ubiquinone Q9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic γ-irradiation of rats with the daily dose of 0.129 Gy activates the synthesis of various classes of lipids in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells and induces lipid accumulation in these tissues. Feeding of rats with the antioxidant, ubiquinone Q-9, under conditions of chronic irradiation causes a considerable normalization of lipogenesis and levels of the lipid concentration in the tissues of animals irradiated with the dose of 20 Gy

  19. Three way interactions between Thymus vulgaris, Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Eva; Ehlers, Bodil Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Thymus vulgaris is a dominating component of the Mediterranean garrigue vegetation. It produces aromatic oil, containing monoterpenes, which affects the performance (growth, survival) of other plants, and microorganisms. Annual plant species of the genus Medicago are commonly found in Mediterranean...... shows patterns of adaptation to its thyme neighbor, and 2) if any adaptive response was dependent on the rhizobium, and whether the rhizobium was either "experienced" or "naive" with respect to thyme monoterpenes. Using a G*G*E design, the fitness of 13 genotypes of Medicago truncatula was tested....... Of these genotypes, 7 were ”experienced”, and 6 were ”naive” to thyme. All genotypes were grown on soil either amended with thyme monoterpene or not. In addition, each plant received a rhizobium treatment, which was either: no rhizobium, a mix of thyme experienced Sinorhizobium genotypes, or a mix of thyme naive...

  20. Influence of drying and irradiation on the composition of volatile compounds of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venskutonis, R.; Poll, L.; Larsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of air-drying, freeze-drying, γ- and β-irradiation and storage for up to 10 months on the composition of volatile compounds in thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.) is presented. Altogether, 70 constituents were identified (53 positively and 17 tentatively), including those considered most important for thyme flavour. Quantitative results did not reveal significant differences in the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the reduction of the amount of some volatile compounds after drying was comparable for air-dried and freeze-dried herb. The largest changes in flavour composition were observed during storage, especially the reduction in the concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons

  1. Composition of essential oil of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus) at different hydrodistillation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurevičiūtė, Rūta; Ložienė, Kristina; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio

    2018-02-02

    Distillation time can both to optimise the production and to engineer the composition of essential oil in essential oil bearing plants. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of duration of hydrodistillation on composition of essential oil of Thymus × citriodorus, the natural source of commercially important geraniol and citral, a component with valuable biological properties. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation at different distillation times and analysed by GC/MS analytical methods. Increase in percentage of essential oil during all hydrodistillation time gradient was uneven. Elongation of hydrodistillation time decreased percentages of monoterpenes but increased percentages of sesquiterpenes in essential oil. Results showed that the hydrodistillation of essential oil from lemon thyme longer than 60 min is useless.

  2. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in Bidaneh Qermez grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  3. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in �Bidaneh Qermez� grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  4. Positive Selection of γδ CTL by TL Antigen Expressed in the Thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kunio; Takahashi, Toshitada; Morita, Akimichi; Hasegawa-Nishiwaki, Hitomi; Iwase, Shigeru; Obata, Yuichi

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the function of the mouse TL antigen in the thymus, we have derived two TL transgenic mouse strains by introducing Tla a -3 of A strain origin with its own promoter onto a C3H background with no expression of TL in the thymus. These transgenic mouse strains, both of which express high levels of Tlaa-3-TL antigen in their thymus, were analyzed for their T cell function with emphasis on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation. A T cell response against TL was induced in Tg.Tlaa-3-1, Tg.Tlaa-3-2, and control C3H mice by skin grafts from H-2K b/T3 b transgenic mice, Tg.Con.3-1, expressing T3b-TL ubiquitously. Spleen cells from mice that had rejected the T3b-TL positive skin grafts were restimulated in vitro with Tg.Con.3-1 irradiated spleen cells. In mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), approximately 20% and 15% of Thy-1+ T cells derived from Tg.Tlaa-3-1 and Tg.Tlaa-3-2, respectively, expressed TCRγδ, whereas almost all those from C3H expressed TCRαβ. The MLC from Tg.Tlaa-3-2 and C3H demonstrated high CTL activity against TL, while those from Tg.Tlaa-3-1 had little or none. The generation of γδ CTL recognizing TL in Tg.Tlaa-3-2, but not C3H mice, was confirmed by the establishment of CTL clones. A total of 14 γδ CTL clones were established from Tg.Tlaa-3-2, whereas none were obtained from C3H. Of the 14 γδ CTL clones, 8 were CD8+ and 6 were CD4−CD8− double negative. The CTL activity of all these clones was TL specific and inhibited by anti-TL, but not by anti-H-2 antibodies, demonstrating that they recognize TL directly without antigen presentation by H-2. The CTL activity was blocked by antibodies to TCRγδ and CD3, and also by antibodies to CD8α and CD8β in CD8+ clones, showing that the activity was mediated by TCRγδ and coreceptors. The thymic origin of these γδ CTL clones was indicated by the expression of Thy-1 and Ly-1 (CD5), and also CD8αβ heterodimers in CD8+ clones on their surfaces and by the usage of TCR Vγ4 chains in 12 of

  5. Essential Oil of Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus from Algeria: Chemotypification and in vitro Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Vitali, Luca A; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Lamiaceae) is a small shrub endemic to Algeria and Morocco where is found in lawns, rockeries and mountainous regions. From a phytochemical point of view this taxon has never been characterized. In this work we have analysed the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from inflorescences and vegetative parts by GC/MS. A new chemotype, i.e. borneol-chemotype, was characterized for the first time in the species. Furthermore, we assessed the biological activities of essential oils, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumor cells that were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP, disc diffusion, and MTT methods, respectively. Biological assays highlighted a moderate inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans (inhibition zone diameter in the range 9 - 10 mm), and noteworthy cytotoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells (IC 50 of 46.95 μg/ml). © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  7. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farsaraei*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The antifungal activity of the essential oils and their constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi has been reported. Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae is one of the Thymus species.  A large number of studies have concerned the chemical compositions and antifungal activity of thyme’s oil. In order to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides, recently considerable attention has been given to search for naturally occurring compounds. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical composition and antifungal activity of T. vulgaris oil cultivated in Iran. Methods: The essential oil from aerial parts of the plant at full flowering stage was subjected to hydrodistillation and chemical compounds were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolinaby of the oil was evaluated by agar dilution method. The data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SPSS 21 software. Results: Totally 45 compounds representing 96.75% of the oil were found. Thymol (36.81% and ρ-cymene (30.90% were the main components of thyme oil. According to the results, the antifungal activity of the oil increased with a rising in concentration. All of the tested fungi growth was completely inhibited on 1600 µL/L. In this study fungicidal activity was only observed on F. oxysporum and D. spicifera at concentrations higher than 800 µL/L.  Conclusion: The antifungal activity of T. vulgaris essential oil could be probably due to the high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol and monoterpene hydrocarbons (ρ-cymene.

  8. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after a second 60Co local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hideo

    1974-01-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea-pigs, weighing about 300 g, were irradiated locally with 60 Co 800 R, and the same dose of irradiation was repeated a second time in each guinea pig at a different interval. Thereafter, an irradiated animal was sacrificed every other day for 2 weeks. Thymuses were weighed and fixed in 10 percent formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained with the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the sections of HE and the AF (+) ratio of Hassall's corpuscles was calculated in sections of AF. The ratio (%) of the number of AF (+) corpuscles to the total number of corpuscles seen in the entire microscopical field was called ''AF (+) ratio''. The weight of the twice irradiated thymuses decreased regardless of the interval from the first irradiation. The tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge during the period of enlargement of the corpuscles after first irradiation was increased by the second irradiation. The enlarged pattern of Hassall's corpuscles after a single irradiation of 60 Co 800 R re-appeared when the animals were given a second irradiation on the 35th day. Concerning the AF (+) ratio of Hassall's corpuscles, the increasing pattern of AF (+) ratio such as after single irradiation of 60 Co 800 R re-appeared when the animals were given a second irradiation on the 35th day, but no effect was observed during the process of enlargement and disintegration of Hassall's corpuscles after the second irradiation. The enlargement of Hassall's corpuscles is attributed not only to the process of lympholysis, but also to various other factors such as the number and size of the corpuscles and the stage in their life cycle. (JPN)

  9. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muthanna J; Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-01

    The aerial parts of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. (Lamiaceae) and flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds, throat and gum infections and gastro-intestinal disorder by the indigenous people of northern Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined. Compounds were isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oils of both plants using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC values for the compounds were assessed individually and combined based on a microdilution and the checkerboard method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Two known compounds were isolated from the essential oils of both plants and were identified as thymol and eugenol. The isolated compounds were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against seven selected pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 250.0 microg/ml and B. cereus was found to be the most sensitive pathogen with a MIC value of 15.6 microg/ml. Eugenol achieved stronger MIC values against most tested pathogens and the best MIC value (15.6 microg/ml) was observed against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae whereas, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and E. coli were inhibited with a MIC value of 31.2 microg/ml. Combination results had antibacterial enhancement against most pathogens and the best synergistic result was seen against P. mirabilis and E. coli. The isolation of two antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower

  10. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after a second /sup 60/Co local irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, H [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1974-12-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea-pigs, weighing about 300 g, were irradiated locally with /sup 60/Co 800 R, and the same dose of irradiation was repeated a second time in each guinea pig at a different interval. Thereafter, an irradiated animal was sacrificed every other day for 2 weeks. Thymuses were weighed and fixed in 10 percent formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained with the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the sections of HE and the AF (+) ratio of Hassall's corpuscles was calculated in sections of AF. The ratio (%) of the number of AF (+) corpuscles to the total number of corpuscles seen in the entire microscopical field was called ''AF (+) ratio''. The weight of the twice irradiated thymuses decreased regardless of the interval from the first irradiation. The tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge during the period of enlargement of the corpuscles after first irradiation was increased by the second irradiation. The enlarged pattern of Hassall's corpuscles after a single irradiation of /sup 60/Co 800 R re-appeared when the animals were given a second irradiation on the 35th day. Concerning the AF (+) ratio of Hassall's corpuscles, the increasing pattern of AF (+) ratio such as after single irradiation of /sup 60/Co 800 R re-appeared when the animals were given a second irradiation on the 35th day, but no effect was observed during the process of enlargement and disintegration of Hassall's corpuscles after the second irradiation. The enlargement of Hassall's corpuscles is attributed not only to the process of lympholysis, but also to various other factors such as the number and size of the corpuscles and the stage in their life cycle.

  11. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  13. Mechanism of chromatin degradation in thymocytes of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotova, R.N.; Umanskij, S.R.; Tokarskaya, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    A biphase change in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity of the thymocyte chromatin was observed after 10 Gy irradiation of rats: during the first minutes the incorporation of 14 C-NAD increased by 40% then started decreasing to make 110, 60 and 35% after 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. Irradiation of rat thymus chromatin in vitro sharply decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. The possible role of changes in the poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis in the activation of nuclear Ca/Mg-dependent endonuclease and in the postirradiation degradation of the thymocyte chromatin is discussed

  14. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between actors. Our formalization is done using the theorem prover in the RODIN platform.

  15. Method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium from the residue of a sand chlorinator. It comprises: providing a residue from a sand chlorinator, the residue containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; digesting the residue with an acid to produce an aqueous liquid containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; feeding the metal containing liquid through a cation exchanger; eluding the cation exchanger with an acid eluant to to produce: a first eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the calcium and sodium in the feed liquid; a second eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the one or more radioactive metals in the feed liquid; a third eluate containing at least half of the yttrium in the feed liquid, and a fourth eluate containing at least half of the weight of the scandium in the feed liquid

  16. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  17. Identification of the common radiation-sensitive and glucose metabolism-related expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bong, Jin Jong; Kang, Yumi; Choi, Suk Cjul; Choi, Moo Hyun; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the common radiation-sensitive expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice on 100 days after irradiation. Thus, we performed microarray analysis for thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice, respectively. We categorized differential expressed genes by the analysis of DAVID Bioinformatics Resources v 6.7 and GeneSpring GX 11.5.1 and validated gene expression patterns by QPCR analysis. Our result demonstrated that radiation-sensitive expressed genes and signaling pathways in the thymus of irradiated ICR and AKR/J mice.

  18. Effect of intratracheally instilled depleted uranium on immunological function of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hanhu; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Zhu Maoxiang; Liu Xingrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study immunological effects of depleted uranium in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were exposed to depleted uranium by single intratracheal instillation. Body weight and peripheral blood cells were measured weekly and immunological functions were evaluated by weight coefficient of immune organs, plague forming cells of splenocytes, total and subpopulation counts of lymphocytes in thymus. Results: Early after administration, body weight decreased and red blood cells as well as platelets reduced while white blood cells increased, which returned to normal within 1 or 2 months. Immunological functions of splenocytes and thymocytes were affected dose-dependently by depleted uranium. Conclusion: Depleted uranium induces immunological dysfunction in rats. (authors)

  19. Three distinct developmental pathways for adaptive and two IFN-γ-producing γδ T subsets in adult thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Terkild Brink; Ødum, Niels; Geisler, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -producing γδ T cells (γδNKT). Developmental progression towards both IFN-γ-producing subsets can be induced by TCR signalling, and each pathway results in thymic emigration at a different stage. Finally, we show that γδT1 cells are the predominating IFN-γ-producing subset developing in the adult thymus. Thus......, this study maps out three distinct development pathways that result in the programming of γδTn, γδT1 and γδNKT cells.......Murine γδ T cells include subsets that are programmed for distinct effector functions during their development in the thymus. Under pathological conditions, different γδ T cell subsets can be protective or can exacerbate a disease. Here we show that CD117, CD200 and CD371, together with other...

  20. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  1. Development of interleukin-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Terkild Brink; Schmidt, Jonas Damgård; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we have investigated the role of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) on the development of γδ T cells. We show that ICOS is expressed by a population of immature Vγ2+CD45RBlow γδ T cells predisposed to interleukin-17 (IL-17) production. We found that treatment with ICOS specific antibodies...... drastically reduces fetal development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells by agonistic actions, and that ICOS deficient mice have a significant increase in the population of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells in the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and skin and exhibit exacerbated sensitization responses to 2......,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that development of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus....

  2. How frequently is the thymus seen on whole-body iodine-131 diagnostic and post-treatment scans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J. [Departments of Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); McDougall, I.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how often the thymus is visualized on whole-body radioiodine scans. One hundred and seventy-five patients had 325 diagnostic scans and 200 post-treatment scans. Activity in the mediastinum possibly consistent with the thymus was seen on seven scans in six patients. Four of these were diagnostic scans (three were second follow-up scans, and the fourth, a third follow-up scan). Three post-treatment scans demonstrated mediastinal uptake. Only one patient had persistent mediastinal uptake on both a post-treatment scan and a subsequent follow-up diagnostic scan. None of these six patients were treated as a result of this finding and none has clinical or biochemical evidence of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  3. How frequently is the thymus seen on whole-body iodine-131 diagnostic and post-treatment scans?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.; McDougall, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how often the thymus is visualized on whole-body radioiodine scans. One hundred and seventy-five patients had 325 diagnostic scans and 200 post-treatment scans. Activity in the mediastinum possibly consistent with the thymus was seen on seven scans in six patients. Four of these were diagnostic scans (three were second follow-up scans, and the fourth, a third follow-up scan). Three post-treatment scans demonstrated mediastinal uptake. Only one patient had persistent mediastinal uptake on both a post-treatment scan and a subsequent follow-up diagnostic scan. None of these six patients were treated as a result of this finding and none has clinical or biochemical evidence of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  4. Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing Thymus kotschyanus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooraj Mehdizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyme Essential oils (EO with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industry. It is also used for flavoring and preservation of several foods. Nowadays, packaging research is receiving a considerable attention due to the development of eco-friendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. In this study Thymus kotschyanus EO concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in starch-chitosan composite (S-CH film were used. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties significantly increased with the incorporation of EO (p < 0.05. Incorporating EO, increased total color differences (DE, yellowness index (YI and whiteness index (WI which were significantly higher than control and its transparency was reduced. Our results pointed out that the incorporation of Thymus kotschyanus EO as a natural antibacterial agent has potential for using the developed film as an active packaging.

  5. Effect of infrared and X-ray radiation on thymus cells and the rate of growth of Ehrlich carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukina, A R; Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effect of infrared light with a wavelength of 850 nm and modulated frequency of 101 Hz and X-ray radiation on the induction of cross-adaptive and radiation responses in the thymus and on the rate of tumor growth in mice in vivo. Preliminary exposure to infrared and X-ray radiation was shown to result in recovery in thymus weight after irradiation in a dose of 1.5 Gy and also inhibited the growth rate of Ehrlich carcinoma. These data attest to common mechanisms of the adaptive response induced by infrared and X-ray radiation in mice. Infrared light can be used as an adaptogen to adapt the animals to adverse factors.

  6. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  7. Chromatin degradation under the effect of differentiation inductors and γ-radiation on thymus lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Sorokina, N.I.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical inductors of differentiation were shown to cause chromatin degradation in thymus lymphocytes. This process was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitors. The fragments formed after the effect of chemical differentiation inductors on thymocytes were fully identical to chromatin internucleosome degradation products formed in the exposed cells. Chromatin degradation under the effect of chemical differentiation inductors was most pronounced in a more radiosensitive thymocyte fraction

  8. Differentiation of bone marrow cells to functional T lymphocytes following implantation of thymus grafts and thymic stroma in nude and ATxBM mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splitter, G.A.; McGuire, T.C.; Davis, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac allografts were used to compare the immunologic capacity of nude mice and adult, thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (AT x BM) mice. Neither nude nor AT x BM mice were able to reject cardiac allografts of any party. However, both rejected grafts of any party following implantation of neonatal thymus or thymus from 3-week-old syngeneic mice. Irradiated syngeneic thymus grafts (800 R) were equally effective in restoring host responsiveness against allografts. In contrast, allogeneic thymus grafts restored the capacity to reject second-party heart grafts only in AT x BM mice. Second-party grafts persisted indefintely when placed on nude mice implanted with an allogeneic, unirradiated thymus graft. Third-party grafts transplanted 17 weeks after reconstitution, however, were rejected. Irradiated nude mice given normal littermate bone marrow and simultaneously grafted with second-party thymus and heart allografts also failed to reject their second-party heart grafts. The difference in ultimate capacity to respond between AT x BM and nude mice suggests that a maturational defect exists in the nude mouse environment which impedes development of precursor T lymphocytes

  9. Molecular spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the interaction of anti-platelet drug ticlopidine with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Shumaila; Rahman, Yusra; Sarwar, Tarique; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Tabish, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug which belongs to the thienopyridine structural family and exerts its effect by functioning as an ADP receptor inhibitor. Ticlopidine inhibits the expression of TarO gene in S. aureus and may provide protection against MRSA. Groove binding agents are known to disrupt the transcription factor DNA complex and consequently inhibit gene expression. Understanding the mechanism of interaction of ticlopidine with DNA can prove useful in the development of a rational drug designing system. At present, there is no such study on the interaction of anti-platelet drugs with nucleic acids. A series of biophysical experiments were performed to ascertain the binding mode between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments confirmed the formation of a complex between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. Moreover, the values of binding constant were found to be in the range of 103 M- 1, which is indicative of groove binding between ticlopidine and calf thymus DNA. These results were further confirmed by studying the effect of denaturation on double stranded DNA, iodide quenching, viscometric studies, thermal melting profile as well as CD spectral analysis. The thermodynamic profile of the interaction was also determined using isothermal titration calorimetric studies. The reaction was found to be endothermic and the parameters obtained were found to be consistent with those of known groove binders. In silico molecular docking studies further corroborated well with the experimental results.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

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    Zehra Omeroğlu Ulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL, chronic calorie restriction (CCR, and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified (p<0.05. These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (GSE95371. We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroğlu Ulu, Zehra; Ulu, Salih; Dogan, Soner; Guvenc Tuna, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restriction (CCR), and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (p < 0.05). These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO) categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE95371). We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus. PMID:29511668

  12. Effect of gamma-radiation on direct intercellular interaction (rosette formation) between thymus macrophages and thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, I.M.; Yarilin, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    In experiments with mice, the effect of radiation on resette formation between thymus macrophages (Th-MPh) and thymocytes (Thc) was studied on days 1, 4, 12, 30, and 60 following gamma-irradiation with doses of 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 Gy. gamma-Irradiation with doses of above 2 Gy was shown to cause a dose-dependent inhibition of rosette formation of Th-MPh with Thc in vitro. Two types of rosette-forming Th-MPh were identified: RFMPhII with low rate of binding to Thc and RFMPhII with high rate of binding to Thc. Radiation affects mainly the RFMPhII content. The total population of rosette-forming Th-MPh was restored on day 60 mainly due to cells with low rate of rosette formation. The EC supernatant promoted rosette formation of exposed Th-MPh with Thc. The effect was maximum at early times following irradiation of Th-MPh with a dose of 4 Gy

  13. Somatic hypermutation of T cell receptor α chain contributes to selection in nurse shark thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jeannine A; Castro, Caitlin D; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin F; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2018-04-17

    Since the discovery of the T cell receptor (TcR), immunologists have assigned somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a mechanism employed solely by B cells to diversify their antigen receptors. Remarkably, we found SHM acting in the thymus on α chain locus of shark TcR. SHM in developing shark T cells likely is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and results in both point and tandem mutations that accumulate non-conservative amino acid replacements within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). Mutation frequency at TcRα was as high as that seen at B cell receptor loci (BcR) in sharks and mammals, and the mechanism of SHM shares unique characteristics first detected at shark BcR loci. Additionally, fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the strongest AID expression in thymic corticomedullary junction and medulla. We suggest that TcRα utilizes SHM to broaden diversification of the primary αβ T cell repertoire in sharks, the first reported use in vertebrates. © 2018, Ott et al.

  14. Genetic diversity of different accessions of Thymus kotschyanus using RAPD marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismaili

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic diversity is a major step for understanding evolution and breeding applications. Recent advances in the application of the polymerase chain reaction make it possible to score individuals at a large number of loci. The RAPD technique has been successfully used in a variety of taxonomic and genetic diversity studies. The genetic diversity of 18 accessions of Thymus kotschyanus collected from different districts of Iran has been reported in this study, using 30 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. Multivariate statistical analyses including principal coordinate analysis (PCOA and cluster analysis were used to group the accessions. From 29 primers, 385 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 13.27 bands per primer with 298 bands showing polymorphism (77.40%. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed three major clusters. The obtained results from grouping 18 accessions of T. kotschyanus with two studied methods indicated that in the most cases the applied methods produced similar grouping results. This study revealed nearly rich genetic diversity among T. kotschyanus accessions from different regions of Iran. The results showed RAPD marker was a useful marker for genetic diversity studies of T. kotschyanus and it was indicative of geographica variations.

  15. Elimination of self-reactive T cells in the thymus: a timeline for negative selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lilyanov Dzhagalov

    Full Text Available The elimination of autoreactive T cells occurs via thymocyte apoptosis and removal by thymic phagocytes, but the sequence of events in vivo, and the relationship between thymocyte death and phagocytic clearance, are unknown. Here we address these questions by following a synchronized cohort of thymocytes undergoing negative selection within a three-dimensional thymic tissue environment, from the initial encounter with a negative selecting ligand to thymocyte death and clearance. Encounter with cognate peptide-MHC complexes results in rapid calcium flux and migratory arrest in auto-reactive thymocytes over a broad range of peptide concentrations, followed by a lag period in which gene expression changes occurred, but there was little sign of thymocyte death. Caspase 3 activation and thymocyte loss were first detectable at 2 and 3 hours, respectively, and entry of individual thymocytes into the death program occurred asynchronously over the next 10 hours. Two-photon time-lapse imaging revealed that thymocyte death and phagocytosis occurred simultaneously, often with thymocytes engulfed prior to changes in chromatin and membrane permeability. Our data provide a timeline for negative selection and reveal close coupling between cell death and clearance in the thymus.

  16. A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mengsi; Jin, Jianhua; Xu, Guiqing; Cui, Fengling; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding mode to ctDNA was studied by various methods. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode. • Dynamic and static quenching occurred simultaneously. • Hydrophobic force played a major role. • Binding characteristic of rare earth complexes to DNA are dependent on the element. - Abstract: The binding mode and mechanism of dysprosium–naproxen complex (Dy–NAP) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) were studied using UV–vis and fluorescence spectra in physiological buffer (pH 7.4). The results showed that more than one type of quenching process occurred and the binding mode between Dy–NAP with ctDNA might be intercalation. In addition, ionic strength, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments corroborated the intercalation binding mode between Dy–NAP and ctDNA. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS at different temperature demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction force played a major role in the binding process

  17. In vitro study on the interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi, E-mail: liubingmi@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Bai, Chong-Liang [Centre for Molecular Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Dong, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Tong [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU), a synthesized analog of curcumin, with calf-thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and molecular docking techniques. DMCU was found to bind to ct-DNA with moderate binding affinity through groove binding as evidenced by a decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with no obvious change in the relative specific viscosity of ct-DNA and the CD spectrum. Thermodynamic analysis of the fluorescence data obtained at different temperatures suggested that the binding process was spontaneous and was primarily driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as probes showed that DMCU could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The results obtained from the molecular docking studies were consistent with these experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of DMCU for studying its interactions with relevant biological or biomimicking targets. - Highlights: • 4,4-dimethylcurcumin (DMCU) has strong fluorescence characteristics. • DMCU could bind to DNA through groove binding. • Docking studies revealed that DMCU bound to the A–T region in the minor groove.

  18. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  19. Quantitative analysis of essential oils of Thymus daenensis using laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshroo, H; Khadem, H; Bahreini, M; Tavassoli, S H; Hadian, J

    2015-11-10

    Laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are used for the investigation of different genotypes of Thymus daenensis native to the Ilam province of Iran. Different genotypes of T. daenensis essential oils, labeled T1 through T7, possess slight differences with regard to the composition of the thymol. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is performed to determine the concentration of each constituent as a reference method. The Raman spectra of different concentrations of pure thymol dissolved in hexane as standard samples are obtained via a laboratory prototype Raman spectroscopy setup for the calculation of the calibration curve. The regression coefficient and limit of detection are calculated. The possibility of the differentiation of different genotypes of T. daenensis is also examined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, although we do not know the exact amounts of their components. All the fluorescence spectral information is used jointly by cluster analysis to differentiate between 7 genotypes. Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of Raman spectroscopy with GC-MS and corroborate the capacity of Raman spectroscopy in applications in the quantitative analysis field. Furthermore, the cluster analysis results show that laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is an acceptable technique for the rapid classification of different genotypes of T. daenensis without having any previous information of their exact amount of constituents. So, the ability to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate between genotypes makes it possible to efficiently select high-quality herbs from many samples.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Thymus lanceolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Sobeh, Mansour; Gad, Haidy A; Benbelaid, Fethi; Bendahou, Mourad; Peixoto, Herbenya; Sporer, Frank; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Thymus lanceolatus is a rare species, which grows wild in Algeria and Tunis. It is used traditionally as a drink and to flavor and preserve meat and poultry. The composition of the essential oil was determined by GLC/FID and GLC/MS. Forty-nine components were identified and quantified, accounting for 96.75% of the total detected components in the oil. The oxygenated monoterpenes (74.85%) constitute the major class of volatile secondary metabolites in the oil. Thymol was the most abundant constituent (69.61%) followed by γ-terpinene (8.38%). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using both diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) reduction and 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) degradation prevention methods. The oil showed a very potent antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 0.20 ± 0.07 and 4.96 ± 0.39 μg/mL for the DPPH˙ and 2-DR methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using the agar diffusion method, and the in vitro cytotoxicity on five different cancer cells was examined using the MTT assay. The oil revealed promising inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes with an MIC value of 62.5 μg/mL. Additionally, the highest cytotoxic activity was observed against the HL-60 cells with an IC(50) of 113.5 μg/mL. These results validate some of their traditional uses in food preservation.

  1. A selective chemosensor for fluoride ion and its interaction with Calf Thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Al Masum, Abdulla; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Islam, Md Maidul; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2017-05-05

    The amido-Schiff base 1 (N 1 , N 3 -bis (2-nitrobenzylidene)benzene-1,3-dicabohydrazide) containing a CONH group and CHN linkage has been synthesized by the condensation between isophthalic acid dihydrazide and o-nitrobenzaldehyde. This molecule can act as a fluoride ion sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity. Presence of nitro group in the phenyl ring may be responsible for the detection of fluoride ion visually with a dramatic color change from colorless to deep red in aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide solution. This Schiff base can be used as test kit for sensing of fluoride ion in the solid state. Compound 1 can detect fluoride also in commercially available toothpaste. As the compound has adequate solubility in DMSO-water mixture (7:93, v/v) and having some hydrogen bond donor and acceptor centers, we have investigated its nature of binding with Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA) using theoretical molecular modelling and other experimental methods like UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroic and thermal melting studies. Thermodynamic parameters have been obtained using the well known Van't Hoff's equation. From both theoretical and experimental findings it has been observed that it can interact effectively with CT-DNA with binding energy -7.55kcal/mol to -7.50kcal/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Hu, Xing; Pan, Junhui

    2011-02-01

    The interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated with the use of Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. The results revealed that an intercalation binding should be the interaction mode of pirimicarb to DNA. CD spectra indicated that pirimicarb induced conformational changes of DNA. The binding constants of pirimicarb with DNA were obtained by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ Hθ) and entropy change (Δ Sθ) were calculated to be -52.13 ± 2.04 kJ mol -1 and -108.8 ± 6.72 J mol -1 K -1 according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces might play a major role in the binding of pirimicarb to DNA. Further, the alternative least squares (ALS) method was applied to resolve a complex two-way array of the absorption spectra data, which provided simultaneously the concentration information for the three reaction components, pirimicarb, NR and DNA-NR. This ALS analysis indicated that the intercalation of pirimicarb into the DNA by substituting for NR in the DNA-NR complex.

  3. Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota; Mardarowicz, Marek; Gawdzik, Jan

    2008-08-15

    Essential plants, due to their long presence in human history, their status in culinary arts, their use in medicine and perfume manufacture, belong to frequently examined stock materials in scientific and industrial laboratories. Because of a large number of freshly cut, dried or frozen plant samples requiring the determination of essential oil amount and composition, a fast, safe, simple, efficient and highly automatic sample preparation method is needed. Five sample preparation methods (steam distillation, extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase microextraction and pressurized liquid extraction) used for the isolation of aroma-active components from Thymus vulgaris L. are compared in the paper. The methods are mainly discussed with regard to the recovery of components which typically exist in essential oil isolated by steam distillation. According to the obtained data, PLE is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil from the thyme herb. Although co-extraction of non-volatile ingredients is the main drawback of this method, it is characterized by the highest yield of essential oil components and the shortest extraction time required. Moreover, the relative peak amounts of essential components revealed by PLE are comparable with those obtained by steam distillation, which is recognized as standard sample preparation method for the analysis of essential oils in aromatic plants.

  4. Profiling of differentially expressed genes induced by ionizing radiation in thymus cells of C57 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiheng; Li Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Microarrays was used to text changes, of gene expression of thymus cell in C57 mice one moth after exposed to 1 Gy γ-ray irradiation. Methods: The difference of gene express between irradiated and un-irradiated mice being analysis by Agilent mouse oligo microarrays. Results: In the observed 21319 known genes, 107 up-regulated at least 2-fo1d (13 excess 4-fold); whereas 9 genes were down-regulated 2-fold (2 more 4-fo1d). The function of theses genes are known as some basic metabolic process. Conclusions: The gene changed in the experiment involved embryo development, organ formation and maintain, immunity or stress, protein compose, apoptosis, signal transduction. The number of gene is much more than that of down-regulated. It ought to be noticed that the gens which coding horny protein in embryo development, and ought also to be noticed that the gens which involve the function of PI3-K. (authors)

  5. Cytochemical identification of endocrine thymus of chicken in relation to aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Kanta Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age related cytochemical changes of thymic endocrine cells were studied in 78 day old chicks at five day interval to age of day 60 employing a panel of cytochemical stains. Methenamine silver revealed cell morphology including cell processes distinctly while diamine silver revealed a stronger argentaffinity in these cells. The cells had greater affinity for diamine silver compared to methenamine silver (Argentaffin, followed by formaldehyde induced auto- fluorescence, argyrophilia, lead hematoxylin and HCl-toluidine. The chromaffin reaction was the weakest. Cytochemically, three different endocrine cell populations i.e. argentaffin cells, argyrophilic cells and amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation series (APUD/chromaffin cells, formed the resident population of thymic endocrine cells. Occurrence of numerous serotonin storing cells, moderately frequent APUD cells, and fewer chromaffin as well as mast cells suggests for a conspicuous reservoir of amine storing cells in thymus. Morphologically argentaffin cells were of four types i.e. the peripherally granulated spherical cells (Type-I, densely granulated oval cells (Type-II, pyramidal argentaffin cells (Type-III and diffusely granulated elongated cells (Type-IV. The type-II argentaffin cells were most frequent in the medulla followed by the type-I cells and the type-III cells. The type-IV cells were least in frequency. The age related changes in frequency of these cells are also discussed.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Hu, Xing; Pan, Junhui

    2011-02-01

    The interaction between pirimicarb and calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated with the use of Neutral Red (NR) dye as a spectral probe by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, as well as viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. The results revealed that an intercalation binding should be the interaction mode of pirimicarb to DNA. CD spectra indicated that pirimicarb induced conformational changes of DNA. The binding constants of pirimicarb with DNA were obtained by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔHθ) and entropy change (ΔSθ) were calculated to be -52.13±2.04 kJ mol(-1) and -108.8±6.72 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces might play a major role in the binding of pirimicarb to DNA. Further, the alternative least squares (ALS) method was applied to resolve a complex two-way array of the absorption spectra data, which provided simultaneously the concentration information for the three reaction components, pirimicarb, NR and DNA-NR. This ALS analysis indicated that the intercalation of pirimicarb into the DNA by substituting for NR in the DNA-NR complex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Thymus serpyllum and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to establish and optimize a method for extracting natural bioactive compounds from Thymus serpyllum which possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmotic and stimulant properties. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE is a well-established method in the processing of plant material, particularly for extraction of bioactive substances such as polyphenols. The influential factors including extraction time (3, 7 and 10 minutes, solid:solvent ratio (1:10, 1:20 and 1:30 and particle size (0.3, 0.7 and 1.5 mm, have been studied to optimize the extraction process, while using 30% ethanol as an extraction medium and amplitude set to 65%. The yield of UAE was expressed via total phenol content and antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts. The optimum process paremeters were found to be: extraction time, 3 min; solid:solvent ratio, 1:30; particle size, 0.3 mm. Under these conditions, the yield of total polyphenols was raised up to 23.03 mg/L GA and the highest antioxidant activity was recorded (10.32 mmol/mg Trolox and IC50 3.00 mg/ml. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010 i br. 46013

  8. Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Roya; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Rafati, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of thymus cells on bone marrow transplants into sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, J.A.; Szcylik, C.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow cells formed similar numbers of 10-days spleen colonies in sublethally (6 Gy) irradiated C57B1/6 mice as in lethally (7.5 Gy) irradiated mice i.e. approximately 20 per 10 5 cells. Numbers of 10 day endogenous spleen colonies in sublethally irradiated mice (0.2 to 0.6 per spleen) did not differ significantly from the numbers in lethally irradiated mice. Yet, transplants of 10 7 coisogenic marrow cells into sublethally irradiated mice resulted in predominantly endogenous recovery of granulocyte system as evidenced by utilization of ''beige'' marker for transplanted cells. Nevertheless, transplanted cells engrafted into sublethally irradiated mice were present in their hemopoietic tissues throughout the observation period of 2 months never exceeding 5 to 10% of cells. Thymus cells stimulated endogenous and exogenous spleen colony formation as well as endogenous granulopoietic recovery. Additionally, they increased both the frequency and absolute numbers of graft-derived granulocytic cells in hemopoietic organs of transplanted mice. They failed, however, to essentially change the quantitative relationships between endogenous and exogenous hemopoietic recovery. These results may suggest that spleen colony studies are not suitable for prediction of events following bone marrow transplant into sublethally irradiated mice. Simultaneously, they have strengthened the necessity for appropriate conditioning of recipients of marrow transplants. (orig.) [de

  10. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in thymus from myasthenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchikh, M; Zouaidia, F; Benhaddou, E H A; Mahassini, N; Achir, A; El Malki, H O

    2017-06-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a membranous immunoglobulin involved in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases and tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of RAGE in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. This prospective study included 41 cases of myasthenia gravis treated at our institution between 2010 and 2015. There were 18 men and 23 women, with an average age of 36.44±14.47 years. The majority of patients (24.4%) were classified as IIb, according to MGFA scoring, and 21 of them required corticosteroid and/or immunosuppressive treatment. Assessment of RAGE in thymus specimens was done by immunohistochemistry using RAGE antibody (C-term). RAGE expression was assessed according to various clinical, paraclinical and pathological parameters. Histopathological studies found 18 thymomas, 17 hyperplasias and six other types of pathology. Expression of RAGE was negative/weak in 19 cases and moderate/strong in 22 cases. It was more important in thymoma type B2 (Pmyasthenia was short (P=0.04), and was not significantly related to either myasthenia clinical severity or preoperative treatment. Our results suggest that the RAGE pathway is involved in myasthenia gravis pathophysiology, especially at disease onset, and in forms with thymomas. Further studies would be indispensable to explore other aspects of this signaling pathway, especially the potential role of different ligands and soluble forms of RAGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of thymus in myasthenia gravis: From thymic hyperplasia to thymic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priola, A.M.; Priola, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder often associated with thymic abnormalities. At onset, thymic lymphoid hyperplasia (TLH) and thymoma can be found in up to 65% and 15% of patients, respectively. Diagnostic imaging is crucial in this setting in order to detect the presence and type of the thymic abnormality and in the preoperative planning, when indicated. Chest radiography has a minor role due to its low accuracy. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice, although the differentiation between a small thymoma and TLH that appears as a focal soft-tissue mass may be not possible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not usually employed, but it is useful in equivocal cases, especially in differentiating focal TLH from thymoma by using chemical-shift sequences for defining the proper management. In addition, diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI can differentiate lipid-poor normal/hyperplastic thymus from thymoma and could be useful in differentiating non-advanced from advanced thymomas. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT is not helpful in distinguishing early from advanced thymoma but can be used to differentiate thymic carcinoma from thymoma. Hereby, we discuss the imaging features of thymic abnormalities in MG, even focusing on novel aspects of chemical-shift and DW-MRI

  12. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Uk; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-09-01

    Thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the Republic of Korea. The volatile compounds extracted by SPME from T. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The volatile compounds of T. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), alpha-thujene (2.7%), camphene (1.3%), carvacrol (1.2%), and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Among these candidates, thymol exhibited complete (100%) repellent activity against female Ae. albopictus, an effect that was confirmed through evaluating the electrophysiological response on the antenna of Ae. albopictus. The effectiveness of a binary 1:2 mixture of thymol and vanillin (0.05:0.1 microl per cm2) was found to be significantly more effective than thymol alone for a period of 120 min. In addition, thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol showed high larvicidal activity against on the third-stage larvae with LC50 values of 0.9 microl per 100 ml.

  13. Determination of flavones in species of Thymus L. (Lamiaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kulevanova

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Assay of flavonoids in extracts of seven Thymus L. (Lamiaceae species from Macedonia including identification and quantification was performed. Extracts obtained after hydrolysis of air dried samples (A1 were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Luteolin and apigenin were identified in comparison to authentic standard substances. The content of total flavonoids in plant samples determined by UV-Vis spectrometry (with AlCl3 ranged from 0.05-0.13 %. Two other extracts were prepared by extraction with a mixture of ethanol:water (7:3, V/V, evaporation until only water remained and extraction first with diethylether (A2 and secondly with ethyl acetate (A3. The content of flavonoids in diethyl-ether and ethyl acetate extracts ranged from 52.5-244.4 mg·ml-1 and 48.7 -117.5 mg·ml-1, respectively. For quantification of luteolin and total flavonoids the HPLC method was applied, using reverse phase column C18, mobile phase consisting of 5% acetic acid and methanol in gradient elution mode and column temperature set to 40 oC. The content of luteolin in the plant samples ranged from 0.23-0.48 % (m/m, while the content of total flavonoids was found to be 0.26-0.52 %.

  14. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  15. [Proteolytic activity of IgG-antibodies of mice, immunized by calf thymus histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Iu Ia; Korniĭ, N; Kril', I Ĭ; Mahorivs'ka, I B; Tkachenko, V; Bilyĭ, R O; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the ability of histones to induce production of the proteolytically active IgG-antibodies in BALB/c mice. In order to perform this study 8 mice were immunized with the fraction of total calf thymus histones. IgGs were isolated from the serum of the immunized and not immunized animals by means of precipitation with 33% ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose column. Histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), lysozyme, BSA, ovalbumin, macroglobulin, casein and cytochrome c served as substrates for determining the proteolytic activity. It was found that IgGs from the blood serum of immunized mice are capable of hydrolyzing histone H1, core histone and MBP. On the contrary, the proteolytic activity of IgGs from the blood serum of not immunized mice was not detected. The absence of proteolytical enzymes in the fraction of IgGs was proven by HPLC chromatography. High levels of proteolytic activity toward histones have been also detected in affinity purified IgGs from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but not in healthy donors. These data indicate that eukaryotic histones may induce production of protabzymes in mammals. The possible origin of these protabzymes and their potential biological role in mammalians is discussed.

  16. Investigation on the toxic interaction of typical plasticizers with calf thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaojing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Zong, Wansong, E-mail: gaocz@sdu.edu.cn [College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, 88# East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Chunguang; Liu, Yang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Gao, Canzhu, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Rutao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-05-15

    The interactions of typical plasticizers dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. Experimental results indicated that the characteristic fluorescence intensity of phthalic acid rose with the increase of DNA concentration; while the characteristic fluorescence intensities of plasticizers decreased with the increase of DNA concentration. Experiments on native and denatured DNA determined that plasticizers interacted with DNA both in groove and electrostatic binding mode. The molecular modeling results further illustrated that there is groove binding between them; hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were the main forces. With the extension of branched-chains, the binding effects between plasticizers and DNA were weakened, which could be related to the increased steric hindrance. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of plasticizers with DNA on molecular level. • The mechanism was explored by fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. • There are two kinds of binding mode between DMP, DEP, DBP and DNA, electrostatic and groove. • With the branched chain extension, the binding effect of plasticizers and DNA has been weakened.

  17. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Thymus Caused Cushing Syndrome: 
Surgical Treatment and Prognosis Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymus (pNECT is a rare thymic neoplasm. Some pNECTs could produce an adrenocorticotropic hormone and cause Cushing syndrome (CS. The aim os this study is to discuss the diagnostic technique and surgical management of pNECT-caused CS and analyze prognosis factors to improve the clinical experience of the disease. Methods The outcome of surgery and follow-up of 14 cases (eight males and six females of pNECT-caused CS were retrospectively analyzed from November 1987 to June 2013. Result The median age of the patients was 29, and the median duration of the disease was four months (1 month-44 months. All cases exhibited clinical evidence for the diagnosis of CS, and thoracic computed tomography (CT was used to detect thymic tumors. Surgical treatment significantly decreased the concentration of both serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (P<0.01 but caused one death in the perioperative period. With multidisciplinary therapy, the median survival was 38 months. Conclusion pNECT-caused CS is a rare disease with aggressive characteristics and unclear prognosis. Early diagnosis and therapy is a challenge for clinicians. Thoracic CT is important for disease location and preoperative evaluation and should be routinely applied to all CS patients to allow early surgery and improved prognosis.

  18. [Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Thymus Caused Cushing Syndrome: Surgical Treatment and Prognosis Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Yeye; Li, Shanqing; Liu, Hongsheng; Huang, Cheng; Qin, Yingzhi

    2015-07-01

    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymus (pNECT) is a rare thymic neoplasm. Some pNECTs could produce an adrenocorticotropic hormone and cause Cushing syndrome (CS). The aim os this study is to discuss the diagnostic technique and surgical management of pNECT-caused CS and analyze prognosis factors to improve the clinical experience of the disease. The outcome of surgery and follow-up of 14 cases (eight males and six females) of pNECT-caused CS were retrospectively analyzed from November 1987 to June 2013. The median age of the patients was 29, and the median duration of the disease was four months (1 month-44 months). All cases exhibited clinical evidence for the diagnosis of CS, and thoracic computed tomography (CT) was used to detect thymic tumors. Surgical treatment significantly decreased the concentration of both serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (Pdisease with aggressive characteristics and unclear prognosis. Early diagnosis and therapy is a challenge for clinicians. Thoracic CT is important for disease location and preoperative evaluation and should be routinely applied to all CS patients to allow early surgery and improved prognosis.

  19. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in the regenerating thymus of X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daculsi, R.; Astier, T.; Legrand, E.; Duplan, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of terminal deoyxnucleotidyl transferase (TdT) enzyme activity (EU per 10 8 cells) between peaks I and II was followed for a period of 42 days in regenerating thymus of lethally irradiated (9 Gy) C3H mice restored with 10 6 (C3H x AKR) F1 bone marrow cells. The detection of Thy-1.1 and Thy-1.2 surface antigens allowed for the discrimination between host and donor cells, and the main subpopulations of thymic cells were characterized by their sensitivity to H-2sup(k) antiserum and to dexamethazone. Two peaks of TdT activity could be detected on phosphocellulose chromatographic separation. The distribution of TdT activity between these two peaks was followed during the two periods of thymic endo- and exoregeneration. Peak I TdT activity was closely correlated with the variation in the percentage of the high H-2 population. Peak II activity was mostly related to low H-2 cells. The per cell content of both peak I and peak II activities exceeded the norm in rapidly expanding populations. Finally between days 10 and 14 the TdT activity of the endoregenerating population was apparently not different from that of the exoregenerating population between days 14 and 22. (Auth.)

  20. Effects of deceleration on the humoral antibody response in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, R. P.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of hypergravity, simulated by chronic centrifugation, followed by a return to normal G (deceleration) on the immune system of rats were investigated. Two groups of male rats (28 days at 2.1 G, and 3.1 G) were compared to the control group (1.0 G). The animals were immunized by i.p. injections of sheep red blood cells on days 29, 42, and 57, and bled on days 36, 47, and 62. While the centrifuged rats ate and gainedsignificantly less than the control rats, the antibody titers and the organ/body mass ratios for the adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs, heart, and thymus were unaffected by gravity exposures, as were the values of the hematocrit and the white blood cell counts. It is concluded that deceleration does not adversely affect these particular aspects of the immune system.

  1. H-2 restriction specificity of T cells from H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras: further evidence for the absence of crucial influence of the host/thymus environment on the generation of H-2 restricted TNP-specific T lymphocyte precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Sado, T.; Kubo, E.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to answer the questions related to (a) the role played by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present within the thymus and (b) the effect of radiation dose to the recipients on the H-2 restriction profile of TNP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLP) recovered from spleens and/or thymuses of H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras (BMC). The H-2 restriction profile of intrathymically differentiating TNP-specific CTLPs was also analyzed in order to test an argument that donor-H-2 restricted CTLP detected in spleens of H-2 incompatible BMC were due to the extrathymically differentiated T cells under the influence of donor-derived lymphoreticular cells. The results indicated the following: (i) splenic T cells from B10(H-2b) leads to (B10(H-2b) leads to B10.BR(H-2k)) chimeras, which were constructed by irradiating primary B10 leads to B10.BR chimeras with 1100 R and reconstituting them with donor-type (B10) bone marrow cells as long as 8 months after their construction, manifested restriction specificities for both donor- and host-type H-2, (ii) splenic T cells from two types of (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras which were reconstituted after exposure of the recipients with either 900 or 1100 R with donor-type bone marrow cells generated both donor- and host-H-2 restricted TNP-specific cytotoxic T cells, and (iii) the TNP-specific CTLPs present in the regenerating thymuses of B10.BR leads to B10 and (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras 4 weeks after their construction were also shown to manifest both donor- and host-H-2 restriction specificities. The significance of these findings on the H-2 restriction profile of CTLP generated in BMCs is discussed

  2. Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF

  3. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Waste derived fuels such as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are increasingly being used in the cement industry as a means to reduce cost [1]. SRF is produced by separating the combustible fraction from industrial or municipal solid waste (MSW). The recovered fraction has a higher content of combustibl...

  4. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a policy... accordance with § 385.31, RECOVER shall conduct credible scientific assessments of hydrological, water... available science and that the results are provided for external peer review, as appropriate, and are made...

  5. Projecting recovered paper supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Ken Skog; Peter J. Ince

    2002-01-01

    The use of recovered paper has an influence on the amount of timber harvested as well as the feasibility of expanded recycling programs. During the 1990’s markets and prices for recovered materials have fluctuated widely. There are a number of factors driving these market changes including economic conditions domestically and internationally. The objective of this...

  6. On the recovering of a coupled nonlinear Schroedinger potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccg@hp9000a1.uam.mx

    2000-04-28

    We establish a priori conditions for a Gel'fand-Levitan (GL) integral using some results of the Fredholm theory. As consequence, we obtain a recovering formula for the potential of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The remarkable fact is that the recovering formula is given in terms of the solutions of a classical GL-integral equation. (author)

  7. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity ...

  8. Recovering method for solid waste and facility therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    When recovering solid wastes in a dry-type storage vessel, a crusher is hoisted down from a cask, and the crusher is operated to crush the solid wastes while holding them. The crushed wastes are temporarily stored at the upper portion of the crusher, and recovered as crushed wastes. In this case, the crusher is turned down, and a shielding vessel is laid the recover downwardly to temporary store the crushed wastes in the shielding vessel. Then, the crusher and the shielding vessel are turned 180deg to contain the crushed wastes into the shielding vessel. With such procedures, the stored solid wastes can be recovered reliably, the stored solid wastes can be reduced in the size, and efficiency of recovering operation can be improved. (T.M.)

  9. [Morphological features of stromal-vascular component of the thymus of stillborn children and children under one year of life from mothers that do not follow a healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Gorianikova I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Morphofunctional state of the thymus of child in most cases is directly dependent on the mother health and her lifestyle. Objective. The purpose of the research was to reveal the morphological features of stromal-vascular component of the thymus of stillborn children and children under one year of life born from women who conducted a sedentary lifestyle, smoked, drank alcohol and ate the foods containing tartrazine. Methods. The material of the study was 67 thymuses of stillborn c...

  10. The influence of intrauterine exposure to immunosuppressive treatment on changes in the immune system in juvenile Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Wojciuk, Bartosz; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Roszkowska, Paulina; Krasnodębska-Szponder, Barbara; Paczkowska, Edyta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Machaliński, Bogusław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we assessed the impact of immunosuppressive drug combinations on changes in the immune system of juvenile Wistar rats exposed to these drugs during pregnancy. We primarily concentrated on changes in two organs of the immune system - the thymus and the spleen. The study was conducted on 40 (32+8) female Wistar rats administered full and half dose of drugs, respectively, subjected to regimens commonly used in therapy of human kidney transplant recipients ([1] cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone; [2] tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone; [3] cyclosporine A, everolimus, and prednisone). The animals received drugs by oral gavage 2 weeks before pregnancy and during 3 weeks of pregnancy. There were no statistically significant differences in the weight of the thymus and spleen, but changes were found in the results of blood hematology, cytometry from the spleen, and a histologic examination of the examined immune organs of juvenile Wistar rats. In the cytokine assay, changes in the level of interleukine 17 (IL-17) after increasing amounts of concanavaline A were dose-dependent; the increase of IL-17 was blocked after administration of higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs. However, after a reduction of doses, its increase resumed. Qualitative, quantitative, and morphological changes in the immune system of infant rats born to pharmacologically immunosuppressed females were observed. Thymus structure, spleen composition, and splenocyte IL-17 production were mostly affected in a drug regimen-dependent manner.

  11. Radiation and host factors in human thyroid tumors following thymus irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.; Pasternack, B.S.; Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid tumor data from the 1971 survey of the Rochester, New York thymus irradiated population are further analyzed to study radiobiological and host factors. The analyses were based on the approx. 2650 irradiated subjects and 4800 sibling controls who had 5 or more years of follow-up. Twenty-four thyroid cancers and 52 thyroid adenomas were found in the irradiated group, and O thyroid cancers and 6 adenomas among the controls. The overall risk estimates were 3.8 thyroid cancers/10 6 persons/yr/rad and 4.5 thyroid adenomas/10 6 persons/yr/rad. The dose-response data (thyroid dose range of 5 to > 1000 rad) for thyroid cancer indicate both a linear and a dose-squared component, but no dose-squared component is evident for thyroid adenomas. At lower total doses (< 400 rad) there was a suggestion that dose fractionation diminished the thyroid cancer response, but a similar fractionation effect was not found for thyroid adenomas. The temporal pattern of tumors suggested an extended plateau of excess tumor production, rather than a wavelike temporal pattern. There was no evidence for an inverse relationship between thyroid radiation dose and thyroid cancer latency. Female and Jewish subjects had a higher risk of radiation-induced thyroid cancer than did their respective counterparts. The additive and multiplicative models of radiation effects were compared with respect to sex differences; neither model provided a superior fit to the data. The tentative nature of the conclusions is stressed because of the relatively small number of thyroid cancers. (author)

  12. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine as a clinical biomarker in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yoko

    2014-03-01

    Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) is a member of the T-helper 2 chemokine family. In Japan, serum TARC level has been commercially measured since 2008. After years of experience, we realized that TARC is an extremely useful clinical biomarker for atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. Usually, physicians conduct a visual examination to determine whether their treatment has been successful; however, the visual examination results may not always be accurate; in such cases, serum TARC levels should be measured to eliminate any ambiguity regarding the treatment outcome. When the waning and waxing of eczema and fluctuations in the serum TARC levels were considered, we frequently found that AD does not follow a natural course but follows non-regulated inflammatory floating caused by insufficient intermittent topical treatment. Serum TARC is a promising biomarker for remission and can be used for accurately monitoring proactive treatment for long-term control. Abnormally high serum TARC levels indicate accelerated pathogenesis of cutaneous inflammation. Rapid normalization and maintaining normal serum TARC levels using appropriate topical treatment is a reasonable strategy for alleviating inflammation without upregulating cytokine expression. Observing serum TARC levels during early intervention for severe infantile AD is worthwhile to determine initial disease activity and evaluate treatment efficacy. Appropriate control of severe early-onset infantile AD is important for improving prognosis of eczema and for preventing food allergies. Additionally, this biomarker is useful for improving patient adherence. Dermatologists will be able to make great progress in treating AD by adopting biomarkers such as TARC for accurately assessing non-visible subclinical disorders. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; Adwan, Lina; K'aibni, Shadi; Shraim, Naser; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-10-26

    It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against the selected strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans using MIC assay. The anthelmintic assay was carried out on adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), while antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Trans-geraniol (35.38 %), α-citral (20.37 %) and β-citral (14.76 %) were the major compounds comprising 70.51 % of the essential oil. Our results showed that T. bovei essential oil exhibited strong anthelmintic activity, even higher than piperazine citrate, the used reference standard, with potential antioxidant activity almost equal to the Trolox standard. Furthermore, T. bovei essential oil had powerful antibacterial and antifungal activities against the studied pathogens. Essential oil of T. bovei exerted excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities. Moreover, this study found that T. bovei volatile oil contains active substances that could potentially be used as natural preservatives in food and pharmaceutical industries, these substances could also be employed for developing new anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  14. Immunohistological Analysis of the Jun Family and the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription in Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Papoudou-Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jun family and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, c-Jun and STAT3 cooperate to regulate apoptosis. Therefore, we used double immunostaining to investigate the immunotopographical distribution of phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun, JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 in human thymus. JunD was frequently expressed by thymocytes with higher expression in medullary compared to cortical thymocytes. p-c-Jun was frequently expressed by cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TEC and Hassall bodies (HB. p-STAT3 was frequently expressed by TEC with higher expression in cortical compared to medullary TEC and HB. p-c-Jun, JunB, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 were rarely expressed by thymocytes. JunB and JunD were expressed by rare cortical TEC with higher expression in medullary TEC. p-STAT5 and p-STAT6 were expressed by rare cortical and medullary TEC. Double immunostaining revealed p-c-Jun and JunD expression in rare CD11c positive dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a notable implication of JunD in the physiology of thymocytes and p-c-Jun and p-STAT3 in the physiology of TEC. The diversity of the immunotopographical distribution and the expression levels of p-c-Jun, JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 indicates that they are differentially involved in the differentiation of TEC, thymocytes, and dendritic cells.

  15. The stream of precursors that colonizes the thymus proceeds selectively through the early T lineage precursor stage of T cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Claudia; Martins, Vera C.; Radtke, Freddy; Bleul, Conrad C.

    2008-01-01

    T cell development in the thymus depends on continuous colonization by hematopoietic precursors. Several distinct T cell precursors have been identified, but whether one or several independent precursor cell types maintain thymopoiesis is unclear. We have used thymus transplantation and an inducible lineage-tracing system to identify the intrathymic precursor cells among previously described thymus-homing progenitors that give rise to the T cell lineage in the thymus. Extrathymic precursors were not investigated in these studies. Both approaches show that the stream of T cell lineage precursor cells, when entering the thymus, selectively passes through the early T lineage precursor (ETP) stage. Immigrating precursor cells do not exhibit characteristics of double-negative (DN) 1c, DN1d, or DN1e stages, or of populations containing the common lymphoid precursor 2 (CLP-2) or the thymic equivalent of circulating T cell progenitors (CTPs). It remains possible that an unknown hematopoietic precursor cell or previously described extrathymic precursors with a CLP, CLP-2, or CTP phenotype feed into T cell development by circumventing known intrathymic T cell lineage progenitor cells. However, it is clear that of the known intrathymic precursors, only the ETP population contributes significant numbers of T lineage precursors to T cell development. PMID:18458114

  16. Prenatal cadmium exposure dysregulates sonic hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the thymus resulting in altered thymocyte development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Tou, Janet C.; Barnett, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is both an environmental pollutant and a component of cigarette smoke. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports in the literature of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are required for thymocyte maturation. Several studies have demonstrated that Cd exposure affects these pathways in different organ systems. This study was designed to investigate the effect of prenatal Cd exposure on thymocyte development, and to determine if these effects were linked to dysregulation of Shh and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose (10 ppm) of Cd throughout pregnancy and effects on the thymus were assessed on the day of birth. Thymocyte phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. A Gli:luciferase reporter cell line was used to measure Shh signaling. Transcription of target genes and translation of key components of both signaling pathways were assessed using real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Prenatal Cd exposure increased the number of CD4 + cells and a subpopulation of double-negative cells (DN; CD4 - CD8 - ), DN4 (CD44 - CD25 - ). Shh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling were both decreased in the thymus. Target genes of Shh (Patched1 and Gli1) and Wnt/β-catenin (c-fos, and c-myc) were affected differentially among thymocyte subpopulations. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to Cd dysregulates two signaling pathways in the thymus, resulting in altered thymocyte development.

  17. Cadmium content in Hypericum perforatum L. and Thymus serpyllum L. from localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić-Ćosić Danijela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The beneficial effects of medicinal plants are well-known from the ancient times. However, expansion of phytopharmacy and phytotherapy occured during the last decades. Medicinal plants can absorb environmental contaminants from the ground and consequently may cause harmful effects on human health. Quality control usually comprises standard methodology which includes macroscopic identification and examination of active ingredients. Additionaly, there is a permanent need to control the level of pollutants in herbs, with a particular attention to the level of toxic metals. In this study we estimated the level of contamination by determining the content of cadmium (Cd in the herbs of Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum collected from the different localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren. Methods. Herbs of investigated plants were collected during July 2005 from various localities of Rtanj and Ozren mountains. After drying, homogenization and mineralization, Cd content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. The obtained results show that Cd content varies significantly in Hypericum perforatum samples collected. The lowest Cd level was found in samples from the one of Rtanj localities (0.25 mg Cd/kg, while the highest was observed in Hypericum perforatum from Ozren locality (1.24 mg/kg. Levels of Cd in the three of four investigated localities were higher than pro posed by WHO (0.3 mg/kg dried herb material. In all investigated samples of Thymus serpyllum herbs Cd levels were below the limit of detection of analytical method (0.2 mg Cd/kg dried materials. Conclusion. This work contributes to the issue of Cd content in Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum grown in localities of Rtanj and Ozren, and implies the importance for systemic control of Cd content in Hypericum species in order to provide safety of their preparations. Furthermore, regarding Cd toxicity, maximal permissible level of Cd in

  18. Defect in negative selection in lpr donor-derived T cells differentiating in non-lpr host thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yoshikai, Y.; Asano, T.; Himeno, K.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells of lpr/lpr mice into irradiated normal mice fails to develop massive lymphadenopathy or autoimmunity but causes severe graft-vs.-host-like syndrome. To elucidate an abnormality of lpr/lpr bone marrow-derived T cells, we transplanted bone marrow cells of Mlsb lpr/lpr mice into H-2-compatible Mlsa non-lpr mice. Although lpr/lpr T cell precursors repopulated the host thymus as well as +/+ cells, a proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells decreased, and that of both CD4- and CD8- single-positive cells increased compared with those of +/+ recipients. Notably, in MRL/lpr----AKR and C3H/lpr----AKR chimeras, CD4 single-positive thymocytes contained an increased number of V beta 6+ cells in spite of potentially deleting alleles of Mlsa, whereas V beta 6+ mature T cells were deleted in the MRL/+ ----AKR and C3H/+ ----AKR chimeras. There was no difference between MRL/+ ----AKR and MRL/lpr----AKR chimeras in their proportion of V beta 3+ cells because both host and donor strain lack the deleting alleles. Interleukin 2 receptor expression of mature T cells, in the thymus and lymph node, was obviously higher in the MRL/lpr----AKR chimeras, in particular in the forbidden V beta 6+ subset. Moreover, lpr donor-derived peripheral T cells showed vigorous anti-CD3 response. These results indicate that lpr-derived T cells escape not only tolerance-related clonal deletion but also some induction of unresponsiveness in the non-lpr thymus

  19. In Vitro Study of the Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Hechachna, Hind; Teldji, Hanifa; Ozogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. There are also some patents suggesting the use of essential oils as natural and safe alternatives to fungicides for plant protection. In the present work, M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2.5 μL mL-1 (v/v). Thymus vulgaris essential oil was less active compared to the oil of M. spicata. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most sensitive strain to thyme oil with MIC and MFC values of 2.5 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. Thymus vulgaris essential oil also exhibited a moderate fungicidal effect against the tested fungi, except for A. niger (MFC >20 μL-1). L. nobilis essential oil showed a similar antifungal activity with thyme oil in which A. parasiticus was the most resistant strain to this oil (MFC >20 μL mL-1). Our findings suggested the use of these essential oils as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in order to prevent pre-and post-harvest infections and ensure product safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  1. Transuranium element recovering method for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todokoro, Akio; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Hisashi

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuels are dissolved in nitric acid, the obtained dissolution liquid is oxidized by electrolysis, and nitric acid of transuranium elements are precipitated together with nitric acid of uranium elements from the dissolution solution and recovered. Namely, the transuranium elements are oxidized to an atomic value level at which nitric acid can be precipitated by an oxidizing catalyst, and cooled to precipitate nitric acid of transuranium elements together with nitric acid of transuranium elements, accordingly, it is not necessary to use a solvent which has been used so far upon recovering transuranium elements. Since no solvent waste is generated, a recovery method taking the circumstance into consideration can be provided. Further, nitric acid of uranium elements and nitric acid of transuranium elements precipitated and recovered together are dissolved in nitric acid again, cooled and only uranium elements are precipitated selectively, and recovered by filtration. The amount of wastes can be reduced to thereby enabling to mitigate control for processing. (N.H.)

  2. NOVEDADES TAXONÓMICAS Y NOMENCLATURALES EN ESPECIES IBÉRICAS DEL GÉNERO THYMUS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Valverde, Ramón

    1984-01-01

    [EN]MORALES VALVERDE, R. (1984). Taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties in Iberian taxa oí" the genus Thymus L. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 41(l):91-95 (In Spanish). A new species, Th. lotocephalus G. López & R. Morales, 2 new subspecies, Th. mastichina (L.) L. subsp. donyanae R. Morales and Th. leptophyllus Lange subsp. paui R. Morales, and 7 new hybrids, Th. x monrealensis Pau ex R. Morales, Th. x zygophorus R. Morales, Th. x arcuatus R. Morales, Th. y. almeriensis G. López &'R. ...

  3. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  5. Interaction of dinuclear cadmium(II) 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde complexes with calf-thymus DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristovic, Maja Sumar [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studenski Trg 12-16, Belgrade (Serbia); Zianna, Ariadni; Psomas, George; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Coutouli-Argyropoulou, Evdoxia [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lalia-Kantouri, Maria, E-mail: lalia@chem.auth.gr [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-04-01

    Five dinuclear Cd(II) complexes with the anion of 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde (5-Cl-saloH) were synthesized in the absence or presence of the α-diimines: 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neoc) or 2,2′-dipyridylamine (dpamH) and characterized as [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH)]{sub 2} (1), [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(bipy)]{sub 2} (2), [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(phen)]{sub 2} (3), [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(neoc)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} (4) and [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(dpamΗ)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} (5). The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV‐vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C–NMR), elemental analysis and molar conductivity measurements. The structures of four complexes (1–3 and 5) were determined by X-ray crystallography, providing all three possible coordination modes of the ligand 5-Cl-salicylaldehyde, i.e. bidentate or tridentate chelating and/or bridging mode. The complexes bind to calf-thymus (CT) DNA mainly by intercalation, as concluded by the viscosity measurements and present relatively high DNA-binding constants. The complexes exhibit significant ability to displace ethidium bromide (EB) from the EB-DNA complex, thus indirectly proving the intercalation as the most possible binding mode to CT DNA. - Graphical abstract: Cadmium complexes of the formulae [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}OH)]{sub 2} and [Cd(5-Cl-salo){sub 2}(α-diimine)]{sub 2} or [Cd(5-Cl-salo)(α-diimine)(ONO{sub 2})]{sub 2} have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes bind tightly to CT DNA probably by intercalation competing with ethidium bromide for the intercalation site of DNA. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a series of dinuclear Cd complexes • The complexes characterized by diverse techniques. • The crystal structures of four complexes have been determined. • Intercalation is the most possible binding mode of the complexes to DNA. • The complexes compete with ethidium bromide for the DNA-intercalating sites.

  6. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  7. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic Bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 1 - Quantification of the relative number and proportion of leukocyte populations in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in manufacturing of a broad range of consumer products worldwide. Due to its widespread use, human exposure to BPA is virtually ubiquitous. Broad human exposure coupled with a large scientific literature describing estrogenic activity of BPA in animals has raised public health concerns. To comprehensively evaluate the health effects of BPA exposure, a chronic toxicity study using a wide-range of BPA doses (2.5-25000 μg/kg bw/day) was conducted jointly by the NTP, thirteen NIEHS-supported grantees, and the FDA, which is called the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic BPA exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats on the relative number and proportion of defined leukocyte populations in the spleen and the thymus. Toward this end, lymphoid tissues from a total of 641 rats were assayed after being continuously dosed with BPA or controls for up to one year. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of BPA on leukocyte compositions, extensive endpoints that cover major populations of leukocytes were assessed, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, of the 530 measurements in BPA-treated rats, 10 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls and were mainly associated with either the macrophage or dendritic cell populations. Most, if not all, of these alterations were found to be transient with no persistent trend over the one-year time period. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and not dose-dependent. Due to the aforementioned, it is unlikely that the observed BPA-mediated changes alone would adversely affect immune competence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular aspects of tolerance. V. The in vivo cooperative role of acceessory and thymus derived cells in responsiveness and unresponsiveness of SJL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Cinader, B.

    1974-01-01

    Adult (8-week-old) SJL mice reach a relatively low degree of tolerance when injected with aggregate free rabbit γ-globulin (RGG). To analyze this phenomenon, we first examined indirect plaque-forming responses (PFC) in terms of participation of accessory and thymus-derived cells. Double transfer experiments were used; accessory cells were removed from donor cells by filtration over glasswool and their capacity reduced in recipients by 3 day preirradiation or by horse erythrocyte-mediated blockage. Using this type of experimental arrangement we found that the antibody response to RGG required the cooperation of accessory and thymus-derived cells. The induction of tolerance was affected by the presence of accessory cells. Preirradiated secondary recipients were reconstituted with spleen cells from accessory cell-deprived donors which had received thymus and bone marrow cells. In some experiments, the thymus and bone marrow cells were passed over glasswool. The primary recipients were left untreated or were given tolerogen. A more profound state of tolerance (reduction in plaque forming response) was the consequence of the incapacitation or removal of accessory cells. The magnitude of the reduction in PFC was directly related to the completeness of accessory cell removal and incapacitation. Responsiveness could be restored by administration of irradiated spleen cells as a source of accessory cells. The need for thymus-derived (T) cells in the antibody response was demonstrated by double transfer experiments in which the primary recipient was restored with thymus cells alone, bone marrow cells alone, or with a mixture of cell types

  9. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  10. Comparison on the interaction of Al3+/nano-Al13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang

    2015-11-01

    The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between Al3+/nano-Al13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when Al3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-Al13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were Al3+ … PO2, Al3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and Al3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, Al3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between Al3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-Al13 and DNA.

  11. Bioelectrochemical sensing of promethazine with bamboo-type multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in calf-thymus double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano N; Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    We report the quantification of promethazine (PMZ) using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with bamboo-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bCNT) dispersed in double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA) (GCE/bCNT-dsDNA). Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that PMZ presents a thin film-confined redox behavior at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA, opposite to the irreversibly-adsorbed behavior obtained at GCE modified with bCNT dispersed in ethanol (GCE/bCNT). Differential pulse voltammetry-adsorptive stripping with medium exchange experiments performed with GCE/bCNT-dsDNA and GCE modified with bCNTs dispersed in single-stranded calf-thymus DNA (ssDNA) confirmed that the interaction between PMZ and bCNT-dsDNA is mainly hydrophobic. These differences are due to the intercalation of PMZ within the dsDNA that supports the bCNTs, as evidenced from the bathochromic displacement of UV-Vis absorption spectra of PMZ and quantum dynamics calculations at DFTB level. The efficient accumulation of PMZ at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA made possible its sensitive quantification at nanomolar levels (sensitivity: (3.50±0.05)×10(8) μA·cm(-2)·M(-1) and detection limit: 23 nM). The biosensor was successfully used for the determination of PMZ in a pharmaceutical product with excellent correlation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of intron-exonic marker in assessment of genetic diversity of two subspecies of Thymus daenensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismaili

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of genetic diversity in medicinal plant is very important for improvement and evolutionary variations. In this study, assessment of genetic diversity in two subspecies of Thymus daenensis was evaluated, using intron-exonic markers. Thirty primers produced 633 polymorphic bands (98% polymorphism. The highest polymorphic information content (PIC included ISJ5 and ISJ9 primers and the lowest PIC also included IT15-32 primer. The highest marker index (MI produced by IT10-6 primer. Results of Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA showed that intra-sub specific variation was more than inter-sub specific variation. Dendrogram obtained from Cluster analysis, using NTSYS-pc software and UPGMA method based on Dice's similarity matrix, divided accessions into 4 groups. The maximum range of genetic similarity was observed between two accessions of sub-species daenensis. Two accessions of Fars and Semnan formed a separate group. Results showed that clustering based on molecular data and principal coordinate analysis had a medium alignment. Grouping based on cluster analysis also could separate two subspecies of Thymus daenensis. Results obtained from this study showed that intron-exonic markers had an effective potential in assessment of genetic relationships between the two sub-species of daenensis.

  13. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases

  14. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-11-26

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.

  15. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results

  16. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results.

  17. The kinetics of the immune response of unevenly irradiated (a part of the bone marrow and thymus shielded) mice of various lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to amplify the immune response of non-uniformly irradiated mice by screening the bone narrow (B-lymphocyte source) by means of simultaneous protection of the thymus gland (T-lymphocyte source). Genetically determined differences between CBA mice (with high responses to sheep erythrocytes) and C57BL/6 mice (with high responses to sheep erythrocytes) were found to be associated with dissimilarly pronounced cooperative interactions between T- and B-cells. These interactions bay have been due to dissimilar intensities of migrations of B- or T-lymphocytes from the bone marrow or thymus gland, respectively

  18. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  20. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  1. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  2. A theoretical framework for understanding recovered memory experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2012-01-01

    If recovered memory experiences appear counter-intuitive, this is in part due to misconceptions about trauma and memory, and to a failure to adopt a comprehensive model of memory that distinguishes personal semantic memory, autobiographical event memory, and memory appraisal. Memory performance is generally superior when events, including traumas, are central to identity. Prolonged trauma in childhood, however, can produce severe identity disturbances that may interfere with the encoding and later retrieval of personal semantic and autobiographical event information. High levels of emotion either at encoding or recall can also interfere with the creation of coherent narrative memories. For example, high levels of shock and fear when memories are recovered unexpectedly may lead to the experience of vivid flashbacks. Memory appraisals may also influence the sense that an event has been forgotten for a long time. Recovered memories, although unusual, do not contradict what we know about how memory works.

  3. Tumores del timo y cirugía Tumors of thymus and surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martín González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores del timo constituyen menos del 1 % de todas las neoplasias, y es la cirugía el tratamiento de elección. Objetivos: conocer el tipo de tratamiento quirúrgico y la magnitud de la resección, así como la relación con el tamaño del tumor, el sangrado, el tiempo quirúrgico, la morbilidad y la mortalidad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 22 pacientes con tumor mediastinal, que tuvieron criterios de cirugía durante el ingreso en los servicios de neurología o cirugía general del hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras", desde enero de 2007 hasta febrero de 2009. Los resultados se presentan en por cientos y se empleó el chi cuadrado en la relación de variables. Resultados: 12 fueron del sexo femenino (54,5 %. El tratamiento más empleado fue la esternotomía total en 9 pacientes (40,9 %, el tiempo quirúrgico varió de 50 a 260 min con mediana de 127,5, mientras el sangrado por encima de 100 mL estuvo asociado a un tiempo quirúrgico de 61 a 180 min (p= 0,036. Se complicaron 11 pacientes (50 % y hubo 1 fallecido (4,5 %. El tamaño del tumor varió de 3,5 a 20 cm. El paciente con tumor neuroendocrino recidivó a los 10 meses, mientras los pacientes con timomas no muestran hasta la fecha recidiva local ni se ha comprobado actividad metastásica. Conclusión: la cirugía constituye el paso más importante en el tratamiento de los tumores mediastinales, y se logra, en la gran mayoría, la resección completa, a pesar del tamaño y la relación con estructuras vecinas.Introduction: the tumors of thymus account for less than 1 % of all neoplasms and the choice treatment is the surgery. Objectives: to know the type of surgical treatment and the magnitude of resection, as well as the relationship with the tumor size, bleeding, surgical time and morbidity and mortality. Methods: a prospective study was conducted in 20 patients presenting with mediastinum tumor with surgery criteria over the admission in the services of

  4. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, S.; Carrington, F.

    1982-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid solutions uses an acidified alkali metal carbonate solution for the second-stage strip of uranyl uranium from the ion-exchange solution. The stripped solution is then recycled to the ion-exchange circuit. In the first stripping stage the ion-exchange solution containing the recovered uranyl uranium and an inert organic diluent is stripped with ammonium carbonate, producing a slurry of ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. The second strip, with a solution of 50-200 grams per litre of sodium carbonate eliminates the problems of inadequate removal of phosphorus, iron and vanadium impurities, solids accumulation, and phase separation in the strip circuit

  5. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  6. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  7. Immunoregulatory changes induced by total lymphoid irradiation. II. Development of thymus-leukemia antigen-positive and -negative suppressor T cells that differ in their regulatory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.P.; Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    BALB/c mice treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) develop non-antigen-specific suppressor cells of the adoptive secondary antibody response and of the mixed leukocyte reaction. Suppressors of the adoptive anti-DNP response were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 or anti-thymus-leukemia (TL) antiserum and complement before cell transfer. Thymectomy before TLI prevented the appearance of the latter suppressor cells. On the other hand, suppressors of the MLR were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 but not anti-TL antiserum and complement. Thymectomy before TLI did not prevent their subsequent development. Thus, two subpopulations of suppressor T cells that differ in the expression of the TL surface antigen, dependence on the presence of the thymus, and in regulatory functions develop after TLI. The TL+, thymus-dependent cell suppresses the adoptive antibody response, and the TL-, thymus-independent cell suppresses the MLR

  8. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicole; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8 + T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8 + T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8 + cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery

  9. CD34+CD38dim cells in the human thymus can differentiate into T, natural killer, and dendritic cells but are distinct from pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Res, P.; Martínez-Cáceres, E.; Cristina Jaleco, A.; Staal, F.; Noteboom, E.; Weijer, K.; Spits, H.

    1996-01-01

    Recently we reported that the human thymus contains a minute population of CD34+CD38dim cells that do not express the T-cell lineage markers CD2 and CD5. The phenotype of this population resembled that of CD34+CD38dim cells present in fetal liver, umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow known to be

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 signaling is required for migration of naive human T cells from the thymus to the periphery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resop, Rachel S.; Douaisi, Marc; Craft, Joshua; Jachimowski, Loes C. M.; Blom, Bianca; Uittenbogaart, Christel H.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that govern the egress of mature thymocytes from the human thymus to the periphery remain understudied yet are of utmost importance to the field of basic immunology, as well as T-cell reconstitution in various immunodeficiencies. We examined the expression and function of

  11. Proapoptotic and Antiproliferative Effects of Thymus caramanicus on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7 and Its Interaction with Anticancer Drug Vincristine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus caramanicus Jalas is one of the species of thymus that grows in the wild in different regions of Iran. Traditionally, leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of diabetes, arthritis, and cancerous situation. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties of Thymus caramanicus extract (TCE. MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were used in this study. Cytotoxicity of the extract was determined using MTT and neutral red assays. Biochemical markers of apoptosis (caspase 3, Bax, and Bcl-2 and cell proliferation (cyclin D1 were evaluated by immunoblotting. Vincristine was used as anticancer control drug in extract combination therapy. The data showed that incubation of cells with TCE (200 and 250 μg/mL significantly increased cell damage, activated caspase 3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In addition, cyclin D1 was significantly decreased in TCE-treated cells. Furthermore, concomitant treatment of cells with extract and anticancer drug produced a significant cytotoxic effect as compared to extract or drugs alone. In conclusion, thymus extract has a potential proapoptotic/antiproliferative property against human breast cancer cells and its combination with chemotherapeutic agent vincristine may induce cell death effectively and be a potent modality to treat this type of cancer.

  12. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  13. A probabilistic model to recover individual genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dröge (Johannes); A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractShotgun metagenomics of microbial communities reveal information about strains of relevance for applications in medicine, biotechnology and ecology. Recovering their genomes is a crucial but very challenging step due to the complexity of the underlying biological system and technical

  14. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  15. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  16. Method for recovering or recirculating stable nitroxide radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Andre; Van Doren, Hendrik Arend; Bleeker, Ido Pieter; Gotlieb, Kornelis Fester.

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates fo a method for recovering stable nitroxide radicals, wherein at least a part of a reaction mixt. consisting of a soln. or suspension, or a filtrate or supernatant of a suspension, in which stable nitroxide radicals are present in non-solid form, is subjected to an azeotropic

  17. Genomovirus Genomes Recovered from Echinothrips americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberger, Simona; Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, Heather M.; Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Fontenele, Rafaela S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect. PMID:28546499

  18. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits by reason of the basis determined under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, that it would be... recovered it has an unadjusted basis of $100. After $70 depreciation has been allowed on A, an allocation is sought which would give A an unadjusted basis of $60. Since this is less than the depreciation which is...

  19. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% ..... uncertainty. This technique will work best when the concentration of ... Ken Jack at the School of Chemical Engineering to help build the reactor ...

  20. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  1. Modifying effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on content and composition of fatty acids in thymus of mice exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Aripovsky, Alexander V; Kulagina, Tatiana P

    2015-03-01

    The effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) on thymus weight and its fatty acids (FA) content and FA composition in X-irradiated mice were studied to test the involvement of FA in possible protective effects of EHF EMR against ionizing radiation. Mice were exposed to low-intensity pulse-modulated EHF EMR (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm(2), 20 min exposure, 1 Hz modulation) and/or X-rays at a dose of 4 Gy with different sequences of the treatments. In 4-5 hours, 10, 30, and 40 days after the last exposure, the thymuses were weighed; total FA content and FA composition of the thymuses were determined on days 1, 10, and 30 using a gas chromatography. It was shown that after X-irradiation of mice the total FA content per mg of thymic tissue was significantly increased in 4-5 h and decreased in 10 and 30 days after the treatment. On days 30 and 40 after X-irradiation, the thymus weight remained significantly reduced. The first and tenth days after X-rays injury independently of the presence and sequence of EHF EMR exposure were characterized by an increased content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and a decreased content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) with unchanged content of saturated FA (SFA). Exposure of mice to EHF EMR before or after X-irradiation prevented changes in the total FA content in thymic tissue, returned the summary content of PUFA and MUFA to the control level and decreased the summary content of SFA on the 30th day after the treatments, and promoted the restoration of the thymus weight of X-irradiated mice to the 40th day of the observations. Changes in the content and composition of PUFA in the early period after treatments as well as at the restoration of the thymus weight under the combined action of EHF EMR and X-rays indicate to an active participation of FA in the acceleration of post-radiation recovery of the thymus by EHF EMR exposure.

  2. The influence of calf thymus DNA and deoxyribonucleosides on the induction of different mutation types in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrej, M.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of an exogenous DNA on the induction of mutations by X rays was compared with the influence of an equimolar mixture of four deoxyribonucleosides. Pre-treatment and post-treatment with the calf thymus DNA did not influence mutation frequency in the specific loci dp, b, cn and bw as well as Minute mutations induced in the Drosophila sperm by X radiation. Pre-treatment with the equimolar mixture of four deoxyribonucleosides increased the frequency of the Minutes but did not affect mutation frequency in the loci dp, b, cn, bw. The equimolar mixture of nucleosides alone induced a low frequency of Minute mutations in the Drosophila sperm. DNA alone induced a low frequency of recessive lethals. These lethals arose as mosaics of small sectors of the gonads of the F 1 females and were revealed as late as in the F 3 generation. (author)

  3. Thermodynamic study of rhodamine 123-calf thymus DNA interaction: determination of calorimetric enthalpy by optical melting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdulla Al; Chakraborty, Maharudra; Pandya, Prateek; Halder, Umesh Chandra; Islam, Md Maidul; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, the interaction of rhodamine123 (R123) with calf thymus DNA has been studied using molecular modeling and other biophysical methods like UV-vis spectroscopy, fluoremetry, optical melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroic studies. Results showed that the binding energy is about -6 to -8 kcal/mol, and the binding process is favored by both negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change. A new method to determine different thermodynamic properties like calorimetric enthalpy and heat capacity change has been introduced in this paper. The obtained data has been crossed-checked by other methods. After dissecting the free-energy contribution, it was observed that the binding was favored by both negative hydrophobic free energy and negative molecular free energy which compensated for the positive free energies due to the conformational change loss of rotational and transitional freedom of the DNA helix.

  4. Interaction studies of resistomycin from Streptomyces aurantiacus AAA5 with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayabharathi, R.; Sathyadevi, P.; Krishnamoorthy, P.; Senthilraja, D.; Brunthadevi, P.; Sathyabama, S.; Priyadarisini, V. Brindha

    2012-04-01

    Resistomycin, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptomyces aurantiacus AAA5. The binding interaction of resistomycin with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism (CD) and synchronous fluorescence techniques under physiological conditions in vitro. Absorption spectral studies along with the fluorescence competition with ethidium bromide measurements and circular dichroism clearly suggest that the resistomycin bind with CT DNA relatively strong via groove binding. BSA interaction results revealed that the drug was found to quench the fluorescence intensity of the protein through a static quenching mechanism. The number of binding sites 'n' and apparent binding constant 'K' calculated according to the Scatchard equation exhibit a good binding property to bovine serum albumin protein. In addition, the results observed from synchronous fluorescence measurements clearly demonstrate the occurrence of conformational changes of BSA upon addition of the test compound.

  5. Studying the antibacterial effects of some phytochemical compounds isolated from Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis on some bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almariri, I.; Swied, G.; Oda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Origanum Syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis leaves samples were collected. Essential oils (EO) extractions were done by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. GC-FID was used to analyze the essential oils and GC-MS was used to confirm the identities of the isolated components. Preparative HPLC technique was used to separate and isolate the oils main components. The bulk EO and the separated components were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Brucella melitensis, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus using broth microdilution method. The results confirm that the EOs and some of its components exhibited significant bactericidal activity. (author)

  6. Myasthenia gravis and thymus: long-term follow-up screening of thymectomized and non-thymectomized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jose Lorenzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma screening is recommended at the onset of myasthenia gravis (MG or when patients with MG present with clinical deterioration or a progressive increase of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. However, it is unknown if it is necessary to repeat the screening of thymoma at fixed intervals, even in the absence of MG deterioration, when the initial screening is negative. We analyzed the recurrence rate and incidence of new thymoma in a series of patients with well-controlled MG. The sample consisted of 53 patients, aged 17 to 72 years, and the follow-up varied between 75 and 472 months. The chest computerized tomography detected thymus abnormalities in eight patients at the initial screening and no abnormalities in all patients at a second screening after five years. The findings of this study support the classical opinion that screening for thymoma should be recommended only if there is clinical deterioration due to the disease.

  7. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid in a 70-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhye; Kim, Yon Seon; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu-Hwan; Ko, Byung Kyun; Ham, Soo-Youn

    2018-06-01

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) is a very rare tumor of the thyroid gland mostly occurring in young patients. The imaging findings of SETTLE tumors are yet to be defined. However, they are usually described as well-defined heterogeneously enhanced masses on CT scan. The current case has the potential growth as compared with a 2009 chest radiography. We took into account the possibility of SETTLE in the case of a bulky mass in patients over 70 years old, particularly in the lower neck. Herein, we report a case of the oldest patient so far. The patient underwent a right lobectomy of the thyroid and mass excision. Follow-up CT scans after 6 months revealed no local recurrence. Surgery is the gold standard treatment for SETTLE. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy could be another possible option for patients with advanced stage SETTLE.

  8. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of the Essential Oil of Thymus haussknechtii Velen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan G. Sevindik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Thymus haussknechtii Velen. was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major component of the essential oil was thymol (52.2%. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.9 µg gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities along with ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. In addition to antioxidant activity, anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil was also evaluated. It exhibited inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE which play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease, along with significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Selection of restriction specificities of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in the thymus: no evidence for a crucial role of antigen-presenting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The proposal was tested that (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressed predominantly P1-restricted T cells because donor derived stem cells were exposed to recipient derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus. Because P1 recipient-derived antigen-presenting cells are replaced only slowly after 6-8 wk by (P1 X P2) donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus and because replenished pools of mature T cells may by then prevent substantial numbers of P2-restricted T cells to be generated, a large portion of thymus cells and mature T cells were eliminated using the following treatments of 12-20-wk-old (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras: (a) cortisone plus antilymphocyte serum, (b) Cytoxan, (c) three doses of sublethal irradiation (300 rad) 2d apart, and (d) lethal irradiation (850 rad) and reconstitution with T cell-depleted (P1 X P2) F1 stem cells. 12-20 wk after this second treatment, (P1 X P2) leads to P1 chimeras were infected with vaccinia-virus. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity was expressed by chimeric T cells of (P1 X P[2) F1 origin and was restricted predominantly to P1. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, therefore, do not seem to be selected to measurable extent by the immigrating donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus; their selection depends apparently from the recipient-derived radioresistant thymus cells

  10. In vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Activities and Chemical Constituents of the Endemic Thymus laevigatus (Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Thymus laevigatus (Vahl, Lamiaceae (Labiatae, an endemic species of Yemen, are traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and respiratory system. In a first biological and chemical study of this endemic species we investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the leaves of this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts composition was performed by TLC while the composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Twelve constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted 99.6 % of the total amount. The major constituents of the oil were: carvacrol (84.3 %, p-cymene (4.1 % p-mentha-1, 4-diene (4.0 % and trans-anethole (3.6%. The main active components were identified by TLC as carvacrol and anethole for dichloromethane extract and as non-volatile phenols and flavonoids for the methanol extract. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five bacteria strains and six human pathogenic fungi. Both methanol and dichloromethane showed strong activities against most human pathogenic strains. In the contrast, methanol extract showed broader and stronger antibacterial activities than the dichloromethane extract, especially against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extract showed the same strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (14.9mg/ml, when compared to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. In contrast, the cytotoxic activity of the methanol against FL cells, a human amniotic epithelial cell line, was only moderate (IC50 298, 8 mg/ml. On the contrary, the water extract did not show any biological activity. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil and extracts of Thymus laevigatus possess strong antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient

  11. Thymus-directed immunotoxicity of airborne dust particles from Upper Silesia (Poland) under acute extrapulmonary studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowska, E. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Krzystniak, K. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Drela, N. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)] [and others

    1996-12-27

    Industrial air pollutants from Upper Silesia, Poland, contain over 250 polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, including mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals that have been shown to from DNA adducts. Over 4 million habitants of Silesia are permanently exposed to the industrial pollution by pulmonary and dermal routes and by contaminated food and water. These chemicals, when examined separately in animals models, were proven immunotoxic. We studied the extrapulmonary immunotoxic potential of a typical mixture of Silesian filter-suspended matter from a selected area, over a specific season and time period. Early changes in the immune system were analyzed in BALB/c mice exposed ip to acute doses of 20-330 mg dust mixture/kg body weight (0.06-1.0 LD50). No major changes were noted for weight and the cellularity of spleen, liver and kidneys. However, dramatic decrease in thymus weight index and thymocyte cell count were noted as early as 24-72 h postexposure, which correlated with almost complete depletion of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes. Changes in spleen were less profound; however, increased depletion of B cells over T cells was noted at high doses of the suspended matter. Exposure to the airborne dust also decreased cytokine production by spleen cells, such as interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). Overall, a single exposure to Silesian dust, even at the relatively low 0.06 LD50 dose, affected lymphokine production, suppressed B-cell proliferative response, and depleted thymuses of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells. A chemical synergism is suspected. To our knowledge, none of the known components of Silesian suspended matter, when examined as a single chemical, was shown to exert such a profound biological effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  13. 3H-thymidine labelling of DNA of radiosensitive organs of rats irradiated under alpine conditions and after adaptation to hypoxia in the altitude chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, F.T.; Egorov, I.A.; Gladilin, K.L.; Farber, Yu.V.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary adaptation of rats of high altitude conditions (3200 m) and training in the altitude chamber at the same imitated altitude inhibit 3 H-thymidine labelling of thymus DNA both shortly (26 h) and later (20 and 30 days) after irradiation. Whether the thymidine incorporation is activated or delayed depends on conditions of pretreatment. The data obtained are discussed from the point of view of the raioprotective effect of preadaptation of animals to high-altitude hypoxia

  14. Ethical dilemma of recovering organs before donor death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Umair; Khalil, Sarwat

    2011-08-01

    Organ transplant has had a momentous effect in improving global health over the years. However, there exists a sizeable discrepancy between the supply and demand of organs, especially in developing countries, where lack of expertise, financial constraints, and inadequate transplant facilities have been obstacles. According to current practice, donors must be dead before unpaired vital organs can be recovered. Equal health warrants needs-based health care for everyone. Recovering viable organs from donors while they are alive, but with death inevitable, may be significant to persons on waiting lists. Future policies in organ transplantation must be made after thorough consideration of all aspects of donation and dealing with the inequalities of health care. These pose a challenge for medicolegal and ethical organizations.

  15. Recovering and recycling uranium used for production of molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; May, Iain; Copping, Roy; Dale, Gregory Edward

    2017-12-12

    A processes for recycling uranium that has been used for the production of molybdenum-99 involves irradiating a solution of uranium suitable for forming fission products including molybdenum-99, conditioning the irradiated solution to one suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina. Another process involves irradiation of a solid target comprising uranium, forming an acidic solution from the irradiated target suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina.

  16. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Steele, Ryan D; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study adopted a developmental perspective on recovery from conflict in romantic relationships. Participants were 73 young adults (target participants), studied since birth, and their romantic partners. A novel observational coding scheme was used to evaluate each participant's degree of conflict recovery, operationalized as the extent to which the participant disengaged from conflict during a 4-min "cool-down" task immediately following a 10-min conflict discussion. Conflict recovery was systematically associated with developmental and dyadic processes. Targets who were rated as securely attached more times in infancy recovered from conflict better, as did their romantic partners. Concurrently, having a romantic partner who displayed better recovery predicted more positive relationship emotions and greater relationship satisfaction. Prospectively, target participants' early attachment security and their partners' degree of conflict recovery interacted to predict relationship stability 2 years later, such that having a partner who recovered from conflict better buffered targets with insecure histories.

  17. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  18. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  19. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  20. Process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1918-08-23

    A process for recovering oil from shale and other bituminous minerals in rotary retorts heated from outside and flushed with water vapor or other oxygen-free gases is characterized by the fact that all kinds of minerals are carbonized, and that during the carbonization process the temperature of the superheated steam or gases is about 50/sup 0/ C higher than the temperature of the carbonized mineral.

  1. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  3. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Variety of immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іlona S Polovynko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously we have been carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress in male rats. Revealed that the value of canonical discriminant roots rats subjected to chronic stress different not only on the values of intact animals (by definition, but also among themselves. So we set a goal retrospectively divided stressed rats into three homogeneous groups. Material and methods. The experiment is at 50 white male rats. Of these 10 animals not subjected to any influences and 40 within 7 days subjected to moderate stress by daily 30-minute immobilization. The day after the completion of stressing in portion of the blood immunological parameters were determined by tests I and II levels of WHO. The spleen and thymus did smears for counting spleno- and thymocytograms. Results. The method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering formed three groups-clusters. For further analysis selected 18 parameters that members of each cluster differing minimum and maximum are different from members of other clusters (η2=0,73÷0,15; F=49,0÷3,26; p=10-6÷0,05. We stated that in 16 rats from cluster III the deviation 16 parameters in either side of the average norm almost identical and are in an acceptable range of ±0,5σ. Thus, the immune status of 40% of the rats subjected to moderate chronic stress was resistant to its factors. For the immune status of the 15 (37,5% rats cluster II typical moderate inhibition microphage, killer and T-cellular links in combination with a strong activation macrophage link. Poststressory changes in immunity in 9 rats (22,5% from cluster I differ from those in cluster II both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the rats in this cluster were found no deviations from the norm or reaction blast transformation T-cells nor NK-lymphocytes levels. However, other parameters of T-link and microhage link suppressed more and settings macrophage link appeared

  5. Neutron activation analysis of maltenes recovered from EUROBITUM simulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N

    2006-01-01

    According to the present Belgian reference scenario, Eurobitum bituminised radioactive waste has to be disposed off in a deep underground repository in a stable geological formation such as Boom Clay. This waste originated mainly from mixtures of nuclear fuel decladding slurries and waste concentrates from the nuclear fuel cycle. Even though safety assessment studies up till present do not show that this waste is unacceptable for deep underground disposal, a final decision about the disposal of the bituminised waste has not been taken so far, and alternative solutions are still conceivable. To support the decision-making we investigate methods to recondition this bituminised waste. We continued studying a room temperature re-treatment method for Eurobitum. The aim of the method is the stabilisation and minimisation of final waste, and the free release of recovered materials. The method comprises the recovery of maltenes and water soluble salts. The recovery of maltenes is performed by dissolving the complete bitumen matrix with a 'solvent', followed by the precipitation of the asphaltenes by addition of a so-called 'nonsolvent'. The 'solvent' is a 50 percent aromatic blend of Shellsol A150 and Shellsol H, whereas the 'nonsolvent' is aliphatic Shellsol T. The recovered maltenes represent 40 % wt of the waste, as shown in the inner pie chart. Part of the maltenes could not be recovered and remain in the asphaltene matrix, as can be seen from the difference between the inner and outer pie chart, representing the real composition and the weight fractions after separation, respectively. A second step of the room temperature re-treatment method covers the complete removal of the water soluble (nitrate) salts, and is described in the main reference and references therein. Application of the room temperature re-treatment method results in a final waste that consists of water insoluble salts embedded in an asphaltene matrix which is less sensitive towards radiolysis than

  6. Fungitoxicty of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis in the in vitro development of phytophatogens fungi / Fungitoxidade de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento in vitro de fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Stangarlin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fungitoxicity of aqueous crude extracts (ACE of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis was evaluated in vitro on development of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The active ACE were incorporated to Potato- Dextrose-Agar (PDA alone or in mixture, at 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% concentrations. Measurement in fungal colonies was taken daily until the control treatment covered 2/3 of the culture media. The mixtures of T. vulgaris with B. pilosa did not have positive effect because the ACE of B. pilosa did not reduce the fungal growth of R. solani and in mixture inhibited the effect ACE of T. vulgaris. However, the mixture of ACEs of R. officinalis and L. alba produced better results than isolated ACEs, with 60% of growth inhibition of A. alternata. The ACE of T. vulgaris inhibited the growth of C. graminicola at 97%. The results show that ACEs have significative fungitoxicity in the evaluated phythopathogens.Avaliou-se in vitro, a atividade fungitóxica dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA em diferentes concentrações isolados e em misturas de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A avaliação foi realizada incorporando os extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs ao meio BDA isolados e em mistura, nas concentrações 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% e 50%. Foram feitas medições diárias das colônias fúngicas até o momento em o tratamento controle cobriu 2/3 da superfície do meio de cultura. Verificou-se que a mistura de T. vulgaris com B. pilosa não teve efeito positivo, pois o EBA isolado de B. pilosa não reduziu o crescimento do fungo R. solani e em mistura reduziu o efeito do EBA de T. vulgaris. Porém, o EBAs de R. officinalis e L. alba em mistura levaram a melhores resultados, reduzindo em até 60% o

  7. Polyphenolic compounds and essential oil analysis of selected species of the genus Thymus / Analýza fenolových zložiek a analýza silice vybraných druhov rodu Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameníková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Predložena praca bola zamerana na stanovenie obsahu vybranych fenolovych zlučenin (celkove fenoly, triesloviny, flavonoidy a antokyany troch roznych druhov rodu Thymus (T. pulegioides, T. pannonicus, T. praecox s rozdielnym povodom (Českomoravska vrchovina, Křivoklat a Považsky Inovec. Na stanovenie tychto zložiek boli využite spektrofotometricke metody Europskeho liekopisu, 8. vydanie. Zaroveň bol stanoveny aj obsah silice a bola vykonana analyza jej zložiek. Obsah celkovych polyfenolov bol stanoveny spektrofotometrickou metodou s využitim Folin-Ciocalteovho činidla. Obsah kolisal od 3.87 % do 8,86 %. Obsah trieslovin bol realizovany na zaklade predošleho stanovenia obsahu celkovych fenolov, a to adsorpciou trieslovin na kožny prašok. Ich obsah sa pohyboval v rozmedzi 1,96 % do 5,65 %. Na stanovenie obsahu flavonoidov bola využita spektrofotometricka metoda s chloridom hlinitym. Obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako luteolin-7-O-glukozid (λ = 392 nm kolisal od 0,59 % do 1,52 % a obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako rutin (λ = 420 nm sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,41 % do 1,12 %. Antokyany zaberaju v ramci fenolovych zložiek rodu Thymus len minimalny podiel. V našich vzorkach bol obsah antokyanov vyjadreny ako cyanidin-3- O-glukozid a kolisal od 0,02 % do 0,1 %. Na stanovenie obsahu silice bola využita metoda Europskeho liekopisu, 8.vydanie. Obsah silice sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,2 % do 0,75 %. Na analyzu silice bola nasledne využita metoda plynovej chromatografie s hmotnostnou spektrometriou. Na zaklade tejto analyzy bola zistena pritomnosť troch chemotypov silice, a to tymoloveho, karvakroloveho a linalooloveho chemotypu. Vďaka variaciami chemickeho zloženia silice, bolo možne pozorovať vzťah medzi pritomnosťou určiteho chemotypu a povodom vzorky. Rozdiely v stanoveni obsahu flavonoidov nepreukazali žiadny vyrazny vzťah k lokalite povodu.

  8. Comparative study of the chemical profiling, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of different parts of Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouknin, Mohamed; Romane, Abderrahmane; Costa, Jean; Majidi, Lhou

    2018-02-27

    The analysis of Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut essential oils (TW EOs) shows 33 components accounting for (96.3-97.7%) of all identified. The main constituents of TW EOs were thymol (35.5-47.3%), p-cymene (13.9-23.8%), γ-terpinene (8.9-20.3%). The antioxidant assays revealed that all TW EOs tested showed strong activities, the antimicrobial effect of TW EOs has been tested against isolated clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 35659), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), and Aspergillus brasilliensis (ATCC 16404). The antimicrobial test indicates that TW EOs show an inhibition effect against all the tested bacteria with a MIC of 6.9 to 27.6 μg/mL -1 . These results proving that the essential oils extracted from Thymus willdenowii Boiss & Reut may be a new potential source of natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  9. Increase in colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of thymus cells from radiation-induced thymomas of NIH Swiss mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nobuko; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Hori, Yasuharu [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    Colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of radiation-induced thymoma in NIH Swiss mice was determined in the presence of cultured medium of reticulo-epitherial cells from normal thymus of NIH Swiss mouse as conditioned medium. A similar experiment was done with thymomas spontaneously developed in AKR mice. Most of colonies developed in soft agar were not composed of thymic lymphoma cells, but of macrophage-like cells. The ratio of the number of colonies to that of the seeded cells significantly increased in thymomas comparing with that in normal thymus. This result corresponded with the increased number of macrophages in thymoma, as determined by counting phagocytic cells of adherent cells.

  10. Recovering gold from thiosulfate leach pulps via ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Michael J.; O'Malley, Glen

    2002-10-01

    Increasing environmental and occupational safety concerns about the use of cyanide in gold processing has increased interest in more acceptable alternative lixiviants, the most promising of which is thiosulfate. However, the thiosulfate process lacks a proven inpulp method of recovering the dissolved gold because activated carbon is not effective for the absorption of the gold-thiosulfate complex. This paper describes work aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of commercially available anion exchange resins for the recovery of gold from thiosulfate leach liquors and pulps.

  11. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium is conventionally recovered from wet-process phosphoric acid by two liquid ion exchange steps using a mixture of mono- and disubstituted phenyl esters of orthophosphoric acid (OPPA). Efficiency of the process drops as the mono-OPPA is lost preferentially to the aqueous phase. This invention provides a process for the removal of the uranium process organics (OPPA and organic solvents) from the raffinate of the first liquid ion exchange step and their return to the circuit. The process organics are removed by a combination flotation and absorption step, which results in the recovery of the organics on beads of a hydrophobic styrene polymer

  12. A computer-implemented method of recovering a visual event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a synchronization marker at least for a first occurrence of a temporal section classified as a smooth pursuit eye movement; wherein the synchronization marker comprises a link to or impression information of the contents of the viewport at the point in time when the first occurrence of a smooth pursuit eye movement...... occurred; via the synchronization marker, recovering the impression information or the contents of the viewport that was displayed at the point in time when the first occurrence of the smooth pursuit occurred....

  13. Preliminary fee methodology for recovering GTCC-LLW management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning a fee to recover costs of managing Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste (GTCC-LLW). A cash flow basis will be used for fee calculations to ensure recovery of all applicable program costs. Positive cash flows are revenues received from waste generators. Negative cash flows are program expenses for storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of the wastes and for program development, evaluation, and administration. Program balances are the net result of positive and negative cash flows each year. The methodology calculates fees that will recovery all program expenses taking into account cost inflation. 3 refs., 1 tab

  14. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  15. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...... can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1year...

  16. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicole [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, PO Box 980613, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8{sup +} T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8{sup +} T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8{sup +} cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery.

  17. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties on Meat Homogenates of Essential Oils Obtained from Four Thymus Species Achieved from Organic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, Jose A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2017-07-28

    In the organic food industry, no chemical additives can be used to prevent microbial spoilage. As a consequence, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from organic aromatic herbs and spices are gaining interest for their potential as preservatives. The organic Thymus zygis , Thymus mastichina , Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris EOs, which are common in Spain and widely used in the meat industry, could be used as antibacterial agents in food preservation. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the antibacterial activity using, as culture medium, extracts from meat homogenates (minced beef, cooked ham or dry-cured sausage); and (ii) the antioxidant properties of organic EOs obtained from T. zygis , T. mastichina , T. capitatus and T. vulgaris . The antioxidant activity was determined using different methodologies, such as Ferrous ion-chelating ability assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation (ABTS • +) scavenging activity assay and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method; while the antibacterial activity was determined against 10 bacteria using the agar diffusion method in different meat model media. All EOs analyzed, at all concentrations, showed antioxidant activity. T. capitatus and T. zygis EOs were the most active. The IC 50 values, for DPPH, ABTS and FIC assays were 0.60, 1.41 and 4.44 mg/mL, respectively, for T. capitatus whilst for T. zygis were 0.90, 2.07 and 4.95 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, T. zygis and T. capitatus EOs, in all culture media, had the highest inhibition halos against all tested bacteria. In general terms, the antibacterial activity of all EOs assayed was higher in the medium made with minced beef than with the medium elaborated with cooked ham or dry-cured sausage.

  18. Nonsuppressing normal thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging and anterior mediastinal lymphoma. Differentiation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using the apparent diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Gned, Dario; Veltri, Andrea; Giraudo, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate usefulness of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating anterior mediastinal lymphoma from nonsuppressing normal thymus on chemical-shift MR, and to look at the relationship between patient age and ADC. Seventy-three young subjects (25 men, 48 women; age range, 9-29 years), who underwent chemical-shift MR and diffusion-weighted MR were divided into a normal thymus group (group A, 40 subjects), and a lymphoma group (group B, 33 patients). For group A, all subjects had normal thymus with no suppression on opposed-phase chemical-shift MR. Two readers measured the signal intensity index (SII) and ADC. Differences in SII and ADC between groups were tested using t-test. ADC was correlated with age using Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean SII±standard deviation was 2.7±1.8% for group A and 2.2±2.4% for group B, with no significant difference between groups (P=.270). Mean ADC was 2.48±0.38 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for group A and 1.24±0.23 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for group B. A significant difference between groups was found (P<.001), with no overlap in range. Lastly, significant correlation was found between age and ADC (r=0.935, P<.001) in group A. ADC of diffusion-weighted MR is a noninvasive and accurate parameter for differentiating lymphoma from nonsuppressing thymus on chemical-shift MR in young subjects. (orig.)

  19. ENSAYO PRELIMINAR DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE EXTRACTOS DE ALLIUM SATIVUM, CORIANDRUM SATIVUM, EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA, ORIGANUM VULGARE, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS Y THYMUS VULGARIS FRENTE A CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Q., Martha I; Vargas A., Andrés F; Pérez C., Jorge E; Mejía G., Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana frente a Clostridium perfringens (cepa ATCC: 13124) por el método de Kirby Bauer en agar SPS de los aceites esenciales o extractos vegetales obtenidos con solventes orgánicos de diferente polaridad a partir de Allium sativum (ajo), Coriandrum sativum (cilantro), Eugenia Caryophyllata (clavo de olor), Origanum vulgare (orégano), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero) y Thymus vulgaris (tomillo), utilizando la vancomicina como control. Los extractos obtenidos por ...

  20. Internal dose-effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in gonadotropin-primed weanling rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirota, Mariko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Toyozo [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Okuyama, Mitsunobu [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); TEIZO Medical Co., Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan); Sakurada, Yosuke; Shirota, Kinji [Azabu University, Research Institute of Biosciences, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsuki, Yasuhiko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Single sc injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) induces ovulation in weanling female rats 3 days later. It has been shown that treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 24 h before eCG injection reduces eCG-stimulated ovarian hypertrophy and inhibits ovulation. The present study intended to compare internal dose-effects of TCDD between these endpoints and representative endpoints for TCDD toxicity, such as weights of the liver and thymus, in weanling female rats given orally 0, 1, 4 or 16 {mu}g/kg TCDD 24 h before eCG injection on postnatal day 25. Measurement of plasma TCDD concentrations by ELISA at 6, 72 and 96 h after TCDD revealed that significant levels of TCDD were maintained in systemic circulation until 96 h (on the day of induced ovulation) with the highest level at 6 h after TCDD treatment. Ovarian TCDD concentrations varied similarly and tended to be higher than those in the thymus at all time points, whereas hepatic concentrations of TCDD were the highest among the tissues. Although {>=} 4 {mu}g/kg TCDD affected the weights of the thymus and liver, no differences were observed in ovarian weights at any time point or in ovulation between corn oil-treated and TCDD-treated groups. Furthermore, ovarian levels of representative mRNAs in follicles were not affected by TCDD treatment. Since TCDD increased the amount of cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA in the ovary, the administered TCDD stimulated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-signaling pathway. From these results, we concluded that thymus weights of weanling female rats responded to TCDD at a lower internal dose as compared with that ovarian hypertrophy and follicular growth from early antral stage to ovulation would respond to. (orig.)

  1. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  2. In vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation by using Bisphenol A in Calf Thymus DNA and 2’-Deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Bakri, Ridla; Handayani, Sri; Ratna Dewi, Evi

    2018-01-01

    The in vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation due to BisphenolA (BPA) as xenobiotics has been conducted by using calf thymus DNA and 2’deoxyguanosine. The method of study was conducted by incubating calf thymus DNA and 2’dG with compounds trigger to radicals in the variation of pH (7.4 and 8.4), temperature (37°C and 60°C), and BPA concentrations (2 ppm and 10 ppm). To represent the work of CYP 450 enzyme in metabolic process of xenobiotics in the body and the effect of metal presence to the formation of radicals that can lead to 8-OHdG formation, we used iron(II) solution and also fenton reagent (Fe(II) and H2O2). The DNA used has 1.8 purity ratio (checked at λ260/λ280 by using Spectrophotometry UV-Vis). The results by using HPLC method showed that BPA could interact with DNA and DNA base (represent as calf thymus and 2’dG) and potentially induced 8-OHdG formation. The presence of iron(II) metal and Fenton reagent also induced the higher 8-OHdG formation. The higher of pH, temperature and concentrations also lead to 8-OHdG formation (ranger between 4 - 70 ppb).

  3. Study on expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dingde; Chen Qi; Han Ling; Cai Jianming; Li Bailong; Huang Yuecheng; Gao Jianguo; Sun Suping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of SH2 domain containing-protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Methods: Altogether 338 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into irradiation groups and controls. Irradiation groups which were irradiated with γ-rays included canceration groups confirmed with histology and uncanceration groups. The controls were fed synchronistically with irradiation groups. The expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 was detected with Western blot in thymus cells. Results: The expression of SHP-1 in canceration groups was much higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls significantly, while the expression of SHP-2 in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. When authors detected the expression of SHP-2 with Western blot, the authors found another protein with a molecular weight of 55x10 3 , which expression in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. Conclusion: The expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 is significantly increased in canceration groups, suggesting that SHP-1 and SHP-2 may be related with γ-ray induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Further research is expected on the relationship between development of cancer and SHP-1 and SHP-2

  4. Role of alkaline endonucleases in the release of soluble chromatin from thymus, spleen and liver nuclei of normal and irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.

    1979-01-01

    Thymus, spleen and liver nuclei released a large fraction of soluble chromatin in vitro when incubation was carried out in sucrose media containing low concentrations of CaCl 2 and/or MgCl 2 . A significant fraction of deoxyribopolynucleotides (DPN) was also extracted from nuclei. After 30 min of incubation at 37 0 C, the maximum release of soluble chromatin was observed near a pH of 8, which corresponds to the optimum pH of the alkaline endonuclease activity from thymus, spleen and liver. The soluble chromatin and DPN were precipitated by increasing the bivalent ion concentration of the medium. The protein/DNA ratio and the molecular weight of DNA suggest that the soluble chromatin and DPN represent nucleosome-like particles. The release of soluble chromatin in the first 4 hours of incubation was significantly increased if the nuclear fraction was isolated from the thymus and spleen of whole-body irradiated mice (1000 rad). This effect was absent in the liver nuclei. (author)

  5. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  6. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  7. Recovering Nimbus era Observations at the NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Esfandiari, A. E.; Zamkoff, E. B.; Al-Jazrawi, A. F.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Alcott, G. T.

    2017-12-01

    Between 1964 and 1978, NASA launched a series of seven Nimbus meteorological satellites which provided Earth observations for 30 years. These satellites, carrying a total of 33 instruments to observe the Earth at visible, infrared, ultraviolet, and microwave wavelengths, revolutionized weather forecasting, provided early observations of ocean color and atmospheric ozone, and prototyped location-based search and rescue capabilities. The Nimbus series paved the way for a number of currently operational systems such as the EOS Terra, Aqua and Aura platforms.The original data archive included both magnetic tapes and film media. These media are well past their expected end of life, placing at risk valuable data that are critical to extending the history of Earth observations back in time. GES DISC has been incorporating these data into a modern online archive by recovering the digital data files from the tapes, and scanning images of the data from film strips. The original data products were written on obsolete hardware systems in outdated file formats, and in the absence of metadata standards at that time, were often written in proprietary file structures. Through a tedious and laborious process, oft-corrupted data are recovered, and incomplete metadata and documentation are reconstructed.

  8. Process for recovering xenon from radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Tsuneo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To recover pure xenon economically and efficiently by amply removing radioactive krypton mixed in xenon without changing the rectifying capacity of an xenon rectifying system itself. Method: Xe containing radioactive Kr(Kr-85) is rectified to reduce the concentration of radioactive Kr. Thereafter, non-radioactive Kr or Ar is added to Xe and further the rectification is carried out. The raw material Xe from the Xe adsorption system of, for example, a radioactive gaseous waste disposal system is cooled to about 100 0 C by a heat-exchanger and thereafter supplied to a rectifying tower to carry out normal rectification of Xe thereby to reduce the concentration of Kr contained in Xe at the tower bottom to the rectification limit concentration. Then, non-radioactive Kr is supplied via a precooler to the tower bottom to continue the rectification, thus the Xe fractions at the tower bottom, in which the concentration of radioactive Kr is reduced, being compressed and recovered. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Recovering missing mesothelioma deaths in death certificates using hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma S; Algranti, Eduardo; Campos, Felipe; Cavalcante, Franciana; Salvi, Leonardo; Santos, Simone A; Inamine, Rosemeire N; Souza, William; Consonni, Dario

    2018-04-02

    In Brazil, underreporting of mesothelioma and cancer of the pleura (MCP) is suspected to be high. Records from death certificates (SIM) and hospital registers (SIH-SUS) can be combined to recover missing data but only anonymous databases are available. This study shows how common data can be used for linkage and as an assessment of accuracy. Mesothelioma (all sites, ICD-10 codes C45.0-C45.9) and cancer of the pleura (C38.4) were retrieved from both information systems and combined using a linkage algorithm. Accuracy was examined with non-anonymous databases, limited to the state of São Paulo. We found 775 cases in death certificates and 283 in hospital registers. The linkage matched 57 cases, all accurately paired. Three cases, 0.4% in SIM and 1.3% in SIH-SUS, could not be matched because of data inconsistencies. A computer linkage can recover MCP cases from hospital records not found in death certificates in Brazil. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Homogeneous immunoglobulins in the serum of irradiated and bone marrow reconstituted mice: the role of thymus and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, J.G.; Radl, J.; Berg, P. van den; Muiswinkel, W.B. van; Oosterom, R. van.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of thymectomy and splenectomy on the frequency and class distribution of homogeneous immunoglobulins (H-Ig) in serum was studied in lethally irradiated (DBA/2 x C57B1/Rij)F 1 mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow. During four follow-up periods in the first 9 months after transplantation, the sham-operated controls and splenectomized animals developed transient H-Ig in an average frequency of 14.2 and 15.7% respectively. There were no marked differences in the incidence of H-Ig within these two groups. In contrast, thymectomized mice and mice both thymectomized and splenectomized showed H-Ig in much higher frequencies (average percentages 31.6 and 36.5 respectively). The highest frequency of H-Ig was observed between 1.5 and 3.5 months after transplantation. H-Ig of the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses were most frequent in all groups during the first 3.5 months. Later, H-Ig belonging to the IgM class also appeared in somewhat higher numbers. H-Ig of the IgA class was a very rare finding at any time. These results indicate that the presence of the thymus, but not necessarily of the spleen, is an important factor in the regulation of the immunoglobulin heterogeneity during the reconstitution of the immune system in lethally irradiated and bone marrow reconstituted mice. (author)

  11. Binding of Bisphenol-F, a bisphenol analogue, to calf thymus DNA by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-08-01

    BPF (Bisphenol-F), a member of the bisphenol family, having a wide range of industrial applications is gradually replacing Bisphenol-A. It is a recognized endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). EDCs have been implicated in increased incidences of breast, prostate and testis cancers besides diabetes, obesity and decreased fertility. Due to the adverse effects of EDCs on human health, attempts have been directed towards their mechanism of toxicity especially at the molecular level. Hence, to understand the mechanism at the DNA level, interaction of BPF with calf thymus DNA was studied employing multi-spectroscopic, voltammetric and molecular docking techniques. Fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking studies of BPF with DNA were suggestive of minor groove binding of BPF. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra suggested static quenching due to complex formation between BPF and ctDNA. Hoechst 33258 (HO) and ethidium bromide (EB) displacement studies further confirmed such mode of BPF interaction. Thermodynamic and molecular docking parameters revealed the mechanism of binding of BPF with ctDNA to be favorable and spontaneous due to negative ΔG and occurring through hydrogen bonds and van der waals interactions. BPF induced DNA cleavage under in vitro conditions by plasmid nicking assay suggested it to be genotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cytokinins on in vitro multiplication, volatiles composition and rosmarinic acid content of Thymus leucotrichus Hal. shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekircan, Tuba; Yaşar, Ahmet; Yıldırım, Sercan; Sökmen, Münevver; Sökmen, Atalay

    2018-03-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication protocol was designed to Thymus leucotrichus , a subshrub and perennial herb growing naturally in the Northwest of Turkey. Of all basal media studied, Murashige and Skoog medium was found to be superior to the others, providing higher shoot formation and the maximum shoot length. Varying concentrations of cytokinins, i.e., 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, 2-isopentenyladenine and kinetin were supplemented in the nutrient media to observe their effects on shoot development and biomass. Rosmarinic acid content and volatile compositions of both naturally growing plants and in vitro multiplied plantlets were also evaluated. 6-benzyladenine (1.0 mg/L) and kinetin (0.5 mg/L) were found to be optimum for shoot number and shoot elongation, respectively. Thidiazuron (1.0 mg/L) was superior for biomass production. Rosmarinic acid content of in vitro multiplied plants was found to be higher than that of wild plants, reaching a maximum with 0.5 mg/L 2-isopentenyladenine, which yielded 10.15 mg/g dry weight. The highest thymol content was obtained with 1.0 mg/L kinetin (55.82%), while thidiazuron (0.1 mg/L) increased carvacrol production (12.53%). Overall, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L kinetin was determined to be the most favorable medium studied.

  13. Identification and characterization of dimeric oxidation products of p-cymene-2,3-diol isolated from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainis, Guido; Ternes, Waldemar

    2014-01-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidation products of p-cymene-2,3-diol, a major antioxidative constituent of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Although a dimeric form of p-cymene-2,3-diol and some derivative substances exhibiting valuable food technological and health-promoting properties have been reported in earlier publications, no obvious correlation has been shown between these substances. A modified HPLC-ESI-MS method made it possible to prove that two dimers, 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl (1) and the newly identified 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl-3,4-dione (2), are oxidation products of p-cymene-2,3-diol. 2 was characterized by the fragmentation pattern determined by multiple mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. Both biphenyls were also quantitated in freeze-dried thyme as well as in a food matrix spiked with thyme extract. Model experiments using raw and cooked minced pork meat as matrix and sodium nitrite as oxidizing and reduction agent with and without ascorbic acid as protective reagent showed the correlation between food processing and dimer generation.

  14. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila Salim Al Hashmi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila; Salim; Al; Hashmi; Mohammad; Amzad; Hossain; Afaf; Mohammed; Weli; Qasim; Al-Riyami; Jamal; Nasser; Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L(T.vulgaris)by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Methods:The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor.Methanol crude extracts of T.vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane,chloroform,ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained.Results:Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds.Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important.Further,the T.vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation.The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T.vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis.Conclusions:All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris are biologically active molecules.Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T.vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  17. Effects of γ-Irradiation of Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. on the Phenolic Compounds Profile of Its Ethanolic Extract

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    Janiak Michał A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented study revealed that there were changes in the phenolic compounds profile of extract of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. after γ-irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy. Ethanolic extracts of irradiated and non-irradiated herb were prepared and their compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD technique. Between thirty two detected constituents, twelve phenolic compounds classified as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives, flavones and flavanones were identified. Among them, caffeic acid derivatives and flavones predominated with the highest content of rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, respectively. Additionally, thymol was recognized in the analyzed extracts. γ-Irradiation slightly affected the quantitative profile of phenolic compounds of a wild thyme ethanolic extract. Only four constituents differed significantly (P<0.05 in terms of their content in the irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The content of phenolic acids (p-coumaric and caffeic acids decreased and that of flavonoid aglycons (luteolin and eriodictyol increased after the γ-ray treatment.

  18. An In Vitro Synergistic Interaction of Combinations of Thymus glabrescens Essential Oil and Its Main Constituents with Chloramphenicol

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    Budimir S. Ilić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Thymus glabrescens Willd. (Lamiaceae essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and chloramphenicol. The antibacterial activities of geraniol and thymol, the main constituents of T. glabrescens oil, individually and in combination with chloramphenicol, were also determined. The interactions of the essential oil, geraniol, and thymol with chloramphenicol toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemometric methods. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the oil, with geraniol (22.33% as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains, but the activities were lower than those of the standard antibiotic and thymol. A combination of  T. glabrescens oil and chloramphenicol produced a strong synergistic interaction (FIC indices in the range 0.21–0.87 and a substantial reduction of the MIC value of chloramphenicol, thus minimizing its adverse side effects. The combinations geraniol-chloramphenicol and thymol-chloramphenicol produced synergistic interaction to a greater extent, compared with essential oil-chloramphenicol association, which may indicate that the activity of the thyme oil could be attributed to the presence of significant concentrations of geraniol and thymol.

  19. Multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of darunavir, a HIV protease inhibitor with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Zhou, Kai-Li; Lou, Yan-Yue; Pan, Dong-Qi

    2018-03-15

    Molecular interaction of darunavir (DRV), a HIV protease inhibitor with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied in physiological buffer (pH7.4) by multi-spectroscopic approaches hand in hand with viscosity measurements and molecular docking technique. The UV absorption and fluorescence results together revealed the formation of a DRV-ct-DNA complex having binding affinities of the order of 10 3 M -1 , which was more in keeping with the groove binding. The results that DRV bound to ct-DNA via groove binding mode was further evidenced by KI quenching studies, viscosity measurements, competitive binding investigations with EB and Rhodamine B and CD spectral analysis. The effect of ionic strength indicated the negligible involvement of electrostatic interaction between DRV and ct-DNA. The thermodynamic parameters regarding the binding interaction of DRV with ct-DNA in terms of enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ) and entropy change (ΔS 0 ) were -63.19kJ mol -1 and -141.92J mol -1 K -1 , indicating that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a predominant role in the binding process. Furthermore, molecular simulation studies suggested that DRV molecule was prone to bind in the A-T rich region of the minor groove of DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-calf thymus DNA to form dendriplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Debabrata; Kumar, Santosh; Maiti, Souvik; Dhara, Dibakar

    2013-11-07

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are known to be highly efficient nonviral carriers in gene delivery. Dendrimer-mediated transfection is known to be a function of the dendrimer to DNA charge ratio as well as the size of the dendrimer. In the present study, the binding kinetics of four PAMAM dendrimers (G1, G2, G3, and G4) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been studied using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of dendrimer-to-DNA charge ratio and dendrimer generation on the binding kinetics was investigated. In most cases, the results of dendrimer-CT-DNA binding can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism: a rapid electrostatic binding between the dendrimer and DNA, followed by a conformational change of the dendrimer-DNA complex that ultimately leads to DNA condensation. It was observed that the charge ratio on the dendrimer and the DNA phosphate groups, as well as the dendrimer generation (size), has a marked effect on the kinetics of binding between the DNA and the dendrimers. The rate constant (k'1) of the first step was much higher compared to that of the second step (k'2), and both were found to increase with an increase in dendrimer concentration. Among the four generations of dendrimers, G4 exhibited significantly faster binding kinetics compared to the three smaller generation dendrimers.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants. - Highlights: • The irradiation affects quantitatively the chemical composition of EO of AMPs. • The irradiation affected significantly the antimicrobial activity. • The antimicrobial activity was more pronounced at higher doses for gram−. • The irradiation up to a dose of 30 kGy did not affect the antioxidant activities. • The irradiation at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities

  3. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (Kb) between TMG and DNA was 2.27 × 104 M- 1, that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH TMG with CT-DNA. Competitive binding assay with methylene blue (MB) and Hoechst 33258 using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed that TMG possibly binds to the minor groove of CT-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking.

  4. Development and Validation of A Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Calf Thymus DNA Using a Terbium-Danofloxacin Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Soltani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of biomolecules is required in many biomedical research areas. A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for determination of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA based on the fluorescence enhancement of terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano in the presence of ctDNA. Methods: A probe with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 347 nm and 545 nm, respectively, was developed. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+-Dano system was proportional to the concentration of ctDNA. The effective factors and the optimum conditions for the determination of ctDNA were studied. Under the optimum conditions of [Tris buffer]= 0.01 mol L-1 (pH 7.8, [ Tb3+]= 1×10-5 mol L-1 and [Dano]= 5×10-5 mol L-1, the maximum response was achieved. The developed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and limit of detection. Results: The linear concentration range for quantification of ctDNA was 36-3289 ng mL-1 and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 8 ng mL-1. The concentration of DNA extracted from Escherichia coli as an extracted sample was also determined using the developed probe. The concentration of DNA in extracted sample was determined using UV assay and developed method, the results were satisfactory. Conclusion: The proposed method is a simple, practical and relatively interference free method to follow up the concentrations of ctDNA.

  5. Effect of Thymus vulgaris and Bunium persicum essential oils on the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramat, M.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are becoming a major focus because natural food ingredients are safer than synthetic types. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Thymus vulgaris and Bunium persicum essential oils (EO) on the oxidation of virgin olive oil (VOO) during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activities of EOs were compared with those of α-tocopherol and BHT. GC/MS analyses revealed that thymol (28.50%), p-cymene (27.14%), carvacrol (18.36%), and γ-terpinene (4.97%) are the main components of T. vulgaris EO, while cuminaldehyde (32.81%), γ-terpinene (16.02%) and p-cymene (14.07%) are the main components of B. persicum EO. Both EOs provided protection for the VOO, inhibiting the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products although T. vulgaris EO showed greater protection against the oxidation process than B. persicum EO. The effect of T. vulgaris essential oil on the oxidation inhibition of VOO was similar to that of BHT. α-Tocopherol showed no measurable effect on improving the oxidative stability of VOO. This study suggests that T. vulgaris and B. persicum EOs can be used to improve the oxidative stability of VOO. [es

  6. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; Oliva, M de Las M

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was used for determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were pheno- and genotypically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity against P. syringae, with MIC values from 1.43 to 11.5 mg·ml -1 for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg·ml -1 for oregano. Biofilm formation, production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oil in most strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and reduction of virulence factor production after treatment with thyme and oregano oil, providing insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  8. Características morfométricas do desenvolvimento do timo em cães Morphometric characteristics of thymus development in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Agreste

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O timo é um órgão de grande importância imunológica durante a vida fetal e o período neonatal. Ele é o precursor da linfopoiese e apresenta alta atividade linfopoiética, sendo também o maior órgão linfóide durante a vida intrauterina e até o nascimento. Neste estudo, os aspectoso morfológicos do desenvolvimento prenatal de timos de cães foram descritos em fetos de diferentes idades e sexos. Vinte e quatro fetos de cães domésticos, sem raça definida, machos e fêmeas, foram divididos em 4 grupos etários. O timo apresentou-se composto por dois lobos unidos por um tecido de conexão, com coloração rósea, localizados no espaço mediastinal cranial. A porção cranial estendeu-se pouco além do primeiro par de costelas. As células que formavam o parênquima do timo estavam bem organizadas. Agrega dos concêntricos chamados Corpúsculos de Hassal foram observados, envolvidos por uma delgada cápsula de tecido conjuntivo que é espessada por tecido adiposo. O tamanho dos vasos aumentou gradativamente com a idade dos fetos, sendo maior nos animais próximos ao nascimento. Os timos das fêmeas apresentaram maior volume (Vref e dimensões de tamanho que nos machos.The thymus is an organ with great immunological relevance during foetus life and neonatal period, It is the predecessor of lymphopoiesis and shows high lymphopoietic activity, being also the largest lymphoid organ during intrauterine life and at birth. In this study, the morphological aspects of the prenatal development of dog thymus were described in foetus of different ages and sexes. Twenty-four foetus of mongrel domestic dogs, males and females, were divided into four age groups. The thymus presented two lobes linked by a rose-colored tissue connection that was localized in the cranial mediastinal space. The cranial portion protrudes slightly beyond the first pair of ribs. The cells that formed the thymus parenchyma were well organized. Concentric aggregates named

  9. A new biotechnology for recovering heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnall, D.W.; Gabel, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that bio-recovery systems has developed a new sorption process for removing toxic metal ions from water. This process is based upon the natural, very strong affinity for biological materials, such as the cell walls of plants and microorganisms, for heavy metal ions such as uranium, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, etc.. Biological materials, primarily algae, have been immobilized in a polymer to produce a biological ion exchange resin, AlgaSORB. The material has a remarkable affinity for heavy metal ions and is capable of concentrating these ions by a factor of may thousand-fold. Additionally, the bound metals can be stripped and recovered from the algal material in a manner similar to conventional resins

  10. Recovering phosphorus and uranium values from phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, M.C.Y.; Long, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Phosphate rock is acidulated with aqueous nitric acid to produce an aqueous solution containing phosphate values, calcium and uranium values. The aqueous solution is contacted with an extraction solvent for the uranium values: the extraction solvent comprising a water immiscible organic diluent, a dialkyl phosphoric acid having at least 10 carbon atoms, and an organic phosphorus compound having the formula R 1 R 2 R 3 P = O where R 1 , R 2 and R 3 are each either alkyl or alkoxy, the organic phosphorus compound having at least 10 carbon atoms. The uranium values are then recovered from the extraction solvent. In an example the extraction solvent is HDEHP and TOPO in kerosene. (author)

  11. Method of recovering neptunium from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboya, T.; N.

    1976-01-01

    An improved Purex wet recovery process including the step of extracting and separating uranium and plutonium simultaneously from the fission products in the presence of nitric acid and nitrous acid by using a multistage extractor unit having an extracting section and a washing section is provided for separating and recovering neptunium simultaneously with uranium and plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel. The improved method comprises the steps of maintaining the nitrous acid concentration in said extracting section at a level suited for effecting oxidation of neptunium from (V) to (VI) valence, while lowering the nitrous acid concentration in said washing section so as to suppress reduction of neptunium from (VI) to (V) valence, and maintaining the nitric acid concentration in said washing section at a high level

  12. Recovering phosphorus and uranium values from phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, M C.Y.; Long, R H

    1981-02-11

    Phosphate rock is acidulated with aqueous nitric acid to produce an aqueous solution containing phosphate values, calcium and uranium values. The aqueous solution is contacted with an extraction solvent for the uranium values: the extraction solvent comprising a water immiscible organic diluent, a dialkyl phosphoric acid having at least 10 carbon atoms, and an organic phosphorus compound having the formula R/sub 1/ R/sub 2/ R/sub 3/ P = O where R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ are each either alkyl or alkoxy, the organic phosphorus compound having at least 10 carbon atoms. The uranium values are then recovered from the extraction solvent. In an example the extraction solvent is HDEHP and TOPO in kerosene.

  13. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  14. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  15. Vulnerable GPU Memory Management: Towards Recovering Raw Data from GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to previous reports, information could be leaked from GPU memory; however, the security implications of such a threat were mostly over-looked, because only limited information could be indirectly extracted through side-channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for recovering raw data directly from the GPU memory residues of many popular applications such as Google Chrome and Adobe PDF reader. Our algorithm enables harvesting highly sensitive information including credit card numbers and email contents from GPU memory residues. Evaluation results also indicate that nearly all GPU-accelerated applications are vulnerable to such attacks, and adversaries can launch attacks without requiring any special privileges both on traditional multi-user operating systems, and emerging cloud computing scenarios.

  16. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  17. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  18. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  19. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE THYMUS: EMBRYOLOGICAL BASIS FOR ECTOPIC THYMUS AND THYMOPHARYNGEAL DUCT CYST. Algunas observaciones acerca del temprano desarrollo del timo: bases embriológicas del timo ectópico y del quiste del conducto timofar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Varga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo principal de nuestro trabajo es el estudio histológico del desarrollo del timo humano entre la 5ª y la 8ª semana de gestación. Describimos varios términos embriológicos poco usados como: timo secundus, descensus thymi (la base embriológica para situar el timo en la garganta, ductus timicus (la base embriológica para el defecto innato llamado conducto timofaríngeo con posibilidad de formar un quiste. Material y método. Nuestras observaciones se basan en la investigación de 18 embriones humanos entre la 6ª y la 8ª semana de gestación. Resultados. La base del timo es común con la base de las glándulas paratiroideas. Es comparable con las bolsas faríngeas (saccus pharyngeus en los embriones largos de 8 a 9 mm. La proliferación endodermal del epitelio en el tercer foco faríngeo (focus faringeus 3 es muy visible. La parte craneal y la parte dorsal son la base de origen de las glándulas paratiroideas inferiores. La parte caudal y la parte ventral son la base para el timo. Hemos observado también la notable proliferación del epitelio en la segunda bolsa faríngea, llamado por algunos autores Timo secundus. En nuestra opinión, en el ser humano no se forma un timo funcional en este lugar y la proliferación del epitelio en la mayoría de los casos, se detiene pronto. Conclusión. En este trabajo ofrecemos una vista general sobre la importancia clínica del desarrollo del timo y la descripción de los defectos innatos más frecuentes del mismo. Introduction. The aim of our morphological study is to describe the development of human thymus from 5th up to 8th week after fertilization in the context of its phylogenesis. We explicate some of the “forgotten” embryological terms with respect to their functions in thymic development, such as “thymus secundus”, “descensus thymi” (an embryological basis for cervical thymus and “ductus thymicus” (an embryologic basis for a congenital anomaly called

  1. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  2. Tolerance induction to a thymus-dependent antigen in vitro: treatment of nonadherent cells with tolerogen biologically filtered in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, J.W.; Kong, Y.M.

    1974-01-01

    Highly tolerogenic bovine gamma globulin (BGG), a thymus-dependent antigen, was prepared by biologic filtration in vitro. It readily induced tolerance in vivo in BALB/c mice and also rendered their nonadherent lymph node cells tolerant after in vitro incubation. Biologic filtration in vitro was carried out by incubating 2.5 x 10 7 lymph node cells with 10 mg of nontolerogenic BGG in 10 ml of Eagle's medium containing 2 percent normal mouse serum at 37 0 C for 6 hr. The BGG-containing medium was clarified by centrifugation and was used without further dilution. For tolerance induction in vitro, lymph node cells were separated into adherent and nonadherent populations on Falcon plastic. These cells were incubated for 0 to 18 hr at 37 0 C with biologically filtered BGG (bBGG). After incubation, the cells were washed three times and (2 to 2.5) x 10 7 nonadherent or 4 x 10 6 adherent cells were injected iv with their untreated counterpart into lethally irradiated mice which had received 10 6 bone marrow cells. The recipients were then challenged with 300 μg of aggregated BGG, and tolerance was assayed by the elimination of labeled BGG, rosette formation, and passive hemagglutination. Spleen cells were similarly treated for comparison. Our findings show that tolerance was not induced in vitro in adherent lymph node cells. However, in the nonadherent populations, those from the lymph node but not the spleen were rendered tolerant. The acquisition of tolerance in vitro was gradual. It was dependent upon the length of exposure to bBGG and required at least 6 hr

  3. Effect of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil on Oxidative Stability of Virgin Olive Oil and Its Synergy with Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Keramat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since usage of synthetic antioxidants has been under question due to their toxicity and possible carcinogenicity, there is still interest in developing plant-derived natural antioxidants, especially from edible plants. This study investigated the effect of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil on virgin olive oil oxidation in comparison with tocopheryl acetate and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Furthermore, the synergistic activities of citric acid with natural and synthetic antioxidants were determined. Methods: T. vulgaris essential oil was added to the virgin olive oil at a concentration of 1000 ppm. The BHT and tocopheryl acetate were added to the virgin olive oil at 100 ppm concentration. Virgin olive oil samples were stored at 60°C for 16 days. The peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values were measured every 4 days. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of virgin olive oil samples were determined at the beginning and end of storage period. Results: T. vulgaris essential oil significantly reduced the peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values of virgin olive oil. The effect of T.vulgaris essential oil on retarding virgin olive oil oxidation was similar to the effect of BHT. By comparison, tocopheryl acetate was less effective in reducing the oxidation of virgin olive oil. Furthermore, T. vulgaris essential oil could preserve chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil during storage period. Conclusion: T. vulgaris essential oil can be applied to increase the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil, and can protect the chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil.

  4. A new insight into the interaction of ZnO with calf thymus DNA through surface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Experimental evidences on the binding interaction of ZnO and Calf Thymus (CT) DNA using several biophysical techniques are the centre of interest of the present study. The interaction of ZnO with CT DNA has been investigated in detail by absorption spectral study, fluorescence titration, Raman analysis, zeta potential measurement, viscometric experiment along with thermal melting study and microscopic analysis. Steady-state fluorescence study revealed the quenching (48%) of the surface defect related peak intensity of ZnO on interaction with DNA. The optimized concentration of ZnO and DNA to obtain this level of quenching has been found to be 0.049mM and 1.027μM, respectively. Additional fluorescence study with 8-hydroxy-5-quinoline (HQ) as a fluorescence probe for Zn 2+ ruled out the dissolution effect of ZnO under the experimental conditions. DNA conjugation on the surface of ZnO was also supported by Raman study. The quantitative variation in conductivity as well as electrophoretic mobility indicated significant interaction of ZnO with the DNA molecule. Circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence in support of the conformational retention of the DNA on interaction with ZnO. The binding interaction was found to be predominantly entropy driven in nature. The bio-physical studies presented in this paper exploring ZnO-CT DNA interaction could add a new horizon to understand the interaction between metal oxide and DNA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Down-regulatory effect of Thymus vulgaris L. on growth and Tri4 gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divband, Kolsum; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Khosravi, Ali Reza

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) essential oil on the fungal growth and Tri4 gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) strains. The oil was obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. The chemical composition of the essential oil was obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and by retention indices. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. A quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was also developed specific for F. oxysporum on the basis of trichothecene biosynthetic gene, Tri4, which allowed discrimination from F. oxysporum. Results showed thymol (32.67%) and p-cymene (16.68%) as the main components of T. vulgaris. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varied from 5 to 20 μg/ml with T. vulgaris (mean: 10.50 μg/ml), while minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values ranged from 8 to 30 μg/ml with mean value of 16.20 μg/ml qRT-PCR results revealed a downregulation from 4.04 to 6.27 fold of Tri4 gene expression of the fungi exposed to T. vulgaris essential oil. The results suggest that T. vulgaris oil can be considered potential alternative natural fungicide to the synthetic chemicals that are currently used to prevent and control seed-borne diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove essential oils to control spoilage microorganisms in pork under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena D'Amato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP. In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL, and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL. Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  7. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  8. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  9. Toxicity of hydroxyurea in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Reed, Lori; Huang, Wenhu; Marcek, John M; Austin-LaFrance, Robert; Northcott, Carrie A; Schelling, Scott H; Enerson, Bradley E; Tomlinson, Lindsay

    2015-06-01

    The toxicity of hydroxyurea, a treatment for specific neoplasms, sickle-cell disease, polycythemia, and thrombocytosis that kills cells in mitosis, was assessed in repeat-dose, oral gavage studies in rats and dogs and a cardiovascular study in telemetered dogs. Hydroxyurea produced hematopoietic, lymphoid, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal toxicity with steep dose response curves. In rats dosed for 10 days, 50 mg/kg/day was tolerated; 500 mg/kg/day produced decreased body weight gain; decreased circulating leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; decreased cellularity of thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow; and epithelial degeneration and/or dysplasia of the stomach and small intestine; 1,500 mg/kg/day resulted in deaths on day 5. In dogs, a single dose at ≥ 250 mg/kg caused prostration leading to unscheduled euthanasia. Dogs administered 50 mg/kg/day for 1 month had decreased circulating leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; increased bone marrow cellularity with decreased maturing granulocytes; increased creatinine kinase activity; and increased iron pigment in bone marrow and hepatic sinusoidal cells. In telemetered dogs, doses ≥ 15 mg/kg decreased systolic blood pressure (BP); 50 mg/kg increased diastolic BP, heart rate, and change in blood pressure over time (+dP/dt), and decreased QT and PR intervals and maximum left ventricular systolic and end diastolic pressures with measures returning to control levels within 24 hr. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  10. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  11. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  12. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids

  13. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids.

  14. NOx generation method from recovered nitric acid by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujiso, M.; Shibuya, M.; Iwamoto, F.; Outou, Y.; Ochi, E.; Tsuyuki, T.

    1998-01-01

    An R and D has been conducted on an electrolytic NO x generation process utilizing recovered nitric acid from a PUREX reprocessing plant. The purpose of the study is to drastically reduce the amount of low-level-liquid waste(LLW). The research program phase-1, constituting mainly of electrochemical reaction mechanism study, material balance evaluation and process design study, finished in 1995. The results were presented in the previous papers). The research program phase-2 has started in 1995. The schedule is as follows: FY 1991-1994: Research program phase-1 Basic study using electrolysis equipment with 100-700 cm 2 electrodes FY 1995-1999: Research program phase-2 Process performance test by larger scale electrolysis equipment with 3.6 m 2 electrodes - pilot plant design (FY 1995) - pilot plant construction (FY 1996) - engineering data acquisition (FY 1997-1999). The process consists of many unit operations such as electrolysis, oxidation, nitric acid concentration, NO x compression and storage, NO x recovery, off-gas treatment and acid supplier. This paper outlines the pilot test plant. (author)

  15. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  16. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  17. A new putative deltapartitivirus recovered from Dianthus amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongliu; Tan, Guanlin; Xiong, Guihong; Li, Meirong; Fang, Shouguo; Islam, Saif Ul; Zhang, Songbai; Li, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Two double stranded RNAs (dsRNA), likely representing the genome of a novel deltapartitivirus, provisionally named carnation cryptic virus 3 (CCV3), were recovered from Dianthus amurensis. The two dsRNAs were 1,573 (dsRNA1) and 1,561 (dsRNA2) bp in size, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 475- and 411-aa protein, respectively. The 475-aa protein contains a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain which shows significant homology to RdRps of established or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Deltapartitivirus. However, it shares an amino acid identity of 75% with its closest relative, the RdRp of the deltapartitivirus beet cryptic virus 2 (BCV2), and is <62% identical to the RdRps of other partitiviruses. In a phylogenetic tree constructed with RdRps of selected partitiviruses, CCV3 clustered with BCV2 and formed a well-supported monophyletic clade with known or putative deltapartitiviruses.

  18. Emerging Politics of Authorship: Recovering Collectivity, Negotiating the Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pisac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines authorship as a socially embedded process by challenging Western notions of the autonomous creative genius. It considers social interactions between various agents in the field of literary production which in turn recovers the collective nature of modern authorship. Far from leaving it unexamined, it further contextualises authorial collectivity and its role in the emerging model of authorship. Questions and arguments raised in this article are informed by the ethnographic data collected during my doctoral research focusing on the reception of post-1990s ex-Yugoslav literature on the UK book market. Such ethnographic approach to literary translations – i.e. the micro-level analysis of social interactions that ‘create’ literature – demonstrated how the author is ‘created’ in the communication of two literary systems through linguistic translation as well as re-translations of symbolic and social capitals. My research was concerned with analysing the ‘backstage’ of the publishing industry – informal networks and international literary geopolitics – which all contributed to debunking the myth of the autonomous creative genius. However, instead of retracing my steps, this article outlines new avenues and questions that such analysis has opened up. One such question is how new technologies are (reconstructing and (repositioning the role of the author.

  19. Bone density of women who have recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Rooney, B; Rackow, C; Atkinson, R; Patel, S

    2000-07-01

    To examine bone density in 19 women who had previously experienced classical anorexia nervosa from which they had been fully recovered for a mean of 21 years (current characteristics: median age 40.2 years; Eating Attitudes Test [EAT] score 2; body mass index [BMI] 21.1; average 1.8 offspring). Probands were compared, blindly, in respect of bone density, with 13 control subjects matched for age and sex and with no history of eating disorders. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the head of the femur. Femur BMD was still significantly less among ex-anorectic sufferers. Two subjects had experienced pathological fractures while anorectic, both having been strenuous exercisers. None appeared to have suffered post illness fractures. BMD at follow-up did not relate to the severity or chronicity of previous anorexia nervosa. Full clinical recovery from anorexia nervosa does not quite confer full establishment of normal bone density. However, pathological fractures are not a feature thereafter, within middle life. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Tatra's forests will recover from catastrophe for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    Windy tornado in Tatra's national park (TANAP, High Tatras, Slovakia) at the end of 2004 caused extensive ecological catastrophe and economic losses. Wind has totally damaged the trees in more than one fourth of forest area, which is administrated by state forests of TANAP. Next fourth of forest area has impaired structure. Mostly coniferous forests have fallen down not only in High Tatras, but also in Horehronie, Kysuce, Orava and Spis. According to estimates around 2.5 million cubic meters of wood have lain on the ground in High Tatras. This wood must be precipitately processed. In another regions totally from 800 to 900 thousands cubic meters are overcame by wind. Ecological catastrophe has come in High Tatras. Totally damaged large forests areas need to be recovered for long decades. 90 per cent of annual Slovakian wood cutting represents totally 2.5 million cubic meters. The state will invest in forest recovery from sale of calamity stuff. Reforestation of one hectare of forest costs from 80 to 90 thousands Slovak crowns (∼2666-3000 USD). Another remedies at the age to five years represent from 40 to 50 thousands Slovak crowns (1333-16666 USD). Around 1.6 billion Slovak crown (∼53.333 million USD) will be needed for reforestation of 12 thousands hectares of TANAP