Sample records for recovered diffusion parameters

  1. Fractional diffusion: recovering the distributed fractional derivative from overposed data (United States)

    Rundell, W.; Zhang, Z.


    There has been considerable recent study in ‘subdiffusion’ models that replace the standard parabolic equation model by a one with a fractional derivative in the time variable. There are many ways to look at this newer approach and one such is to realize that the order of the fractional derivative is related to the time scales of the underlying diffusion process. This raises the question of what order α of derivative should be taken and if a single value actually suffices. This has led to models that combine a finite number of these derivatives each with a different fractional exponent {αk} and different weighting value c k to better model a greater possible range of time scales. Ultimately, one wants to look at a situation that combines derivatives in a continuous way—the so-called distributional model with parameter μ ≤ft(α \\right) . However all of this begs the question of how one determines this ‘order’ of differentiation. Recovering a single fractional value has been an active part of the process from the beginning of fractional diffusion modeling and if this is the only unknown then the markers left by the fractional order derivative are relatively straightforward to determine. In the case of a finite combination of derivatives this becomes much more complex due to the more limited analytic tools available for such equations, but recent progress in this direction has been made, (Li et al 2015 Appl. Math. Comput. 257 381-97, Li and Yamamoto 2015 Appl. Anal. 94 570-9). This paper considers the full distributional model where the order is viewed as a function μ ≤ft(α \\right) on the interval (0, 1]. We show existence, uniqueness and regularity for an initial-boundary value problem including an important representation theorem in the case of a single spatial variable. This is then used in the inverse problem of recovering the distributional coefficient μ ≤ft(α \\right) from a time trace of the solution and a uniqueness result is proven.

  2. Trait Characteristics of Diffusion Model Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, Anna-Lena; Frischkorn, Gidon; Hagemann, Dirk; Voss, Andreas


    ... to individual differences in intelligence. However, if diffusion model parameters are to reflect trait-like properties of cognitive processes, they have to qualify as trait-like variables themselves, i.e...

  3. Approximating parameters in nonlinear reaction diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Ferdinand


    Full Text Available We present a model describing population dynamics in an environment. The model is a nonlinear, nonlocal, reaction diffusion equation with Neumann boundary conditions. An inverse method, involving minimization of a least-squares cost functional, is developed to identify unknown model parameters. Finally, numerical results are presented which display estimates of these parameters using computationally generated data.

  4. Oxygen diffusion: an enzyme-controlled variable parameter. (United States)

    Erdmann, Wilhelm; Kunke, Stefan


    Previous oxygen microelectrode studies have shown that the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO₂) increases during extracellular PO₂ decreases, while intracellular PO₂ remained unchanged and thus cell function (spike activity of neurons). Oxygen dependency of complex multicellular organisms requires a stable and adequate oxygen supply to the cells, while toxic concentrations have to be avoided. Oxygen brought to the tissue by convection diffuses through the intercellular and cell membranes, which are potential barriers to diffusion. In gerbil brain cortex, PO₂ and DO₂ were measured by membrane-covered and by bare gold microelectrodes, as were also spike potentials. Moderate respiratory hypoxia was followed by a primary sharp drop of tissue PO₂ that recovered to higher values concomitant with an increase of DO₂. A drop in intracellular PO₂ recovered immediately. Studies on the abdominal ganglion of aplysia californica showed similar results.Heterogeneity is a feature of both normal oxygen supply to tissue and supply due to a wide range of disturbances in oxygen supply. Oxygen diffusion through membranes is variable thereby ensuring adequate intracellular PO₂. Cell-derived glucosamine oxidase seems to regulate the polymerization/depolymerisation ratio of membrane mucopolysaccharides and thus oxygen diffusion.Variability of oxygen diffusion is a decisive parameter for regulating the supply/demand ratio of oxygen supply to the cell; this occurs in highly developed animals as well as in species of a less sophisticated nature. Autoregulation of oxygen diffusion is as important as the distribution/perfusion ratio of the capillary meshwork and as the oxygen extraction ratio in relation to oxygen consumption of the cell. Oxygen diffusion resistance is the cellular protection against luxury oxygen supply (which can result in toxic oxidative species leading to mutagenesis).

  5. Parameter estimation in fractional diffusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Kubilius, Kęstutis; Ralchenko, Kostiantyn


    This book is devoted to parameter estimation in diffusion models involving fractional Brownian motion and related processes. For many years now, standard Brownian motion has been (and still remains) a popular model of randomness used to investigate processes in the natural sciences, financial markets, and the economy. The substantial limitation in the use of stochastic diffusion models with Brownian motion is due to the fact that the motion has independent increments, and, therefore, the random noise it generates is “white,” i.e., uncorrelated. However, many processes in the natural sciences, computer networks and financial markets have long-term or short-term dependences, i.e., the correlations of random noise in these processes are non-zero, and slowly or rapidly decrease with time. In particular, models of financial markets demonstrate various kinds of memory and usually this memory is modeled by fractional Brownian diffusion. Therefore, the book constructs diffusion models with memory and provides s...

  6. A model of recovering the parameters of fast nonlocal heat transport in magnetic fusion plasmas (United States)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Kulichenko, A. A.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Voloshinov, V. V.


    A model is elaborated for interpreting the initial stage of the fast nonlocal transport events, which exhibit immediate response, in the diffusion time scale, of the spatial profile of electron temperature to its local perturbation, while the net heat flux is directed opposite to ordinary diffusion (i.e. along the temperature gradient). We solve the inverse problem of recovering the kernel of the integral equation, which describes nonlocal (superdiffusive) transport of energy due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic (EM) waves with long free path and strong reflection from the vacuum vessel’s wall. To allow for the errors of experimental data, we use the method based on the regularized (in the framework of an ill-posed problem, using the parametric models) approximation of available experimental data. The model is applied to interpreting the data from stellarator LHD and tokamak TFTR. The EM wave transport is considered here in the single-group approximation, however the limitations of the physics model enable us to identify the spectral range of the EM waves which might be responsible for the observed phenomenon.

  7. Thermal Diffusivity Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems to Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Shi


    Full Text Available A method of optimal control is presented as a numerical tool for solving the sea ice heat transfer problem governed by a parabolic partial differential equation. Taken the deviation between the calculated ice temperature and the measurements as the performance criterion, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems with specific constraints of thermal properties of sea ice was proposed to determine the thermal diffusivity of sea ice. Based on sea ice physical processes, the parameterization of the thermal diffusivity was derived through field data. The simulation results illustrated that the identified parameterization of the thermal diffusivity is reasonably effective in sea ice thermodynamics. The direct relation between the thermal diffusivity of sea ice and ice porosity is physically significant and can considerably reduce the computational errors. The successful application of this method also explained that the optimal control model of distributed parameter systems in conjunction with the engineering background has great potential in dealing with practical problems.

  8. Factorized Estimation of Partially Shared Parameters in Diffusion Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra


    Roč. 65, č. 19 (2017), s. 5153-5163 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06678P; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09848S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Diffusion network * Diffusion estimation * Heterogeneous parameters * Multitask networks Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016 http:// library

  9. Solutions of fractional diffusion equations by variation of parameters method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyud-Din Syed Tauseef


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to establish a novel analytical solution scheme for the fractional diffusion equations. Caputo’s formulation followed by the variation of parameters method has been employed to obtain the analytical solutions. Following the derived analytical scheme, solution of the fractional diffusion equation for several initial functions has been obtained. Graphs are plotted to see the physical behavior of obtained solutions.

  10. Super-resolution reconstruction of diffusion parameters from diffusion-weighted images with different slice orientations. (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, Gwendolyn; Jeurissen, Ben; Veraart, Jelle; den Dekker, Arnold J; Parizel, Paul M; Poot, Dirk H J; Sijbers, Jan


    Diffusion MRI is hampered by long acquisition times, low spatial resolution, and a low signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, methods have been proposed to improve the trade-off between spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time of diffusion-weighted images via super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) techniques. However, during the reconstruction, these SRR methods neglect the q-space relation between the different diffusion-weighted images. An SRR method that includes a diffusion model and directly reconstructs high resolution diffusion parameters from a set of low resolution diffusion-weighted images was proposed. Our method allows an arbitrary combination of diffusion gradient directions and slice orientations for the low resolution diffusion-weighted images, optimally samples the q- and k-space, and performs motion correction with b-matrix rotation. Experiments with synthetic data and in vivo human brain data show an increase of spatial resolution of the diffusion parameters, while preserving a high signal-to-noise ratio and low scan time. Moreover, the proposed SRR method outperforms the previous methods in terms of the root-mean-square error. The proposed SRR method substantially increases the spatial resolution of MRI that can be obtained in a clinically feasible scan time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  12. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  13. Extracting Cu Diffusion Parameters in Polycrystalline CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akis, Richard [Arizona State Univeristy; Brinkman, Daniel [Arizona State Univeristy; Sankin, Igor [First Solar; Fang, Tian [First Solar; Guo, Da [Arizona State Univeristy; Dragica, Vasileska [Arizona State Univeristy; Ringhofer, Christian [Arizona State University


    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystal-line, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately.

  14. Normal white matter microstructure in women long-term recovered from anorexia nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study. (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor


    Studies point to white matter (WM) microstructure alterations in both adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These include reduced fractional anisotropy in several WM fiber tracts, suggesting reduced WM integrity. The extent to which these alterations are reversible with recovery from AN is unclear. There is a paucity of research investigating the presence of WM microstructure alterations in recovered AN patients, and results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the presence of WM microstructure alterations in women long-term recovered from AN. Twenty-one adult women who were recovered from AN for at least 1 year were compared to 21 adult comparison women. Participants were recruited via user-organizations for eating disorders, local advertisements, and online forums. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare WM microstructure between groups. Correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics were also explored. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in WM microstructure. These null findings remained when employing liberal alpha level thresholds. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics. Our findings showed normal WM microstructure in long-term recovered patients, indicating the alterations observed during the acute phase are reversible. Given the paucity of research and inconsistent findings, future studies are warranted to determine the presence of WM microstructure alterations following recovery from AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimizing experimental parameters for tracking of diffusing particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.


    We describe how a single-particle tracking experiment should be designed in order for its recorded trajectories to contain the most information about a tracked particle's diffusion coefficient. The precision of estimators for the diffusion coefficient is affected by motion blur, limited photon...... statistics, and the length of recorded time series. We demonstrate for a particle undergoing free diffusion that precision is negligibly affected by motion blur in typical experiments, while optimizing photon counts and the number of recorded frames is the key to precision. Building on these results, we...... describe for a wide range of experimental scenarios how to choose experimental parameters in order to optimize the precision. Generally, one should choose quantity over quality: experiments should be designed to maximize the number of frames recorded in a time series, even if this means lower information...

  16. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.


    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  17. Scan parameters and the diffusion emphasis effect in diffusion-weighted imaging using a motion-probing gradient preparation pulse. (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Tanji, Hajime; Yamaki, Tomoya; Obara, Makoto; Machida, Yoshio


    Diffusion-sensitized driven equilibrium preparation (DSDE) is a gradient echo (GRE) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence that employs a motion-probing gradient (MPG) preparation pulse and phase cycling. In DSDE, several scan parameters of the MPG preparation pulse and the GRE sequence affect diffusion sensitivity. Our investigation of the relationship between these scan parameters and the diffusion emphasis effect revealed the importance of "prep.TE" in the MPG preparation pulse and "TFE shot interval" in the gradient echo sequence. Appropriate choice of these parameters allows DSDE to provide a similar DWI to that of conventional single-shot SEEPI DWI. We therefore concluded DSDE to be a useful DWI method.

  18. Dependence of Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient on Photophysical Parameters in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells (United States)

    Yeboah, Douglas; Singh, Jai


    Recently, the dependence of exciton diffusion length (LD ) on some photophysical parameters of organic solids has been experimentally demonstrated, however no systematic theoretical analysis of this phenomenon has been carried out. We have conducted a theoretical study by using the Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms together with the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion equation to derive analytical models for the diffusion lengths (LD ) and diffusion coefficients (D) of singlet (S) and triplet (T) excitons in organic solids as functions of spectral overlap integral (J) , photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (φD ) , dipole moment (μT ) and refractive index (n) of the photoactive material. The exciton diffusion lengths and diffusion coefficients in some selected organic solids were calculated, and we found that the singlet exciton diffusion length (LDS ) increases with φD and J, and decreases with n. Also, the triplet exciton diffusion length (LDT ) increases with φD and decreases with μT . These may be achieved through doping the organic solids into broad optical energy gap host materials as observed in previous experiments. The calculated exciton diffusion lengths are compared with experimental values and a reasonably good agreement is found between them. The results presented are expected to provide insight relevant to the synthesis of new organic solids for fabrication of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells characterized by better power conversion efficiency.

  19. Scaling parameters for dynamic diffusion-reaction over porous catalysts


    Herz, RK


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The effect of diffusion resistance in porous solid catalysts on reaction rate during periodic cycling of CO concentration is shown for CO oxidation over Pt/Al 2 O 3 by numerical simulation. At some cycling frequencies, the average reaction rate during cycling is higher than the steady-state rate at the mean CO concentration, as expected for this nonlinear, reactant-inhibited reaction. In order to identify major aspects of dy...

  20. Influence of drug concentration on the diffusion parameters of caffeine (United States)

    Mustapha, R.Ben; Lafforgue, C.; Fenina, N.; Marty, J.P.


    Background and Objectives: In the fields of the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and in toxicology, the study of the skin penetration of molecules is very interesting. Various studies have considered the impact of different physicochemical drug characteristics, skin thickness, and formulations, on the transition from the surface of the skin to the underlying tissues or to the systemic circulation; however, the influence of drug concentration on the permeation flux of molecules has rarely been raised. Our study aims to discover the influence of caffeine concentration in a formulation on the percutaneous penetration from gels, as a result of different dose applications to polysulfate membrane and human skin. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, three identical base gels were used at 1, 3, and 5% of caffeine, to evaluate the effect of the concentration of caffeine on in vitro release through the synthetic membrane and ex vivo permeation through the human skin, using diffusion FranzTM cells. Results: The diffusion through the epidermal tissue was significantly slower than through the synthetic membrane, which recorded an increase of flux with an increase in the concentration of caffeine. The skin permeation study showed that diffusion depended not only on the concentration, but also on the deposited amount of gel. Nevertheless, for the same amount of caffeine applied, the flux was more significant from the less concentrated gel. Conclusion: Among all the different concentrations of caffeine examined, 1% gel of caffeine applied at 5 mg / cm2 showed the highest absorption characteristics across human skin. PMID:21572649

  1. Effects of MR parameter changes on the quantification of diffusion anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient in diffusion tensor imaging: evaluation using a diffusional anisotropic phantom. (United States)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Jeong Kon; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Kim, Eun Ju


    To validate the usefulness of a diffusional anisotropic capillary array phantom and to investigate the effects of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter changes on diffusion fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using the phantom. Diffusion tensor imaging of a capillary array phantom was performed with imaging parameter changes, including voxel size, number of sensitivity encoding (SENSE) factor, echo time (TE), number of signal acquisitions, b-value, and number of diffusion gradient directions (NDGD), one-at-a-time in a stepwise-incremental fashion. We repeated the entire series of DTI scans thrice. The coefficients of variation (CoV) were evaluated for FA and ADC, and the correlation between each MR imaging parameter and the corresponding FA and ADC was evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis. The capillary array phantom CoVs of FA and ADC were 7.1% and 2.4%, respectively. There were significant correlations between FA and SENSE factor, TE, b-value, and NDGD, as well as significant correlations between ADC and SENSE factor, TE, and b-value. A capillary array phantom enables repeated measurements of FA and ADC. Both FA and ADC can vary when certain parameters are changed during diffusion experiments. We suggest that the capillary array phantom can be used for quality control in longitudinal or multicenter clinical studies.

  2. Physical re-examination of parameters on a molecular collisions-based diffusion model for diffusivity prediction in polymers. (United States)

    Ohashi, Hidenori; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo


    Molecular collisions, which are the microscopic origin of molecular diffusive motion, are affected by both the molecular surface area and the distance between molecules. Their product can be regarded as the free space around a penetrant molecule defined as the "shell-like free volume" and can be taken as a characteristic of molecular collisions. On the basis of this notion, a new diffusion theory has been developed. The model can predict molecular diffusivity in polymeric systems using only well-defined single-component parameters of molecular volume, molecular surface area, free volume, and pre-exponential factors. By consideration of the physical description of the model, the actual body moved and which neighbor molecules are collided with are the volume and the surface area of the penetrant molecular core. In the present study, a semiempirical quantum chemical calculation was used to calculate both of these parameters. The model and the newly developed parameters offer fairly good predictive ability. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. A theoretical signal processing framework for linear diffusion MRI: Implications for parameter estimation and experiment design. (United States)

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P


    The data measured in diffusion MRI can be modeled as the Fourier transform of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP), a probability distribution that summarizes the molecular diffusion behavior of the spins within each voxel. This Fourier relationship is potentially advantageous because of the extensive theory that has been developed to characterize the sampling requirements, accuracy, and stability of linear Fourier reconstruction methods. However, existing diffusion MRI data sampling and signal estimation methods have largely been developed and tuned without the benefit of such theory, instead relying on approximations, intuition, and extensive empirical evaluation. This paper aims to address this discrepancy by introducing a novel theoretical signal processing framework for diffusion MRI. The new framework can be used to characterize arbitrary linear diffusion estimation methods with arbitrary q-space sampling, and can be used to theoretically evaluate and compare the accuracy, resolution, and noise-resilience of different data acquisition and parameter estimation techniques. The framework is based on the EAP, and makes very limited modeling assumptions. As a result, the approach can even provide new insight into the behavior of model-based linear diffusion estimation methods in contexts where the modeling assumptions are inaccurate. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework is illustrated using both simulated and real diffusion MRI data in applications such as choosing between different parameter estimation methods and choosing between different q-space sampling schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dependence of growth of the phases of multiphase binary systems on the diffusion parameters (United States)

    Molokhina, L. A.; Rogalin, V. E.; Filin, S. A.; Kaplunov, I. A.


    A mathematical model of the diffusion interaction of a binary system with several phases on the equilibrium phase diagram is presented. The theoretical and calculated dependences of the layer thickness of each phase in the multiphase diffusion zone on the isothermal annealing time and the ratio of the diffusion parameters in the neighboring phases with an unlimited supply of both components were constructed. The phase formation and growth in the diffusion zone during "reactive" diffusion corresponds to the equilibrium state diagram for two components, and the order of their appearance in the diffusion zone depends only on the ratio of the diffusion parameters in the phases themselves and on the duration of the incubation periods. The dependence of phase appearance on the incubation periods, annealing time, and difference in the movement rates of the components across the interface boundaries was obtained. An example of the application of the model for processing the experimental data on phase growth in a two-component three-phase system was given.

  5. Influence of extrinsic operational parameters on salt diffusion during ultrasound assisted meat curing. (United States)

    Inguglia, Elena S; Zhang, Zhihang; Burgess, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K


    The present study investigated the effect of geometric parameters of the ultrasound instrument during meat salting in order to enhance salt diffusion and salt distribution in pork meat on a lab scale. The effects of probe size (∅2.5 and 1.3cm) and of different distances between the transducer and the meat sample (0.3, 0.5, and 0.8cm) on NaCl diffusion were investigated. Changes in the moisture content and NaCl gain were used to evaluate salt distribution and diffusion in the samples, parallel and perpendicular to ultrasound propagation direction. Results showed that 0.3cm was the most efficient distance between the probe and the sample to ensure a higher salt diffusion rate. A distance of 0.5cm was however considered as a trade-off distance to ensure salt diffusion and maintenance of meat quality parameters. The enhancement of salt diffusion by ultrasound was observed to decrease with increased horizontal distance from the probe. This study is of valuable importance for meat processing industries willing to apply new technologies on a larger scale and with defined operational standards. The data suggest that the geometric parameters of ultrasound systems can have strong influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic enhancement of NaCl uptake in meat and can be a crucial element in determining salt uptake during meat processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Derivation of consistent sorption and diffusion parameters and their uncertainties for compacted MX-80 bentonite (United States)

    Ochs, M.; Talerico, C.; Sellin, P.; Hedin, A.

    SKB is currently preparing license applications related to the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and an encapsulation plant. Recommended values for the diffusion-available porosity ( ε), effective diffusivity ( De) and distribution coefficient ( Kd), as well as the associated uncertainties are derived and documented in a SKB technical report (Ochs, M., Talerico, C., 2004. SR-CAN: Data and uncertainty assessment. Migration parameters for the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3 concept. SKB Technical Report TR-04-18, SKB, Stockholm) for a total of 38 elements and oxidation states. Based on these results, this contribution focuses on issues of consistency and on quantification of the uncertainties associated with each parameter. The importance of consistency is twofold. First, the above parameters are conditional in nature. To assure consistency of the conditions assumed for parameter derivation versus those considered in the safety analysis, all parameters have to be derived explicitly for the expected in situ conditions, which especially in case of Kd include the specific bentonite porewater composition. Extrapolation of sorption data from experimental to the PA-relevant conditions was done with the help of thermodynamic sorption models or through semi-quantitative scaling factors. De for all radionuclides and ε were evaluated as a function of density for positively, negatively and uncharged species. Second, any set of parameters ( ε, De, Kd) selected for a given element needs to be internally consistent. To this end, each selected parameter set was used to calculate apparent diffusivities ( Da). These were then compared to independent, experimental Da values. Uncertainties in input parameters can be related to two fundamentally different sources: (i) the uncertainties of the underlying experimental data and models, including uncertainties introduced by scaling to reference PA conditions; (ii) parameter uncertainties caused by uncertainties in the conditions

  7. Non-Extensive Entropic Distance Based on Diffusion: Restrictions on Parameters in Entropy Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Sándor Biró


    Full Text Available Based on a diffusion-like master equation we propose a formula using the Bregman divergence for measuring entropic distance in terms of different non-extensive entropy expressions. We obtain the non-extensivity parameter range for a universal approach to the stationary distribution by simple diffusive dynamics for the Tsallis and the Kaniadakis entropies, for the Hanel–Thurner generalization, and finally for a recently suggested log-log type entropy formula which belongs to diverging variance in the inverse temperature superstatistics.

  8. Survey of Key Parameters of Impurities in Aluminum: Diffusion Coefficients, Solubility, and Liquidus Slopes (United States)

    Pearce, Jonathan V.


    Impurities represent in many cases the largest contribution to the uncertainty associated with fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The effect of impurities on the solidification temperature of ITS-90 metals can be characterized by the liquidus slope, the values of which have recently been characterized for a large number of systems. Two other key parameters are the diffusion coefficient, which provides information on how rapidly diffusion, and hence mixing, proceeds, as well as on the validity of the Scheil model of solidification; and the solubility, which provides information on how much impurity is actually dissolved and hence participates in affecting the solidification temperature. In this study, a comprehensive survey is presented of liquidus slopes, together with a survey of 237 diffusion coefficients and 274 values for the solubility of impurities in both liquid and solid aluminum.

  9. Relationships between brain water content and diffusion tensor imaging parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijens, Paul E.; Irwan, Roy; Potze, Jan Hendrik; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Mostert, Jop P.; Keyser, Jacques de [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Fifteen multiple sclerosis patients were examined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to determine fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in a superventricular volume of interest of 8 x 8 x 2 cm{sup 3} containing gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissue. Point resolved spectroscopy 2D-chemical shift imaging of the same volume was performed without water suppression. The water contents and DTI parameters in 64 voxels of 2 cm{sup 3} were compared. The water content was increased in patients compared with controls (GM: 244{+-}21 vs. 194{+-}10 a.u.; WM: 245{+-}32 vs. 190{+-}11 a.u.), FA decreased (GM: 0.226{+-}0.038 vs. 0.270{+-}0.020; WM: 0.337{+-}0.044 vs. 0.402{+-}0.011) and ADC increased [GM: 1134{+-}203 vs. 899{+-}28 (x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s); WM: 901{+-}138 vs. 751{+-}17 (x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s)]. Correlations of water content with FA and ADC in WM were strong (r=-0.68, P<0.02; r=0.75; P<0.01, respectively); those in GM were weaker (r=-0.50, P<0.05; r=0.45, P<0.1, respectively). Likewise, FA and ADC were more strongly correlated in WM (r=-0.88; P<0.00001) than in GM (r=-0.69, P<0.01). The demonstrated relationship between DTI parameters and water content in multiple sclerosis patients suggests a potential for therapy monitoring in normal-appearing brain tissue. (orig.)

  10. Associations among q-space MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and histopathological parameters in meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Zareen; Motosugi, Utaroh; Ishigame, Keiichi; Araki, Tsutomu [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-shi, Yamanashi (Japan); Waqar, Ahmed Bilal [University of Yamanashi, Department of Molecular Pathology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Chuo-shi, Yamanashi (Japan); Hori, Masaaki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Oishi, Naoki; Katoh, Ryohei [University of Yamanashi, Department of Pathology, Chuo-shi, Yamanashi (Japan); Onodera, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Kazuo [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    The purposes of this MR-based study were to calculate q-space imaging (QSI)-derived mean displacement (MDP) in meningiomas, to evaluate the correlation of MDP values with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and to investigate the relationships among these diffusion parameters, tumour cell count (TCC) and MIB-1 labelling index (LI). MRI, including QSI and conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), was performed in 44 meningioma patients (52 lesions). ADC and MDP maps were acquired from post-processing of the data. Quantitative analyses of these maps were performed by applying regions of interest. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for ADC and MDP in all lesions and for ADC and TCC, MDP and TCC, ADC and MIB-1 LI, and MDP and MIB-1 LI in 17 patients who underwent subsequent surgery. ADC and MDP values were found to have a strong correlation: r = 0.78 (P = <0.0001). Both ADC and MDP values had a significant negative association with TCC: r = -0.53 (p = 0.02) and -0.48 (P = 0.04), respectively. MIB-1 LI was not, however, found to have a significant association with these diffusion parameters. In meningiomas, both ADC and MDP may be representative of cell density. (orig.)

  11. Benefits of the Mycorrhizal Fungi in Tomato Leaves Measured by Open Photoacoustic Cell Technique: Interpretation of the Diffusion Parameters (United States)

    Sánchez-Rocha, S.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Olalde-Portugal, V.


    The open photoacoustic cell technique was used to measure tomato leaves from plants with and without mycorrhizal fungi ( Glomus fasciculatum). Based on measurement of the photobaric contribution of the photoacoustic signal, the exponential parameter of the diffusion behavior for this contribution was calculated. From this value, the oxygen diffusion coefficient was derived. The changes in the oxygen- diffusion-coefficient-dependent exponential parameter are statistically significant ( p mycorrhizal symbiosis. Potentially similar results obtained from the photothermal contribution are discussed.

  12. A hyperbolastic type-I diffusion process: Parameter estimation by means of the firefly algorithm. (United States)

    Barrera, Antonio; Román-Román, Patricia; Torres-Ruiz, Francisco


    A stochastic diffusion process, whose mean function is a hyperbolastic curve of type I, is presented. The main characteristics of the process are studied and the problem of maximum likelihood estimation for the parameters of the process is considered. To this end, the firefly metaheuristic optimization algorithm is applied after bounding the parametric space by a stagewise procedure. Some examples based on simulated sample paths and real data illustrate this development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffusion and Home Range Parameters for Rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus in New Mexico


    Abramson, G.; Giuggioli, L.; Kenkre, V. M.; Dragoo, J. W.; Parmenter, R. R.; Parmenter, C. A.; Yates, T. L.


    We analyze data from a long term field project in New Mexico, consisting of repeated sessions of mark-recaptures of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Muridae), the host and reservoir of Sin Nombre Virus (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus). The displacements of the recaptured animals provide a means to study their movement from a statistical point of view. We extract two parameters from the data with the help of a simple model: the diffusion constant of the rodents, and the size of their home range. Th...

  14. Ergodic inequality of a two-parameter infinitely-many-alleles diffusion model


    Zhou, Youzhou


    In this paper three models are considered. They are the infinitely-many-neutral-alleles model of Ethier and Kurtz (1981), the two-parameter infinitely-many-alleles diffusion model of Petrov (2009), and the infinitely-many-alleles model with symmetric dominance Ethier and Kurtz (1998). New representations of the transition densities are obtained for the first two models and the ergodic inequalities are provided for all three models.

  15. Parameter estimation for stochastic diffusion process with drift proportional to Weibull density function


    Hammou Elotmany; M'HAMED EDDAHBI


    Hammou El-otmany, M'hamed Eddahbi Facult{\\'e} des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech-Maroc Laboratoire de m{\\'e}thodes stochastiques appliqu{\\'e}e a la finance et actuariat (LaMsaFA) Abstract. In the present paper we propose a new stochastic diffusion process with drift proportional to the Weibull density function defined as X $\\epsilon$ = x, dX t = $\\gamma$ t (1 -- t $\\gamma$+1) -- t $\\gamma$ X t dt + $\\sigma$X t dB t , t \\textgreater{} 0, with parameters $\\gamma$ \\textgreater{} 0 and $\\sigma$...

  16. Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Song, Qingxin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Canglong; Tang, Yixing [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shiyue [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Hao, Qiang, E-mail: [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Shen, Hongxing, E-mail: [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • It is essential to determine the DTI parameters in the whole CSC. • To analyze DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the CSC. • To study the impact of age on these parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. • Provide better insights in factors that could bias the diagnosis of CSC pathologies. - Abstract: Background: The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas. Objectives: To analyze the DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the whole normal CSC and to study the impact of age on these parameters in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 20–77 years were recruited. DTI parameters were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) funiculi in all the CSC intervertebral spaces (C1/2-C6/7). Age-related changes of DTI parameters were analyzed for the GM and WM funiculi. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were lower in GM than in WM. MD and FA values were lower in the WM in the lower CSC compared with the upper CSC (all P < 0.05), but no difference was observed in GM. In ventral funiculi, MD increased with age, while FA decreased (all P < 0.001). In lateral and dorsal funiculi, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). In GM, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). Significant age-related changes were observed in FA and MD from GM and WM funiculi. FA was correlated with age in all funiculi (ventral: r = −0.733; lateral: r = −0.468; dorsal: r = −0.607; GM: r = −0.724; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Important changes in MD and FA were observed with advancing age at all levels of CSC in Chinese patients. DTI parameters may be useful to assess CSC pathology, but the influence of age and segments need to be taken into account in diagnosis.

  17. Numerical Identification of Key Design Parameters Enhancing the Centrifugal Pump Performance: Impeller, Impeller-Volute, and Impeller-Diffuser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djerroud, Massinissa; Dituba Ngoma, Guyh; Ghie, Walid


    ... on the impeller. To achieve better performance for a centrifugal pump, design parameters such as the number of blades for the impeller and the diffuser, the impeller blade angle, the blade height for the impeller and the diffuser, the impeller blade width, the impeller diameter, and the volute radius must be accurately determined, due to the c...

  18. Artificial neural networks based estimation of optical parameters by diffuse reflectance imaging under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozan Gökkan


    Full Text Available Optical parameters (properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms are determined through noninvasive optical imaging. Objective of this study is to decompose obtained diffuse reflectance into these optical properties such as absorption and scattering coefficients. To do so, transmission spectroscopy is firstly used to measure the coefficients via an experimental setup. Next, the optical properties of each characterized phantom are input for Monte Carlo (MC simulations to get diffuse reflectance. Also, a surface image for each single phantom with its known optical properties is obliquely captured due to reflectance-based geometrical setup using CMOS camera that is positioned at 5∘ angle to the phantoms. For the illumination of light, a laser light source at 633nm wavelength is preferred, because optical properties of different components in a biological tissue on that wavelength are nonoverlapped. During in vitro measurements, we prepared 30 different mixture samples adding clinoleic intravenous lipid emulsion (CILE and evans blue (EB dye into a distilled water. Finally, all obtained diffuse reflectance values are used to estimate the optical coefficients by artificial neural networks (ANNs in inverse modeling. For a biological tissue it is found that the simulated and measured values in our results are in good agreement.

  19. Connecting point defect parameters with bulk properties to describe diffusion in solids (United States)

    Chroneos, A.


    Diffusion is a fundamental process that can have an impact on numerous technological applications, such as nanoelectronics, nuclear materials, fuel cells, and batteries, whereas its understanding is important across scientific fields including materials science and geophysics. In numerous systems, it is difficult to experimentally determine the diffusion properties over a range of temperatures and pressures. This gap can be bridged by the use of thermodynamic models that link point defect parameters to bulk properties, which are more easily accessible. The present review offers a discussion on the applicability of the cBΩ model, which assumes that the defect Gibbs energy is proportional to the isothermal bulk modulus and the mean volume per atom. This thermodynamic model was first introduced 40 years ago; however, consequent advances in computational modelling and experimental techniques have regenerated the interest of the community in using it to calculate diffusion properties, particularly under extreme conditions. This work examines recent characteristic examples, in which the model has been employed in semiconductor and nuclear materials. Finally, there is a discussion on future directions and systems that will possibly be the focus of studies in the decades to come.

  20. Joint Parameter Estimation for the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power Fading Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lopez-Fernandez


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks deployed within metallic cavities are known to suffer from a very severe fading, even in strong line-of-sight propagation conditions. This behavior is well-captured by the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power (TWDP fading distribution, which shows great fit to field measurements in such scenarios. In this paper, we address the joint estimation of the parameters K and Δ that characterize the TWDP fading model, based on the observation of the received signal envelope. We use a moment-based approach to derive closed-form expressions for the estimators of K and Δ, as well as closed-form expressions for their asymptotic variance. Results show that the estimation error is close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound for a wide range of values of the parameters K and Δ. The performance degradation due to a finite number of observations is also analyzed.

  1. An observer for an occluded reaction-diffusion system with spatially varying parameters (United States)

    Kramer, Sean; Bollt, Erik M.


    Spatially dependent parameters of a two-component chaotic reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model describing ocean ecology are observed by sampling a single species. We estimate the model parameters and the other species in the system by autosynchronization, where quantities of interest are evolved according to misfit between model and observations, to only partially observed data. Our motivating example comes from oceanic ecology as viewed by remote sensing data, but where noisy occluded data are realized in the form of cloud cover. We demonstrate a method to learn a large-scale coupled synchronizing system that represents the spatio-temporal dynamics and apply a network approach to analyze manifold stability.

  2. Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang


    Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) has recently been employed for noninvasive acquisition of blood flow information in deep tissues. Based on the established correlation diffusion equation, the light intensity autocorrelation function detected by DCS is determined by a blood flow index αD(B), tissue absorption coefficient μ(a), reduced scattering coefficient μ'(s), and a coherence factor β. This study is designed to investigate the possibility of extracting multiple parameters such as μ(a), μ'(s), β, and αD(B) through fitting one single autocorrelation function curve and evaluate the performance of different fitting methods. For this purpose, computer simulations, tissue-like phantom experiments, and in vivo tissue measurements were utilized. The results suggest that it is impractical to simultaneously fit αD(B) and μ(a) or αD(B) and μ'(s) from one single autocorrelation function curve due to the large crosstalk between these paired parameters. However, simultaneously fitting β and αD(B) is feasible and generates more accurate estimation with smaller standard deviation compared to the conventional two-step fitting method (i.e., first calculating β and then fitting αD(B)). The outcomes from this study provide a crucial guidance for DCS data analysis.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging parameters' changes of cerebellar hemispheres in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormina, Enricomaria; Arrigo, Alessandro; Granata, Francesca; Anastasi, Giuseppe P.; Gaeta, Michele [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Science and Morphological and Functional Images, Messina (Italy); Calamuneri, Alessandro; Quartarone, Angelo [University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Messina (Italy); Ghilardi, Maria F.; Inglese, Matilde; Di Rocco, Alessandro [Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Milardi, Demetrio [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Science and Morphological and Functional Images, Messina (Italy); IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, Messina (Italy)


    Studies with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis have produced conflicting information about the involvement of the cerebellar hemispheres in Parkinson's disease (PD). We, thus, used a new approach for the analysis of DTI parameters in order to ascertain the involvement of the cerebellum in PD. We performed a fiber tract-based analysis of cerebellar peduncles and cerebellar hemispheres in 16 healthy subjects and in 16 PD patients with more than 5 years duration of disease, using a 3T MRI scanner and a constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) approach for tractographic reconstructions. In addition, we performed statistical analysis of DTI parameters and fractional anisotropy (FA) XYZ direction samplings. We found a statistically significant decrement of FA values in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). In addition, extrapolating and analyzing FA XYZ direction samplings for each patient and each control, we found that this result was due to a stronger decrement of FA values along the Y axis (antero-posterior direction) (p < 0.01); FA changes along X and Z axes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We confirmed also no statistically significant differences of FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for cerebellar peduncles in PD patients compared to healthy controls. The DTI-based cerebellar abnormalities in PD could constitute an advance in the knowledge of this disease. We demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of FA in cerebellar hemispheres of PD patients compared to healthy controls. Our work also demonstrated that the use of more sophisticated approaches in the DTI parameter analysis could potentially have a clinical relevance. (orig.)

  4. Trojan resonant dynamics, stability, and chaotic diffusion, for parameters relevant to exoplanetary systems (United States)

    Páez, Rocío Isabel; Efthymiopoulos, Christos


    The possibility that giant extrasolar planets could have small Trojan co-orbital companions has been examined in the literature from both viewpoints of the origin and dynamical stability of such a configuration. Here we aim to investigate the dynamics of hypothetical small Trojan exoplanets in domains of secondary resonances embedded within the tadpole domain of motion. To this end, we consider the limit of a massless Trojan companion of a giant planet. Without other planets, this is a case of the elliptic restricted three body problem (ERTBP). The presence of additional planets (hereafter referred to as the restricted multi-planet problem, RMPP) induces new direct and indirect secular effects on the dynamics of the Trojan body. The paper contains a theoretical and a numerical part. In the theoretical part, we develop a Hamiltonian formalism in action-angle variables, which allows us to treat in a unified way resonant dynamics and secular effects on the Trojan body in both the ERTBP or the RMPP. In both cases, our formalism leads to a decomposition of the Hamiltonian in two parts, . , called the basic model, describes resonant dynamics in the short-period (epicyclic) and synodic (libration) degrees of freedom, while contains only terms depending trigonometrically on slow (secular) angles. is formally identical in the ERTBP and the RMPP, apart from a re-definition of some angular variables. An important physical consequence of this analysis is that the slow chaotic diffusion along resonances proceeds in both the ERTBP and the RMPP by a qualitatively similar dynamical mechanism. We found that this is best approximated by the paradigm of `modulational diffusion'. In the paper's numerical part, we then focus on the ERTBP in order to make a detailed numerical demonstration of the chaotic diffusion process along resonances. Using color stability maps, we first provide a survey of the resonant web for characteristic mass parameter values of the primary, in which the

  5. Diffusion


    Gierl, Heribert


    Diffusion. - In: Handwörterbuch des Marketing / hrsg. von Bruno Tietz ... - 2., völlig neu gestalt. Aufl. - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1995. - S. 469-477. - (Enzyklopädie der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ; 4)

  6. Threshold-crossing statistics in diffusion with a time-dependent control parameter (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.


    We study two important aspects of the diffusion of a free particle in the presence of a time- dependent control parameter. The latter is represented by a friction coefficient that is a given function of time. We solve the stochastic Liouville equation (the Fokker-Planck equation) for the probability density of the particle in phase space, i. e., in both position and velocity. The exact solution is then used to analyze the behavior of (i) the variance in the position, a global charac- terizer of the system; and (ii) the mean rate of crossings of an arbitrary threshold in the position, a local characterizer. The former is the more conventional descriptor of diffusive processes, but the latter provides valuable complementary information on the dynamical behavior. Depending on the long-time behavior of the friction coefficient, the asymptotic behaviors of both these char- acterizers vary, and exhibit several cross-overs. This helps elucidate the nature of the interplay between the destabilizing effects of the noise and the stabilizing tendency of the damping, as the latter undergoes a controlled variation in time.

  7. Experimental examination of the relationships among chemico-osmotic, hydraulic, and diffusion parameters of Wakkanai mudstones (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Manaka, M.; Finsterle, S.; Ito, K.


    Sequential permeability and chemical osmosis experiments on Wakkanai mudstones were performed to explore the relationships between the semipermeability of clayey rocks and the hydraulic and diffusion parameters as well as the pore structure characteristics. The wide ranges in osmotic efficiency (0.0004-0.046) and intrinsic permeability (8.92 × 10-20 to 1.24 × 10-17 m2) reflect the variation in the pore size distributions of the Wakkanai mudstones. A regression analysis between osmotic efficiency and permeability shows that the osmotic efficiency is proportional to the inverse of permeability, suggesting that the permeability is indeed indicative of the degree of semipermeability. Osmotic efficiency was determined invariant with the effective diffusion coefficient for the Wakkanai mudstones (3.59-8.36 × 10-11 m2/s) due to their small osmotic efficiencies (≤0.046). The wide variation in osmotic efficiencies and pore structure characteristics of Wakkanai mudstones indicates that the nanoscale pores enable semipermeability in Wakkanai mudstones. However, the pressure evolution caused by chemical osmosis is limited by the connected wide pores that are the main conduits for water, thus dissipating the osmotic pressure buildup induced by the semipermeability of nanoscale pores.

  8. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic parameters of endometrioid carcinoma. (United States)

    Inoue, Chie; Fujii, Shinya; Kaneda, Sachi; Fukunaga, Takeru; Kaminou, Toshio; Kigawa, Junzo; Harada, Tasuku; Ogawa, Toshihide


    To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of endometrioid carcinoma with histological tumor grade and degree of myometrial invasion. 3T diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) images of 63 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Two readers measured tumor ADC according to a freehand region of interest (ROI) and a round ROI. Mean and minimum ADCs were correlated with prognostic parameters. The minimum ADC was 0.64 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for grade 1 (G1, n = 42), 0.62 for grade 2 (G2, n = 14), 0.46 for grade 3 (G3, n = 7) on freehand ROI. There were significant differences between G1 and G3 (P = 0.007), and G2 and G3 (P = 0.038). No significant correlation was found between tumor grade and mean ADC (0.85 for G1, 0.82 for G2, and 0.72 for G3, P = 0.166). The minimum ADC was significantly lower for patients with deep (n = 21, 0.54) than for those with superficial (n = 39, 0.65) myometrial invasion. Conversely, mean ADC did not differ significantly (0.84 for superficial and 0.78 for deep myometrial invasion, P = 0.081). The same tendency was shown on round ROI. The minimum ADC correlates with prognostic parameters of endometrial carcinoma more strongly than mean ADC. Lower minimum ADC is associated with higher histological tumor grade and higher degree of myometrial invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer: Characteristics and Correlation With Histopathologic Parameters. (United States)

    Ma, Wanling; Li, Na; Zhao, Weiwei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Mengqi; Yang, Yong; Wang, Yingmei; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoli; Larson, Andrew C; Huan, Yi


    To clarify diffusion and perfusion abnormalities and evaluate correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), MR perfusion and histopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancer (PC). Eighteen patients with PC underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Parameters of DCE-MRI and ADC of cancer and non-cancerous tissue were compared. Correlation between the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the arterial blood into the extravascular extracellular space (K, volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), and ADC of PC and histopathologic parameters were analyzed. The rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the extravascular extracellular space into blood plasma, K, tissue volume fraction occupied by vascular space, and ADC of PC were significantly lower than nontumoral pancreases. Ve of PC was significantly higher than that of nontumoral pancreas. Apparent diffusion coefficient and K values of PC were negatively correlated to fibrosis content and fibroblast activation protein staining score. Fibrosis content was positively correlated to Ve. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and parameters of DCE-MRI can differentiate PC from nontumoral pancreases. There are correlations between ADC, K, Ve, and fibrosis content of PC. Fibroblast activation protein staining score of PC is negatively correlated to ADC and K. Apparent diffusion coefficient, K, and Ve may be feasible to predict prognosis of PC.

  10. Recovering Citizenship. (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Davidson, Larry


    Recovery as a process through which people reclaim their lives even while continuing to experience symptoms of mental illness has at times been misunderstood or misinterpreted, including being used as an excuse for cutting needed services and supports in the guise of allowing people to pursue their own personal "recovery journeys." In delivering a message of hope to individuals and fostering initiatives to counter the debilitating impact of clinical pessimism, recovery literature has also, at times, paid less attention to the material, social, cultural, political and economic contexts in which people pursue recovery. The importance of these contexts are implied in a 1961 American Report on Mental Illness and Health that argued that people with mental illnesses should be able to live their lives "in the normal manner" in their home communities. We argue for a disability model that provides people with necessary supports and services to make individual recovery possible for persons with prolonged mental illnesses. Another model that has emerged over the past decade to counterbalance this overweening emphasis on the lone individual pursuing his or her recovery journey is citizenship. We discuss this concept and our research on it since the late 1990s. We then argue for "recovering citizenship" as a concept and metaphor to capture the individual recovery process within the context and goal of a life in the community that the citizenship framework supports.

  11. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F. [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, L.K. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia)


    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity.

  12. Assessing Local Structure Motifs Using Order Parameters for Motif Recognition, Interstitial Identification, and Diffusion Path Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E. R. Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Structure–property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors, as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal close packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP database (61,422 compounds for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  13. Repeatability of derived parameters from histograms following non-Gaussian diffusion modelling of diffusion-weighted imaging in a paediatric oncological cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, Neil P.; Miyazaki, Keiko; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Hospital Nino Jesus, Madrid (Spain); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    To examine repeatability of parameters derived from non-Gaussian diffusion models in data acquired in children with solid tumours. Paediatric patients (<16 years, n = 17) were scanned twice, 24 h apart, using DWI (6 b-values, 0-1000 mm{sup -2} s) at 1.5 T in a prospective study. Tumour ROIs were drawn (3 slices) and all data fitted using IVIM, stretched exponential, and kurtosis models; percentage coefficients of variation (CV) calculated for each parameter at all ROI histogram centiles, including the medians. The values for ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, α, and DDC{sub K} gave CV < 10 % down to the 5th centile, with sharp CV increases below 5th and above 95th centile. K, f, and D* showed increased CV (>30 %) over the histogram. ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, and DDC{sub K} were strongly correlated (ρ > 0.9), DDC{sub α} and α were not correlated (ρ = 0.083). Perfusion- and kurtosis-related parameters displayed larger, more variable CV across the histogram, indicating observed clinical changes outside of D/DDC in these models should be interpreted with caution. Centiles below 5th for all parameters show high CV and are unreliable as diffusion metrics. The stretched exponential model behaved well for both DDC{sub α} and α, making it a strong candidate for modelling multiple-b-value diffusion imaging data. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of the effects of noise, DWI sampling, and value of assumed parameters in diffusion MRI models. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Avram, Alexandru V; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Koay, C Guan; Barnett, Alan S; Komlosh, Michal E; Özarslan, Evren; Schwerin, Susan C; Juliano, Sharon L; Pierpaoli, Carlo


    This study was a systematic evaluation across different and prominent diffusion MRI models to better understand the ways in which scalar metrics are influenced by experimental factors, including experimental design (diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] sampling) and noise. Four diffusion MRI models-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), mean apparent propagator MRI (MAP-MRI), and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI)-were evaluated by comparing maps and histogram values of the scalar metrics generated using DWI datasets obtained in fixed mouse brain with different noise levels and DWI sampling complexity. Additionally, models were fit with different input parameters or constraints to examine the consequences of model fitting procedures. Experimental factors affected all models and metrics to varying degrees. Model complexity influenced sensitivity to DWI sampling and noise, especially for metrics reporting non-Gaussian information. DKI metrics were highly susceptible to noise and experimental design. The influence of fixed parameter selection for the NODDI model was found to be considerable, as was the impact of initial tensor fitting in the MAP-MRI model. Across DTI, DKI, MAP-MRI, and NODDI, a wide range of dependence on experimental factors was observed that elucidate principles and practical implications for advanced diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med 78:1767-1780, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. An inverse problem formulation for parameter estimation of a reaction-diffusion model of low grade gliomas. (United States)

    Gholami, Amir; Mang, Andreas; Biros, George


    We present a numerical scheme for solving a parameter estimation problem for a model of low-grade glioma growth. Our goal is to estimate the spatial distribution of tumor concentration, as well as the magnitude of anisotropic tumor diffusion. We use a constrained optimization formulation with a reaction-diffusion model that results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. In our formulation, we estimate the parameters using partially observed, noisy tumor concentration data at two different time instances, along with white matter fiber directions derived from diffusion tensor imaging. The optimization problem is solved with a Gauss-Newton reduced space algorithm. We present the formulation and outline the numerical algorithms for solving the resulting equations. We test the method using a synthetic dataset and compute the reconstruction error for different noise levels and detection thresholds for monofocal and multifocal test cases.

  16. Motion-robust parameter estimation in abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI by simultaneous image registration and model estimation. (United States)

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K


    Quantitative body DW-MRI can detect abdominal abnormalities as well as monitor response-to-therapy for applications including cancer and inflammatory bowel disease with increased accuracy. Parameter estimates are obtained by fitting a forward model of DW-MRI signal decay to the observed data acquired with several b-values. The DW-MRI signal decay models typically used do not account for respiratory, cardiac and peristaltic motion, however, which may deteriorate the accuracy and robustness of parameter estimates. In this work, we introduce a new model of DW-MRI signal decay that explicitly accounts for motion. Specifically, we estimated motion-compensated model parameters by simultaneously solving image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion-weighting dimension. To accomplish this, we applied the SIR-ME model to the in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of 26 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and achieved improved precision of the estimated parameters by reducing the coefficient of variation by 8%, 24% and 8% for slow diffusion (D), fast diffusion (D*) and fast diffusion fraction (f) parameters respectively, compared to parameters estimated with independent registration in normal-appearing bowel regions. Moreover, the parameters estimated with the SIR-ME model reduced the error rate in classifying normal and abnormal bowel loops to 12% for D and 10% for f parameter with a reduction in error rate by 13% and 11% for D and f parameters, respectively, compared to the error rate in classifying parameter estimates obtained with independent registration. The experiments in DW-MRI of liver in 20 subjects also showed that the SIR-ME model improved the precision of parameter estimation by reducing the coefficient of variation to 7% for D, 23% for D*, and 8% for the f parameter. Using the SIR-ME model, the coefficient of variation was reduced by 4%, 14% and 6% for D, D* and f parameters, respectively, compared

  17. Effect of myelin water exchange on DTI-derived parameters in diffusion MRI: Elucidation of TE dependence. (United States)

    Lin, Mu; He, Hongjian; Tong, Qiqi; Ding, Qiuping; Yan, Xu; Feiweier, Thorsten; Zhong, Jianhui


    Water exchange exists between different neuronal compartments of brain tissue but is often ignored in most diffusion models. The goal of the current study was to demonstrate the dependence of diffusion measurements on echo time (TE) in the human brain and to investigate the underlying effects of myelin water exchange. Five healthy subjects were examined with single-shot pulsed-gradient spin-echo echo-planar imaging with fixed duration (δ) and separation (Δ) of diffusion gradient pulses and a set of varying TEs. The effects of water exchange and intrinsic T2 difference in cellular environments were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Both in vivo measurements and simulations showed that fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) had positive correlations with TE, while radial diffusivity (RD) showed a negative correlation, which is consistent with a previous study. The simulation results further indicated the sensitivity of TE dependence to the change of g-ratio. The exchange between myelin and intra/extra-axonal water pools often plays a non-negligible role in the observed TE dependence of diffusion parameters, which may accompany or alter the effect of intrinsic T2 in causing such dependence. The TE dependence may potentially serve as a biomarker for demyelination processes (e.g., in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease). Magn Reson Med 79:1650-1660, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. ¹⁸F-FDG PET metabolic parameters and MRI perfusion and diffusion parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Glucose metabolism, perfusion, and water diffusion may have a relationship or affect each other in the same tumor. The understanding of their relationship could expand the knowledge of tumor characteristics and contribute to the field of oncologic imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between metabolism, vasculature and cellularity of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, using multimodality imaging such as ¹⁸F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI, and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with advanced HCC underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET, DCE-MRI, and DWI before treatment. Maximum standard uptake values (SUV(max from ¹⁸F-FDG-PET, variables of the volume transfer constant (K(trans from DCE-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC from DWI were obtained for the tumor and their relationships were examined by Spearman's correlation analysis. The influence of portal vein thrombosis on SUV(max and variables of K(trans and ADC was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: SUV(max showed significant negative correlation with K(trans(max (ρ = -0.622, p = 0.002. However, variables of ADC showed no relationship with variables of K(trans or SUV(max (p>0.05. Whether portal vein thrombosis was present or not did not influence the SUV max and variables of ADC and K(trans (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: In this study, SUV was shown to be correlated with K(trans in advanced HCCs; the higher the glucose metabolism a tumor had, the lower the perfusion it had, which might help in guiding target therapy.

  19. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ji, Xiong [Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding [Department of Imaging, Suzhou Children' s Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yong, Zhang [MR Research, GE Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Jianfeng, Luo [Fudan University, Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Shanghai (China)


    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm{sup 2}), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  20. Microanisotropy imaging: quantification of microscopic diffusion anisotropy and orientational order parameter by diffusion MRI with magic-angle spinning of the q-vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo eLasič


    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is the method of choice for non-invasive investigations of the structure of human brain white matter. The results are conventionally reported as maps of the fractional anisotropy (FA, which is a parameter related to microstructural features such as axon density, diameter, and myelination. The interpretation of FA in terms of microstructure becomes ambiguous when there is a distribution of axon orientations within the image voxel. In this paper, we propose a procedure for resolving this ambiguity by determining a new parameter, the microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA, which corresponds to the FA without the confounding influence of orientation dispersion. In addition, we suggest a method for measuring the orientational order parameter (OP for the anisotropic objects. The experimental protocol is capitalizing on a recently developed diffusion NMR pulse sequence based on magic-angle spinning of the q-vector. Proof-of-principle experiments are carried out on microimaging and clinical MRI equipment using lyotropic liquid crystals and plant tissues as model materials with high µFA and low FA on account of orientation dispersion. We expect the presented method to be especially fruitful in combination with DTI and high angular resolution acquisition protocols for neuroimaging studies of grey and white matter.

  1. Non-Extensive Entropic Distance Based on Diffusion: Restrictions on Parameters in Entropy Formulae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biró, Tamás; Schram, Zsolt


    ... approach to the stationary distribution by simple diffusive dynamics for the Tsallis and the Kaniadakis entropies, for the Hanel–Thurner generalization, and finally for a recently suggested log-lo...

  2. Brain Tissue Compartment Density Estimated Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI Yields Tissue Parameters Consistent With Histology


    Sepehrband, Farshid; Clark, Kristi A.; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Leanage, Gayeshika; Reutens, David C.; Yang, Zhengyi


    We examined whether quantitative density measures of cerebral tissue consistent with histology can be obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating prior knowledge of myelin and cell membrane densities, absolute tissue density values were estimated from relative intra-cellular and intra-neurite density values obtained from diffusion MRI. The NODDI (neurite orientation distribution and density imaging) technique, which can be applied clinically, was used. Myelin de...

  3. Effect of Porosity and Concentration Polarization on Electrolyte Diffusive Transport Parameters through Ceramic Membranes with Similar Nanopore Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Romero


    Full Text Available Diffusive transport through nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs produced by the two-step anodization method, with similar pore size but different porosity, is studied by analyzing membrane potential measured with NaCl solutions at different concentrations. Donnan exclusion of co-ions at the solution/membrane interface seem to exert a certain control on the diffusive transport of ions through NPAMs with low porosity, which might be reduced by coating the membrane surface with appropriated materials, as it is the case of SiO2. Our results also show the effect of concentration polarization at the membrane surface on ionic transport numbers (or diffusion coefficients for low-porosity and high electrolyte affinity membranes, which could mask values of those characteristic electrochemical parameters.

  4. Optimization of the diffusion bonding parameters for SS316L/CuCrZr with and without Nickel interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.P., E-mail:; Patel, Alpesh; Bhope, Kedar; Khirwadkar, S.S.; Mehta, Mayur


    Highlights: • Optimization of diffusion bonding parameters for dissimilar materials SS316L with CuCrZr is proposed with and without Nickel interlayer. • Ultrasonic testing on diffusion bonded samples provides the overall information/signatures about well-bonded and de-bonded samples. • Microstructural examination confirms the diffusion of Nickel into parent materials. • Mechanical characterization such as hardness measurement and shear measurement supports the results. - Abstract: Divertor & Firstwall module of ITER like tokamak has several joints of dissimilar materials such as Tungsten (W) to Copper (Cu), Cu to CuCrZr (heat sink material) and CuCrZr to Stainless Steel (SS) materials. These Plasma Facing Components (PFC) are made of multi-layered joints, which are to be exposed to the harsh environment of Plasma with the expected heat flux of 5–10 MW/m{sup 2}. The joining of SS316L material to CuCrZr material is proposed in this paper. As SS316L/CuCrZr being dissimilar materials, direct joining of these materials is a problem, which needs a suitable fabrication process. The joining of SS316L with heat sink material (CuCrZr) requires the good thermal transfer and sound in structural joint. Diffusion bonding technique has been adopted as a process for joining of these two dissimilar materials. The primary objective of the joining study is to obtain the best diffusion bonding parameters for ITER like tokamak application. Thermo-mechanical simulator machine (Gleeble 3800) is used to perform diffusion bonding experiments at different temperatures 650 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C, 950 °C & 1000 °C, different uniaxial pressure varying from 5 MPa to 15 MPa and with the holding time of 15 min & 30 min, using pure nickel interlayer. The diffusion bonded samples have undergone Non-destructive testing (NDT) particularly the ultrasonic examination using immersion probe technique, microstructural examination by the High Resolution (HR) electron microscopy (SEM), Energy

  5. Identify source location and release time for pollutants undergoing super-diffusion and decay: Parameter analysis and model evaluation (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, HongGuang; Lu, Bingqing; Garrard, Rhiannon; Neupauer, Roseanna M.


    Backward models have been applied for four decades by hydrologists to identify the source of pollutants undergoing Fickian diffusion, while analytical tools are not available for source identification of super-diffusive pollutants undergoing decay. This technical note evaluates analytical solutions for the source location and release time of a decaying contaminant undergoing super-diffusion using backward probability density functions (PDFs), where the forward model is the space fractional advection-dispersion equation with decay. Revisit of the well-known MADE-2 tracer test using parameter analysis shows that the peak backward location PDF can predict the tritium source location, while the peak backward travel time PDF underestimates the tracer release time due to the early arrival of tracer particles at the detection well in the maximally skewed, super-diffusive transport. In addition, the first-order decay adds additional skewness toward earlier arrival times in backward travel time PDFs, resulting in a younger release time, although this impact is minimized at the MADE-2 site due to tritium's half-life being relatively longer than the monitoring period. The main conclusion is that, while non-trivial backward techniques are required to identify pollutant source location, the pollutant release time can and should be directly estimated given the speed of the peak resident concentration for super-diffusive pollutants with or without decay.

  6. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index. (United States)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jinsong, Wu; Jiawen, Zhang; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu; Ji, Xiong; Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding; Yong, Zhang; Jianfeng, Luo; Zhenwei, Yao


    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm(2)) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm(2)), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy.

  7. Determination of Optimal Parameters for Diffusion Bonding of Semi-Solid Casting Aluminium Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewploy Somsak


    Full Text Available Liquid state welding techniques available are prone to gas porosity problems. To avoid this solid state bonding is usually an alternative of preference. Among solid state bonding techniques, diffusion bonding is often employed in aluminium alloy automotive parts welding in order to enhance their mechanical properties. However, there has been no standard procedure nor has there been any definitive criterion for judicious welding parameters setting. It is thus a matter of importance to find the set of optimal parameters for effective diffusion bonding. This work proposes the use of response surface methodology in determining such a set of optimal parameters. Response surface methodology is more efficient in dealing with complex process compared with other techniques available. There are two variations of response surface methodology. The one adopted in this work is the central composite design approach. This is because when the initial upper and lower bounds of the desired parameters are exceeded the central composite design approach is still capable of yielding the optimal values of the parameters that appear to be out of the initially preset range. Results from the experiments show that the pressing pressure and the holding time affect the tensile strength of jointing. The data obtained from the experiment fits well to a quadratic equation with high coefficient of determination (R2 = 94.21%. It is found that the optimal parameters in the process of jointing semi-solid casting aluminium alloy by using diffusion bonding are the pressing pressure of 2.06 MPa and 214 minutes of the holding time in order to achieve the highest tensile strength of 142.65 MPa

  8. Diffuse scattering provides material parameters and electron density profiles of biomembranes. (United States)

    Liu, Yufeng; Nagle, John F


    Fully hydrated stacks of DOPC lipid bilayer membranes generate large diffuse x-ray scattering that corrupts the Bragg peak intensities that are used in conventional biophysical structural analysis, but the diffuse scattering actually contains more information. Using an efficient algorithm for fitting extensive regions of diffuse data to classical smectic liquid crystalline theory we first obtain the compressional modulus B= 10(13) erg/ cm(4), which involves interactions between membranes, and the bending modulus K(c) =8x 10(-13) erg of the membranes. The membrane form factor F ( q(z) ) is then obtained for most values of q(z) up to 0.8 A(-1). The electron density profile rho(z) is obtained by fitting models to F( q(z) ). Constraining the models to conform to other measurements provides structural quantities such as area A=72.1+/-0.5 A(2) per lipid at the interface.

  9. Empirical validation of the diffusion model for recognition memory and a comparison of parameter-estimation methods. (United States)

    Arnold, Nina R; Bröder, Arndt; Bayen, Ute J


    The diffusion model introduced by Ratcliff (Psychol Rev 85:59-108, 1978) has been applied to many binary decision tasks including recognition memory. It describes dynamic evidence accumulation unfolding over time and models choice accuracy as well as response-time distributions. Various parameters describe aspects of decision quality and response bias. In three recognition-memory experiments, the validity of the model was tested experimentally and analyzed with three different programs: fast-dm, EZ, and DMAT. Each of three central model parameters was targeted via specific experimental manipulations. All manipulations affected mainly the corresponding parameters, thus supporting the convergent validity of the measures. There were, however, smaller effects on other parameters, showing some limitations in discriminant validity.

  10. Interrogating the origin and behavior of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor scalar parameters in the myocardium (United States)

    Abdullah, Osama Mahmoud

    Myocardial microstructure plays an important role in sustaining the orchestrated beating motion of the heart. Several microstructural components, including myocytes and auxiliary cells, extracellular space, and blood vessels provide the infrastructure for normal heart function, including excitation propagation, myocyte contraction, delivery of oxygen and nutrients, and removing byproduct wastes. Cardiac diseases cause deleterious changes to some or all of these microstructural components in the detrimental process of cardiac remodeling. Since heart failure is among the leading causes of death in the world, new and novel tools to noninvasively characterize heart microstructure are needed for monitoring and staging of cardiac disease. In this regards, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a promising framework to probe and quantify tissue microstructure without the need for exogenous contrast agent. As diffusion in 3-dimensional space is characterized by the diffusion tensor, MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is being used to noninvasively measure anisotropic diffusion, and thus the magnitude and spatial orientation of microstructural organization of tissues, including the heart. However, even though in vivo cardiac DTI has become more clinically available, to date the origin and behavior of different microstructural components on the measured DTI signal remain to be explicitly specified. The presented studies in this work demonstrate that DTI can be used as a noninvasive and contrast-free imaging modality to characterize myocyte size and density, extracellular collagen content, and the directional magnitude of blood flow. The identified applications are expected to provide metrics to enable physicians to detect, quantify, and stage different microstructural components during progression of cardiac disease.

  11. Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias in Quantitative Diffusion Parameters of Renal Tissue with Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion. (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Pang, Yuxi; Senegas, Julien; Ivancevic, Marko K; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L


    Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting bias due to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from magnet isocenter. Our previously-described approach allowed effective removal of spatial ADC bias from three orthogonal DWI measurements for mono-exponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. The present work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the two-component IVIM model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T MRI scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially non-uniform diffusion weighting due to GNL resulted both in shift and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to isocenter. Direction-average DW-bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying pre-computed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b-maps and DWI intensities in presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for IVIM perfusion fraction.

  12. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the normal pediatric spinal cord (United States)

    Barakat, Nadia; Shah, Pallav; Faro, Scott H; Gaughan, John P; Middleton, Devon; Mulcahey, MJ; Mohamed, Feroze B


    AIM: To assess inter- and intra-rater reliability (agreement) between two region of interest (ROI) methods in pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Inner-Field-of-View DTI data previously acquired from ten pediatric healthy subjects (mean age = 12.10 years) was used to assess for reliability. ROIs were drawn by two neuroradiologists on each subject data twice within a 3-mo interval. ROIs were placed on axial B0 maps along the cervical spine using free-hand and fixed-size ROIs. Agreement analyses for fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity were performed using intra-class-correlation (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha statistical methods. RESULTS: Inter- and intra-rater agreement between the two ROI methods showed moderate (ICC = 0.5) to strong (ICC = 0.84). There were significant differences between raters in the number of pixels selected using free-hand ROIs (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in DTI parameter values. FA showed highest variability in ICC values (0.10-0.87). Cronbach’s alpha showed moderate-high values for raters and ROI methods. CONCLUSION: The study showed that high reproducibility in spinal cord DTI can be achieved, and demonstrated the importance of setting detailed methodology for post-processing DTI data, specifically the placement of ROIs. PMID:26435778

  13. How attention influences perceptual decision making: Single-trial EEG correlates of drift-diffusion model parameters. (United States)

    Nunez, Michael D; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Srinivasan, Ramesh


    Perceptual decision making can be accounted for by drift-diffusion models, a class of decision-making models that assume a stochastic accumulation of evidence on each trial. Fitting response time and accuracy to a drift-diffusion model produces evidence accumulation rate and non-decision time parameter estimates that reflect cognitive processes. Our goal is to elucidate the effect of attention on visual decision making. In this study, we show that measures of attention obtained from simultaneous EEG recordings can explain per-trial evidence accumulation rates and perceptual preprocessing times during a visual decision making task. Models assuming linear relationships between diffusion model parameters and EEG measures as external inputs were fit in a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The EEG measures were features of the evoked potential (EP) to the onset of a masking noise and the onset of a task-relevant signal stimulus. Single-trial evoked EEG responses, P200s to the onsets of visual noise and N200s to the onsets of visual signal, explain single-trial evidence accumulation and preprocessing times. Within-trial evidence accumulation variance was not found to be influenced by attention to the signal or noise. Single-trial measures of attention lead to better out-of-sample predictions of accuracy and correct reaction time distributions for individual subjects.

  14. Brain Tissue Compartment Density Estimated Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI Yields Tissue Parameters Consistent With Histology (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Clark, Kristi A.; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Leanage, Gayeshika; Reutens, David C.; Yang, Zhengyi


    We examined whether quantitative density measures of cerebral tissue consistent with histology can be obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating prior knowledge of myelin and cell membrane densities, absolute tissue density values were estimated from relative intra-cellular and intra-neurite density values obtained from diffusion MRI. The NODDI (neurite orientation distribution and density imaging) technique, which can be applied clinically, was used. Myelin density estimates were compared with the results of electron and light microscopy in ex vivo mouse brain and with published density estimates in a healthy human brain. In ex vivo mouse brain, estimated myelin densities in different sub-regions of the mouse corpus callosum were almost identical to values obtained from electron microscopy (Diffusion MRI: 42±6%, 36±4% and 43±5%; electron microscopy: 41±10%, 36±8% and 44±12% in genu, body and splenium, respectively). In the human brain, good agreement was observed between estimated fiber density measurements and previously reported values based on electron microscopy. Estimated density values were unaffected by crossing fibers. PMID:26096639

  15. A Sequence of Laboratory Experiments for the Determination of Chemico-osmotic, Hydraulic and Diffusion Parameters of Rock Sample (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Manaka, M.; Finsterle, S.; Ito, K.


    One of the key issues in the hydrogeologic characterization of sedimentary formations is the uncertainties of fluid pressure anomalies which could be caused by chemical osmosis. Chemical osmosis is the migration of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between waters to compensate for the difference in water potentials, leading to an increase in the pressure gradient. Accordingly, if geologic media can act as semi-permeable membranes, and if salinity is not uniform in the formation, localized fluid pressures may be generated by chemical osmosis. In order to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in formations, it is essential to evaluate the membrane properties of representative rock types. However, for the examination of the magnitude and the duration time of osmotically induced pressures, the parameters relevant to the migration of water and dissolved substances, such as the hydraulic and diffusion parameters, are also necessary since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments under the confining pressure simulating in-situ effective stress conditions. The permeability and chemical-osmosis experiments are performed in sequence on a rock sample, and the progress of each experiment is monitored by measuring fluid pressures and salt concentrations in reservoirs contacting the ends of the disc-shaped rock sample. Analytical solutions for the permeability and chemical osmosis experiments were also derived for parameter determination. The semi-analytical solution for the chemical osmosis experiment involves five unknown parameters, i.e., the reflection coefficient, intrinsic permeability, specific storage and effective diffusion coefficient of

  16. Effect of clenching on T2 and diffusion parameters of the masseter muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikui, Toru; Kawazu, Toshiyuki; Kami, Yukiko; Yoshiura, Kazunori (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)), e-mail:; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yuasa, Kenji (Section of Image Diagnosis, Dept. of Diagnostics and General Care, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ichihara, Takahiro (Dept. of Radiology, Fukuoka Dental College Medical and Dental Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))


    Background: Persistent muscle contractions during clenching are considered to be one reason for temporomandibular disorders. However, no report has evaluated the effect of clenching on the masticatory muscles, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To investigate whether clenching has an effect on either T2 or the coefficients for diffusion of the masseter muscles (MM), and to evaluate the effect of the distribution of bite force on such indices. Material and Methods: Twenty-three subjects were examined. Bite force was measured by a pressure-sensitive sheet, and the force of the right and the left sides was calculated. MRI was used to evaluate T2, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and the primary (1), secondary (2), and tertiary eigenvalues (3). These indices on the stronger side of the bite force were compared to those on the weaker side. Thereafter, the indices were compared between at rest and during clenching. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the indices (T2, ADC, 1, 2, and 3) between the side of stronger bite force and the side with weaker. T2 increased by clenching, and the difference was significant in the side with stronger bite force (P = 0.006). ADC, 1, 2, and 3 increased significantly by clenching (P <0.01, P <0.01, P <0.01, and P <0.01, respectively) on both sides. The percentage of change of 2 by clenching was 26.2+-15.7% on the stronger side and 26.9+-18.6% on the weaker side, which was significantly greater than either that of 1 or 3. Conclusion: The coefficients for diffusion of the MM were sensitive to change by clenching, and 2 was the most sensitive. Moreover, the relative distribution of the bite forces had no effect on any of the indices

  17. Age-related modifications of diffusion tensor imaging parameters and white matter hyperintensities as inter-dependent processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine ePelletier


    Full Text Available Microstructural changes of White Matter (WM associated with aging have been widely described through Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI parameters. In parallel, White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH as observed on a T2-MRI are extremely common in older individuals. However, few studies have investigated both phenomena conjointly. The present study investigates aging effects on DTI parameters in absence and in presence of WMH. Diffusion maps were constructed based on 21 directions DTI scans of young adults (n=19, mean age=33 SD=7.4 and two age-matched groups of older adults, one presenting low-level-WMH (n=20, mean age=78, SD= 3.2 and one presenting high-level-WMH (n=20, mean age=79, SD= 5.4. Older subjects with low-level-WMH presented modifications of DTI parameters in comparison to younger subjects, fitting with the DTI pattern classically described in aging, i.e. Fractional Anisotropy (FA decrease/Radial Diffusivity (RD increase. Furthermore, older subjects with high-level-WMH showed higher DTI modifications in Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM in comparison to those with low-level-WMH. Finally, in older subjects with high-level-WMH, FA or RD values of NAWM were associated with to WMH burden. Therefore, our findings suggest that DTI modifications and the presence of WMH would be two inter-dependent processes but occurring within different temporal windows. DTI changes would reflect the early phase of white matter changes and WMH would appear as a consequence of those changes.

  18. Desiccator Volume: A Vital Yet Ignored Parameter in CaCO3 Crystallization by the Ammonium Carbonate Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Harris


    Full Text Available Employing the widely used ammonium carbonate diffusion method, we demonstrate that altering an extrinsic parameter—desiccator size—which is rarely detailed in publications, can alter the route of crystallization. Hexagonally packed assemblies of spherical magnesium-calcium carbonate particles or spherulitic aragonitic particles can be selectively prepared from the same initial reaction solution by simply changing the internal volume of the desiccator, thereby changing the rate of carbonate addition and consequently precursor formation. This demonstrates that it is not merely the quantity of an additive which can control particle morphogenesis and phase selectivity, but control of other often ignored parameters are vital to ensure adequate reproducibility.

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging of breast lesions: Region-of-interest placement and different ADC parameters influence apparent diffusion coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Hubert; Pinker, Katja; Polanec, Stephan; Magometschnigg, Heinrich; Wengert, Georg; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal [Medical University Vienna, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University Vienna - MR Center of Excellence, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna [Medical University Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)


    To investigate the influence of region-of-interest (ROI) placement and different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters on ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility and measurement time in breast tumours. In this IRB-approved, retrospective study, 149 histopathologically proven breast tumours (109 malignant, 40 benign) in 147 women (mean age 53.2) were investigated. Three radiologists independently measured minimum, mean and maximum ADC, each using three ROI placement approaches:1 - small 2D-ROI, 2 - large 2D-ROI and 3 - 3D-ROI covering the whole lesion. One reader performed all measurements twice. Median ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility, and measurement time were calculated and compared between all combinations of ROI placement approaches and ADC parameters. Median ADC values differed significantly between the ROI placement approaches (p <.001). Minimum ADC showed the best diagnostic performance (AUC.928-.956), followed by mean ADC obtained from 2D ROIs (.926-.94). Minimum and mean ADC showed high intra- (ICC.85-.94) and inter-reader reproducibility (ICC.74-.94). Median measurement time was significantly shorter for the 2D ROIs (p <.001). ROI placement significantly influences ADC values measured in breast tumours. Minimum and mean ADC acquired from 2D-ROIs are useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions, and are highly reproducible, with rapid measurement. (orig.)

  20. Activation parameters for the recombination reaction of intramolecular radical pairs generated from the radical diffusion-inhibited HABI derivative. (United States)

    Hatano, Sayaka; Abe, Jiro


    Activation parameters were determined for the recombination of radical pairs arising from newly designed, photochromic, radical diffusion-restricted hexaarylbiimidazole (HABI) derivative. We have developed a new type of radical diffusion-inhibited HABI derivative, which contains two equivalent HABI units and yields a tetraradical with four equivalent 2,4,5-triphenylimidazolyl radical (TPIR) units by photoirradiation. This radical dimerization proceeds by a successive first-order reaction from the tetraradical to the parent molecule via a diradical. The rate constants of each reaction were determined from the decay profile of EPR signal intensities. The entropies of activation (DeltaS(double dagger)) for the first and the successive dimerization steps were estimated to be -178.5 and -205.5 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Within the experimental temperature range, the radical dimerizations are entropy-controlled (-TDeltaS(double dagger) > DeltaH(double dagger)). The large negative DeltaS(double dagger) values imply a highly ordered transition state, indicating that the radical dimerizations occur when the TPIR units interact at a specific orientation. The present study demonstrates the availability of radical diffusion-inhibited HABI for the kinetic study of radical-radical reaction.

  1. Multivariate modelling of prostate cancer combining magnetic resonance derived T2, diffusion, dynamic contrast-enhanced and spectroscopic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, S.F.; Payne, G.S.; Morgan, V.A.; DeSouza, N.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, D. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Urology and Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre and the University of Ottawa, Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Partridge, M. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Section of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, The Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Livni, N. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Chelsea, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Ogden, C. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Chelsea, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom)


    The objectives are determine the optimal combination of MR parameters for discriminating tumour within the prostate using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and to compare model accuracy with that of an experienced radiologist. Multiparameter MRIs in 24 patients before prostatectomy were acquired. Tumour outlines from whole-mount histology, T{sub 2}-defined peripheral zone (PZ), and central gland (CG) were superimposed onto slice-matched parametric maps. T{sub 2,} Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, initial area under the gadolinium curve, vascular parameters (K{sup trans},K{sub ep},V{sub e}), and (choline+polyamines+creatine)/citrate were compared between tumour and non-tumour tissues. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined sensitivity and specificity at spectroscopic voxel resolution and per lesion, and LDA determined the optimal multiparametric model for identifying tumours. Accuracy was compared with an expert observer. Tumours were significantly different from PZ and CG for all parameters (all p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve for discriminating tumour from non-tumour was significantly greater (p < 0.001) for the multiparametric model than for individual parameters; at 90 % specificity, sensitivity was 41 % (MRSI voxel resolution) and 59 % per lesion. At this specificity, an expert observer achieved 28 % and 49 % sensitivity, respectively. The model was more accurate when parameters from all techniques were included and performed better than an expert observer evaluating these data. (orig.)

  2. Parameters Free Computational Characterization of Defects in Transition Metal Oxides with Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo (United States)

    Santana, Juan A.; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, Paul R.; Reboredo, Fernando

    Materials based on transition metal oxides (TMO's) are among the most challenging systems for computational characterization. Reliable and practical computations are possible by directly solving the many-body problem for TMO's with quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. These methods are very computationally intensive, but recent developments in algorithms and computational infrastructures have enabled their application to real materials. We will show our efforts on the application of the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) method to study the formation of defects in binary and ternary TMO and heterostructures of TMO. We will also outline current limitations in hardware and algorithms. This work is supported by the Materials Sciences & Engineering Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Stochastic order parameter equation of isometric force production revealed by drift-diffusion estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, T.D.; Friedrich, R.; Beek, P.J.


    We address two questions that are central to understanding human motor control variability: what kind of dynamical components contribute to motor control variability (i.e., deterministic and/or random ones), and how are those components structured? To this end, we derive a stochastic order parameter

  4. Phase-contrast velocity mapping for highly diffusive fluids: optimal bipolar gradient pulse parameters for hyperpolarized helium-3. (United States)

    Martin, Lionel; Maître, Xavier; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Sarracanie, Mathieu; Friese, Marlies; Hagot, Pascal; Durand, Emmanuel


    In MR-velocity phase-contrast measurements, increasing the encoding bipolar gradient, i.e., decreasing the field of speed, usually improves measurement precision. However, in gases, fast diffusion during the bipolar gradient pulses may dramatically decrease the signal-to-noise ratio, thus degrading measurement precision. These two effects are contradictory. This work aims at determining the optimal sequence parameters to improve the velocity measurement precision. This work presents the theoretical optimization of bipolar gradient parameters (duration and amplitude) to improve velocity measurement precision. An analytical approximation is given as well as a numerical optimization. It is shown that the solution depends on the diffusion coefficient and T2 *. Experimental validation using hyperpolarized (3) He diluted in various buffer gases ((4) He, N2 , and SF6 ) is presented at 1.5 Tesla (T) in a straight pipe. Excellent agreement was found with the theoretical results for prediction of optimal field of speed and good agreement was found for the precision in measured velocity, but for SF6 buffered gas. The theoretical predictions were validated, providing a way to optimize velocity mapping in gases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Calculated /sup 13/C NMR relaxation parameters for a restricted internal diffusion model. Application to methionine relaxation in dihydrofolate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.E.; Avitabile, J.


    /sup 13/C NMR relaxation parameters, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, and NOE, have been calculated based on a model assuming internal rotational diffusion subject to boundary conditions limiting the range of motion. Numerical results are presented as a function of diffusion coefficients D/sub 0/ and D/sub i/ and angle ..beta.. defined as in the free internal rotation calculation, as well as 2theta, the allowed range of motion. Relaxation times vary from values expected in the absence of internal motion to values slightly below those calculated using the free internal rotation model as the range is increased from 0 to 360/sup 0/. The discrepancy in the latter comparison arises from the boundary condition preventing diffusion from 180/sup +/ to 180/sup -/. Changes in T/sub 2/ are typically monotonic or nearly monotonic as a function of theta; however, changes in T/sub 1/ and NOE values are markedly nonmonotonic for D/sub 0/ approx. < 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/ and for certain values of D/sub i/. Criteria for the applicability of the present calculations to the analysis of /sup 13/C NMR relaxation data obtained in studies of macromolecules undergoing restricted internal motion have been suggested. The results have been generalized to the case of multiple internal rotations, specifically for the problem of one free and one restricted diffusional process. In general, two types of rotation are not commutative. This model has been applied to relaxation data recently obtained for the methionine methyl resonances of specifically /sup 13/C-labeled dihydrofolate reductase obtained from S. faecium. The results indicate that the data can be readily explained by assuming rapid free internal diffusion about the S--CH/sub 3/ bond and restricted internal diffusion about the CH/sub 2/--S bond of methionine, such that for the broadest resonances the motional range is restricted to approx. 90/sup 0/ and for the sharpest resonances the range is >180/sup 0/. Restriction of the motion allows a

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter in diffusion weighted MR imaging in gynecologic cancer: Dependence on b-values used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Tanderup, Kari; Haack, Søren


    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has gained interest as an imaging modality for assessment of tumor extension and response to cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the choice of b-values on the calculation of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) for locally ad...... advanced gynecological cancer and to estimate a stable interval of diffusion gradients that allows for best comparison of the ADC between patients and institutions....

  7. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in disordered magnetic media localization parameter, energy transport velocity and diffusion constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S


    We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...

  8. Recovering a stochastic process from super-resolution noisy ensembles of single-particle trajectories. (United States)

    Hoze, N; Holcman, D


    Recovering a stochastic process from noisy ensembles of single-particle trajectories is resolved here using the coarse-grained Langevin equation as a model. The massive redundancy contained in single-particle tracking data allows recovering local parameters of the underlying physical model. We use several parametric and nonparametric estimators to compute the first and second moments of the process, to recover the local drift, its derivative, and the diffusion tensor, and to deconvolve the instrumental from the physical noise. We use numerical simulations to also explore the range of validity for these estimators. The present analysis allows defining what can exactly be recovered from statistics of super-resolution microscopy trajectories used for characterizing molecular trafficking underlying cellular functions.

  9. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter in diffusion weighted MR imaging in gynecologic cancer: Dependence on b-values used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsted Kallehauge, Jesper; Tanderup, Kari; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Fokdal, Lars; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)), E-mail:; Haack, Soeren (Dept. of Clinical Engineering, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)); Nielsen, Thomas (Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)); Morre Pedersen, Erik (Dept. of Radiology, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark))


    Background. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has gained interest as an imaging modality for assessment of tumor extension and response to cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the choice of b-values on the calculation of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) for locally advanced gynecological cancer and to estimate a stable interval of diffusion gradients that allows for best comparison of the ADC between patients and institutions. Material and methods. Six patients underwent a high resolution single shot EPI based DWI scan with 16 different diffusion gradients on a 3 Tesla Philips Achieva MR-scanner. Data analysis was performed by applying a monoexponential and a biexponential model to the acquired data. The biexponential function models the effect of both perfusion and diffusion. Results and conclusion. ADC changes of up to 40% were seen with the use of different b-values. Using a lower b-value = 150 s/mm2 and an upper b-value = 700 s/mm2 limited the variation to less that 10% from the reference ADC value. By eliminating the contribution of perfusion the uncertainty of quantitative ADC values were significantly reduced.

  10. Diffusion and Sedimentation Interaction Parameters for Measuring the Second Virial Coefficient and Their Utility as Predictors of Protein Aggregation (United States)

    Saluja, Atul; Fesinmeyer, R. Matthew; Hogan, Sabine; Brems, David N.; Gokarn, Yatin R.


    The concentration-dependence of the diffusion and sedimentation coefficients (kD and ks, respectively) of a protein can be used to determine the second virial coefficient (B2), a parameter valuable in predicting protein-protein interactions. Accurate measurement of B2 under physiologically and pharmaceutically relevant conditions, however, requires independent measurement of kD and ks via orthogonal techniques. We demonstrate this by utilizing sedimentation velocity (SV) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze solutions of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and a monoclonal antibody (mAb1) in different salt solutions. The accuracy of the SV-DLS method was established by comparing measured and literature B2 values for HEWL. In contrast to the assumptions necessary for determining kD and ks via SV alone, kD and ks were of comparable magnitudes, and solution conditions were noted for both HEWL and mAb1 under which 1), kD and ks assumed opposite signs; and 2), kD ≥ ks. Further, we demonstrate the utility of kD and ks as qualitative predictors of protein aggregation through agitation and accelerated stability studies. Aggregation of mAb1 correlated well with B2, kD, and ks, thus establishing the potential for kD to serve as a high-throughput predictor of protein aggregation. PMID:20959107

  11. Determination of optical parameters for light penetration in particulate materials and soils with diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Schober, L; Löhmannsröben, H G


    The results of our investigations of particulate materials (aluminium oxide, quartz sand) and "real world" soils (a brown sand and a dark brown soil) using diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy are presented. The findings are discussed within the framework of Kubelka-Munk (KM) theory as a simplified description of light propagation in highly turbid media. The relation between the KM and the Lambert-Beer (LB) treatment is outlined. The KM parameters determined were the scattering and absorption coefficients (S and K, respectively), and the light penetration depths, dp(KM). It was found that in the UV/VIS spectral range the scattering coefficients of the materials investigated vary by ca. one order of magnitude (S = 6-> 100 cm-1), whereas the absorption coefficients change by more than three orders of magnitude (K = 1500 cm-1). The different absorption and scattering properties of the materials lead to strong variations in light penetration depths from the micron into the mm regime [dp(KM) = 3500 microns].

  12. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter (United States)

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.


    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  13. Optimisation of NMR dynamic models II. A new methodology for the dual optimisation of the model-free parameters and the Brownian rotational diffusion tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Auvergne, Edward J. [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)], E-mail:; Gooley, Paul R. [University of Melbourne, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Biotechnology and Molecular Science (Australia)


    Finding the dynamics of an entire macromolecule is a complex problem as the model-free parameter values are intricately linked to the Brownian rotational diffusion of the molecule, mathematically through the autocorrelation function of the motion and statistically through model selection. The solution to this problem was formulated using set theory as an element of the universal set U-the union of all model-free spaces (d'Auvergne EJ and Gooley PR (2007) Mol BioSyst 3(7), 483-494). The current procedure commonly used to find the universal solution is to initially estimate the diffusion tensor parameters, to optimise the model-free parameters of numerous models, and then to choose the best model via model selection. The global model is then optimised and the procedure repeated until convergence. In this paper a new methodology is presented which takes a different approach to this diffusion seeded model-free paradigm. Rather than starting with the diffusion tensor this iterative protocol begins by optimising the model-free parameters in the absence of any global model parameters, selecting between all the model-free models, and finally optimising the diffusion tensor. The new model-free optimisation protocol will be validated using synthetic data from Schurr JM et al. (1994) J Magn Reson B 105(3), 211-224 and the relaxation data of the bacteriorhodopsin (1-36)BR fragment from Orekhov VY (1999) J Biomol NMR 14(4), 345-356. To demonstrate the importance of this new procedure the NMR relaxation data of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP) of Gitti R et al. (2005) Biochem 44(28), 9673-9679 is reanalysed. The result is that the dynamics for certain secondary structural elements is very different from those originally reported.

  14. Alterations of diffusion tensor MRI parameters in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease compared with normal brains: possible diagnostic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chin-Song; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wey-Yil [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Division of Movement Disorders,Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Neuroscience Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Linkou (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taoyuan County (China); Cheng, Jur-Shan [Chang Gung University, Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center,College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Wai, Yau-Yau [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Keelung (China); Chen, Yao-Liang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Linkou (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Keelung (China); Wang, Jiun-Jie [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Neuroscience Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Linkou (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taoyuan County (China); Chang Gung University / Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Medical Imaging Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Taoyuan (China)


    To investigate the diagnostic performance of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We examined a total of 126 PD patients (68 males/58 females, mean age: 62.0 ±7.6 years) and 91 healthy controls (43 males/48 females, mean age: 59.8 ±7.2 years). Images were acquired on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. The Camino software was used to normalize and parcellate diffusion-weighted images into 90 cerebral regions based on the automatic anatomical labelling template. The minimum, median, and maximum values of the mean/radial/axial diffusivity/fractional anisotropy were determined. The diagnostic performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The associations of imaging parameters with disease severity were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients after adjustment for disease duration. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients showed increased diffusivity in multiple cortical regions that extended beyond the basal ganglia. An area under curve of 85 % was identified for the maximum values of mean diffusivity in the ipsilateral middle temporal gyrus. The most significant intergroup difference was 26.8 % for the ipsilateral inferior parietal gyrus. The measurement of water diffusion from the parcellated cortex may be clinically useful for the assessment of PD patients. (orig.)

  15. Parameters of stochastic diffusion processes estimated from observations of first-hitting times: Application to the leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal model (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr


    A theoretical model has to stand the test against the real world to be of any practical use. The first step is to identify parameters in the model estimated from experimental data. In many applications where renewal point data are available, models of first-hitting times of underlying diffusion processes arise. Despite the seemingly simplicity of the model, the problem of how to estimate parameters of the underlying stochastic process has resisted solution. The few attempts have either been unreliable, difficult to implement, or only valid in subsets of the relevant parameter space. Here we present an estimation method that overcomes these difficulties, is computationally easy and fast to implement, and also works surprisingly well on small data sets. The method is illustrated on simulated and experimental data. Two common neuronal models—the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and Feller models—are investigated.

  16. Parameters of stochastic diffusion processes estimated from observations of first-hitting times: application to the leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal model. (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr


    A theoretical model has to stand the test against the real world to be of any practical use. The first step is to identify parameters in the model estimated from experimental data. In many applications where renewal point data are available, models of first-hitting times of underlying diffusion processes arise. Despite the seemingly simplicity of the model, the problem of how to estimate parameters of the underlying stochastic process has resisted solution. The few attempts have either been unreliable, difficult to implement, or only valid in subsets of the relevant parameter space. Here we present an estimation method that overcomes these difficulties, is computationally easy and fast to implement, and also works surprisingly well on small data sets. The method is illustrated on simulated and experimental data. Two common neuronal models--the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and Feller models--are investigated.

  17. Cosmic ray propagation in a diffusion model: a new estimation of the diffusion parameters and of the secondary antiprotons flux; Propagation des rayons cosmiques dans un modele de diffusion: une nouvelle estimation des parametres de diffusion et du flux d'antiprotons secondaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurin, D


    Dark matter is present at numerous scale of the universe (galaxy, cluster of galaxies, universe in the whole). This matter plays an important role in cosmology and can not be totally explained by conventional physic. From a particle physic point of view, there exists an extension of the standard model - supersymmetry - which predicts under certain conditions the existence of new stable and massive particles, the latter interacting weakly with ordinary matter. Apart from direct detection in accelerators, various indirect astrophysical detection are possible. This thesis focuses on one particular signature: disintegration of these particles could give antiprotons which should be measurable in cosmic rays. The present study evaluates the background corresponding to this signal i. e. antiprotons produced in the interactions between these cosmic rays and interstellar matter. In particular, uncertainties of this background being correlated to the uncertainties of the diffusion parameter, major part of this thesis is devoted to nuclei propagation. The first third of the thesis introduces propagation of cosmic rays in our galaxy, emphasizing the nuclear reaction responsibles of the nuclei fragmentation. In the second third, different models are reviewed, and in particular links between the leaky box model and the diffusion model are recalled (re-acceleration and convection are also discussed). This leads to a qualitative discussion about information that one can infer from propagation of these nuclei. In the last third, we finally present detailed solutions of the bidimensional diffusion model, along with constrains obtained on the propagation parameters. The latter is applied on the antiprotons background signal and it concludes the work done in this thesis. The propagation code for nuclei and antiprotons used here has proven its ability in data analysis. It would probably be of interest for the analysis of the cosmic ray data which will be taken by the AMS experiment on

  18. Multi-parameter Screening on SlipChip used for nanoliter Protein Crystallization combining Free Interface Diffusion and Microbatch Methods (United States)

    Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F.


    This paper describes two SlipChip-based approaches to protein crystallization: a SlipChip-based free interface diffusion (FID) method and a SlipChip-based composite method that simultaneously performs microbatch and FID crystallization methods in a single device. The FID SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple diffusion equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis against 48 different reagents at 5 different equilibration times each, consuming 12 μL of each protein for a total of 480 experiments using three SlipChips. The composite SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios and multiple equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis. To prevent cross-contamination while keeping the solution in the neck channels for FID stable, the plates of the SlipChip were etched with a pattern of nanowells. This nanopattern was used to increase the contact angle of aqueous solutions on the surface of the silanized glass. The composite SlipChip increased the number of successful crystallization conditions and identified more conditions for crystallization than separate FID and microbatch screenings. Crystallization experiments were scaled up in well plates using conditions identified during the SlipChip screenings, and X-ray diffraction data were obtained to yield the protein structure of dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase at 1.95 Å resolution. This free-interface diffusion approach provides a convenient and high-throughput method of setting up gradients in microfluidic devices, and may find additional applications in cell-based assays. PMID:20000709

  19. Efficient probabilistic model personalization integrating uncertainty on data and parameters: Application to eikonal-diffusion models in cardiac electrophysiology. (United States)

    Konukoglu, Ender; Relan, Jatin; Cilingir, Ulas; Menze, Bjoern H; Chinchapatnam, Phani; Jadidi, Amir; Cochet, Hubert; Hocini, Mélèze; Delingette, Hervé; Jaïs, Pierre; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ayache, Nicholas; Sermesant, Maxime


    Biophysical models are increasingly used for medical applications at the organ scale. However, model predictions are rarely associated with a confidence measure although there are important sources of uncertainty in computational physiology methods. For instance, the sparsity and noise of the clinical data used to adjust the model parameters (personalization), and the difficulty in modeling accurately soft tissue physiology. The recent theoretical progresses in stochastic models make their use computationally tractable, but there is still a challenge in estimating patient-specific parameters with such models. In this work we propose an efficient Bayesian inference method for model personalization using polynomial chaos and compressed sensing. This method makes Bayesian inference feasible in real 3D modeling problems. We demonstrate our method on cardiac electrophysiology. We first present validation results on synthetic data, then we apply the proposed method to clinical data. We demonstrate how this can help in quantifying the impact of the data characteristics on the personalization (and thus prediction) results. Described method can be beneficial for the clinical use of personalized models as it explicitly takes into account the uncertainties on the data and the model parameters while still enabling simulations that can be used to optimize treatment. Such uncertainty handling can be pivotal for the proper use of modeling as a clinical tool, because there is a crucial requirement to know the confidence one can have in personalized models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of prostate cancer: correlation of quantitative MR parameters with Gleason score and tumor angiogenesis. (United States)

    Oto, Aytekin; Yang, Cheng; Kayhan, Arda; Tretiakova, Maria; Antic, Tatjana; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Eggener, Scott; Karczmar, Gregory S; Stadler, Walter M


    The objective of our study was to investigate whether quantitative parameters derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) correlate with Gleason score and angiogenesis of prostate cancer. Seventy-three patients who underwent preoperative MRI and radical prostatectomy were included in our study. A radiologist and pathologist located the dominant tumor on the MR images based on histopathologic correlation. For each dominant tumor, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and quantitative DCE-MRI parameters (i.e., contrast agent transfer rate between blood and tissue [K(trans)], extravascular extracellular fractional volume [v(e)], contrast agent backflux rate constant [k(ep)], and blood plasma fractional volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis [v(p)]) were calculated and the Gleason score was recorded. The mean blood vessel count, mean vessel area fraction, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of the dominant tumor were determined using CD31, CD34, and VEGF antibody stains. Spearman correlation analysis between MR and histopathologic parameters was conducted. The mean tumor diameter was 15.2 mm (range, 5-28 mm). Of the 73 prostate cancer tumors, five (6.8%) had a Gleason score of 6, 46 (63%) had a Gleason score of 7, and 22 (30.1%) had a Gleason score of greater than 7. ADC values showed a moderate negative correlation with Gleason score (r = -0.376, p = 0.001) but did not correlate with tumor angiogenesis parameters. Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters did not show a significant correlation with Gleason score or VEGF expression (p > 0.05). Mean blood vessel count and mean vessel area fraction parameters estimated from prostate cancer positively correlated with k(ep) (r = 0.440 and 0.453, respectively; p = 0.001 for both). There is a moderate correlation between ADC values and Gleason score and between k(ep) and microvessel density of prostate cancer. Although the strength of the correlations is

  1. On Data Space Selection and Data Processing for Parameter Identification in a Reaction-Diffusion Model Based on FRAP Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kindermann


    Full Text Available Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP is a widely used measurement technique to determine the mobility of fluorescent molecules within living cells. While the experimental setup and protocol for FRAP experiments are usually fixed, data (preprocessing represents an important issue. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we formulate and solve the problem of relevant FRAP data selection. The theoretical findings are illustrated by the comparison of the results of parameter identification when the full data set was used and the case when the irrelevant data set (data with negligible impact on the confidence interval of the estimated parameters was removed from the data space. Second, we analyze and compare two approaches of FRAP data processing. Our proposition, surprisingly for the FRAP community, claims that the data set represented by the FRAP recovery curves in form of a time series (integrated data approach commonly used by the FRAP community leads to a larger confidence interval compared to the full (spatiotemporal data approach.

  2. The effects of meteorological parameters and diffusive barrier reuse on the sampling rate of a passive air sampler for gaseous mercury (United States)

    McLagan, David S.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Huang, Haiyong; Hussain, Batual Abdul; Duan Lei, Ying; Wania, Frank


    Passive air sampling of gaseous mercury (Hg) requires a high level of accuracy to discriminate small differences in atmospheric concentrations. Meteorological parameters have the potential to decrease this accuracy by impacting the sampling rate (SR), i.e., the volume of air that is effectively stripped of gaseous mercury per unit of time. We measured the SR of a recently calibrated passive air sampler for gaseous Hg in the laboratory under varying wind speeds (wind still to 6 m s-1), temperatures (-15 to +35 °C), and relative humidities (44 to 80 %). While relative humidity has no impact on SR, SR increases slightly with both wind speed (0.003 m3 day-1 increase in SR or 2.5 % of the previously calibrated SR for every m s-1 increase for wind speeds > 1 m s-1, typical of outdoor deployments) and temperature (0.001 m3 day-1 increase in SR or 0.7 % for every 1 °C increase). The temperature dependence can be fully explained by the effect of temperature on the molecular diffusivity of gaseous mercury in air. Although these effects are relatively small, accuracy can be improved by adjusting SRs using measured or estimated temperature and wind speed data at or near sampling sites. We also assessed the possibility of reusing Radiello® diffusive barriers previously used in the passive air samplers. The mean rate of gaseous Hg uptake was not significantly different between new and previously used diffusive barriers in both lab and outdoor deployments, irrespective of the applied cleaning procedure. No memory effect from Radiellos® previously deployed in a high Hg atmosphere was observed. However, a loss in replicate precision for the dirtiest Radiellos® in the indoor experiment suggests that cleaning is advisable prior to reuse.

  3. From micro to macro: access to long-range Li+ diffusion parameters in solids via microscopic (6, 7) Li spin-alignment echo NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wilkening, Martin; Heitjans, Paul


    The development of highly conductive solids is a rapidly growing research area in materials science. In particular, the study of Li-ion conductors is driven by the ambitious effort to design powerful lithium-ion batteries. A deeper understanding of Li dynamics in solids requires the availability of a large set of complementary techniques to probe Li self-diffusion on different length and time-scales. We report on (7)Li as well as (6)Li spin-alignment echo (SAE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which is capable of probing long-range diffusion parameters from a microscopic, that is, atomic-scale, point of view. So far, variable-temperature SAE NMR spectroscopy has been applied to a number of polycrystalline and glassy Li-ion conductors. The materials investigated serve as model systems to unravel the interesting features of the technique in determining reliable Li jump rates and hopping activation energies. In particular, the latter are compared with those probed by macroscopic techniques such as dc-conductivity measurements that are sensitive to long-range translational motions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Kalman filter parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration using stochastic collocation and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. (United States)

    Barber, Jared; Tanase, Roxana; Yotov, Ivan


    Several Kalman filter algorithms are presented for data assimilation and parameter estimation for a nonlinear diffusion model of epithelial cell migration. These include the ensemble Kalman filter with Monte Carlo sampling and a stochastic collocation (SC) Kalman filter with structured sampling. Further, two types of noise are considered -uncorrelated noise resulting in one stochastic dimension for each element of the spatial grid and correlated noise parameterized by the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion resulting in one stochastic dimension for each KL term. The efficiency and accuracy of the four methods are investigated for two cases with synthetic data with and without noise, as well as data from a laboratory experiment. While it is observed that all algorithms perform reasonably well in matching the target solution and estimating the diffusion coefficient and the growth rate, it is illustrated that the algorithms that employ SC and KL expansion are computationally more efficient, as they require fewer ensemble members for comparable accuracy. In the case of SC methods, this is due to improved approximation in stochastic space compared to Monte Carlo sampling. In the case of KL methods, the parameterization of the noise results in a stochastic space of smaller dimension. The most efficient method is the one combining SC and KL expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of invasive components in cases of breast ductal carcinoma in situ on biopsy by using apparent diffusion coefficient MR parameters. (United States)

    Mori, Naoko; Ota, Hideki; Mugikura, Shunji; Takasawa, Chiaki; Tominaga, Junya; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Mika; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki


    To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters could identify invasive components in cases with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed by biopsy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Sixty-nine consecutive women with 70 lesions diagnosed with DCIS by biopsy underwent breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Multiple regions of interest were placed (as many as possible) within the lesion on ADC maps. The minimum ADC values and the ADC difference values obtained as the difference between minimum and maximum ADCs were evaluated. Surgical specimens revealed 51 lesions with pure DCIS and the remaining 19 lesions with DCIS with invasive components (DCIS-IC). The minimum ADC value for DCIS-IC (0.99 ± 0.04 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower than that of pure DCIS (1.15 ± 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (P  =  0.0037). The ADC difference value for DCIS-IC (0.38 ± 0.05 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly higher than that of pure DCIS (0.17 ± 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). ROC curve analysis for differentiating DCIS-IC from pure DCIS revealed that the area under the curve was 0.71 for minimum ADC value and 0.77 for ADC difference value. The minimum ADC values and ADC difference values could suggest the presence of invasive components. • Identification of invasive components in DCIS before treatment is clinically important. • Diffusion-weighted MR imaging can help lesion assessment in breast cancer. • The minimum ADC value may suggest the presence of an invasive component in DCIS. • The ADC difference value also suggests the presence of an invasive component in DCIS. • Preoperative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging may help surgical planning for DCIS.

  6. Index lesion characterization by (11)C-Choline PET/CT and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient parameters at 3 Tesla MRI in primary prostate carcinoma. (United States)

    Hernández-Argüello, Miguel; Quiceno, Hernán; Pascual, Ignacio; Solorzano, José L; Benito, Alberto; Collantes, María; Rodríguez-Fraile, Macarena; Pardo, Javier; Richter, José A


    Index lesion characterization is important in the evaluation of primary prostate carcinoma (PPC). The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of (11) C-Choline PET/CT and the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient maps (ADC) in detecting the Index Lesion and clinically significant tumors in PPC. Twenty-one untreated patients with biopsy-proven PPC and candidates for radical prostatectomy (RP) were prospectively evaluated by means of Ultra-High Definition PET/CT and 3T MRI, which included T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and ADC maps obtained from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Independent experts analyzed all the images separately and were unaware of the pathological data. In each case, the Index lesion was defined as the largest tumor measured on histopathology (Index H). In addition, the largest lesion observed on MRI (Index MRI) and the highest avid (11) C-Choline uptake lesion (Index PET) were obtained. The Gleason scores (GS) of the tumors were determined. PET/CT and ADC map quantitative parameters were also calculated. Measures of correlation among imaging parameters as well as the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) for tumor detection were analyzed. All data was validated with the pathological study. In the morphological study, 139 foci of carcinoma were identified, 47 of which corresponded to clinically significant tumors (>0.5 cm(3)). The remaining foci presented a maximum diameter (dmax ) of 0.1 cm ± SD 0.75 and were not classified as clinically significant. Thirty-two tumors presented a GS (3 + 3), nine GS (3 + 4), and six GS (4 + 3). A total of 21 Index H (dmax = 1.37 cm SD ± 0.61) were identified. The S, Sp, NPV, and PPV for tumor detection with PET were 100%, 70%, 83%, 100%, and for MRI were 46%, 100%, 100%, 54%, respectively. Both Index PET and Index MRI were complementary and identified 95% of the Index H when quantitative criteria were used. In spite of the fact that PET imaging has higher

  7. MR-perfusion (MRP) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in prostate cancer: quantitative and model-based gadobenate dimeglumine MRP parameters in detection of prostate cancer. (United States)

    Scherr, M K; Seitz, M; Müller-Lisse, U G; Ingrisch, M; Reiser, M F; Müller-Lisse, U L


    Various MR methods, including MR-spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied to improve test quality of standard MRI of the prostate. To determine if quantitative, model-based MR-perfusion (MRP) with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) discriminates between prostate cancer, benign tissue, and transitional zone (TZ) tissue. 27 patients (age, 65±4 years; PSA 11.0±6.1 ng/ml) with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent standard MRI, 3D MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and MRP with Gd-BOPTA. Based on results of combined MRI/MRS and subsequent guided prostate biopsy alone (17/27), biopsy and radical prostatectomy (9/27), or sufficient negative follow-up (7/27), maps of model-free, deconvolution-based mean transit time (dMTT) were generated for 29 benign regions (bROIs), 14 cancer regions (cROIs), and 18 regions of transitional zone (tzROIs). Applying a 2-compartment exchange model, quantitative perfusion analysis was performed including as parameters: plasma flow (PF), plasma volume (PV), plasma mean transit time (PMTT), extraction flow (EFL), extraction fraction (EFR), interstitial volume (IV) and interstitial mean transit time (IMTT). Two-sided T-tests (significance level pMRP with Gd-BOPTA discriminates between prostate cancer and benign tissue with several parameters. However, distinction of prostate cancer and TZ does not appear to be reliable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recover heat from waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)


    Using these guidelines, engineers can address critical design problems associated with burning process-waste streams and select cost-effective waste-heat boilers. Incinerating contaminant streams is a win-win situation: (1) complete destruction of pollutant(s) is attained and (2) valuable thermal energy is recovered as steam and returned to process, thus conserving energy. However, recovering thermal energy from incinerated flue-gas streams contains some caveats. This treatment method creates a large high-temperature flue gas from which valuable thermal energy is recovered as saturated or superheated steam. Unfortunately, because a process-waste stream is used as feed, this stream will have variations in contaminant and component concentrations which influence the load on the boiler. Also, burning contaminants may create acid gases which will accelerate corrosion problems for the boiler at elevated temperatures. The following guidelines and checklist clarify the do`s and don`ts when designing waste-heat boilers.

  9. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    CERN Document Server



    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams FR-om an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible FR-om either a conventional linac, or FR-om storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend FR-om high power FR-ee-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  10. Ventilation and Heat Recovering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bancea


    Full Text Available Some aspects concerning the heat reducing for ventilation, achieved by using heat recovering components and a combined heating--ventilating system, assuring both comfort and human health are presented. The floor imbedded systems together with air outlets elements could fulfill all the aesthetically desires, as well as comfort and they are ideal for family houses.

  11. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics (United States)

    ... Bracing: What Works?Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthLow-purine DietHealthy Ways to Gain Weight If You’re Underweight Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Self-care Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics Smoking ...

  12. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini - Kramadibrata


    Full Text Available KRAMADIBRATA, K. 2009. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil. Reinwardtia 12(5: 357–371. ⎯ Glomeromycotan fungi were studied from several cacao plantations in Indonesia (Java and Bali and Ecuador. The identity of 28 species of Glomeromycota associated with cacao is presented.

  13. Sensitivity Test of Parameters Influencing Flood Hydrograph Routing with a Diffusion-Wave Distributed using Distributed Hydrological Model, Wet Spa, in Ziarat Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges javidan


    . Hydrological modeling deals with calculation of watershed hydrograph using hydro-meteorological information and terrain data, and processes of transforming rainfall into a flood hydrograph and the translation of hydrographs throughout a watershed. Flow routing subjects hydrography transformation and translation throughout a river basin. The Wet Spa model used in this study is a simple grid-based distributed runoff and water balance simulation model that runs on an hourly time step. It predicts hourly overland flow occurring at any point in a watershed, hydrography at the outlet, and provides spatially distributed hydrologic characteristics in the basin, in which all hydrologic processes are simulated within a GIS framework (Bahremand, 2007. The Wet Spa model was originally developed by Wang et al. (1997 and adapted for flood prediction by De Smedt et al. (2000 and Liu et al. (2003. Materials and Methods: The outlet is accomplished using the first passage time response function based on the mean and variance of the flow time distribution, which is derived from the advection–dispersion transport equation. The flow velocity is location dependent and calculated in each cell by the Manning equation based on the local slope, roughness coefficient and hydraulic radius. The hydraulic radius is determined according to the geophysical properties of the catchment and the flood frequency. The total direct runoff at the basin outlet is obtained by superimposing all contributions from every grid cell. The routing of overland flow and channel flow is implemented by the method of the diffusive wave approximation. This method has been used in some recent GIS-based flood models (Fortin et al., 2001; Olivera and Maidment, 1999. Liu et al 2003 has presented the flow routing method of the WetSpa model in detail. A two-parameter response function, based on the average flow time and the standard deviation of the flow time, is proposed in this study. The flow time and its variance are

  14. Strategy for Syntax Error Recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F Báez


    Full Text Available This paper describes a new strategy for syntax error recovering for a compiler that does not have instruction separators like ";" or opening and closing brackets like "{" and "}". This strategy is based on 4 steps. 1. Find a set of tokens (called ACEPTA set for each non terminal symbol of the grammar. 2. During the syntax analysis of each non terminal symbol, eliminate the tokens that are not in the ACEPTA set. 3. Eliminate repeated tokens that are not accepted by the grammar, and 4. Complete symbols in the syntax analysis with the hope that the token that has not been erased later will match with a terminal symbol expected by the syntax analyser; otherwise the symbol will be eliminated in some particular productions. The strategy for sintax error recovering is a method that can be used in whatever not ambiguos context free grammar includying those that use instruction separators like ";". It is implemented with an algorithm and it is much more easy to implement than other strategies for syntax error recovering like those based on stacks.

  15. Recovering Moho parameters using gravimetric and seismic data


    Abrehdary, Majid


    Isostasy is a key concept in geoscience to interpret the state of mass balance between the Earth’s crust and mantle. There are four well-known isostatic models: the classical models of Airy/Heiskanen (A/H), Pratt/Hayford (P/H), and Vening Meinesz (VM) and the modern model of Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM). The first three models assume a local and regional isostatic compensation, whereas the latter one supposes a global isostatic compensation scheme. A more satisfactory test of isostasy is to de...

  16. Lithium isotope fractionation by diffusion in minerals Part 2: Olivine (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Chaussidon, Marc; Bruce Watson, E.; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Homolova, Veronika


    Recent experiments have shown that lithium isotopes can be significantly fractionated by diffusion in silicate liquids and in augite. Here we report new laboratory experiments that document similarly large lithium isotopic fractionation by diffusion in olivine. Two types of experiments were used. A powder-source method where lithium from finely ground spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) diffused into oriented San Carlos olivine, and piston cylinder annealing experiments where Kunlun clinopyroxene (∼30 ppm lithium) and oriented San Carlos olivine (∼2 ppm lithium) were juxtaposed. The lithium concentration along traverses across the run products was measured using both laser ablation as a source for a Varian 820-MS quadrupole mass spectrometer and a CAMECA 1270 secondary ion mass spectrometer. The CAMECA 1270 was also used to measure the lithium isotopic fractionation across olivine grains recovered from the experiments. The lithium isotopes were found to be fractionationed by many tens of permil in the diffusion boundary layer at the grain edges as a result of 6Li diffusing significantly faster than 7Li. The lithium concentration and isotopic fractionation data across the olivine recovered from the different experiments were modeled using calculations in which lithium was assumed to be of two distinct types - one being fast diffusing interstitial lithium, the other much less mobile lithium on a metal site. The two-site diffusion model involves a large number of independent parameters and we found that different choices of the parameters can produce very comparable fits to the lithium concentration profiles and associated isotopic fractionation. Because of this nonuniqueness we are able to determine only a range for the relative diffusivity of 6Li compared to 7Li. When the mass dependence of lithium diffusion is parameterized as D6Li /D7Li =(7 / 6) β , the isotope fractionation for diffusion along the a and c crystallographic direction of olivine can be fit by β = 0.4 ± 0

  17. Relation between the structural parameters of metallic glasses at the onset crystallization temperatures and threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients (United States)

    Tkatch, V. I.; Svyrydova, K. A.; Vasiliev, S. V.; Kovalenko, O. V.


    Using the results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry, an analysis has been carried out of the initial stages of the eutectic and primary mechanisms of crystallization of a series of metallic glasses based on Fe and Al with the established temperature dependences of the effective diffusion coefficients. Analytical relationships, which relate the volume density of crystallites formed in the glasses at the temperatures of the onset of crystallization with the values of the effective diffusion coefficients at these temperatures have been proposed. It has been established that, in the glasses, the crystallization of which begins at the lower boundary of the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients ( 10-20 m2/s), structures are formed with the volume density of crystallites on the order of 1023-1024 m-3 and, at the upper boundary (10-18 m2/s), of the order of 1018 and 1020 m-3 in the glasses that are crystallized via the eutectic and primary mechanisms, respectively. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental estimates indicates that the threshold values of the effective diffusion coefficients are the main factors that determine the structure of glasses at the initial stages of crystallization.

  18. Estimation in Discretely Observed Diffusions Killed at a Threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibbona, Enrico; Ditlevsen, Susanne


    are modelled as discretely observed diffusions which are killed when the threshold is reached. Statistical inference is often based on a misspecified likelihood ignoring the presence of the threshold causing severe bias, e.g. the bias incurred in the drift parameters of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model....... Parametric bootstrap is effective in correcting the bias. Standard asymptotic results do not apply, but consistency and asymptotic normality may be recovered when multiple trajectories are observed, if the mean first-passage time through the threshold is finite. Numerical examples illustrate the results......Parameter estimation in diffusion processes from discrete observations up to a first-passage time is clearly of practical relevance, but does not seem to have been studied so far. In neuroscience, many models for the membrane potential evolution involve the presence of an upper threshold. Data...

  19. Li diffusion in zircon (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.


    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  20. Personal commentary: monitoring subsequent pregnancy in recovered peripartum cardiomyopathy mothers. (United States)

    Fett, James D


    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is defined as the first appearance of systolic heart failure in a previously healthy woman during the last month of pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. Both planned and unplanned pregnancies may occur in recovered and non-recovered PPCM mothers, requiring careful counseling and management strategies. Previous studies indicate that relapse of heart failure in post-PPCM pregnancies is always a possibility, even in recovered PPCM mothers. The risk of relapse is high when the left ventricular ejection fraction is less than 0.50, and should be considered a relative contraindication to subsequent pregnancy. There are not yet established protocols for monitoring subsequent pregnancies in those who once had PPCM, and few medical articles with guidelines. This personal commentary contains parameters that have been found useful to contribute to safer monitoring with improved outcomes.

  1. Simple Analytical Forms of the Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient for Two-component Turbulence. III. Damping Model of Dynamical Turbulence (United States)

    Gammon, M.; Shalchi, A.


    In several astrophysical applications one needs analytical forms of cosmic-ray diffusion parameters. Some examples are studies of diffusive shock acceleration and solar modulation. In the current article we explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. While we focused on magnetostatic turbulence in Paper I, we included the effect of dynamical turbulence in Paper II of the series. In the latter paper we assumed that the temporal correlation time does not depend on the wavenumber. More realistic models have been proposed in the past, such as the so-called damping model of dynamical turbulence. In the present paper we derive analytical forms for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles in two-component turbulence for this type of time-dependent turbulence. We present new formulas for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and we derive a condition for which the magnetostatic result is recovered.

  2. Generalized Fractional Master Equation for Self-Similar Stochastic Processes Modelling Anomalous Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Pagnini


    inhomogeneity and nonstationarity properties of the medium. For instance, when this superposition is applied to the time-fractional diffusion process, the resulting Master Equation emerges to be the governing equation of the Erdélyi-Kober fractional diffusion, that describes the evolution of the marginal distribution of the so-called generalized grey Brownian motion. This motion is a parametric class of stochastic processes that provides models for both fast and slow anomalous diffusion: it is made up of self-similar processes with stationary increments and depends on two real parameters. The class includes the fractional Brownian motion, the time-fractional diffusion stochastic processes, and the standard Brownian motion. In this framework, the M-Wright function (known also as Mainardi function emerges as a natural generalization of the Gaussian distribution, recovering the same key role of the Gaussian density for the standard and the fractional Brownian motion.

  3. Can the apparent diffusion coefficient be used as a noninvasive parameter to distinguish tumor tissue from peritumoral tissue in cerebral gliomas? (United States)

    Pauleit, Dirk; Langen, Karl-Josef; Floeth, Frank; Hautzel, Hubertus; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Reifenberger, Guido; Shah, N Jon; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm


    To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be used to distinguish between tumor tissue and peritumoral brain tissue in cerebral gliomas. Twenty-two patients with 44 biopsies were enrolled in this study. ADC maps calculated from a diffusion-weighted (DW) multislice EPI sequence were coregistered with conventional MR images. Neuronavigated biopsies and intraoperative markers were used for correlation with the histologic specimens. ADC values and lesion-to-brain ratios of the different sequences were calculated and compared for tumor tissue and peritumoral brain tissue. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic value of the ADC maps. The ADC values and ratios demonstrated a large overlap between tumor tissue and peritumoral tissue. Group comparisons revealed a significantly (P=0.03) lower ADC ratio in tumor tissue (mean=1.28 +/- 0.39) compared to peritumoral tissue (mean=1.48 +/- 0.30), whereas the absolute ADC values did not differ significantly. In the logistic regression analysis, the lesion-to-brain ratio of the gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1-weighted sequence was the most valuable predictor of the presence of tumor tissue. The ADC value and ratio were not identified as significant predictors. The ADC is not helpful for distinguishing tumor tissue from peritumoral brain tissue in gliomas.

  4. Small Sized Drone Fall Recover Mechanism Design (United States)

    LIU, Tzu-Heng; CHAO, Fang-Lin; LIOU, Jhen-Yuan


    Drones uses four motors to rotate clockwise, counter-clockwise, or change in rotational speed to change its status of motion. The problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle turnover causes personal loses and harm local environment. Designs of devices that can let falling drones recover are discussed. The models attempt to change the orientation, so that the drone may be able to improve to the point where it can take off again. The design flow included looking for functional elements, using simplify model to estimate primary functional characteristics, and find the appropriate design parameters. For reducing the complexity, we adopted the simple rotate mechanism with rotating arms to change the fuselage angle and reduce the dependence on the extra-components. A rough model was built to verify structure, and then the concept drawing and prototype were constructed. We made the prototype through the integration of mechanical part and the electronic control circuit. The electronic control module that selected is Arduino-mini pro. Through the Bluetooth modules, user can start the rebound mechanism by the motor control signal. Protections frames are added around each propeller to improve the body rotate problem. Limited by current size of Arduino module, motor and rebound mechanism make the main chassis more massive than the commercial product. However, built-in sensor and circuit miniaturization will improve it in future.

  5. Apparent diffusion profile estimation from high angular resolution diffusion images (United States)

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Angelino, Elaine; Fitzgibbons, Shaun; Deriche, Rachid


    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has recently been of great interest to characterize non-Gaussian diffusion process. In the white matter of the brain, this occurs when fiber bundles cross, kiss or diverge within the same voxel. One of the important goal is to better describe the apparent diffusion process in these multiple fiber regions, thus overcoming the limitations of classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this paper, we design the appropriate mathematical tools to describe noisy HARDI data. Using a meaningful modified spherical harmonics basis to capture the physical constraints of the problem, we propose a new regularization algorithm to estimate a smoother and closer diffusivity profile to the true diffusivities without noise. We exploit properties of the spherical harmonics to define a smoothing term based on the Laplace-Beltrami for functions defined on the unit sphere. An additional contribution of the paper is the derivation of the general transformation taking the spherical harmonics coefficients to the high order tensor independent elements. This allows the careful study of the state of the art high order anisotropy measures computed from either spherical harmonics or tensor coefficients. We analyze their ability to characterize the underlying diffusion process. We are able to recover voxels with isotropic, single fiber anisotropic and multiple fiber anisotropic diffusion. We test and validate the approach on diffusion profiles from synthetic data and from a biological rat phantom.

  6. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek


    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  7. Subtle role of latency for information diffusion in online social networks (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Wang, Xi-Meng; Cheng, Jun-Jun


    Information diffusion in online social networks is induced by the event of forwarding information for users, and latency exists widely in user spreading behaviors. Little work has been done to reveal the effect of latency on the diffusion process. In this paper, we propose a propagation model in which nodes may suspend their spreading actions for a waiting period of stochastic length. These latent nodes may recover their activity again. Meanwhile, the mechanism of forwarding information is also introduced into the diffusion model. Mean-field analysis and numerical simulations indicate that our model has three nontrivial results. First, the spreading threshold does not correlate with latency in neither homogeneous nor heterogeneous networks, but depends on the spreading and refractory parameter. Furthermore, latency affects the diffusion process and changes the infection scale. A large or small latency parameter leads to a larger final diffusion extent, but the intrinsic dynamics is different. Large latency implies forwarding information rapidly, while small latency prevents nodes from dropping out of interactions. In addition, the betweenness is a better descriptor to identify influential nodes in the model with latency, compared with the coreness and degree. These results are helpful in understanding some collective phenomena of the diffusion process and taking measures to restrain a rumor in social networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61401015 and 61271308), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBM018), and the Talent Fund of Beijing Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. 2015RC013).

  8. Susceptibility of Some Bacterial Contaminants Recovered from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistant bacteria. Isolates tested in this investigation were recovered from a variety of skin and hair cosmetics at the point of sale. Therefore, these contaminants must have been introduced into these products during the manufacturing process.

  9. Investigations of space-dependent safety-related parameters of a PBMR-like HTR in transient operating conditions applying a multi-group diffusion code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druska, C. [Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology (IEF-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Kasselmann, St. [Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology (IEF-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)], E-mail:; Lauer, A. [Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology (IEF-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)


    So far, the two-dimensional reactor dynamics code TINTE (time-dependent nucleonics and temperatures) was applied for simulations of high-temperature gas cooled reactors. One limitation of TINTE is that the neutron energy spectrum is modeled by only two energy groups, namely a thermal and a fast group. Present demands for increased numerical accuracy leads to the question of how precise the two-group approximation is compared to a multi-group approach. The recently developed multi-group derivative of TINTE called MGT (multi-group TINTE) is able to handle up to 43 neutron energy groups. In this study, different scenarios (normal operation and design-basis accidents) have been simulated for a PBMR-like HTR reactor design with MGT. The effect of an increasing number of energy groups on time- and space-dependent safety-related parameters like the fuel and coolant temperature, the nuclear heat source or the xenon concentration is studied. Different ways of calculating the material cross-sections are compared as well.

  10. Theory and experiments on surface diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, W.L.


    The following topics were dealt with: adatom formation and self-diffusion on the Ni(100) surface, helium atom scattering measurements, surface-diffusion parameter measurements, embedded atom method calculations.

  11. Flexible variable selection for recovering sparsity in nonadditive nonparametric models. (United States)

    Fang, Zaili; Kim, Inyoung; Schaumont, Patrick


    Variable selection for recovering sparsity in nonadditive and nonparametric models with high-dimensional variables has been challenging. This problem becomes even more difficult due to complications in modeling unknown interaction terms among high-dimensional variables. There is currently no variable selection method to overcome these limitations. Hence, in this article we propose a variable selection approach that is developed by connecting a kernel machine with the nonparametric regression model. The advantages of our approach are that it can: (i) recover the sparsity; (ii) automatically model unknown and complicated interactions; (iii) connect with several existing approaches including linear nonnegative garrote and multiple kernel learning; and (iv) provide flexibility for both additive and nonadditive nonparametric models. Our approach can be viewed as a nonlinear version of a nonnegative garrote method. We model the smoothing function by a Least Squares Kernel Machine (LSKM) and construct the nonnegative garrote objective function as the function of the sparse scale parameters of kernel machine to recover sparsity of input variables whose relevances to the response are measured by the scale parameters. We also provide the asymptotic properties of our approach. We show that sparsistency is satisfied with consistent initial kernel function coefficients under certain conditions. An efficient coordinate descent/backfitting algorithm is developed. A resampling procedure for our variable selection methodology is also proposed to improve the power. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories. (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón


    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  13. Solute redistribution in dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid (United States)

    Ganesan, S.; Poirier, D. R.


    An investigation of solute redistribution during dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid has been performed using numerical techniques. The extent of diffusion is characterized by the instantaneous and average diffusion parameters. These parameters are functions of the diffusion Fourier number, the partition ratio and the fraction solid. Numerical results are presented as an approximate model, which is used to predict the average diffusion parameter and calculate the composition of the interdendritic liquid during solidification.

  14. Intrinsic Location Parameter of a Diffusion Process (United States)


    de chaleur des applications harmoniques. Nous calculons des for- mules qui peuvent �tre utiles aux statisticiens, aux ing�nieurs, et � toute autre...intrinsic version of (32). We abbreviate here by writing as . By definition of the flow of ξ, , and so, differentiating with respect to x, and exchanging

  15. Recovering core identity, hermeneutical and contextual preaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 8, 2016 ... identity – certainly when it answers the questions 'who are we?' and 'what are we called to be and/or do' – it lacks significantly in its missional identity. Contributing factors are mentioned and remedial action is proposed. Recovering core identity, hermeneutical and contextual preaching. Read online:.

  16. Susceptibility of Some Bacterial Contaminants Recovered from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Nine bacterial isolates recovered from various brands of commercially available cosmetics marketed in Jordan were tested for their susceptibility pattern against two paraben esters and two formaldehyde donors in addition to nine commonly used antibiotics. The biocidal effect for three preservatives was tested at ...

  17. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts. (United States)

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  18. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil


    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  19. Recovering from Opioid Overdose: Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members (United States)

    SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Prevention TOOLKIT: Recovering From Opioid Overdose – Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members TABLE OF CONTENTS Recovering From Opioid Overdose Recovering from Opioid Overdose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Resources for Overdose Survivors ...

  20. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S


    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  1. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.


    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  2. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...... cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...

  3. Multispectral diffuse optical tomography of finger joints (United States)

    Lighter, Daniel; Filer, Andrew; Dehghani, Hamid


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation. The current treatment paradigm for earlier, more aggressive therapy places importance on development of functional imaging modalities, capable of quantifying joint changes at the earliest stages. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has shown great promise in this regard, due to its cheap, non-invasive, non-ionizing and high contrast nature. Underlying pathological activity in afflicted joints leads to altered optical properties of the synovial region, with absorption and scattering increasing. Previous studies have used these optical changes as features for classifying diseased joints from healthy. Non-tomographic, single wavelength, continuous wave (CW) measurements of trans-illuminated joints have previously reported achieving this with specificity and sensitivity in the range 80 - 90% [1]. A single wavelength, frequency domain DOT system, combined with machine learning techniques, has been shown to achieve sensitivity and specificity in the range of 93.8 - 100% [2]. A CW system is presented here which collects data at 5 wavelengths, enabling reconstruction of pathophysiological parameters such as oxygenation and total hemoglobin, with the aim of identifying localized hypoxia and angiogenesis associated with inflammation in RA joints. These initial studies focus on establishing levels of variation in recovered parameters from images of healthy controls.

  4. Action and gait recognition from recovered 3-D human joints. (United States)

    Gu, Junxia; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin; Wu, Youshou


    A common viewpoint-free framework that fuses pose recovery and classification for action and gait recognition is presented in this paper. First, a markerless pose recovery method is adopted to automatically capture the 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences from volume data. Second, multiple configuration features (combination of joints) and movement features (position, orientation, and height of the body) are extracted from the recovered 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences. A hidden Markov model (HMM) and an exemplar-based HMM are then used to model the movement features and configuration features, respectively. Finally, actions are classified by a hierarchical classifier that fuses the movement features and the configuration features, and persons are recognized from their gait sequences with the configuration features. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with experiments on the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences data set.

  5. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)


    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  6. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting


    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  7. Rescuing and recovering lost or endangered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Griffin


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the vital importance to the scientific community of rescuing historic scientific data, presently in various informal, non-digital formats, from likely oblivion and making them accessible digitally for trend analyses. It proposes models whereby historic biodiversity and astronomical data can be recovered as Canadian initiatives, in the hope of stimulating further discussion of such simple yet essential rescue missions in the context of Canadian scientific research.

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  9. Method for recovering metals from waste (United States)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.


    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  10. HDDM: Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the Drift-Diffusion Model in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Wiecki


    Full Text Available The diffusion model is a commonly used tool to infer latent psychological processes underlying decision making, and to link them to neural mechanisms based on reaction times. Although efficient open source software has been made available to quantitatively fit the model to data, current estimation methods require an abundance of reaction time measurements to recover meaningful parameters, and only provide point estimates of each parameter. In contrast, hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation methods are useful for enhancing statistical power, allowing for simultaneous estimation of individual subject parameters and the group distribution that they are drawn from, while also providing measures of uncertainty in these parameters in the posterior distribution. Here, we present a novel Python-based toolbox called HDDM (hierarchical drift diffusion model, which allows fast and flexible estimation of the the drift-diffusion model and the related linear ballistic accumulator model. HDDM requires fewer data per subject / condition than non-hierarchical method, allows for full Bayesian data analysis, and can handle outliers in the data. Finally, HDDM supports the estimation of how trial-by-trial measurements (e.g. fMRI influence decision making parameters. This paper will first describe the theoretical background of drift-diffusion model and Bayesian inference. We then illustrate usage of the toolbox on a real-world data set from our lab. Finally, parameter recovery studies show that HDDM beats alternative fitting methods like the chi-quantile method as well as maximum likelihood estimation. The software and documentation can be downloaded at:

  11. Relativistic diffusion. (United States)

    Haba, Z


    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  12. Preoperative lymph node staging in patients with primary prostate cancer: comparison and correlation of quantitative imaging parameters in diffusion-weighted imaging and 11C-choline PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vag, Tibor; Beer, Ambros J.; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University Munich, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Heck, Matthias M. [Technical University Munich, Clinic of Urology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technical University Munich, Institute of Pathology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Technical University Munich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd Joachim [University Hospital Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)


    To compare the diagnostic performance of DWI and 11C-choline PET/CT in the assessment of preoperative lymph node status in patients with primary prostate cancer. Thirty-three patients underwent DWI and 11C-choline PET/CT prior to prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Mean standardised uptake value (SUV{sub mean}) and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of 76 identified lymph nodes (LN) were measured and correlated with histopathology. ADC values and SUVs were compared using linear regression analysis. A significant difference between benign and malignant LN was observed for ADC values (1.17 vs. 0.96 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.001) and SUV{sub mean} (1.61 vs. 3.20; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed an optimal ADC threshold of 1.01 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for differentiating benign from malignant LN with corresponding sensitivity/specificity of 69.70 %/78.57 % and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.785. The optimal threshold for SUV{sub mean} was 2.5 with corresponding sensitivity/specificity of 69.72 %/90.48 % and with an AUC of 0.832. ADC values and SUV{sub mean} showed a moderate significant inverse correlation (r = -0.63). Both modalities reveal similar moderate diagnostic performance for preoperative lymph node staging of prostate cancer, not justifying their application in routine clinical practice at this time. The only moderate inverse correlation between ADC values and SUV{sub mean} suggests that both imaging parameters might provide complementary information on tumour biology. (orig.)

  13. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William


    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  14. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  15. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  16. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover? (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.


    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early spring (late September - early October). Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average area coverage during this September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen (chlorine and bromine) catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this talk, I will show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections. I will also discuss current assessments of mid-latitude ozone recovery.

  17. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover? (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve


    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  18. Gas Diffusion in the CNS. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Konsman, Jan-Pieter


    Gases have been long known to have essential physiological functions in the CNS such as respiration or regulation of vascular tone. Since gases have been classically considered to freely diffuse, research in gas biology has so far focused on mechanisms of gas synthesis and gas reactivity, rather than gas diffusion and transport. However, the discovery of gas pores during the last two decades and the characterization of diverse diffusion patterns through different membranes has raised the possibility that modulation of gas diffusion is also a physiologically relevant parameter. Here we review the means of gas movement into and within the brain through "free" diffusion and gas pores, notably aquaporins, discussing the role that gas diffusion may play in the modulation of gas function. We highlight how diffusion is relevant to neuronal signaling, volume transmission, and cerebrovascular control in the case of NO, one of the most extensively studied gases. We point out how facilitated transport can be especially relevant for gases with low permeability in lipid membranes like NH3 and discuss the possible implications of NH3 -permeable channels in physiology and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. We identify novel research questions about how modulation of gas diffusion could intervene in CNS pathologies. This emerging area of research can provide novel and interesting insights in the field of gas biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud


    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  20. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.


    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  1. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.


    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  2. Anisotropic diffusion phantoms based on microcapillaries (United States)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Maximov, Ivan I.


    Diffusion MRI is an efficient and widely used technique for the investigation of tissue structure and organisation in vivo. Multiple phenomenological and biophysical diffusion models are intensively exploited for the analysis of the diffusion experiments. However, the verification of the applied diffusion models remains challenging. In order to provide a ;gold standard; and to assess the accuracy of the derived parameters and the limitations of the diffusion models, anisotropic diffusion phantoms with well known architecture are demanded. In the present work we built four anisotropic diffusion phantoms consisting of hollow microcapillaries with very small inner diameters of 5, 10 and 20 μ m and outer diameters of 90 and 150 μ m. For testing the suitability of these phantoms, we performed diffusion measurements on all of them and evaluated the resulting data with a set of popular diffusion models, such as diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging, a two compartment model with intra- and extra-capillary water spaces using bi-exponential fitting, and time-dependent diffusion coefficients in Mitra's limit. The perspectives and limitations of these diffusion phantoms are presented and discussed.

  3. Sleep, residual mood symptoms, and time to relapse in recovered patients with bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Cretu, Julia Becker; Culver, Jenifer L; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A


    Sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder (BD) is common during and between mood episodes. In recovered (euthymic at least two months) BD patients, we assessed sleep compared to controls and its relationships with residual mood symptoms and mood episode recurrence. Recovered Stanford University BD Clinic patients diagnosed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and monitored with the STEP-BD Clinical Monitoring Form (CMF) for >1 year and healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). PSQI parameters were compared in BD patients versus controls, and the most robustly differentiating PSQI parameter was assessed in relationship to residual mood symptoms, and time to mood episode recurrence in BD patients. Eighty nine recovered BD patients compared to 56 healthy controls had significantly worse PSQI global score, more sleep medication use, longer sleep latency, and worse daytime dysfunction. PSQI global score had the greatest BD patient versus control effect size, and among BD patients, correlated significantly with residual mood symptoms and predicted earlier mood episode recurrence, even after covarying for residual mood symptoms. Use of subjective (PSQI) rather objective (polysomnography) sleep metric. Statistical power limited by small sample size. Potential psychotropic medication confound. Northern California tertiary BD clinic referral sample. Further research is needed to confirm that in recovered BD patients, poor sleep quality correlates with residual mood symptoms, and independently predicts mood episode recurrence. If confirmed, these observations suggest potential mood benefit for focusing on sleep quality in interventions for recovered BD patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN P-91-809...

  5. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao


    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.

  6. Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, Patrick, E-mail:; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)


    We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.

  7. Branching diffusion with particle interactions


    Engländer, János; Zhang, Liang


    A $d$-dimensional branching diffusion, $Z$, is investigated, where the linear attraction or repulsion between particles is competing with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck drift, with parameter $b$ (we take $b>0$ for inward O-U and $b0$) or repulsion ($\\gamma 0$, while escapes to infinity exponentially fast (rate $|b|$) when $b

  8. Tactile perception of thermal diffusivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/262668424; Kappers, A.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07445370X


    The thermal diffusivity of an object is a parameter that controls the rate at which heat is extracted from the hand when it touches that object. It is an important feature for distinguishing materials by means of touch. In order to quantitatively describe the ability of human observers to

  9. Aspects of diffusion in the stadium billiard (United States)

    Lozej, Črt; Robnik, Marko


    We perform a detailed numerical study of diffusion in the ɛ stadium of Bunimovich, and propose an empirical model of the local and global diffusion for various values of ɛ with the following conclusions: (i) the diffusion is normal for all values of ɛ (≤0.3 ) and all initial conditions, (ii) the diffusion constant is a parabolic function of the momentum (i.e., we have inhomogeneous diffusion), (iii) the model describes the diffusion very well including the boundary effects, (iv) the approach to the asymptotic equilibrium steady state is exponential, (v) the so-called random model (Robnik et al., 1997) is confirmed to apply very well, (vi) the diffusion constant extracted from the distribution function in momentum space and the one derived from the second moment agree very well. The classical transport time, an important parameter in quantum chaos, is thus determined.

  10. Trait aggression and hostility in recovered alcoholics. (United States)

    Ziherl, Slavko; Cebasek Travnik, Zdenka; Kores Plesnicar, Blanka; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan


    There is a long-recognized association between alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior. This study was designed to examine aggression in a group of socially well-adapted recovered alcoholics (RA). The question addressed was whether the treatment, together with long-term abstinence from alcohol, could reduce aggression and hostility in RA. A group of male RA (n = 64), who did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for any psychiatric or personality disorder, were recruited to the study from aftercare groups. According to data from their group therapists, they were reliably abstinent for at least 3 years and socially well adapted. The study participants representing the control group (n = 69), diagnosed as being 'reliable nonalcoholics' (NA) by the Munich Alcoholism Test, were recruited from general practice. Data were derived from an in-house questionnaire on general characteristics of both groups, and aggressive and hostility traits were assessed using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). The univariate and multivariate between-groups design was used for data analysis. Taking into account the BDHI dimensions of aggression and hostility, the difference between RA and NA groups was statistically significant [Wilks' lambda (8, 125) = 0.769; p = 0.00004]. There were statistically significant differences in the BDHI scales for indirect aggression, irritability, negativism, suspicion, resentment, and guilt. Both RA and Na groups did not differ significantly in variables that assessed physical and verbal aggression. After a 3-year abstinence, subjects from the RA group displayed signs of hostility and covert aggression. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Generalized multibaker maps exhibiting transient diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Z


    Generalized multibaker maps are introduced to study properties of deterministic diffusion. Emphasis is put on transient diffusion modeling systems which are spatially extended only in certain directions and escape of particles is allowed in other ones. Effects of nonlinearity are investigated by varying a control parameter.

  12. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction. (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  13. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data. PMID:27821901

  14. Quantitative comparison of reconstruction methods for intra-voxel fiber recovery from diffusion MRI


    Daducci, Alessandro; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick Jorge; Descoteaux, Maxime; Garyfallidis, Eleftherios; Gur, Yaniv; Lin, Ying-Chia; Mani, Merry; Merlet, Sylvain; Paquette, Michael; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Reisert, Marco; Rodrigues, Paulo Reis; Sepehrband, Farshid; Jacob, Mathews; Caruyer, Emmanuel


    Validation is arguably the bottleneck in the diffusion MRI community. This paper evaluates and compares 20 algorithms for recovering the local intra-voxel fiber structure from diffusion MRI data and is based on the results of the "HARDI reconstruction challenge" organized in the context of the "ISBI 2012" conference. Evaluated methods encompass a mixture of classical techniques well-known in the literature such as Diffusion Tensor, Q-Ball and Diffusion Spectrum imaging, algorithms inspired by...

  15. Quantitative comparison of reconstruction methods for intra-voxel fiber recovery from diffusion {MRI}


    Daducci Alessandro; Canales-Rodríguez Erick Jorge; Descoteaux Maxime; Garyfallidis Eleftherios; Gur Yaniv; Lin Ying-Chia; Mani Merry; Merlet Sylvain; Paquette Michael; Ramirez-Manzanares Alonso; Reisert Marco; Rodrigues Paulo Reis; Sepehrband Farshid; Jacob Mathews; Caruyer Emmanuel


    Validation is arguably the bottleneck in the diffusion MRI community. This paper evaluates and compares 20 algorithms for recovering the local intra voxel fiber structure from diffusion MRI data and is based on the results of the "HARDI reconstruction challenge" organized in the context of the "ISBI 2012" conference. Evaluated methods encompass a mixture of classical techniques well known in the literature such as Diffusion Tensor Q Ball and Diffusion Spectrum imaging algorithms inspired by t...

  16. Thermal neutron diffusion cooling in wet quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail:; Krynicka, E. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Crakcw (Poland); Dabrowska, J. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)


    The thermal neutron diffusion parameters of a rock material depend on the rock matrix itself and on the water content. The effect has been studied in quartz by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the variable buckling experiment for nine series of samples. A hyperbolic dependence of the density-removed diffusion cooling coefficient on the water content shows a variability of this parameter by two orders of magnitude. The function obtained for wet quartz is compared with the analogous dependence for wet dolomite.


    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla


    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  18. Diffusion LMS Over Multitask Networks (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Richard, Cedric; Sayed, Ali H.


    The diffusion LMS algorithm has been extensively studied in recent years. This efficient strategy allows to address distributed optimization problems over networks in the case where nodes have to collaboratively estimate a single parameter vector. Problems of this type are referred to as single-task problems. Nevertheless, there are several problems in practice that are multitask-oriented in the sense that the optimum parameter vector may not be the same for every node. This brings up the issue of studying the performance of the diffusion LMS algorithm when it is run, either intentionally or unintentionally, in a multitask environment. In this paper, we conduct a theoretical analysis on the stochastic behavior of diffusion LMS in the case where the so-called single-task hypothesis is violated. We explain under what conditions diffusion LMS continues to deliver performance superior to non-cooperative strategies in the multitask environment. When the conditions are violated, we explain how to endow the nodes with the ability to cluster with other similar nodes to remove bias. We propose an unsupervised clustering strategy that allows each node to select, via adaptive adjustments of combination weights, the neighboring nodes with which it can collaborate to estimate a common parameter vector. Simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results, and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed clustering strategy. The framework is applied to a useful problem involving a multi-target tracking task.

  19. Comparative study of original recover and recover KL in separable non-negative matrix factorization for topic detection in Twitter (United States)

    Prabandari, R. D.; Murfi, H.


    An increasing amount of information on social media such as Twitter requires an efficient way to find the topics so that the information can be well managed. One of an automated method for topic detection is separable non-negative matrix factorization (SNMF). SNMF assumes that each topic has at least one word that does not appear on other topics. This method uses the direct approach and gives polynomial-time complexity, while the previous methods are iterative approaches and have NP-hard complexity. There are three steps of SNMF algorithm, i.e. constructing word co-occurrences, finding anchor words, and recovering topics. In this paper, we examine two topic recover methods, namely original recover that is using algebraic manipulation and recover KL that using probability approach with Kullback-Leibler divergence. Our simulations show that recover KL provides better accuracies in term of topic recall than original recover.

  20. Lead diffusion in monazite; Diffusion du plomb dans la monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardes, E


    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO{sub 4} monocrystals and in Nd{sub 0.66}Ca{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} polycrystals from Nd{sub 0.66}Pb{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} thin films to investigate Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 {+-} 24 kJ mol{sup -1} and log(D{sub 0} (m{sup 2}s{sup -1})) equals -3.41 {+-} 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 {mu}m grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  1. Projecting recovered paper supply in the United States. (United States)

    James L. Howard; Ken Skog; Peter J. Ince


    The use of recovered paper has an influence on the amount of timber harvested as well as the feasibility of expanded recycling programs. During the 1990’s markets and prices for recovered materials have fluctuated widely. There are a number of factors driving these market changes including economic conditions domestically and internationally. The objective of this...

  2. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity ...

  3. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Alcohol, Specially Denatured Rum, or Articles § 20.213 Reuse of recovered spirits. (a) If the denatured...

  4. 48 CFR 245.607-2 - Recovering precious metals. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.607-2 Recovering precious metals. (b) Precious metals are silver, gold... office with disposition instructions for certain categories of precious metals-bearing property...

  5. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes, scrap...

  6. Investigation of properties of surfaces, recovered by electric-arc coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Федорович Дмитриченко


    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical properties of the recovered surfaces of the machine parts by electric-arc coating are considered from position of influence of technological parameters of coating process. Dependences of adhesion strength, porosity and gas permeability of coatings from the technological coating modes (current voltage of arc, spraying distance, pressure of the compressed air are set as a result of the conducted experiments

  7. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products

    CERN Document Server

    Fibich, Gadi


    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  8. In vivo facilitated diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bauer

    Full Text Available Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

  9. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI : Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Oudeman, Jos; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Froeling, Martijn; Strijkers, Gustav J.


    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  10. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI: Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, V.; Oudeman, J.; Nicolay, K.; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, N.J.; Sprengers, A.M.J.; Nederveen, A.J.; Froeling, M.; Strijkers, G.J.


    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  11. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.


    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  12. Study of diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R


    4.0 MeV sup 7 Li sup + sup + RBS and AES were used for investigations of thermal diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals. The annealing of samples was carried out in vacuum in the temperature range from 498 to 613 K. The element depth concentration profiles transformed from RBS spectra indicate that the diffusion of Ag into Cu is a typical volume diffusion. The Arrhenius parameters corresponding to the diffusion were obtained.

  13. Infinitely-fast diffusion in Single-File Systems


    Nedea, s. V.; Jansen, A. P. J.; Lukkien, J. J.


    We have used Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) methods and analytical techniques to analyze Single-File Systems for which diffusion is infinitely-fast. We have simplified the Master Equation removing the fast reactions and we have introduced a DMC algorithm for infinitely-fast diffusion. The DMC method for fast diffusion give similar results as the standard DMC with high diffusion rates. We have investigated the influence of characteristic parameters, such as pipe length, adsorption, desorption and c...

  14. Study of ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Simsen


    Full Text Available In this work we study ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations for large diffusion and we study the sensitivity of nonlinear ODEs with respect to initial conditions and exponent parameters. Moreover, we prove continuity of the flow and weak upper semicontinuity of a family of global attractors for reaction-diffusion equations with spatially variable exponents when the exponents go to 2 in \\(L^{\\infty}(\\Omega\\ and the diffusion coefficients go to infinity.

  15. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon


    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  16. Features of stable diffuse arcs observed by means of auroral tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Dashkevich


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the spatial distribution of optical volume emission rates and peculiarities of the luminosity intensity within weak diffuse auroral arcs recovered by means of auroral tomography. The tomographic images are obtained from sets of scanning multi-channel photometer data obtained in February 1999 on the Kola Peninsula in Russia at three sites of a chain extending 226 km along the geomagnetic meridian. The 427.8- and 557.7-nm emissions of a 15-s time resolution observed within one hour during low geomagnetic activity are analyzed. We found that the intensity profile of an individual arc along the geomagnetic meridian has an inverted-V-shape. The luminosity maximum altitude decrease by 4–14 km at about 140 km distance in the south-north direction can be observed during two or more diffuse arcs. The parameters of the precipitating electron flux are obtained from an integral equation, which determines the best relationship between the 427.8-nm intensity height profile and an arbitrary particle energy spectrum. A dimensionless function of the energy dissipation is used as the core in the integral equation. The estimated average energy of electron flux, which generated the isolated diffuse arc, is 1–2 keV higher in the central part of the arc in comparison to values at its borders.

  17. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.


    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  18. Influence of the content of Cr in diffusive transport parameters and trapping of hydrogen in Fe alloys; Influencia del contenido de Cr en los parametros de transporte difusivos y de trapping de hidrogeno en aleaciones de Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Alberro, G.; Orduna, I.; Legarda, F.; Vila, R.; Ortiz, C. J.


    The materials candidates to be part of a fusion reactor must characterize properly to carry out the correct selection of the same. In this sense, the interaction of the isotopes of hydrogen with materials Such It is essential, since the transport parameters will Affect the inventory of hydrogen in the reactor Retained and, in Addition, of These components isotopes permeation through structural materials can Affect areas of human.

  19. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian


    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  20. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap (United States)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.


    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  1. Recovering a Basic Space from Issue Scales in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith T. Poole


    Full Text Available basicspace is an R package that conducts Aldrich-McKelvey and Blackbox scaling to recover estimates of the underlying latent dimensions of issue scale data. We illustrate several applications of the package to survey data commonly used in the social sciences. Monte Carlo tests demonstrate that the procedure can recover latent dimensions and reproduce the matrix of responses at moderate levels of error and missing data.

  2. Lung diffusion testing (United States)

    ... Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This ...

  3. Principles and limitations of NMR diffusion measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabe Jan


    Full Text Available Diffusion spectroscopy, imaging and particularly diffusion tensor imaging have become popular thanks to their numerous clinical and research applications which span from brain stroke evaluation to fiber tracking. With a few exceptions, these methods are rooted in the classic Stejskal-Tanner formula for the diffusion-attenuated signal, usually obtained by solving the Bloch-Torrey partial differential equations. Here we derive the Stejskal-Tanner formula in the simplest possible manner, avoiding integrals and differential equations. This approach makes it easy to understand the origin of the diffusion signal attenuation, the effects of various diffusion sequence parameters, and also the numerous important pitfalls, which are discussed in the last section.

  4. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients. (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.


    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  5. A Student Diffusion Activity (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan


    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration…

  6. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.


    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging with three-dimensional fiber tractography of traumatic axonal shearing injury: an imaging correlate for the posterior callosal "disconnection" syndrome: case report. (United States)

    Le, Tuong H; Mukherjee, Pratik; Henry, Roland G; Berman, Jeffrey I; Ware, Marcus; Manley, Geoffrey T


    To demonstrate that magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with three-dimensional (3-D) fiber tractography can visualize traumatic axonal shearing injury that results in posterior callosal disconnection syndrome. A 22-year-old man underwent serial magnetic resonance imaging 3 days and 12 weeks after blunt head injury. The magnetic resonance images included whole-brain DTI acquired with a single-shot spin echo echoplanar sequence. 3-D DTI fiber tractography of the splenium of the corpus callosum was performed. Quantitative DTI parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy, from the site of splenial injury were compared with those of a normal adult male volunteer. Conventional magnetic resonance images revealed findings of diffuse axonal injury, including a lesion at the midline of the splenium of the corpus callosum. DTI performed 3 days posttrauma revealed that the splenial lesion had reduced apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy, reflecting a large decrease in the magnitude of diffusion parallel to the white matter fibers, which had partially recovered as revealed by follow-up DTI 12 weeks postinjury. 3-D tractography revealed an interruption of the white matter fibers in the posteroinferior aspect of the splenium that correlated with the patient's left hemialexia, a functional deficit caused by disconnection of the right visual cortex from the language centers of the dominant left hemisphere. DTI with 3-D fiber tractography can visualize acute axonal shearing injury, which may have prognostic value for the cognitive and neurological sequelae of traumatic brain injury.

  8. IRM du tenseur de diffusion du muscle squelettique humain : contributions et applications


    Neji, Radhouène


    In this thesis, we present several techniques for the processing of diffusion tensor images. They span a wide range of tasks such as estimation and regularization, clustering and segmentation, as well as registration. The variational framework proposed for recovering a tensor field from noisy diffusion weighted images exploits the fact that diffusion data represent populations of fibers and therefore each tensor can be reconstructed using a weighted combination of tensors lying in its neighbo...

  9. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto


    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  10. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada


    model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...... dependence of the diffusion tensors, which causes the measured isotropic diffusivity to depend on gradient frame orientation. In turn, this conflates orientation dispersion with ensemble variance in isotropic diffusivity. Second, additional contributions to the apparent variance in isotropic diffusivity...

  11. Thermodynamics, diffusion and the Kirkendall effect in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Aloke; Vuorinen, Vesa; Divinski, Sergiy V


    Covering both basic and advanced thermodynamic and phase  principles,  as well as providing stability diagrams relevant for diffusion studies, Thermodynamics, Diffusion and the Kirkendall Effect in Solids maximizes reader insights into Fick’s laws of diffusion, atomic mechanisms, interdiffusion, intrinsic diffusion, tracer diffusion and the Kirkendall effect. Recent advances in the area of interdiffusion will be introduced, while the many practical examples and large number of illustrations given will serve to aid researches working in this area in learning the practical evaluation of various diffusion parameters from experimental results. With a unique approach to the two main focal points in solid state transformations, energetics (thermodynamics) and kinetics (interdiffusion) are extensively studied and their combined use in practise is discussed. Recent developments in the area of Kirkendall effect, grain boundary diffusion and multicomponent diffusion are also covered extensively. This book will appe...

  12. Sound field in long rooms with diffusely reflecting boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picaut, Judicaël; Simon, Laurent; Polack, Jean-Dominique


    A diffusion equation is used to predict the sound propagation in long rooms with diffusely reflecting boundaries. The model is defined by two parameters, the coefficient of diffusion depending on the mean free path, and an exchange coefficient expressing wall absorption. The diffusion equation...... is solved for time-varying sources and in stationary state. Analytical expressions of the sound attenuation and reverberation in infinite, semi-infinite and finite long rooms are quite in accordance with numerical simulations of diffuse sound field. It is also shown that the diffusion model allows...... to predict experimental observations: the decay curves are not linear, the reverberation time increases with the source-receiver distance, and sound attenuation is linear along corridors. The dependence of the coefficient of diffusion with the degree of wall diffusion is also discussed....

  13. Microfluidic chips with multi-junctions: an advanced tool in recovering proteins from inclusion bodies. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya


    Active recombinant proteins are used for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. Protein refolding is an important process for obtaining active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, the conventional refolding method of dialysis or dilution is time-consuming and recovered active protein yields are often low, and a cumbersome trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. To circumvent these difficulties, we used controllable diffusion through laminar flow in microchannels to regulate the denaturant concentration. This method largely aims at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This Commentary introduces the principles of the protein refolding method using microfluidic chips and the advantage of our results as a tool for rapid and efficient recovery of active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

  14. High angular resolution diffusion imaging with stimulated echoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B


    Stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) diffusion MRI can be advantageous over pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) for diffusion times that are long compared with T2 . It therefore has potential for biomedical diffusion imaging applications at 7T and above where T2 is short. However, gradient pulses...... angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data were acquired with and without the proposed compensation. The data were processed to derive standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps, which highlight the need for the compensation. Ignoring the other gradient pulses, a bias in DTI parameters from STEAM...

  15. Target Contour Recovering for Tracking People in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang


    Full Text Available Recovering people contours from partial occlusion is a challenging problem in a visual tracking system. Partial occlusions would bring about unreasonable contour changes of the target object. In this paper, a novel method is presented to detect partial occlusion on people contours and recover occluded portions. Unlike other occlusion detection methods, the proposed method is only based on contours, which makes itself more flexible to be extended for further applications. Experiments with synthetic images demonstrate the accuracy of the method for detecting partial occlusions, and experiments on real-world video sequence are also carried out to prove that the method is also good enough to be used to recover target contours.

  16. Specifications for recovered materials. Part I. A prerequisite to marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An early step in planning for resource recovery, as discussed elsewhere in this issue, is marketing. But before marketing can be effectively carried out, consideration must be given to specifications for the products to be recovered; for specifications are the language between buyer and seller. Clearly, they also are important in determining the type of technology to be employed in a particular recovery facility. This is Part I of a two-part article reporting on an Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project at the National Center for Resource Recovery to develop target specifications for materials, including a refuse-derived fuel product, recovered from municipal solid waste. Part I introduces the research and treats existing and proposed specifications for recovered paper and magnetic metals. Part II, to appear in the next issue of the NCRR Bulletin, will deal with aluminium, other non-ferrous metals, glass, and refuse-derived fuel. (MCW)

  17. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip


    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  18. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams (United States)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel


    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DEÁK


    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the mechanical properties of recovered solid wood and wood-based materials, to create new panels made of strips of recovered oak and spruce wood, particleboards and blockboards and to study their mechanical properties, feasibility and use. Flatness, MOR and MOE were determined for the solid wood and wood-based materials recovered from construction and demolition sites. Four types of experimental panels (PL1, PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 were manufactured from solid wood strips alternating with either particleboard or blockboard strips glued edge to edge. Some of their physical and mechanical properties were investigated. All new panels made from recovered materials fell within allowable limits specified in European standard requirements for panel flatness. Panels type PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 show better values for MoR and MoE parallel to the grain when compared to the respective values for the recovered wood-based materials of which they are made, but panels type PL1 show no change. Panels type PALL2 are preferable to panels type PALL1 due to better mechanical properties. Panels type PL1 and PL2 show no such differences in their structure. The results also show that these new panels can be used successfully in furniture production, provided panels type PL1, PL2 ad PALL1 do not bear loads perpendicular to the grain or receive reinforcing elements.

  20. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay


    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  1. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M


    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  2. Recovering finite parametric distributions and functions using the spherical mean transform (United States)

    Salman, Yehonatan


    The aim of the article is to recover a certain type of finite parametric distributions and functions using their spherical mean transform which is given on a certain family of spheres whose centers belong to a finite set Γ . For this, we show how the problem of reconstruction can be converted to a Prony's type system of equations whose regularity is guaranteed by the assumption that the points in the set Γ are in general position. By solving the corresponding Prony's system we can extract the set of parameters which define the corresponding function or distribution.

  3. Enhancing forward osmosis water recovery from landfill leachate by desalinating brine and recovering ammonia in a microbial desalination cell. (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; He, Zhen


    In this work, a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was employed to desalinate the FO treated leachate for reduction of both salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The FO recovered 51.5% water from a raw leachate and the recovery increased to 83.5% from the concentrated leachate after desalination in the MDC fed with either acetate or another leachate as an electron source and at a different hydraulic retention time (HRT). Easily-degraded substrate like acetate and a long HRT resulted in a low conductivity desalinated effluent. Ammonia was also recovered in the MDC cathode with a recovery efficiency varying from 11 to 64%, affected by current generation and HRT. Significant COD reduction, as high as 65.4%, was observed in the desalination chamber and attributed to the decrease of both organic and inorganic compounds via diffusion and electricity-driven movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali


    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  5. Pulmonary hematological parameters, energetic flight demands and their correlation with oxygen diffusion capacity in the lungs Parámetros hematológicos pulmonares, demandas energéticas del vuelo y su correlación la capacidad de difusión de oxígeno en los pulmones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Hematological parameters of birds and mammals seem to respond to environmental requirements, such as hypoxia at high altitude and the energetic demands of locomotion and flight. In this work we hypothesize that lung capillary hematocrit and red blood size may be influenced by the energetic requirements of flight. Also, we propose that hematological parameters should vary together with the morphological parameters that determine oxygen diffusion capacity. We analyzed the red blood cell size and the local characteristics of the pulmonary capillary hematocrit correlating these with the pulmonary factors that determines the oxygen diffusion capacity. We deal with seven species, non-flying and flying birds and mammals, with different energetic requirements. The capillary hematocrit was not different in each taxon, but the red blood cell size was smaller in flying mammals and birds than non-flying ones. Correlation of erythrocyte size with the diffusing characteristics of the lungs produced a non-phylogenetic clustering with a group constituting by the bats Tadarida brasiliensis y Myotis chiloensis, and the bird Z. auriculata; revealing similar functional response in unrelated species. Finally, in mammals, a negative correlation between the red blood cell size and the mass-specific oxygen diffusion capacity was obtained. These results suggest that the direction of the hematological and pulmonary adjustments is governed mainly by the requirements of flight independent of phylogenetic origin of the species studiedLos parámetros hematológicos y pulmonares parecen responder a las exigencias ambientales como la hipoxia y la alta altitud y a los requerimientos energéticos de la locomoción. En este trabajo sometemos a prueba la hipótesis que el hematocrito del capilar pulmonar y el tamaño del glóbulo rojo pueden ser influidos por los requerimientos energéticos del vuelo. También proponemos que los parámetros hematológicos varían en conjunto con

  6. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta


    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  7. Inpainting using airy diffusion (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara


    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  8. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  9. Sampling, characterisation and processing of solid recovered fuel production from municipal solid waste: An Italian plant case study. (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Ionescu, Gabriela; Fedele, Arcangela; Palmieri, Eleonora; Ranieri, Ada Cristina; Campanaro, Vincenzo


    This article presents the classification of solid recovered fuel from the Massafra municipal solid waste treatment plant in Southern Italy in compliancy with the EN 15359 standard. In order to ensure the reproducibility of this study, the characterisation methods of waste input and output flow, the mechanical biological treatment line scheme and its main parameters for each stage of the processing chain are presented in details, together with the research results in terms of mass balance and derived fuel properties. Under this study, only 31% of refused municipal solid waste input stream from mechanical biological line was recovered as solid recovered fuel with a net heating value (NC=HV) average of 15.77 MJ kg -1 ; chlorine content average of 0.06% on a dry basis; median of mercury fuel produced meets the European Union standard requirements and can be classified with the class code: Net heating value (3); chlorine (1); mercury (1).

  10. Recovering sulfurs from wastes; Recuperacion de sulfuros desde efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.; Guala, M.; Flores, H. [Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica; Spekuljak, Z; Robaina, E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    A tannery sulfur recuperation process is proposed. The effluent liquid is supersaturated with sulphydric acid, by means acidification at controlled temperature and pressure, and a consequent venting of the clean gas. It is absorbed in a basic solution, and recovering for reutilization. The lab experiences and the results are presented. Technological solution are found to employ this process in industrial applications. (author)

  11. Colonizing and Decolonizing Projects of Re/covering Spirituality (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Subedi, Binaya


    In this postcolonial inquiry, we analyze how spirituality has been simultaneously appropriated/re-covered and re-appropriated/recovered for the purpose of (re)colonizing as well as decolonizing projects. By drawing from discrete yet interconnected literatures of decolonizing, (post)(anti)colonial, Indigenous, and ethnic studies based theories, we…

  12. Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 3, 2015 ... urine is an ideal source for fertilizer production, as the majority of nutrients found in wastewater streams originate from urine. (Larsen et al., 1996). One way to extract nutrients from stored urine is by adding soluble magnesium to recover phosphate by precipitating struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate ...

  13. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER). (United States)


    .... (b) Documents or work products prepared or developed by RECOVER shall not be self-executing, but... adaptive management program; (iii) Conducting monitoring and assessment activities as part of the adaptive... conduct planning and integration activities, in accordance with § 385.31, in support of the adaptive...

  14. False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists. (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter


    Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

  15. Beyond coherence: Recovering structured time-frequency representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten


    We consider the problem of recovering a structured sparse representation of a signal in an overcomplete time-frequency dictionary with a particular structure. For infinite dictionaries that are the union of a nice wavelet basis and a Wilson basis, sufficient conditions are given for the basis...

  16. Beyond coherence: Recovering structured time-frequency represenatations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    We consider the problem of recovering a structured sparse representation of a signal in an overcomplete time-frequency dictionary with a particular structure. For infinite dictionaries that are the union of a nice wavelet basis and a Wilson basis, sufficient conditions are given for the Basis...

  17. Behandling kan hjelpe tareskogen : Treatment may help kelp to recover


    Sunnset, Beate Hoddevik


    After successful experiments to remove sea urchins with quicklime, the kelp forest is returning to the test areas in Porsangerfjorden in Finnmark. Juvenile fish appear to be thriving amongst the new kelp plants, which makes us optimistic that both the kelp forests and fish populations in the fjord can recover

  18. Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit. (United States)

    Liu, Guangcan; Liu, Qingshan; Li, Ping


    This paper studies the problem of recovering the authentic samples that lie on a union of multiple subspaces from their corrupted observations. Due to the high-dimensional and massive nature of today's data-driven community, it is arguable that the target matrix (i.e., authentic sample matrix) to recover is often low-rank. In this case, the recently established Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) method already provides us a convenient way to solve the problem of recovering mixture data. However, in general, RPCA is not good enough because the incoherent condition assumed by RPCA is not so consistent with the mixture structure of multiple subspaces. Namely, when the subspace number grows, the row-coherence of data keeps heightening and, accordingly, RPCA degrades. To overcome the challenges arising from mixture data, we suggest to consider LRR in this paper. We elucidate that LRR can well handle mixture data, as long as its dictionary is configured appropriately. More precisely, we mathematically prove that LRR can weaken the dependence on the row-coherence, provided that the dictionary is well-conditioned and has a rank of not too high. In particular, if the dictionary itself is sufficiently low-rank, then the dependence on the row-coherence can be completely removed. These provide some elementary principles for dictionary learning and naturally lead to a practical algorithm for recovering mixture data. Our experiments on randomly generated matrices and real motion sequences show promising results.

  19. Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and disinfectants has been reported widely in the world. Listeria monocytogenes is no exception, although normally it tends to be variably sensitive to many antibiotics and disinfectants. Objectives: To assess the susceptibility of Listeria isolates recovered from indigenous ...

  20. The value of DNA material recovered from crime scenes. (United States)

    Bond, John W; Hammond, Christine


    DNA material is now collected routinely from crime scenes for a wide range of offenses and its timely processing is acknowledged as a key element to its success in solving crime. An analysis of the processing of approximately 1500 samples of DNA material recovered from the property crime offenses of residential burglary, commercial burglary, and theft of motor vehicle in Northamptonshire, U.K. during 2006 identified saliva and cigarette ends as the main sources of DNA recovered (approximately 63% of samples) with blood, cellular DNA, and chewing gum accounting for the remainder. The conversion of these DNA samples into DNA profiles and then into matches with offender profiles held on the U.K. National DNA database is considered in terms of the ease with which Crime Scene Examiners can recover DNA rich samples of different sources, the location of the DNA at the crime scene, and its mobility. A logistical regression of the DNA material recovered has revealed a number of predictors, other than timeliness, that greatly influence its conversion into a DNA profile. The most significant predictor was found to be Crime Scene Examiner accreditation with offense type and DNA sample condition also being relevant. A similar logistical regression of DNA samples profiled that produced a match with an offender on the U.K. National DNA database showed no significance with any of the predictors considered.

  1. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project (United States)

    Barter, Eric


    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  2. Determination of Shooting Distance from Deformation of the Recovered Bullet (United States)


    shooting distance was over 100 yds (90 in). Personnel at the State Criminalistics Laboratory were aware of work done at the Wound Ballistics Laboratory of...ies 1.31. The query by the California Department of Justice Criminalistic Laboratory concerning the determination of shooting distance from a recovered


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DEÁK


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to find scientific arguments in favour of reusing recovered oak wood in order to reintegrate it in new types of structures. For this study six beams were selected, which had been recovered from a house built in 1831. Visual analysis revealed several defects and signs of degradation in the sapwood and inside the cracks. The recovered beams hadn’t been treated with any toxic chemicals. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were investigated and microscopy and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy were used to check the quality of the apparently sound beam areas also used for the determination of mechanical properties. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis may not reveal any incipient fungal attack but FTIR analysis was proven to be effective. The obtained results open a new perspective for the future use of recovered old oak wood, due to the adequate mechanical properties and to the assumed means of eliminating degraded areas.

  4. A probabilistic model to recover individual genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dröge (Johannes); A. Schönhuth (Alexander); A.C. McHardy (Alice)


    textabstractShotgun metagenomics of microbial communities reveal information about strains of relevance for applications in medicine, biotechnology and ecology. Recovering their genomes is a crucial but very challenging step due to the complexity of the underlying biological system and technical

  5. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  6. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.


    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  7. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  8. Efficient Estimation for Diffusions Sampled at High Frequency Over a Fixed Time Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt; Sørensen, Michael

    Parametric estimation for diffusion processes is considered for high frequency observations over a fixed time interval. The processes solve stochastic differential equations with an unknown parameter in the diffusion coefficient. We find easily verified conditions on approximate martingale...

  9. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology. (United States)

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin


    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition.

  10. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.


    Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450°C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the AB–AN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the AB–AN experiment. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivity—the ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation

  11. Confusion, Diffusion, and Innovation (United States)

    Eyestone, Robert


    Examines several possible models of public policy diffusion, then presents and illustrates the use of a technique for identifying clusters of similar policies on the bases of their diffusion patterns. Available from: American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036; $10.50 single copy. (JG)

  12. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission ...

  13. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion. (United States)

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T


    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon


    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  15. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon


    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  16. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; van der Poel, Erwin; Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef


    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilised by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared with experiments by Hage & Tilgner (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010,

  17. A modified diffusion equation for flood propagation in trapezoidal channels (United States)

    Gonwa, William S.; Kavvas, M. Levent


    This study on the diffusion equation was performed to gain new insight into the adequacy of the analytically solvable linear diffusion equation which is used as an approximation to Saint-Venant's equations for flood routing in open channels. The derivation of the diffusion equation was approached assuming a variable trapezoidal channel cross-section, variable channel slope, constant lateral inflow, a generalized velocity—depth relationship and the diffusion approximation to the full Saint-Venant's momentum equation. A new modified diffusion equation was obtained which theoretically accounts for channel and wave variations resulting in new non-linear expressions for the wave celerity and diffusion coefficients. Numerical testing on a linearized version of the modified diffusion equation shows that the assumption of constant values for the parameters of the diffusion approximation yields inadequate flood routing results. Since the assumption of constant wave celerity and constant diffusion coefficient in the diffusion equation amounts to the linearization of the equation, the numerical results of this paper show that the linear form of the diffusion equation is inadequate for flood routing. Therefore it is necessary to consider the non-linear form of the diffusion approximation to Saint-Venant's equations as an approximate model for flood routing.

  18. Multitask Diffusion Adaptation Over Networks (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Richard, Cedric; Sayed, Ali H.


    Adaptive networks are suitable for decentralized inference tasks, e.g., to monitor complex natural phenomena. Recent research works have intensively studied distributed optimization problems in the case where the nodes have to estimate a single optimum parameter vector collaboratively. However, there are many important applications that are multitask-oriented in the sense that there are multiple optimum parameter vectors to be inferred simultaneously, in a collaborative manner, over the area covered by the network. In this paper, we employ diffusion strategies to develop distributed algorithms that address multitask problems by minimizing an appropriate mean-square error criterion with $\\ell_2$-regularization. The stability and convergence of the algorithm in the mean and in the mean-square sense is analyzed. Simulations are conducted to verify the theoretical findings, and to illustrate how the distributed strategy can be used in several useful applications related to spectral sensing, target localization, and hyperspectral data unmixing.

  19. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...... momentum supply. In addition, this ventilation system uses a ceiling plenum to deliver air and requires less energy consumption for air transport than full-ducted systems. There is a growing interest in applying diffuse ceiling ventilation in offices and other commercial buildings due to the benefits from...... both thermal comfort and energy efficient aspects. The present study aims to characterize the air distribution and thermal comfort in the rooms with diffuse ceiling ventilation. Both the stand-alone ventilation system and its integration with a radiant ceiling system are investigated. This study also...

  20. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  1. Infinitely fast diffusion in single-file systems (United States)

    Nedea, S. V.; Jansen, A. P.; Lukkien, J. J.; Hilbers, P. A.


    We have used dynamic Monte Carlo(DMC) methods and analytical techniques to analyze single-file systems for which diffusion is infinitely fast. We have simplified the master equation removing the fast reactions, and we have introduced a DMC algorithm for infinitely fast diffusion. The DMC method for fast diffusion give similar results as the standard DMC with high diffusion rates. We have investigated the influence of characteristic parameters, such as pipe length, adsorption, desorption, and conversion rate constants on the steady-state properties of single-file systems with a reaction, looking at cases when all the sites are reactive and when only some of them are reactive. We find that the effect of fast diffusion on single-file properties of the system is absent even when diffusion is infinitely fast. Diffusion is not important in these systems. Smaller systems are less reactive and the occupancy profiles for infinitely long systems show an exponential behavior.

  2. Classification and documentation of diffuse gliomas; Klassifikation und Dokumentation diffuser Gliome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeike, B.F.M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuropathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie


    Most current grading systems of diffuse gliomas are bases solely on the microscopic evaluation of surgical specimens and the TNM classification does not have a value for brain tumors. Here additional parameters are presented, which are suitable for a classification and documentation of diffuse gliomas. As additional parameters to the WHO typing and grading we discuss age groups, different tumor devolutions, circumstances such as a second malignant neoplasm or hereditary tumors, tumor expansion based on anatomically defined brain regions, Karnofsky Scale, eloquence of the brain regions, diagnostic certainty and informativity of tissue samples. This work shows that clinical data and imaging studies can contribute substantially to the classification of diffuse gliomas. The additional parameters presented here constitute a significant improvement of glioma documentation. Especially complex courses of long duration and repeated therapeutic interventions can be better surveyed and digitally processed. (orig.)

  3. When Is a Diffusion Profile Not a Diffusion Profile? the Importance of Initial State Assumptions in Diffusion Modelling (United States)

    Morgan, D. J.; Chamberlain, K. J.; Kahl, M.; Potts, N. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.; Wilson, C. J. N.


    Over the past 20 years, diffusion chronometers have evolved from a niche tool into one of routine application, with more practitioners, new tools and increasingly large datasets. As we expand the horizons of diffusional geochronometry, it is worth taking stock of developments in methodologies and data acquisition, and taking time to revisit the underpinnings of the technique. Data collected as part of recent projects on Campi Flegrei, the Bishop Tuff and Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull are here used to investigate the initial state assumption, an absolutely vital aspect underpinning most diffusional work and one that is rarely evaluated despite its fundamental importance. To illustrate the nature of the problem we consider two widely-used element-mineral systems for felsic and mafic systems, respectively. First, barium and strontium profiles within sanidine crystals, modelled independently, can give strongly contrasting timescales from the same crystal zone. We can reconcile the datasets only for a situation where the initial boundary within the crystal was not a sharp step function, but relatively fuzzy before diffusion onset. This fuzziness effectively starts both chronometers off with an apparent, and false, pre-existing timescale, impacting the slower-diffusing barium much more strongly than the faster-diffusing strontium, yielding thousands of years of non-existent diffusion history. By combining both elements, a starting width of tens of microns can be shown, shortening the true diffusive timescales from tens of thousands of years to hundreds. Second, in olivine, we encounter different growth-related problems. Here, Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurs at a rate comparable to growth, with the compound nature of zonation making it difficult to extract the diffusion component. This requires a treatment of changing boundary conditions and sequential growth to generate the curvature seen in natural data, in order to recover timescales for anything but the outermost

  4. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering. (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G


    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  5. Lithium diffusion in silicon and induced structure disorder: A molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang


    Full Text Available Using molecular dynamics method, we investigate the diffusion property of lithium in different silicon structures and silicon structure's disorder extent during lithium's diffusion process. We find that the pathway and the incident angle between the direction of barrier and diffusion of lithium are also the essential factors to the lithium's diffusion property in silicon anode besides the barrier. Smaller incident angle could decrease the scattering of lithium in silicon structure effectively. Moreover, lithium diffuses easier in the Li-Si alloy structure of higher lithium concentration with deeper injection depth. The silicon's structure will be damaged gradually during the charge and discharge process. However, it will also recover to initial state to a great extent after relaxation. Therefore, the damage of lithium diffusion to silicon anode in the structure of low lithium concentration is reversible to a great degree. In addition, the silicon structure of crystal orientation perform better properties in both lithium's diffusivity and structural stability.

  6. Electrochemical Stripping to Recover Nitrogen from Source-Separated Urine. (United States)

    Tarpeh, William A; Barazesh, James M; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nelson, Kara L


    Recovering nitrogen from separately collected urine can potentially reduce costs and energy of wastewater nitrogen removal and fertilizer production. Through benchtop experiments, we demonstrate the recovery of nitrogen from urine as ammonium sulfate using electrochemical stripping, a combination of electrodialysis and membrane stripping. Nitrogen was selectively recovered with 93% efficiency in batch experiments with real urine and required 30.6 MJ kg N-1 in continuous-flow experiments (slightly less than conventional ammonia stripping). The effects of solution chemistry on nitrogen flux, electrolytic reactions, and reactions with electro-generated oxidants were evaluated using synthetic urine solutions. Fates of urine-relevant trace organic contaminants, including electrochemical oxidation and reaction with electro-generated chlorine, were investigated with a suite of common pharmaceuticals. Trace organics (fertilizer product. This novel approach holds promise for selective recovery of nitrogen from concentrated liquid waste streams such as source-separated urine.

  7. Recovering and recycling uranium used for production of molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; May, Iain; Copping, Roy; Dale, Gregory Edward


    A processes for recycling uranium that has been used for the production of molybdenum-99 involves irradiating a solution of uranium suitable for forming fission products including molybdenum-99, conditioning the irradiated solution to one suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina. Another process involves irradiation of a solid target comprising uranium, forming an acidic solution from the irradiated target suitable for inducing the formation of crystals of uranyl nitrate hydrates, then forming the crystals and a supernatant and then separating the crystals from the supernatant, thus using the crystals as a source of uranium for recycle. Molybdenum-99 is recovered from the supernatant using an adsorbent such as alumina.

  8. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: Drowning and Bodies Recovered From Water. (United States)

    McEwen, B J; Gerdin, J


    Determining the cause of death in animals recovered from bodies of water, swimming pools, or other water-containing vessels is challenging. Animals recovered from water may or may not have drowned. The diagnosis of drowning is usually one of exclusion, requiring information from the crime scene, recovery scene, the medical history or reliable witness accounts. While there are characteristic macroscopic and microscopic lesions of drowning, none are specific and are dependent on the volume and tonicity of the drowning medium. Beyond interpreting the postmortem findings, the court may ask pathologists to comment on the behavioral and welfare implications of drowning. This requires an understanding of the drowning process, which is a complex series of sequential, concurrent, and overlapping cardiorespiratory reflexes, electrolyte and blood gas abnormalities, aspiration, physical exhaustion, and breathlessness eventually culminating in death. This review addresses the mechanisms, lesions, and diagnostic issues associated with drowning in nonaquatic companion animals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila


    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  10. Serotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis recovered from domestic livestock. (United States)

    Hodges, R T; Carman, M G; Mortimer, W J


    The serological identity of 234 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis recovered from domestic animals and birds in New Zealand was determined by slide agglutination test. Thirty strains were also examined by tube agglutination test. The strains were isolated from cattle (56), sheep (8), deer (117), goats (13), pigs (7), rabbits (6), guinea pigs (5), and aviary species of birds (22). All strains were isolated from animals or birds which had died or shown signs of ill health and amongst which diarrhoea was a common feature. Serotype I accounted for 23% (53) of strains, serotype II for 13% (30) of strains and serotype III for 64% (151) of strains. It was concluded that further investigations on the prevalence and serological identity of strains recovered from clinically healthy animals mav provide useful information in assessing the significance of various serotypes as a cause of disease in livestock.

  11. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.


    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre


    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...


    Schmitt, J.M.


    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions. An acidic aqueous solution containing uranium values is contacted with an organic phase comprising an organic diluent and the reaction product of phosphorous pentoxide and a substantially pure dialkylphosphoric acid. The uranium values are transferred to the organic phase even from aqueous solutions containing a high concentration of strong uranium complexing agents such as phosphate ions. (AEC)

  13. CPR in the neonatal foal: has RECOVER changed our approach? (United States)

    Jokisalo, Jonna Maaria; Corley, Kevin Thomas Trent


    RECOVER was created to optimize survival of small animal patients from cardiopulmonary arrest. Several findings from this study are applicable to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the neonatal foal. In particular, chest compressions should be a priority with no pauses and a "push hard, push fast" approach. The importance of ventilation is minimized with short, infrequent breaths at a rate of 10 to 20 per minute recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state


    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Jordi eFernández-Castro; Jordi eSoler-Oritja; María eÁlvarez


    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2,...

  15. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.


    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  16. Deductive multiscale simulation using order parameters (United States)

    Ortoleva, Peter J.


    Illustrative embodiments of systems and methods for the deductive multiscale simulation of macromolecules are disclosed. In one illustrative embodiment, a deductive multiscale simulation method may include (i) constructing a set of order parameters that model one or more structural characteristics of a macromolecule, (ii) simulating an ensemble of atomistic configurations for the macromolecule using instantaneous values of the set of order parameters, (iii) simulating thermal-average forces and diffusivities for the ensemble of atomistic configurations, and (iv) evolving the set of order parameters via Langevin dynamics using the thermal-average forces and diffusivities.

  17. Diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, E.; Boecker, W.; Buecheler, E.


    Nineteen patients with various types of lipoma in the pelvis are described. Clinical findings, radiological examinations, and follow-up studies constitute a particular type of lipoma, diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis; this can be distinguished from other fatty tumours because of its localisation, extent, therapeutic results and long course. Computed tomography enables us to differentiate simple lipomatosis pelvis from diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis. Histological examination is essential for excluding a liposarcoma. Growth or malignant change of diffuse infiltrating lipomatosis is most easily recognized by computed tomographic serial observation.

  18. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... in applying diffuse ceiling ventilation in offices and other commercial buildings because of the benefits from both thermal comfort and energy efficiency aspects. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation and the design...

  19. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.


    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  20. Theories on diffusion of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark....

  1. Application of Parameter Estimation for Diffusions and Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim

    The first part of this thesis proposes a method to determine the preferred number of structures, their proportions and the corresponding geometrical shapes of an m-membered ring molecule. This is obtained by formulating a statistical model for the data and constructing an algorithm which samples...... error models. This is obtained by constructing an estimating function through projections of some chosen function of Yti+1 onto functions of previous observations Yti ; : : : ; Yt0 . The process of interest Xti+1 is partially observed through a measurement equation Yti+1 = h(Xti+1)+ noice, where h...

  2. Transport and diffusion properties of Brownian particles powered by a rotating wheel. (United States)

    Ai, Bao-Quan


    Diffusion and rectification of Brownian particles powered by a rotating wheel are numerically investigated in a two-dimensional channel. The nonequilibrium driving comes from the rotating wheel, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport in an asymmetric potential. It is found that the direction of the transport along the potential is determined by the asymmetry of the potential and the position of the wheel. The average velocity is a peaked function of the angular speed (or the diffusion coefficient) and the position of the peak shifts to large angular speed (or diffusion coefficient) when the diffusion coefficient (or the angular speed) increases. There exists an optimal angular speed (or diffusion coefficient) at which the effective diffusion coefficient takes its maximal value. Remarkably, the giant acceleration of diffusion is observed by suitably adjusting the system parameters. The parameters corresponding to the maximum effective diffusion coefficient are not the same as the parameters at which average velocity is maximum.

  3. Polymer Diffusion in the Presence of Nanoparticles (United States)

    Winey, Karen


    The center-of-mass diffusion of polymers within a polymer melt proceeds by the mechanism of reptation wherein the polymer is confined to a tube that is defined by neighboring entanglements and moves along its contour. Polymer diffusion is perturbed when the melt contains nanoparticles that are comparable in size to the radius of gyration (Rg) of the polymers. Within this talk, we will present tracer diffusion coefficients (D) results for three types of nanocomposite: spherical nanoparticles with surface functionalization, spherical nanoparticles with brushes, and cylindrical nanoparticles (aspect ratio = 5 to 50). When functionalized spherical nanoparticles have neutral or attractive interactions with the polymer matrix, a monotonic decrease in the diffusion coefficient is observed across a wide range of polymer molecular weight, nanoparticle size, and nanoparticle concentration. These data collapse onto a master curve when plotted as D normalized by the diffusion coefficient into a neat homopolymer (D/Do) versus our confinement parameter defined as the interparticle distance divided by 2Rg (ID/2Rg). Polymer diffusion in systems with grafted spherical nanoparticles exhibit the same D/Do versus ID/2Rg, when ID accounts for the extent to which the tracer polymer penetrates the polymer brush. For various cylindrical nanoparticles D/Do versus nanoparticle concentration exhibits a minimum when 2Rg is both larger than the nanoparticle diameter and smaller than the nanoparticle length. Complimentary molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scattering results will also be presented.

  4. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  5. Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke (United States)

    Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang


    To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

  6. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.


    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  7. Isomorphism, Diffusion and Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Jonsson, Stefan


    This chapter traces the evolution of the core theoretical constructs of isomorphism, decoupling and diffusion in organizational institutionalism. We first review the original theoretical formulations of these constructs and then examine their evolution in empirical research conducted over the past...

  8. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  9. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo


    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  10. Diffusion, Peer Pressure, and Tailed Distributions (United States)

    Cecconi, Fabio; Marsili, Matteo; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos


    We present a general, physically motivated nonlinear and nonlocal advection equation in which the diffusion of interacting random walkers competes with a local drift arising from a kind of peer pressure. We show, using a mapping to an integrable dynamical system, that on varying a parameter the steady-state behavior undergoes a transition from the standard diffusive behavior to a localized stationary state characterized by a tailed distribution. Finally, we show that recent empirical laws on economic growth can be explained as a collective phenomenon due to peer pressure interaction.

  11. The passive diffusion of Leptospira interrogans (United States)

    Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric


    Motivated by recent experimental measurements, the passive diffusion of the bacterium Leptospira interrogans is investigated theoretically. By approximating the cell shape as a straight helix and using the slender-body-theory approximation of Stokesian hydrodynamics, the resistance matrix of Leptospira is first determined numerically. The passive diffusion of the helical cell is then obtained computationally using a Langevin formulation which is sampled in time in a manner consistent with the experimental procedure. Our results are in excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental results with no adjustable parameters.

  12. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)


    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zhengwen Zeng; Baojun Bai; Yi Liu


    The third annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies were designed to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Chapter 1 describes the behavior at low concentrations of the surfactant Chaser International CD1045{trademark} (CD) versus different salinity, pressure and temperature. Results of studies on the effects of pH and polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide?HPAM) and CO{sub 2} foam stability after adsorption in the core are also reported. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) transport mechanisms through sandstone, description of the adsorption of CD and CD/CLS onto three porous media (sandstone, limestone and dolomite) and five minerals, and the effect of adsorption on foam stability are also reported. In Chapter 2, the adsorption kinetics of CLS in porous Berea sandstone and non-porous minerals are compared by monitoring adsorption density change with time. Results show that adsorption requires a much longer time for the porous versus non-porous medium. CLS adsorption onto sandstone can be divided into three regions: adsorption controlled by dispersion, adsorption controlled by diffusion and adsorption equilibrium. NaI tracer used to characterize the sandstone had similar trends to earlier results for the CLS desorption process, suggesting a dual porosity model to simulate flow through Berea sandstone. The kinetics and equilibrium test for CD adsorption onto five non-porous minerals and three porous media are reported in Chapter 3. CD adsorption and desorption onto non-porous minerals can be established in less than one hour with adsorption densities ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg of CD per g of mineral in decreasing order of montmorillonite, dolomite, kaolinite, silica and calcite. The surfactant adsorption onto three porous media takes

  14. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.


    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  15. Brownian yet Non-Gaussian Diffusion: From Superstatistics to Subordination of Diffusing Diffusivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Chechkin


    Full Text Available A growing number of biological, soft, and active matter systems are observed to exhibit normal diffusive dynamics with a linear growth of the mean-squared displacement, yet with a non-Gaussian distribution of increments. Based on the Chubinsky-Slater idea of a diffusing diffusivity, we here establish and analyze a minimal model framework of diffusion processes with fluctuating diffusivity. In particular, we demonstrate the equivalence of the diffusing diffusivity process with a superstatistical approach with a distribution of diffusivities, at times shorter than the diffusivity correlation time. At longer times, a crossover to a Gaussian distribution with an effective diffusivity emerges. Specifically, we establish a subordination picture of Brownian but non-Gaussian diffusion processes, which can be used for a wide class of diffusivity fluctuation statistics. Our results are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations and numerical evaluations.

  16. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Among Gram Negative Bacilli Recovered from Cattle Feces In Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Oroboghae OGEFERE


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL among Gram negative bacteria isolated from cattle feces in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 250 Gram negative bacteria isolates were recovered from cattle feces and were processed microbiologically using standard techniques. Emergent colonies were identified and antibacterial susceptibility tests were determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All bacterial isolates were screened for the presence of ESBL using the double-disc synergy method. A total of 37 (14.8% isolates were positive for ESBL, with 33 (13.2% indicated by ceftazidime, while only 4 (1.6% were indicated by both ceftazidime and cefotaxime (P < 0.0001. Of the Gram negative bacterial isolates recovered, Salmonella species was the most prevalent ESBL-producer with 55.0% prevalence (P = 0.0092, while no isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced ESBL. ESBL-positive isolates showed poor susceptibility to the tested antibacterial agents in comparison with non-ESBL-producers and imipenem was the most active antibiotic. The prevalence of ESBL among Gram negative bacilli recovered from cattle feces was 14.8%. The study advises prudent use of antibiotics in the treatment of cattle and harps on improved hygiene in managing cattle, as they are potential reservoirs of ESBL-producing organisms.

  17. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Zhang


    Full Text Available On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ɛ phases have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K and pressure range (0-100 GPa, compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  18. Gainful employment reduces stigma toward people recovering from schizophrenia. (United States)

    Perkins, David V; Raines, Joshua A; Tschopp, Molly K; Warner, Todd C


    Stigma impedes the social integration of persons recovering from psychiatric disability, especially those with criminal histories. Little is known about factors that lessen this stigma. Four hundred and four adults listened to one of four vignettes describing a 25-year-old male with schizophrenia and responded to a standard set of items measuring social distance. The individual who was gainfully employed (vs. unemployed), or who had a prior misdemeanor (vs. felony) criminal offense, elicited significantly less stigma. Employment may destigmatize a person coping with both psychiatric disability and a criminal record. Mental health services should encourage paid employment and other paths to community integration.

  19. Diffusion of homologous model migrants in rubbery polystyrene: molar mass dependence and activation energy of diffusion. (United States)

    Pinte, Jérémy; Joly, Catherine; Dole, Patrice; Feigenbaum, Alexandre


    Published diffusion prediction models for the diffusion of additives in food packaging simplify reality by having a small number of parameters only. Therefore, extrapolation of such models to barrier polymers, larger ranges of temperature and/or additive molecular weight (M(W)) is questionable. Extra data is still required to generalize these existing prediction models. In this paper, diffusion of a specifically designed homologous set of model additives (from 236 to 1120 g mol(-1)) was monitored in two polystyrenes in the rubbery state (from 100 to 180 degrees C): syndiotactic semi-crystalline polystyrene and its amorphous equivalent. Variations in associated diffusion coefficient D and activation energy Ea with migrant M(W) and temperature were surprisingly low. Comparison of experimental behaviour with model predictions was performed. In their actual form, none of the models is capable of describing all experimental data, but there is evidence of convergence of the different approaches.

  20. Microstructure and Diffusion Behaviors of the Diffusion Bonded Mg/Al Joint (United States)

    Long, Luping; Liu, Wensheng; Ma, Yunzhu; Wu, Lei


    The diffusion and fracture behaviors of Mg/Al joints are investigated in this paper. The concentration distribution equations at each phase are calculated using Matlab, the predominant processing parameters that control the diffusion behaviors are discussed. The result indicates that the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the bonded interface of Mg/Al joint consist of Al3Mg2 layer (β) and Al12Mg17 layer (γ). Based on the Fick's second law, the error function equations calculated by Matlab is in well accordance with the experiment of diffusion in Mg/Al diffusion bonding process. In addition, elements distribution and thickness of IMCs at the joint interface can be simulated by the error function equations. The microstructures of shear fracture surface show that cleavage steps occur at both fractures.

  1. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanfeng, E-mail:; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping


    Highlights: • Fractal theory is introduced into the prediction of VOC diffusion coefficient. • MSFC model of the diffusion coefficient is developed for porous building materials. • The MSFC model contains detailed pore structure parameters. • The accuracy of the MSFC model is verified by independent experiments. - Abstract: Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber.

  2. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid. (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu


    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovering the mass profile and orbit anisotropy of mock dwarf galaxies with Schwarzschild modelling (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Łokas, Ewa L.; Valluri, Monica


    We present a new study concerning the application of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method to model spherical galaxies. The method aims to recover the mass and the orbit anisotropy parameter profiles of the objects using measurements of positions and line-of-sight velocities usually available for resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. To test the reliability of the method, we used different sets of mock data extracted from four numerical realizations of dark matter haloes. The models shared the same density profile but differed in anisotropy profiles, covering a wide range of possibilities, from constant to increasing and decreasing with radius. The tests were done in two steps, first assuming that the mass profile of the dwarf is known and employing the method to retrieve the anisotropy only, and then varying also the mass distribution. We used two kinds of data samples: unrealistically large ones based on over 270 000 particles from the numerical realizations and small ones matching the amount of data available for the Fornax dwarf. For the large data samples, we recover both the mass and the anisotropy profiles with very high accuracy. For the realistically small ones, we also find a reasonably good agreement between the fitted and the input anisotropies, however the total density profiles can be significantly biased as a result of their oversensitivity to the available data. Our results therefore provide convincing evidence in favour of the applicability of the Schwarzschild method to break the mass-anisotropy degeneracy in dwarf galaxies.

  4. Estimating when the Antarctic Ozone Hole will Recover (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.


    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early spring (late September - early October). The severity of the hole has been assessed from satellites using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average area coverage during this September-October period. Profile information shows that ozone is completely destroyed in the 14-2 1 km layer by early October. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen (chlorine and bromine) catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international a'greements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We estimate that the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of size decrease in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. Estimates of the ozone hole's recovery from models reveal important differences that will be discussed.

  5. Spatiotemporal inpainting for recovering texture maps of occluded building facades. (United States)

    Korah, Thommen; Rasmussen, Christopher


    We present a technique for constructing a "clean" texture map of a partially occluded building facade from a series of images taken from a moving camera. Building regions blocked by trees, signs, people, and other foreground objects in a minority of views can be recovered via temporal median filtering on a registered image mosaic of the planar facade. However, when such areas are occluded in the majority of camera views, appearance information from other visible portions of the facade provides a critical cue to correctly complete the mosaic. In this paper, we apply a robust measure of spread to infer whether a particular mosaic pixel is occluded in a majority of views, and introduce a novel spatiotemporal timeline-based inpainting algorithm that uses appearance and motion cues in order to fill the texture map in majority-occluded regions. We describe methods for automatically training appearance-based classifiers from a coarse motion-based segmentation to efficiently recognize foreground and background patches in static imagery. Results of recovered building facades are shown for various sequences.

  6. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus. (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E


    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  7. Word diffusion and climate science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society.

  8. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.


    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp ( are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  9. Recovering a spinning inspiralling compact binary waveform immersed in LIGO-like noise with spinning templates (United States)

    Veréb, László; Keresztes, Zoltán; Raffai, Péter; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Gergely, László Á.


    We investigate the recovery chances of highly spinning waveforms immersed in LIGO S5-like noise by performing a matched filtering with 106 randomly chosen spinning waveforms generated with the LAL package. While the masses of the compact binary are reasonably well recovered (slightly overestimated), the same does not hold true for the spins. We show the best fit matches both in the time-domain and the frequency-domain. These encompass some of the spinning characteristics of the signal, but far less than what would be required to identify the astrophysical parameters of the system. An improvement of the matching method is necessary, though may be difficult due to the noisy signal.

  10. Recovering a spinning inspiralling compact binary waveform immersed in LIGO-like noise with spinning templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereb, Laszlo; Keresztes, Zoltan; Gergely, Laszlo A [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza Lajos krt 84-86, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Raffai, Peter [Institute of Physics, Lorand Eotvos University, Pazmany Peter s 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Meszaros, Szabolcs, E-mail: zkeresztes@titan.physx.u-szeged.h, E-mail: tpraffai@bolyai.elte.h, E-mail: tgergely@physx.u-szeged.h [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, Szeged 6720 (Hungary)


    We investigate the recovery chances of highly spinning waveforms immersed in LIGO S5-like noise by performing a matched filtering with 10{sup 6} randomly chosen spinning waveforms generated with the LAL package. While the masses of the compact binary are reasonably well recovered (slightly overestimated), the same does not hold true for the spins. We show the best fit matches both in the time-domain and the frequency-domain. These encompass some of the spinning characteristics of the signal, but far less than what would be required to identify the astrophysical parameters of the system. An improvement of the matching method is necessary, though may be difficult due to the noisy signal.

  11. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K


    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  12. Diffusion in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Murch, Graeme; Belova, Irina


    In the first chapter Prof. Kozubski and colleagues present atomisticsimulations of superstructure transformations of intermetallic nanolayers.In Chapter 2, Prof. Danielewski and colleagues discuss a formalism for themorphology of the diffusion zone in ternary alloys. In Chapter 3, ProfessorsSprengel and Koiwa discuss the classical contributions of Boltzmann andMatano for the analysis of concentration-dependent diffusion. This isfollowed by Chapter 4 by Professor Cserháti and colleagues on the use of Kirkendall porosity for fabricating hollow hemispheres. In Chapter 5,Professor Morton-Blake rep



    Maki, K.


    Making use of the Su, Schrieffer and Heeger (SSH) model for polyacetylene, we study theoretically the soliton difusion in pristine trans-(CH)x. The soliton in the SSH model couples linearly both optical and acoustic phonons. Since the coupling to the optical phonon is stronger, the optical phonon dominates the soliton diffusion in high temperature (T>400K). However, below the room temperature the acoustic phonon dominates the soliton diffusion. For temperature T>To≡2mc2, where m is the solito...

  14. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff


    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  15. Anisotropic diffusion in mesh-free numerical magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.


    We extend recently developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect) and turbulent 'eddy diffusion'. We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV). We show that the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behaviour even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators and non-linear flux limiters, which is trivially generalized to AMR/moving-mesh codes. We also present applications of some of these improvements for SPH, in the form of a new integral-Godunov SPH formulation that adopts a moving-least squares gradient estimator and introduces a flux-limited Riemann problem between particles.

  16. Comparative modeling of an in situ diffusion experiment in granite at the Grimsel Test Site. (United States)

    Soler, Josep M; Landa, Jiri; Havlova, Vaclava; Tachi, Yukio; Ebina, Takanori; Sardini, Paul; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Eikenberg, Jost; Martin, Andrew J


    An in situ diffusion experiment was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Several tracers ((3)H as HTO, (22)Na(+), (134)Cs(+), (131)I(-) with stable I(-) as carrier) were continuously circulated through a packed-off borehole and the decrease in tracer concentrations in the liquid phase was monitored for a period of about 2years. Subsequently, the borehole section was overcored and the tracer profiles in the rock analyzed ((3)H, (22)Na(+), (134)Cs(+)). (3)H and (22)Na(+) showed a similar decrease in activity in the circulation system (slightly larger drop for (3)H). The drop in activity for (134)Cs(+) was much more pronounced. Transport distances in the rock were about 20cm for (3)H, 10cm for (22)Na(+), and 1cm for (134)Cs(+). The dataset (except for (131)I(-) because of complete decay at the end of the experiment) was analyzed with different diffusion-sorption models by different teams (IDAEA-CSIC, UJV-Rez, JAEA) using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusion coefficients (De) and porosity (ϕ) or rock capacity (α) values. From the activity measurements in the rock, it was observed that it was not possible to recover the full tracer activity in the rock (no activity balance when adding the activities in the rock and in the fluid circulation system). A Borehole Disturbed Zone (BDZ) had to be taken into account to fit the experimental observations. The extension of the BDZ (1-2mm) is about the same magnitude than the mean grain size of the quartz and feldspar grains. IDAEA-CSIC and UJV-Rez tried directly to match the results of the in situ experiment, without forcing any laboratory-based parameter values into the models. JAEA conducted a predictive modeling based on laboratory diffusion data and their scaling to in situ conditions. The results from the different codes have been compared, also with results from small-scale laboratory experiments. Outstanding issues to be resolved are the need for a very large capacity factor in the

  17. Key factors of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from crushed e-waste. (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Dong, Lipeng; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Mingzhi; Xu, Zhenming


    Recovery of e-waste in China had caused serious pollutions. Eddy current separation is an environment-friendly technology of separating nonferrous metallic particles from crushed e-waste. However, due to complex particle characters, separation efficiency of traditional eddy current separator was low. In production, controllable operation factors of eddy current separation are feeding speed, (ωR-v), and S p . There is little special information about influencing mechanism and critical parameters of these factors in eddy current separation. This paper provided the special information of these key factors in eddy current separation of recovering aluminum particles from crushed waste refrigerator cabinets. Detachment angles increased as the increase of (ωR-v). Separation efficiency increased with the growing of detachment angles. Aluminum particles were completely separated from plastic particles in critical parameters of feeding speed 0.5m/s and detachment angles greater than 6.61deg. S p /S m of aluminum particles in crushed waste refrigerators ranged from 0.08 to 0.51. Separation efficiency increased as the increase of S p /S m . This enlightened us to develop new separator to separate smaller nonferrous metallic particles in e-waste recovery. High feeding speed destroyed separation efficiency. However, greater S p of aluminum particles brought positive impact on separation efficiency. Greater S p could increase critical feeding speed to offer greater throughput of eddy current separation. This paper will guide eddy current separation in production of recovering nonferrous metals from crushed e-waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Turing Patterns in a Predator-Prey System with Self-Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Yin


    Full Text Available For a predator-prey system, cross-diffusion has been confirmed to emerge Turing patterns. However, in the real world, the tendency for prey and predators moving along the direction of lower density of their own species, called self-diffusion, should be considered. For this, we investigate Turing instability for a predator-prey system with nonlinear diffusion terms including the normal diffusion, cross-diffusion, and self-diffusion. A sufficient condition of Turing instability for this system is obtained by analyzing the linear stability of spatial homogeneous equilibrium state of this model. A series of numerical simulations reveal Turing parameter regions of the interaction of diffusion parameters. According to these regions, we further demonstrate dispersion relations and spatial patterns. Our results indicate that self-diffusion plays an important role in the spatial patterns.

  19. Methotrexate encephalopathy: Two cases in adult cancer patients, who recovered with pathophysiologically based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodeinde A Coker


    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Neurotoxicity is a serious and sometimes fatal adverse effect that can occur following methotrexate treatment. We describe two adult patients with hematological malignancies with methotrexate encephalopathy who recovered with dextromethorphan therapy. Results: Case 1: A 24-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed the acute onset of bilateral facial weakness and slurred speech after his first treatment with high-dose intravenous methotrexate. The clinical scenario and a head magnetic resonance imaging supported a diagnosis of methotrexate encephalopathy. Treatment with dextromethorphan was coincident with recovery. Case 2: A 65-year-old female with recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was treated with high-dose intravenous methotrexate. Two weeks after a cycle, she developed hypoactive delirium, marked lethargy, ocular ataxia, and a right-sided facial weakness. Within 2 days of starting dextromethorphan, there was improvement with clinical recovery. Conclusions: These two cases suggest that N-methyl d-aspartate receptor activation by homocysteine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of methotrexate neurotoxicity.

  20. Characterization of Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus marisflavi Recovered from Common Dentex (Dentex dentex Larviculture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this manuscript, thirty yellow-pigmented Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from natural intestine microflora and from sea water around the marine cage of a rearing tank of common dentex (Dentex dentex, in the Aegean Sea on the Turkish coast and were characterized. Eighteen isolates were assigned to the species Micrococcus luteus, the other twelve to the species Bacillus marisflavi. Eight representative strains, six from B. marisflavi and two from M. luteus, were chosen for further 16S rDNA analyses. A pathogenicity assay for the isolated bacterial strains was carried out in rainbow trout and it evidenced absence of pathogenicity in the tested strains. The isolated strains were tested for in vitro antagonistic activity against Listonella anguillarum, a pathogen bacterium diffused in Mediterranean aquaculture and affecting various fish species. The isolated bacterial strains showed antagonistic activity against the pathogenic bacterium, suggesting a possible role of isolates as probiotics. In this study, for the first time, bacterial strains of the species B. marisflavi, known as an environmental species, were recovered in the gut microbiota of a healthy fish. The use of the isolates characterized in this study, mainly the yellow-pigmented bacterium, is suggested as possible probiotics to improve fish health, along with alternative methods of maintaining a healthy environment.

  1. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage. (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Teixeira, Vítor H; Soares, José


    Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.

  2. A computer-implemented method of recovering a visual event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    a synchronization marker at least for a first occurrence of a temporal section classified as a smooth pursuit eye movement; wherein the synchronization marker comprises a link to or impression information of the contents of the viewport at the point in time when the first occurrence of a smooth pursuit eye movement...... of the viewport is displayed, recording an eye movement signal that is indicative of the movements of a user's at least one eye, classifying temporal sections of the eye movement signal into at least a class of long slow-phase OKN eye movements occurring among short slow-phase eye movements; setting...... occurred; via the synchronization marker, recovering the impression information or the contents of the viewport that was displayed at the point in time when the first occurrence of the smooth pursuit occurred....

  3. Cortical neuroplasticity in patients recovering from acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Frederiksen, Jette L.


    Patients with optic neuritis (ON) undergo cortical and subcortical neuroplasticity as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the effect of the heterogeneity of scotomas his not been adequately addressed previously. We introduce a new method of modelling scotomas in f......MRI, to reveal a clearer pattern of neuroplasticity, across a mixed patient population. A longitudinal fMRI-study of visual function in 19 ON patients examined at four timepoints between presentation and 6 months was performed. Four different models were compared. The first model included the four different...... Cortical neuroplasticity during recovery. Moreover, inferences from the fourth model can be extended to the general Population of patients recovering from ON. In Conclusion, we present a method of accommodating subject-specific differences between patients with acute ON by inclusion of an HMD...

  4. Vulnerable GPU Memory Management: Towards Recovering Raw Data from GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhe


    Full Text Available According to previous reports, information could be leaked from GPU memory; however, the security implications of such a threat were mostly over-looked, because only limited information could be indirectly extracted through side-channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for recovering raw data directly from the GPU memory residues of many popular applications such as Google Chrome and Adobe PDF reader. Our algorithm enables harvesting highly sensitive information including credit card numbers and email contents from GPU memory residues. Evaluation results also indicate that nearly all GPU-accelerated applications are vulnerable to such attacks, and adversaries can launch attacks without requiring any special privileges both on traditional multi-user operating systems, and emerging cloud computing scenarios.

  5. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Hjuler, Klaus


    Waste-derived fuels, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), are increasingly being used in, e.g., the cement industry as a means to reduce cost. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF makes it difficult to combust, and many problems may arise within, e.g., combustion control, feeding of fuel, deposit...... formation, or accumulation of impurities. The combustion of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), wood, and SRF were studied in a rotary drum furnace. The combustion was recorded on a camera (60 frames per second), so that any agglomeration or deposition of fuel or ash...... could be monitored. PE and PP pose no significant risk of forming deposits in a combustion environment (T > 800 °C) as a result of a rapid devolatilization, while PET may cause deposits as a result of a sticky char residue. The deposition tendency of the investigated SRF is low, and it may be managed...

  6. Recovering geography from a matrix of genetic distances (United States)

    Serva, M.; Vergni, D.; Volchenkov, D.; Vulpiani, A.


    Given a population of N elements with their geographical positions and the genetic (or lexical) distances between couples of elements (inferred, for example, from lexical differences between dialects which are spoken in different towns or from genetic differences between animal populations living in different faunal areas) a very interesting problem is to reconstruct the geographical positions of individuals using only genetic/lexical distances. From a technical point of view the program consists in extracting from the genetic/lexical distances a set of reconstructed geographical positions to be compared with the real ones. We show that geographical recovering is successful when the genetic/lexical distances are not a simple consequence of phylogenesis but also of horizontal transfers as, for example, vocabulary borrowings between different languages. Our results go well beyond the simple observation that geographical distances and genetic/lexical distances are correlated. The ascertainment of a correlation, in our perspective, merely is a prerequisite.

  7. Advances in the recovering of spent lithium battery compounds (United States)

    Castillo, S.; Ansart, F.; Laberty-Robert, C.; Portal, J.

    Advances in a process based on simple and environmentally compatible operations, aimed to the treatment and recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries, are reported in this paper. This process is safe, economic, and recovers as much of the battery materials as possible. It operates mainly in a selective dissolution in dilute acid, a chemical treatment of the filtrate and a thermal treatment of the solid residue. The validity of the process and its reproducibility have been evaluated at each step of the separation. This method involves very simple equipment and can be scaled-up for commercial production. Based on the projected quantities of lithium ion batteries available for recycling in the next few years, there is a significant market opportunity for a successful technology.

  8. Recovering depth from focus using iterative image estimation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitria, J.; Llacer, J.


    In this report we examine the possibility of using linear and nonlinear image estimation techniques to build a depth map of a three dimensional scene from a sequence of partially focused images. In particular, the techniques proposed to solve the problem of construction of a depth map are: (1) linear methods based on regularization procedures and (2) nonlinear methods based on statistical modeling. In the first case, we have implemented a matrix-oriented method to recover the point spread function (PSF) of a sequence of partially defocused images. In the second case, the chosen method has been a procedure based on image estimation by means of the EM algorithm, a well known technique in image reconstruction in medical applications. This method has been generalized to deal with optically defocused image sequences.

  9. Solute Partitioning and Hindered Diffusion in Hydrogels


    Liu, David Ezra


    Solute uptake and release govern the efficacy of hydrogels in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, and chromatographic separations. In soft contact lenses, uptake and release of wetting, packaging, and care-solution agents is extensively employed to improve on-eye lens performance. Key physical parameters are the equilibrium solute partition coefficient and the solute diffusion coefficient in the gel that dictate the amounts and rates of uptake/release, respectively. To investigate t...

  10. Modeling dendrite density from magnetic resonance diffusion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, CD; Østergaard, Leif


    .e., in extracellular space and glia cells. The model parameters are estimated from 153 diffusion-weighted images acquired from a formalin-fixed baboon brain. A close correspondence between the data and the signal model is found, with the model parameters consistent with literature values. The model provides...

  11. Adjoint Optimisation of the Turbulent Flow in an Annular Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Erik; Agular Knudsen, Christian; Kunoy, Jens Dahl


    In the present study, a numerical optimisation of guide vanes in an annular diffuser, is performed. The optimisation is preformed for the purpose of improving the following two parameters simultaneously; the first parameter is the uniformity perpen-dicular to the flow direction, a 1/3 diameter...

  12. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination. (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C


    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  13. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  14. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua


    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  15. Osmosis and Diffusion (United States)

    Sack, Jeff


    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  16. Bronnen van diffuse bodembelasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A; LBG; DGM/BO


    The aim of this study was to support the policy on preventive soil protection with information on the diffuse (non-local) emissions to soil and the influence on future soil quality. This study is related to inventories on (potential) sources of local soil pollution (e.g. industrial areas,

  17. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole


    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  18. National Diffusion Network. (United States)

    Hartjen, Raymond H.


    Address at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1980, describes the National Diffusion Network, the marketing arm of the Department of Education. State facilitators share innovations in education with school systems. Many adaptions from Maryland schools are usable in other…

  19. Small-signal modeling of MOSFET cascode with merged diffusion (United States)

    Yun, Yeonam; Jhon, Hee-Sauk; Jeon, Jongwook; Lee, Jaehong; Shin, Hyungcheol


    For the first time, the small-signal model of MOSFET cascode with merged diffusion is presented. It is the cascade of the two quasi-static MOSFET small-signal equivalent circuits. Drain of one transistor and source of another transistor is shared with merged diffusion. By Y-parameter analysis, capacitances, resistances and transconductances comprising the small-signal equivalent circuit were extracted analytically using four port S parameter measurement. This modeling method was verified with the measured Y parameter data up to 15 GHz.

  20. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion

  1. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.


    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion


    KAUST Repository



    A parabolic-parabolic (Patlak-)Keller-Segel model in up to three space dimensions with nonlinear cell diffusion and an additional nonlinear cross-diffusion term is analyzed. The main feature of this model is that there exists a new entropy functional, yielding gradient estimates for the cell density and chemical concentration. For arbitrarily small cross-diffusion coefficients and for suitable exponents of the nonlinear diffusion terms, the global-in-time existence of weak solutions is proved, thus preventing finite-time blow up of the cell density. The global existence result also holds for linear and fast diffusion of the cell density in a certain parameter range in three dimensions. Furthermore, we show L∞ bounds for the solutions to the parabolic-elliptic system. Sufficient conditions leading to the asymptotic stability of the constant steady state are given for a particular choice of the nonlinear diffusion exponents. Numerical experiments in two and three space dimensions illustrate the theoretical results. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  3. Diffusion experiments at Mont Terri (Switzerland): overview and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN DEI SARG), Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts dans les Sols et le sous-sol, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Several diffusion experiments have been performed at the field scale in the underground rock laboratory of Mont Terri (Switzerland) to verify the reliability of diffusion parameters obtained at lab scale. The principle of in situ diffusion experiments is based on the injection, in a packer-off section of a borehole, of a tracer cocktail diffusing into the rock and whose its concentration decrease is monitored by means of a circulation circuit located at the surface. Subsequently, the interval section is over-cored and analysed for the tracer profiles. Overall, the obtained tracer data confirmed that diffusion is the dominant transport process for solutes in Opalinus Clay. The diffusivity and diffusion porosity of anions was found to be lower than tritiated water, indicating anion exclusion effect. Concerning the cations, one observed that when the interaction of these species with clay surface was stronger, their decrease relative to HTO in interval was faster and their penetration depth was lower (max 3 cm after 10 months for Cs{sup +}). Finally, in situ data were found to be consistent with small-scale lab diffusion experiments performed parallel to the bedding plane, suggesting that the up-scaling effects for diffusion are small. (author)

  4. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam [International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, Bangalore (India); Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)


    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  5. The Pearson diffusions: A class of statistically tractable diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    The Pearson diffusions is a flexible class of diffusions defined by having linear drift and quadratic squared diffusion coefficient. It is demonstrated that for this class explicit statistical inference is feasible. Explicit optimal martingale estimating func- tions are found, and the corresponding...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright


    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  7. Filling of recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Róbert


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the possibilities for filling recovered mining areas using solidifying backfill .The article describes the preparation of the backfill (backfill formulation with an eventual application using low quality sands, wastes from treatment plants and ash from power plants etc now to transport it as well as its application in practice. Advantageous and disadvantageous of this method are also mentioned.Several factors must be taken info consideration during the preparation process of the backfill mixture. Firstly, the quantities of each individual component must be constantly regulated. Secondly, the properties of each component must be respected. In addition, the needs of the pipeline transport system and the specific conditions of the recovered area to be filled must also be considered.Hydraulic transport and pneumo-hydraulic pipeline transport are used for handling the backfill. Pumps for transporting the solidifying backfill have to carry out demanding tasks.Due to the physical-mechanical properties of the backfill, only highly powerful pumps can be considered. Piston type pumps such as Abel Simplex and Duplex pumps with capacities of up to 100 m3.h-1 and operating pressures of up to 16 MPa would be suitable.This method has been applied abroad for different purposes. For example, solid backfill was used in the Hamr mine during exploitation of uranium using the room-and-pillar system mining method.In the Ostrava–Karvina Coal field, backfill was used in decontamination work, filling areas in a zone of dangerous deformations and for creating a dividing stratum during thick seam mining.Research info the use of solidifying backfill was also done in the Walsum mine in Germany. The aim of this research was:- to investigate the possibilities of filling a collapsing area in a working face using a solidifying mixture of power plant ash and water,- to verify whether towing pipelines proposed by the DMT corporation would be

  8. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness. (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G


    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  9. Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiaofang


    Full Text Available The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X ≤ 0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients C0, C1 and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

  10. Microclimatic control in the museum environment: Air diffusion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascione, Fabrizio; Minichiello, Francesco [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, NA (Italy)


    For the conservation of cultural heritage, museums need appropriate HVAC systems. Besides the time stability of the microclimatic parameters in the exhibition rooms, a high spatial uniformity is necessary and, thus, an optimal performance of the air diffusion systems. Using numerical codes based on Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques, in this paper an analysis has been carried out to compare different suitable air diffusion equipments, as regards uniformity of thermal-hygrometric and kinetic fields in a modelled typical exhibition room. For various part load conditions, the values of thermal-hygrometric parameters in different volumes of the room have been evaluated, as well as an innovative spatial thermal-hygrometric performance index. Globally estimating indoor temperature, relative humidity and their uniformity, for high exhibition rooms (5 m) the swirling diffusers have shown the best average performances, followed by the perimetrical stripes of slot diffusers, while for very high rooms (9 m) nozzles have resulted preferable. (author)

  11. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion. (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech


    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  12. Synchronized stability in a reaction–diffusion neural network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Hongyong, E-mail:


    The reaction–diffusion neural network consisting of a pair of identical tri-neuron loops is considered. We present detailed discussions about the synchronized stability and Hopf bifurcation, deducing the non-trivial role that delay plays in different locations. The corresponding numerical simulations are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. In addition, the numerical results about the effects of diffusion reveal that diffusion may speed up the tendency to synchronization and induce the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. Furthermore, if the parameters are located in appropriate regions, multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability may coexist. - Highlights: • Point to non-trivial role that τ plays in different positions. • Diffusion speeds up the tendency to synchronization. • Diffusion induces the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. • The coexistence of multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability.

  13. Giant diffusion of underdamped particles in a biased periodic potential (United States)

    Lindner, Benjamin; Sokolov, Igor M.


    We consider the diffusive properties of Brownian motion in a biased periodic potential. We relate the effective diffusion coefficient to the solution of two coupled time-independent partial differential equations and solve these equations numerically by the matrix-continued-fraction (MCF) method for intermediate values of the temperature and friction coefficient. The weak-noise limit is explored by numerical simulations of the Langevin equations. Here, we identify the regions of parameters for which the diffusion coefficient exponentially grows with inverse temperature. In particular, we demonstrate that there is a finite range of bias forces for which such a growth is observed (region of giant enhancement of diffusion). We also show that at small forces close to the critical range, the diffusion coefficient possesses a pronounced maximum as a function of temperature. All results can be interpreted in the framework of a simple two-state theory incorporating the transition rates between the locked and running solutions.

  14. Fast imaging of mean, axial and radial diffusion kurtosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian; Shemesh, Noam; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj


    Abstract Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is being increasingly reported to provide sensitive biomarkers of subtle changes in tissue microstructure. However, DKI also imposes larger data requirements than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), hence, the widespread adaptation and exploration of DKI would...... benefit from more efficient acquisition and computational methods. To meet this demand, we recently developed a method capable of estimating mean kurtosis with only 13 diffusion weighted images. This approach was later shown to provide very accurate mean kurtosis estimates and to be more efficient......'s principal parameters – mean kurtosis, radial kurtosis, and axial kurtosis – using only 19 diffusion weighted images, compared to the current state-of-the-art acquisitions typically requiring about 60 images. The first approach is based on axially symmetric diffusion and kurtosis tensors, presented here...

  15. Diffusion MR of hyperpolarized 13C molecules in solution. (United States)

    Koelsch, Bertram L; Keshari, Kayvan R; Peeters, Tom H; Larson, Peder E Z; Wilson, David M; Kurhanewicz, John


    We combined the high MR signal enhancement achieved using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) with a pulsed gradient double spin echo diffusion MR sequence to rapidly and accurately measure the diffusion coefficients of various hyperpolarized (13)C molecules in solution. Furthermore, with a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence we generate diffusion coefficient maps of multiple hyperpolarized metabolites simultaneously. While hyperpolarized experiments can measure rapid, non-equilibrium processes by avoiding signal averaging, continuous signal loss due to longitudinal relaxation (T(1)) complicates quantitation. By correcting for this signal loss, we demonstrate the feasibility of using hyperpolarized (13)C diffusion-weighted MR to accurately measure real-time (seconds) molecular transport phenomena. Potential applications include rapidly measuring molecular binding, cellular membrane transport, in vivo metabolite distribution and establishing a magnetic field independent hyperpolarized parameter.

  16. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani


    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  17. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... in the presence of two concordant factors. On the context side, the qualities of the selected opinion leader were necessary to provide the subjective norm described in TPB. On the best practice side, the technological qualities of the best practice itself were necessary to instill the ideal attitude (belief...

  18. Improved diffusion Monte Carlo


    Hairer, Martin; Weare, Jonathan


    We propose a modification, based on the RESTART (repetitive simulation trials after reaching thresholds) and DPR (dynamics probability redistribution) rare event simulation algorithms, of the standard diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm. The new algorithm has a lower variance per workload, regardless of the regime considered. In particular, it makes it feasible to use DMC in situations where the "na\\"ive" generalisation of the standard algorithm would be impractical, due to an exponential e...

  19. Diffusion in hydrogeology


    Barker, John A.


    The field of hydrogeology is primarily concerned with the flow of water below the ground surface and with transport, normally of solutes and heat, within that water. Many disciplines have contributed to this endeavor which requires skills from across the spectrum of science, engineering and beyond. The diffusion equation describes not only solute transport but also the flow of water, via Darcy’s law. Of particular interest is transport in fractured rock where most of the flow is through th...

  20. [The diffusion of knowledge]. (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique


    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  1. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.


    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... temperature as well as optimizing the radiant cooling potential by combining with thermal mass is conducted and gives a direction for further investigation....

  2. Hubungan Antara Parameter Model Dan Parameter Peramalan


    Siregar, Salamat


    Studies on the relationship between model parameters and forecasting parameter is an urgent and important study carried out in order to obtain some certainty about how exactly the effect of one parameter model for others of other model parameters and forecast parameters. To make the discussion of the issue, selected cases of weather forecasting (weather forecasting) as a model case to study the relationship between model parameters and weather forecasting. The model used was the Numerical Wea...

  3. Solute diffusion in liquid metals (United States)

    Bhat, B. N.


    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  4. The chapel of Gonzalo de Illescas in the Monastery of Guadalupe: a recovered project by Egas Cueman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Fuentes Ortiz


    Full Text Available With this study the author aims to recover a forgotten project by Egas Cueman: the funerary Chapel of Gonzalo de Illescas. Aside from the famous and already studied sepulchre of the prelate, the chapel should be considered an example of the most advanced art of the mid-15th century, heretofore not properly assessed. Thus the controversial initial plan of the Bishop of Cordoba is re-examined, thereby demonstrating that the project for the chapel was far more ambitious than previously thought. Now the new the attribution of the entire project to Egas Cueman reinforces the hypothesis of his early knowledge of Rogier van der Weyden’s workshop. Furthermore, this research provides new data concerning the introduction and diffusion of the Flemish style in the Iberian Peninsula during the second half of the 15th century.

  5. Process for recovering deashing solvent from insoluble coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.


    A process for effecting deashing solvent recovery from insoluble coal products and preparing a slurry of the insoluble products. An elevated temperature and pressure stream comprising insoluble coal products and deashing solvent is admixed with a makeup liquid to dilute the stream. The diluted stream is reduced in pressure and introduced into a first treatment vessel containing sufficient slurry to provide a hydrostatic pressure to prevent boiling of the diluted stream upon entry therein. The solvent then is permitted to flash and cool the remainder of the slurry. A portion of the cooled slurry is recycled to provide the makeup liquid and a second portion is introduced into a second treatment vessel to permit diffusion of solvent infused into the insoluble coal products in the slurry. The slurry of insoluble coal products in the second vessel then is introduced into a thickener to concentrate the slurry and provide a feed suitable for a gasifier.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO Esther


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides with a special toroid shape, obtained by the action of glucosyltransferase enzyme (CGTase on starch molecule. Their peculiar structure allows the accommodation of different guest molecules inside their cavity forming molecular inclusion complexes. There are different types depending on the glucose units that are formed, called native. The cyclodextrins can be modified incorporating different groups (hydroxipropyl, methyl... that changes their properties. Due their versatility in size, properties and the variety of inclusion complex can form is employed in many different industries like pharmacy, food or cosmetics to protect the molecule or to reduce their volatility. As the guest molecule is not bond with the cyclodextrin with the appropriate conditions it can release easily. In textile industry had been use in different areas: to remove surfactants from washed textiles, to substitute surfactants, in the dyeing process, in detergents… Due their capacity to fix onto textile allows the functionalization of the fabrics giving them new properties like UV protection, antimicrobial or insect repellents depending on the guest molecule, in. The project DYES4EVER employs the cyclodextrins to encapsulate dyes not fixed during the dye process that remains in the wastewater and aims to go one step further and reuse the dyes recovered as a raw material in new dyeing processes.

  7. Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria. (United States)

    Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D


    Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ∼3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries.

  8. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 1, University Blvd., Yenchao, Kaohsiung (China)


    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  9. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state (United States)

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María


    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  10. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.


    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

  11. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism. (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R


    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ehmann


    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  13. Challenges in recovering resources from acid mine drainage (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Bowell, Robert J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Alpers, Charles N.


    Metal recovery from mine waters and effluents is not a new approach but one that has occurred largely opportunistically over the last four millennia. Due to the need for low-cost resources and increasingly stringent environmental conditions, mine waters are being considered in a fresh light with a designed, deliberate approach to resource recovery often as part of a larger water treatment evaluation. Mine water chemistry is highly dependent on many factors including geology, ore deposit composition and mineralogy, mining methods, climate, site hydrology, and others. Mine waters are typically Ca-Mg-SO4±Al±Fe with a broad range in pH and metal content. The main issue in recovering components of these waters having potential economic value, such as base metals or rare earth elements, is the separation of these from more reactive metals such as Fe and Al. Broad categories of methods for separating and extracting substances from acidic mine drainage are chemical and biological. Chemical methods include solution, physicochemical, and electrochemical technologies. Advances in membrane techniques such as reverse osmosis have been substantial and the technique is both physical and chemical. Biological methods may be further divided into microbiological and macrobiological, but only the former is considered here as a recovery method, as the latter is typically used as a passive form of water treatment.

  14. Experimental QR code optical encryption: noise-free data recovering. (United States)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto


    We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the experimental implementation of a quick response (QR) code as a "container" in an optical encryption system. A joint transform correlator architecture in an interferometric configuration is chosen as the experimental scheme. As the implementation is not possible in a single step, a multiplexing procedure to encrypt the QR code of the original information is applied. Once the QR code is correctly decrypted, the speckle noise present in the recovered QR code is eliminated by a simple digital procedure. Finally, the original information is retrieved completely free of any kind of degradation after reading the QR code. Additionally, we propose and implement a new protocol in which the reception of the encrypted QR code and its decryption, the digital block processing, and the reading of the decrypted QR code are performed employing only one device (smartphone, tablet, or computer). The overall method probes to produce an outcome far more attractive to make the adoption of the technique a plausible option. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed security system.

  15. Recovering ethics after 'technics': developing critical text on technology. (United States)

    Marck, P B


    Much modern science and ethics debate is on high-profile problems such as animal organ transplantation, genetic engineering and fetal tissue research, in discourse that assumes technical tones. Other work, such as narrative ethics, expresses the failed promise of technology in the vivid detail of human experience. However, the essential nature of contemporary technology remains largely opaque to our present ethical lens on health care and on society. The limited controversies of modern science and ethics perpetuate 'technics', a technical, problem-solving mindset that fails to grapple successfully with the complexity of technology. A critical dialectic between practice and scholarship widens the ethical conversation in nursing to consider technology as an ongoing set of daily and fundamental moral choices on how we live. Critical text on technology recovers ethics from the limits of technics, and assists nurses to develop an inherent knowledge of technology that is needed to provide ethical care in a technological world. There are overlooked ethical challenges in the mundane, everyday routine activities of professional practice, and these have gone largely unexamined. Ethical behavior is not the display of one's moral rectitude in times of crisis. It is the day-to-day expression of one's commitment to other persons and the ways in which human beings relate to one another in their daily interactions.

  16. [Masticatory system and maxillofacial prosthesis: From pathology to function recovering]. (United States)

    Vo Quang, S; Dichamp, J


    Maxillofacial prosthesis (MFP) can be defined as the art and science of esthetic and functional reconstruction of the facial bones, art because it uses hand-crafted and empirical rules, science because of its technical rigorism and its integration in medicine. MFP aims to multidisciplinary rehabilitate patients presenting with cutaneous and underlying structures defects, It also allows for functional speech and swallowing rehabilitation related to temporo-mandibular joint disorders. Whatever the origin, (traumatic, infectious ortumoral), surgical treatment of these TMJ disorders is usually not indicated in first-line. Functional treatment is often sufficient if started early in an observant patient. The aim of our article was to present the different types devices available for the rehabilitation of the masticatory system according to pathology. The first part will treat about the preservation of the TMJ range of motion in a preventive way. A second part will treat about the possibilities to recover the range of motion in a curative way. A third part will treat about mandibular reposition. At last, we will focus on the devices allowing for mandibular kinetic rehabilitation in adults and in a special pediatric case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Bacterial diversity recovered from Qiyi Glacier and runoff, Qilian Mts]. (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Wang, Ning-Lian; Chen, Liang; Li, Quan-Lian; He, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Xi; Wu, Xiao-Bo


    Abundance and species diversity of bacteria were investigated respectively by epifluorescence microscope, the culture method and the analysis of 16S rDNA genes, with snow and runoff samples from Qiyi Glacier in the Qilian Mts. According to the results, the total microbial cells and bacterial CFU range from 10(3) to 10(5) cells x mL(-1) and 0-600 cfu x mL(-1), respectively. The 16S rDNA gene of 22 bacterial isolates recovered from snow and runoff samples belong to following groups: Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and alpha, beta, gamma-Proteobacteria. Based on their 16S rRNA sequences, Bacteroidetes forms the largest cluster in terms of abundance (80% of all isolates) and Pedobacter and Pseudomonas form the dominant genera in terms of abundance (90% of all isolates). Compared with bacteria revealed from ice and snow in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, South Pole and North Pole which have been reported, the bacteria belonging to Pantoea, Providencia, Terrabacter, Aerococcus and Oxalobacteraceae are especially exist in Qiyi Glacier as far as we know.

  18. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín T. Limonero


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  19. Parametric inference for discretely observed non-ergodic diffusions


    Jacod, Jean


    We consider a multidimensional diffusion process [math] whose drift and diffusion coefficients depend respectively on a parameter [math] and [math] . This process is observed at [math] equally spaced times [math] , and [math] denotes the length of the `observation window'. We are interested in estimating [math] and/or [math] . Under suitable smoothness and identifiability conditions, we exhibit estimators [math] and [math] , such that the variables [math] and [math] are tight for [math] and [...

  20. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.; Ohshima, H.


    A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse

  1. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  2. Detection of damage in concrete using diffuse ultrasound. (United States)

    Deroo, Frederik; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Sabra, Karim; Jacobs, Laurence J


    This letter demonstrates the potential for using diffuse ultrasound measurements to detect damage in concrete. Two different solutions to the diffusion equation, an infinite three-dimensional (3D) volume model that neglects geometric boundaries and a finite 3D cuboid model, are used for the required curve fitting procedure to determine the influence of geometric boundaries on the solution. The measurements consider two types of microcrack damage in concrete, alkali-silica reaction and thermal damage, and show that the measured diffusivity parameter is related to the amount of damage in each specimen.

  3. Numerical time-domain simulation of diffusive ultrasound in concrete. (United States)

    Schubert, Frank; Koehler, Bernd


    Certain aspects of diffusive ultrasound fields in concrete are still unknown and thus, systematic parameter studies using numerical time-domain simulations of the ultrasonic propagation process could lead to further insights into theoretical and experimental questions. In the present paper, the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to simulate a diffusive reverberation measurement at a concrete specimen taking aggregates, pores, and viscoelastic damping explicitly into account. The numerical results for dissipation and diffusivity are compared with theoretical models. Moreover, the influence of air-filled pores in the cement matrix is demonstrated.

  4. Cloaking and anamorphism for light and mass diffusion (United States)

    Guenneau, Sébastien; Diatta, André; Puvirajesinghe, Tania M.; Farhat, Mohamed


    We first review classical results on cloaking and mirage effects for electromagnetic waves. We then show that transformation optics allows the masking of objects or produces mirages in diffusive regimes. In order to achieve this, we consider the equation for diffusive photon density in transformed coordinates, which is valid for diffusive light in scattering media. More precisely, generalizing transformations for star domains introduced in (Diatta and Guenneau J. Opt. 13 024012) for matter waves, we numerically demonstrate that infinite conducting objects of different shapes scatter diffusive light in exactly the same way. We also propose a design of an external light-diffusion cloak with spatially varying sign-shifting parameters that hides a finite size scatterer outside the cloak. We next analyze non-physical parameters in the transformed Fick’s equation derived in (Guenneau and Puvirajesinghe R. Soc. Interface 10 20130106), and propose the use of a non-linear transform that overcomes this problem. We finally investigate other forms of invariant transformed diffusion-like equations in the time domain, and touch upon conformal mappings and non-Euclidean cloaking applied to diffusion processes.

  5. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2209 (United States); Khafizov, Marat [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wendt, Brycen L. [Nuclear Science and Engineering, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave., Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8060 (United States)


    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  6. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.


    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  7. Investigating international new product diffusion speed: A semiparametric approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hartman, Brian M.


    Global marketing managers are interested in understanding the speed of the new product diffusion process and how the speed has changed in our ever more technologically advanced and global marketplace. Understanding the process allows firms to forecast the expected rate of return on their new products and develop effective marketing strategies. The most recent major study on this topic [Marketing Science 21 (2002) 97-114] investigated new product diffusions in the United States.We expand upon that study in three important ways. (1) Van den Bulte notes that a similar study is needed in the international context, especially in developing countries. Our study covers four new product diffusions across 31 developed and developing nations from 1980-2004. Our sample accounts for about 80% of the global economic output and 60% of the global population, allowing us to examine more general phenomena. (2) His model contains the implicit assumption that the diffusion speed parameter is constant throughout the diffusion life cycle of a product. Recognizing the likely effects on the speed parameter of recent changes in the marketplace, we model the parameter as a semiparametric function, allowing it the flexibility to change over time. (3) We perform a variable selection to determine that the number of internet users and the consumer price index are strongly associated with the speed of diffusion. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2012.

  8. Impact of alternative electrical stunning parameters on the ability of broilers to recover consciousness and meat quality (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38V, =400Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150V, 50-350Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broil...

  9. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina


    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  10. Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant (United States)

    Svensson, T.; Savo, R.; Alerstam, E.; Vynck, K.; Burresi, M.; Wiersma, D. S.


    As manifested in the similarity relation of diffuse light transport, it is difficult to assess single scattering characteristics from multiply scattered light. We take advantage of the limited validity of the diffusion approximation of light transport and demonstrate, experimentally and numerically, that even deep into the multiple scattering regime, time-resolved detection of transmitted light allows simultaneous assessment of both single scattering anisotropy and scattering mean free path, and therefore also macroscopic parameters like the diffusion constant and the transport mean free path. This is achieved via careful assessment of early light and matching against Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer.

  11. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)]. (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A


    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  12. Study and simulations of quick diffusion in Zr-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvalán, C., E-mail: [UNTREF (Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero), General Enrique Mosconi 2736, B1674AHF, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerencia de Materiales, CAC, Comisión de Energía Atómica, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Lucía, A. [UNTREF (Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero), General Enrique Mosconi 2736, B1674AHF, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Iribarren, M. [Gerencia de Materiales, CAC, Comisión de Energía Atómica, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto Sabato, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Servant, C. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l' Etat Solide, UMR 8182, ICMMO, Université de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Costa e Silva, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)


    Zirconium and its alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Under normal conditions, Zr-alloys are polycrystalline and contain a high density of grain and interphase boundaries. These boundaries function as paths for accelerated matter movement. The movement of fast diffusing elements (Co, Fe, Cr, Ni) in Zr alloys along boundaries produces technologically important changes in the materials in nuclear reactors at normal temperatures (∼550 K) e.g.: segregation, phase precipitation, hydrogen absorption, etc. In this work, diffusion parameters for fast diffusion in Zr at low temperature were assessed for Co and Cr. An improved database for DICTRA (DIffusion-Controlled-TRAnsformation) software for fast diffusion was obtained. The diffusion parameters in grain boundaries of α-Zr for Cr and Co were used from a particular kinetic diffusion model [1]. Simulated profiles were compared with previous experimental work [2]. The results of the comparison and the adequacy of the improved database are discussed. Diffusion profiles on grain boundaries in α-Zr for Cr and Co are presented in the temperature range of 380–460 K. - Highlights: • An improved database for fast diffusion paths was obtained. • The diffusion parameters in type C kinetic on fast paths in α-Zr for Cr and Co were used. • Simulated diffusion profiles were compared with previous experimental results. This comparison and the adequacy of the improved database are discussed. • Diffusion parameters for fast diffusion paths in Zr at low temperature were assessed for Co and Cr. • Diffusion profiles on grain boundaries in α-Zr for Cr and Co are presented in the temperature range of 380–460 K.

  13. NMR investigation of water diffusion in different biofilm structures. (United States)

    Herrling, Maria P; Weisbrodt, Jessica; Kirkland, Catherine M; Williamson, Nathan H; Lackner, Susanne; Codd, Sarah L; Seymour, Joseph D; Guthausen, Gisela; Horn, Harald


    Mass transfer in biofilms is determined by diffusion. Different mostly invasive approaches have been used to measure diffusion coefficients in biofilms, however, data on heterogeneous biomass under realistic conditions is still missing. To non-invasively elucidate fluid-structure interactions in complex multispecies biofilms pulsed field gradient-nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) was applied to measure the water diffusion in five different types of biomass aggregates: one type of sludge flocs, two types of biofilm, and two types of granules. Data analysis is an important issue when measuring heterogeneous systems and is shown to significantly influence the interpretation and understanding of water diffusion. With respect to numerical reproducibility and physico-chemical interpretation, different data processing methods were explored: (bi)-exponential data analysis and the Γ distribution model. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient distribution in relation to relaxation was studied by D-T2 maps obtained by 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT). The results show that the effective diffusion coefficients for all biofilm samples ranged from 0.36 to 0.96 relative to that of water. NMR diffusion was linked to biofilm structure (e.g., biomass density, organic and inorganic matter) as observed by magnetic resonance imaging and to traditional biofilm parameters: diffusion was most restricted in granules with compact structures, and fast diffusion was found in heterotrophic biofilms with fluffy structures. The effective diffusion coefficients in the biomass were found to be broadly distributed because of internal biomass heterogeneities, such as gas bubbles, precipitates, and locally changing biofilm densities. Thus, estimations based on biofilm bulk properties in multispecies systems can be overestimated and mean diffusion coefficients might not be sufficiently informative to describe mass transport in biofilms and the near bulk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement. (United States)

    Senra Filho, A C da S; Salmon, C E Garrido; Murta Junior, L O


    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  15. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang


    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  16. Statistical Inference for Partially Observed Diffusion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Christian

    to perform parameter inference in multivariate diffusion models that may be only partially observed. The methodology is applied to the stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo model and the two-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Chapter seven focus on parameter identifiability in the aprtially observed Ornstein......-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck where one coordinate is completely unobserved. This model does not have the Markov property and it makes parameter inference more complicated. Next we take a Bayesian approach and introduce some basic Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. In chapter ve and six we describe an Bayesian method......-Uhlenbeck process, while chapter eight describes the detials of an R-package that was developed in relations to the application of the estimationprocedure of chapters five and six....

  17. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and 28Si enriched layers, enables the observation of 30Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the 28Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly

  18. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... The prototype relies on a simple virtual machine with a dedicated instruction set, allowing mobile programs to migrate between the modules that constitute a robot. Through a number of simulated experiments, we should how a single rule-based controller program implemented using distributed control diffusion can...

  19. Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter Recovered from Faeces and Carcasses of Healthy Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosua B. Karikari


    Full Text Available Campylobacter is of major significance in food safety and human and veterinary medicine. This study highlighted resistance situation in the area of veterinary public health in Ghana. Using selective mCCDA agar, isolates were confirmed phenotypically on API CAMPY and genotypically by multiplex PCR of IpxA gene. The susceptibility profile of species to common and relevant antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Cattle, sheep, goat, and pig faecal samples analysed, respectively, yielded 13.2% (16/121, 18.6% (22/102, 18.5% (25/135, and 28.7% (29/101 Campylobacter species while 34.5% (38/110, 35.9% (42/117, 23.9% (32/134, and 36.3% (37/102 were, respectively, recovered from the carcasses. Species identified in faeces were C. jejuni 35.8% (33/92, C. jejuni subsp. doylei 4.3% (4/92, C. coli 47.8% (44/92, and C. lari 12.0% (11/92. Species discovered in carcasses were C. jejuni 83.9% (125/149, C. jejuni subsp. doylei 2.0% (3/149, C. coli 6.0% (9/149, and C. lari 8.1% (12/149. Resistance ranged from 92 to 97% to the β-lactams, 7 to 69% to the quinolones, 0 to 44% to the aminoglycosides, 97 to 100% to erythromycin, 48 to 94% to tetracycline, 45 to 88% to chloramphenicol, and 42 to 86% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as 0% resistance was observed against imipenem.

  20. Pink teeth in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck. (United States)

    Campobasso, Carlo P; Di Vella, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Favia, Gianfranco; Introna, Francesco


    Pink teeth have most often been observed in victims of drowning but have also been reported in subjects who died suddenly and unnaturally. There is general agreement that there is no obvious connection between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death, but the condition of the surroundings (especially humidity) must certainly play an important role in the development of the pink-tooth phenomenon. The frequency and distribution of postmortem pink coloration of the teeth have been studied among a representative sample of 52 cadavers. All the bodies were victims of a single shipwreck that occurred on March 13, 1997, in the middle of the Otranto Canal (Mediterranean Sea). The bodies were recovered from the seawater after approximately 7 months. A distinct pink coloration of the teeth was found in only 18 cadavers (13 females and 5 males) of ages ranging between 13 and 60 years. The phenomenon was more pronounced in younger individuals due to age-related changes of the root canal, less penetrable by the pigment responsible for the postmortem pink staining. By histochemical methods and autofluorescence, hemoglobin and its derivatives have been identified as the most likely pigments responsible for this postmortem process that can be considered analogous to postmortem lividity. These data are consistent with previous reports on pink teeth, indicating that the diffusion of the blood in the pulp into the dentinal tubules causes the red discoloration of the teeth. Based on the results, the pigmentation is more prominent on the teeth with single roots rather than in the posterior teeth with multiple roots.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance determinants in Staphylococcus spp. recovered from birds of prey in Portugal. (United States)

    Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Silva, Filipe; Sargo, Roberto; Alegria, Nuno; Benito, Daniel; Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Poeta, Patrícia


    Antibiotic resistance among wild animals represent an emerging public health concern. The objective of this study was to analyze the staphylococcal nasal microbiota in birds of prey and their content in antimicrobial resistance determinants. Nasal samples from 16 birds of prey were collected, swabs were dipped and incubated into BHI broth [6.5% NaCl] and later seeded on manitol salt agar and oxacillin-resistance screening agar base media. Staphylococcal colonies were isolated from both media and were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to 18 antimicrobial agents was performed by disk-diffusion method. Six of the 16 tested animals carried staphylococci (37.5%) and 7 isolates of the following species were recovered: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri rodentium, Staphylococcus cohnii urealitycum, and Staphylococcus gallinarum. The S. aureus isolate was penicillin-resistant (with blaZ gene) but methicillin-susceptible and was ascribed to spa-type t012, sequence-type ST30 and agr-type III. The S. epidermidis isolate carried blaZ, mecA, mrs(A/B), mphC, tet(K), drfA, and fusC genes, ica operon, and was typed as ST35. The genes ant6'-Ia, tet(K), tet(L), dfrG, cat221, cat194, and cat223 were detected in S. saprophyticus or S. gallinarum isolates. Birds of prey seem to be a natural reservoir of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. Due to the convergence between habitats, the contact between wildlife, other animals and humans is now more common and this involves an increased possibility of interchange of these microorganisms in the different ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance Markers and Genetic Diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Recovered from Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoch S. I. Martins


    Full Text Available In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect metallo-β-lactamases, cephalosporinases and oxacillinases and to assess genetic diversity among 64 multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains recovered from blood cultures in five different hospitals in Brazil from December 2008 to June 2009. High rates of resistance to imipenem (93.75% and polymyxin B (39.06% were observed using the disk diffusion (DD method and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Using the disk approximation method, thirty-nine strains (60.9% were phenotypically positive for class D enzymes, and 51 strains (79.6% were positive for cephalosporinase (AmpC. Using the E-test, 60 strains (93.75% were positive for metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs. All strains were positive for at least one of the 10 studied genes; 59 (92.1% contained blaVIM-1, 79.6% contained blaAmpC, 93.7% contained blaOXA23 and 84.3% contained blaOXA51. Enterobacteria Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR analysis revealed a predominance of certain clones that differed from each other. However, the same band pattern was observed in samples from the different hospitals studied, demonstrating correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic results. Thus, ERIC-PCR is an appropriate method for rapidly clustering genetically related isolates. These results suggest that defined clonal clusters are circulating within the studied hospitals. These results also show that the prevalence of MDR A. baumannii may vary among clones disseminated in specific hospitals, and they emphasize the importance of adhering to appropriate infection control measures.

  3. Derivation of a volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, R.; Espinosa P, G. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Morales S, Jaime B. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    This paper presents a general theoretical analysis of the problem of neutron motion in a nuclear reactor, where large variations on neutron cross sections normally preclude the use of the classical neutron diffusion equation. A volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation is derived which includes correction terms to diffusion and nuclear reaction effects. A method is presented to determine closure-relationships for the volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation (e.g., effective neutron diffusivity). In order to describe the distribution of neutrons in a highly heterogeneous configuration, it was necessary to extend the classical neutron diffusion equation. Thus, the volume averaged diffusion equation include two corrections factor: the first correction is related with the absorption process of the neutron and the second correction is a contribution to the neutron diffusion, both parameters are related to neutron effects on the interface of a heterogeneous configuration. (Author)

  4. Diffusion aspects of designing porous growth media for earth and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamindu, Deepagoda; Møldrup, Per; Jensen, M P


    to be used in future design models. Also, critical windows of diffusivity (CWD) was defined identifying the air content range where gas diffusivity (hence, oxygen supply) and solute diffusivity or the analogous electrical conductivity (hence, nutrient supply) are above pre-defined, critical minimum values......, and mechanical support) are closely linked with the basic physical properties of the growth media. Diffusion is the main process whereby oxygen and nutrients are supplied to plant roots, and gas and solute diffusivity are the key parameters controlling the diffusive movement of oxygen and nutrients in the root...... zone. As one among several essential aspects of optimal porous media design for plant growth, this study presents a diffusion-based characterization of four commercial, aggregated growth media. To account for the observed large percolation threshold for gas diffusivity in the selected media...

  5. [Problems of enterectomy for diffuse peritonitis in children (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Hecker, W C; Spier, J; Höpner, F


    An analysis was made of the author's own patients with diffuse perforative peritonitis (without appendicitis) in childhood. Most patients had a perforated enterocolitis. Treatment of choice: Resectioning the perforated areas of the intestine or Resectioning the intestine just before the perforation; anastomosis in the septic area should not be carried out, instead an enterostomy with two lumina should be performed; intensive therapy; therapy for sepsis with exchange transfusion. The reanastomazation should take place only after the patient has fully recovered; definite criteria for evaluation, when this is the case, were presented. The mortality rate for the author's cases was 46%; statistics taken from international literature indicate a mortality rate of 65%.

  6. Comparison of dialysis membrane diffusion samplers and two purging methods in bedrock wells (United States)

    Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Ehlke, T.A.; Lacombe, P.J.; Dale, J.M.; ,


    Collection of ground-water samples from bedrock wells using low-flow purging techniques is problematic because of the random spacing, variable hydraulic conductivity, and variable contamination of contributing fractures in each well's open interval. To test alternatives to this purging method, a field comparison of three ground-water-sampling techniques was conducted on wells in fractured bedrock at a site contaminated primarily with volatile organic compounds. Constituent concentrations in samples collected with a diffusion sampler constructed from dialysis membrane material were compared to those in samples collected from the same wells with a standard low-flow purging technique and a hybrid (high-flow/low-flow) purging technique. Concentrations of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, calcium, chloride, and alkalinity agreed well among samples collected with all three techniques in 9 of the 10 wells tested. Iron concentrations varied more than those of the other parameters, but their pattern of variation was not consistent. Overall, the results of nonparametric analysis of variance testing on the nine wells sampled twice showed no statistically significant difference at the 95-percent confidence level among the concentrations of volatile organic compounds or inorganic constituents recovered by use of any of the three sampling techniques.

  7. Computer modeling of point defects and diffusion in ordered intermetallic compounds (United States)

    Mishin, Y.


    This paper gives an overview of the recent progress in the understanding of diffusion mechanisms in ordered intermetallic compounds, particularly the structural aluminides TiAl and NiAl. The long-range order of the crystal structure imposes selection rules on possible diffusion mechanisms. It favors mechanisms that either do not affect the order or destroy it only locally and temporarily but recover it once the diffusion cycle is complete. Atomistic simulation tools for studying point defects and diffusion in ordered structures are discussed and their applications are demonstrated. The compositional disorder in TiAl is accommodated by antisite defects on both sides of the stoichiometry. Diffusion in TiAl involves sublattice vacancy jumps, inter-sublattice jumps, and three-jump vacancy cycles. NiAl contains antisites on the Al sublattice in Ni-rich compositions and constitutional vacancies on the Ni sublattice in Al-rich compositions. Diffusion in NiAl is governed by several mechanisms operating concurrently, including sublattice diffusion of Ni vacancies, six-jump vacancy cycles, and other processes. Many of the vacancy jumps are collective transitions involving two atoms. The dominant diffusion mechanism depends on the temperature and the degree of off-stoichiometry. The diffusion coefficients obtained by atomistic calculations compare well with experimental data.

  8. Continuous Dependence in Front Propagation for Convective Reaction-Diffusion Models with Aggregative Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Malaguti


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation, including aggregative movements and convective terms. The model also incorporates a real parameter causing the change from a purely diffusive to a diffusive-aggregative and to a purely aggregative regime. Existence and qualitative properties of traveling wave solutions are investigated, and estimates of their threshold speeds are furnished. Further, the continuous dependence of the threshold wave speed and of the wave profiles on a real parameter is studied, both when the process maintains its diffusion-aggregation nature and when it switches from it to another regime.

  9. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut


    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  10. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction (United States)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.


    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  11. Diffusion in Tube Dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Nigatie


    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney failure is a problem of many peoples in the world. We know that the main function of kidney is maintaining the chemical quality of blood particularly removing urea through urine. But when they malfunction, the pathologic state known as uremia results in a condition in which the urea is retained in the body. Failure of the kidney results in building up of harmful wastes and excess fluids in the body. Kidney diseases (failures can be due to infections, high blood pressure (hypertension, diabetes, and/or extensive use of medication. The best form of treatment is the implantation of a healthy kidney from a donor. However, this is often not possible due to the limited availability of human organs. Chronic kidney failure requires the treatment using a tube dialyzer called dialysis. Blood is taken out of the body and passes through a special membrane that removes waste and extra fluids. The clean blood is then returned to the body. The process is controlled by a dialysis machine (tube dialyzer which is equipped with a blood pump and monitoring systems to ensure safety. So this article investigates the real application of mathematics (diffusion in medical science, and it also contains the mathematical formulation and interpretation of tube dialyzer in relation to diffusion.

  12. The diffusion of microfinance. (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O


    To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation.

  13. Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model. (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji


    Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool.

  14. Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji


    Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool.

  15. Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour


    In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of

  16. Recovering the Atmospheric Resources of Mars: Updating the MARRS Study (United States)

    England, Christopher; Hrubes, J. Dana


    In 2000 a conceptual design was conducted of a plant that extracts oxygen (O2) directly from the martian atmosphere, and that makes water and carbon monoxide (CO) as by-products. Updated estimates suggest that the amount of O2 in the atmosphere is about 2.3 times greater than that used as the basis for the 2000 study. In this paper, estimates for O2 and by-products, and for energy and mass requirements based on the higher O2 value are updated. The basis for the design, termed ``MARRS'' for Mars Atmosphere Resource Recovery System, is the NASA/JSC Mars Reference Mission (MRM) requirement for O2, estimated at 5.8 kg/hr for about 500 sols. The 2000 study based its design on an atmospheric O2 content of 0.13%, the then-accepted value. Analysis now places the O2 content at about 0.3%, reducing the amount of energy and equipment proportionately. The revised estimate of the thermal power to meet MRM requirements for O2 is an average of about 52 kW, seasonally variable. The new mass estimate is 7898 kg, down from 13650 kg. The new estimate of oxygen content correspondingly reduces the amounts of by-products that can be recovered. CO, a primary fuel and propellant precursor, is produced at about 0.2 kg/kg O2. Water, possibly available at about 0.04 kg/kg O2, is believed not recoverable by the MARRS process at this lower level, even seasonally. An equation is provided for the seasonal variation in atmospheric O2 fraction based on Viking pressure measurements. Oxygen varies seasonally from about 0.25% or 0.34%, the variability affecting plant design. While the higher O2 fraction means reduced amounts of by-products from the MARRS process, large amounts of nitrogen (liquid and gas), argon gas and liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) remain available as by-products for use as respiratory agents, refrigerants, propellants, propellant precursors and working fluids for emergency or backup power, transportation, and surface operations such as drilling.

  17. Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Recovering Malnourished Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Rising


    Full Text Available Background. Malnourished infants are small for age and weight. Objectives. Determine profiles in 24-hour energy metabolism in recovering malnourished infants and compare to similarly aged healthy controls. Methods. 10 malnourished infants (58.1±5.9 cm, 7.7±5.6 months were healthy prior to spending 22 hours in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber for measurement of EE (kcal/min, sleeping metabolic rate (SMR; kcal/min, respiratory quotient (RQ; VCO2/VO2, and physical activity (PA; oscillations in wt/min/kg body weight. Metabolic data were extrapolated to 24 hours (kcal/kg/d. Energy intake (kcal/kg/d and the proportions (% of carbohydrate, protein, and fat were calculated. Anthropometrics for malnourished infants were obtained. Statistical differences (P<.05 between groups were determined (SPSS, version 13. Results. In comparison to controls, malnourished infants were lighter (4.1±1.2 versus 7.3±0.8 kg; P<.05, had less body fat % (10.3±7.6 versus 25.7±2.5, and lower BMI (12.0±1.7 versus 15.5±1.5; P<.05. In contrast, they had greater energy intake (142.7±14.6 versus 85.1±25.8; P<.05 with a greater percentage of carbohydrates (55.1±3.9 versus 47.2±5.2; P<.05. However, malnourished infants had greater 24-hour EE (101.3±20.1 versus 78.6±8.4; P<.05, SMR (92.6±17.1 versus 65.0±3.9; P<.05, and RQ (1.00±0.13 versus 0.86±0.08; P<.05 along with a lower amount of PA (2.3±0.94 versus 4.0±1.5; P<.05. Conclusions. Malnourished infants require more energy, possibly for growth.

  18. Tactile perception of thermal diffusivity. (United States)

    Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L


    The thermal diffusivity of an object is a parameter that controls the rate at which heat is extracted from the hand when it touches that object. It is an important feature for distinguishing materials by means of touch. In order to quantitatively describe the ability of human observers to discriminate between materials on the basis of heat extraction rate, we conducted an experiment in which this heat extraction was performed in a controlled way. In different conditions, subjects were repeatedly asked to select from two stimuli the one that cooled faster. The discrimination threshold was around 43% of the extraction rate. A rate that was twice as slow also yielded twice the absolute threshold. When we halved the temperature difference between the beginning and end of the stimulus, the threshold did not change as much. In separate experiments, we investigated the different cues that were available in the stimulus: initial cooling rate and end temperature. Both cues were used for discrimination, but cooling rate seemed to be the most important.

  19. Variable helium diffusion characteristics in fluorite (United States)

    Wolff, R.; Dunkl, I.; Kempe, U.; Stockli, D.; Wiedenbeck, M.; von Eynatten, H.


    Precise analysis of the diffusion characteristics of helium in fluorite is crucial for establishing the new fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer (FHe), which potentially provides a powerful tool for dating ore deposits unsuitable for the application of conventional geochronometers. Incremental helium outgassing experiments performed on fluorites derived from a spectrum of geological environments suggest a thermally activated volume diffusion mechanism. The diffusion behaviour is highly variable and the parameters range between log D0/a2 = 0.30 ± 0.27-7.27 ± 0.46 s-1 and Ea = 96 ± 3.5-182 ± 3.8 kJ/mol. Despite the fact that the CaF2 content of natural fluorites in most cases exceeds 99 weight percent, the closure temperature (Tc) of the fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer as calculated from these diffusion parameters varies between 46 ± 14 °C and 169 ± 9 °C, considering a 125 μm fragment size. Here we establish that minor substitutions of calcium by rare earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) and related charge compensation by sodium, fluorine, oxygen and/or vacancies in the fluorite crystal lattice have a significant impact on the diffusivity of helium in the mineral. With increasing REE + Y concentrations F vacancies are reduced and key diffusion pathways are narrowed. Consequently, a higher closure temperature is to be expected. An empirical case study confirms this variability: two fluorite samples from the same deposit (Horni Krupka, Czech Republic) with ca. 170 °C and ca. 43 °C Tc yield highly different (U-Th-Sm)/He ages of 290 ± 10 Ma and 79 ± 10 Ma, respectively. Accordingly, the fluorite sample with the high Tc could have quantitatively retained helium since the formation of the fluorite-bearing ores in the Permian, despite subsequent Mesozoic burial and associated regional hydrothermal heating. In contrast, the fluorite with the low Tc yields a Late Cretaceous age close to the apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He ages (AHe

  20. Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Andrew R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

  1. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  2. Influence of Adding Recovered Protein from Processing Wastewater on the Quality of Mechanically Separated Chicken Meat Surimi Like-Material. (United States)

    Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Bagatini, Daniela Cardozo; Prentice, Carlos


    Functional and nutritional soluble proteins can be recovered from surimi (and surimi-like material) processing wastewater, reducing environmental problems and the cost of an irresponsible waste disposal. Recovered proteins may be added back at a low percentage to surimi products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of soluble recovered proteins (RP), obtained from mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material (MSCM-SLM) processing wastewater by acidic pH-shifting, on the composition and texture of RP-MSCM-SLM, with RP contents of 0, 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) in the mixture. For that, proximate composition and gel properties were evaluated. The fat content of the MSCM-SLM was significantly reduced to 11.98% and protein increased to 83.64% (dry basis) after three washing cycles. The addition of 30% RP in the MSCM-SLM significantly augmented the protein content to 93.45% and reduced fat content from to 2.78%. On the other hand, the addition of RP was responsible for a drastic decrease in texture parameters, reaching 252.36 g, 185.23, and 6.97 N for breaking force, gel strength and cutting strength, respectively, when 30% of RP was included in the MSCM-SLM. It was concluded that the obtained intermediary product (RP-MSCM-SLM) is a good option to applications in processed meat products where high texture parameters are dispensable, e.g., emulsified inlaid frankfurter-type sausages, but high protein content and low fat content desired.

  3. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments. (United States)

    Warnken; Buckley


    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  4. Prevalence and course of sexual relationship difficulties in recovered and non-recovered patients with borderline personality disorder over 16 years of prospective follow-up. (United States)

    Karan, Esen; Niesten, Isabella J M; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Zanarini, Mary C


    Although borderline patients experience a wide range of sexual problems, including promiscuity, there is less evidence documenting their sexual relationship difficulties. This study had two aims. The first was to examine the prevalence of these difficulties (i.e. avoidance of sex and being symptomatic after sex) over 16 years of prospective follow-up among recovered and non-recovered patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The second was to determine time-to-remission, recurrence and new onset of these sexual relationship difficulties. The sexual relationship difficulties of 290 patients meeting both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD were assessed at baseline using the Abuse History Interview and reassessed every two years over eight waves of prospective follow-up. The prevalence of sexual relationship difficulties declined significantly over time for both groups of patients, while remaining significantly more common among non-recovered patients. By 16-year follow-up, over 95% of each group achieved remission for both types of difficulties. Recurrences of avoidance of sex were significantly more common in non-recovered patients. Non-recovered patients had higher rates of new onsets compared to recovered patients for each type of sexual relationship difficulty. Taken together, the results suggest that sexual relationship difficulties are not chronic for those with BPD regardless of recovery status. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per


    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...... tracers) for a better determination of the diffusivity. The diffusivity was higher in the below-till soil than the plowed soil at the same soil water matric potential due to higher water content but also due to higher continuity and lower tortuosity of the soil pores. We measured identical solute...... diffusivities independent of the tracer set used. We analyzed the whole data set using Archie's law and found a linear relation between Archie's exponent and the logarithm of the soil water matric suction in centimeters of water (pF). An analysis of seven data sets from the literature showed...

  6. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis (United States)

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka


    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  7. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement (United States)

    Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.


    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  8. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients. (United States)

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV-even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presentedThe coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m valueThe electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic.

  9. Driven diffusion in nanoscaled materials


    Albers, Tony; Bauer, Michael; Borczyskowski, Christian Von; Gerlach, Frank; Heidernätsch, Mario; Kärger, Jörg; Kondrashova, Daria; Radons, Günter; Schubert, Sebastian; Shakhov, Alexander; Täuber, Daniela; Valiullin, Rustem; Zeigermann, Philipp


    Mass transfer processes in which specific interactions with environments lead to complex diffusion patterns, such as the occurrence of transient sub-diffusive behaviors or of heterogeneous diffusion, were studied by means of two different experimental techniques, namely single-particle tracking operating with single molecules and nuclear magnetic resonance operating with large molecular ensembles. As an important point, the combined application of these techniques allowed for a deeper insight...

  10. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion


    Gmachowski, Lech


    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An...

  11. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment


    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts


    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing ...

  12. On model-free reconstruction of lattice dynamics from thermal diffuse scattering. (United States)

    Bosak, Alexei; Chernyshov, Dmitry


    Expressions are derived for thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) using a formalism based on Born's S-matrix. It is shown that for monoatomic crystals the dynamical matrix containing the full information on lattice dynamics can be recovered from one-phonon TDS intensities. For any non-monoatomic crystal, part of the information is always lost in the kinematic approximation, but can in principle be recovered by measuring TDS in the dynamical scattering regime. In the long-wave limit the description here coincides with known results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec


    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in

  14. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  15. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima


    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3......) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given...

  16. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  17. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia


    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  18. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti


    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  19. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.


    Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...... of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O...

  20. Reaction-Diffusion in the NEURON Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. McDougal


    Full Text Available In order to support research on the role of cell biological principles (genomics, proteomics, signaling cascades and reaction dynamics on the dynamics of neuronal response in health and disease, NEURON has developed a Reaction-Diffusion (rxd module in Python which provides specification and simulation for these dynamics, coupled with the electrophysiological dynamics of the cell membrane. Arithmetic operations on species and parameters are overloaded, allowing arbitrary reaction formulas to be specified using Python syntax. These expressions are then transparently compiled into bytecode that uses NumPy for fast vectorized calculations. At each time step, rxd combines NEURON's integrators with SciPy’s sparse linear algebra library.

  1. Defects and diffusion in semiconductors XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J


    This 14th volume in the series covers the latest results in the field of Defects and Diffusion in Semiconductor. The issue also includes some original papers: An Experimental Study of the Thermal Properties of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel; Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sintered Iron-Silica Sand Nanoparticle Composites: A Preliminary Study; Defect and Dislocation Density Parameters of 5251 Al Alloy Using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Technique; A Novel Computational Strategy to Enhance the Ability of Elaborate Search by Entire Swarm to Find the Best Solution in Optimization of AMCs; Synthesis and

  2. Recovering area-to-mass ratio of resident space objects through data mining (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Bai, Xiaoli


    The area-to-mass ratio (AMR) of a resident space object (RSO) is an important parameter for improved space situation awareness capability due to its effect on the non-conservative forces including the atmosphere drag force and the solar radiation pressure force. However, information about AMR is often not provided in most space catalogs. The present paper investigates recovering the AMR information from the consistency error, which refers to the difference between the orbit predicted from an earlier estimate and the orbit estimated at the current epoch. A data mining technique, particularly the random forest (RF) method, is used to discover the relationship between the consistency error and the AMR. Using a simulation-based space catalog environment as the testbed, this paper demonstrates that the classification RF model can determine the RSO's category AMR and the regression RF model can generate continuous AMR values, both with good accuracies. Furthermore, the paper reveals that by recording additional information besides the consistency error, the RF model can estimate the AMR with even higher accuracy.

  3. Phase transitions for information diffusion in random clustered networks (United States)

    Lim, Sungsu; Shin, Joongbo; Kwak, Namju; Jung, Kyomin


    We study the conditions for the phase transitions of information diffusion in complex networks. Using the random clustered network model, a generalisation of the Chung-Lu random network model incorporating clustering, we examine the effect of clustering under the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic diffusion model with heterogeneous contact rates. For this purpose, we exploit the branching process to analyse information diffusion in random unclustered networks with arbitrary contact rates, and provide novel iterative algorithms for estimating the conditions and sizes of global cascades, respectively. Showing that a random clustered network can be mapped into a factor graph, which is a locally tree-like structure, we successfully extend our analysis to random clustered networks with heterogeneous contact rates. We then identify the conditions for phase transitions of information diffusion using our method. Interestingly, for various contact rates, we prove that random clustered networks with higher clustering coefficients have strictly lower phase transition points for any given degree sequence. Finally, we confirm our analytical results with numerical simulations of both synthetically-generated and real-world networks.

  4. Diffuse mirrors: 3D reconstruction from diffuse indirect illumination using inexpensive time-of-flight sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    The functional difference between a diffuse wall and a mirror is well understood: one scatters back into all directions, and the other one preserves the directionality of reflected light. The temporal structure of the light, however, is left intact by both: assuming simple surface reflection, photons that arrive first are reflected first. In this paper, we exploit this insight to recover objects outside the line of sight from second-order diffuse reflections, effectively turning walls into mirrors. We formulate the reconstruction task as a linear inverse problem on the transient response of a scene, which we acquire using an affordable setup consisting of a modulated light source and a time-of-flight image sensor. By exploiting sparsity in the reconstruction domain, we achieve resolutions in the order of a few centimeters for object shape (depth and laterally) and albedo. Our method is robust to ambient light and works for large room-sized scenes. It is drastically faster and less expensive than previous approaches using femtosecond lasers and streak cameras, and does not require any moving parts.

  5. Application of TRIZ Methodology in Diffusion Welding System Optimization (United States)

    Ravinder Reddy, N.; Satyanarayana, V. V.; Prashanthi, M.; Suguna, N.


    Welding is tremendously used in metal joining processes in the manufacturing process. In recent years, diffusion welding method has significantly increased the quality of a weld. Nevertheless, diffusion welding has some extent short research and application progress. Therefore, diffusion welding has a lack of relevant information, concerned with the joining of thick and thin materials with or without interlayers, on welding design such as fixture, parameters selection and integrated design. This article intends to combine innovative methods in the application of diffusion welding design. This will help to decrease trial and error or failure risks in the welding process being guided by the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) design method. This article hopes to provide welding design personnel with innovative design ideas under research and for practical application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Welding is tremendously used in metal joining processes in the manufacturing process. In recent years, diffusion welding method has significantly increased the quality of a weld. Nevertheless, diffusion welding has some extent short research and application progress. Therefore, diffusion welding has a lack of relevant information, concerned with the joining of thick and thin materials with or without interlayers, on welding design such as fixture, parameters selection and inte-grated design. This article intends to combine innovative methods in the application of diffusion welding design. This will help to decrease trial and error or failure risks in the welding process being guided by the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ design method. This article hopes to provide welding design personnel with innovative design ideas under research and for practical application.

  7. What Can the Diffusion Model Tell Us About Prospective Memory? (United States)

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.; Smith, Rebekah E.


    Cognitive process models, such as Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, are useful tools for examining cost- or interference effects in event-based prospective memory (PM). The diffusion model includes several parameters that provide insight into how and why ongoing-task performance may be affected by a PM task and is ideally suited to analyze performance because both reaction time and accuracy are taken into account. Separate analyses of these measures can easily yield misleading interpretations in cases of speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The diffusion model allows us to measure possible criterion shifts and is thus an important methodological improvement over standard analyses. Performance in an ongoing lexical decision task (Smith, 2003) was analyzed with the diffusion model. The results suggest that criterion shifts play an important role when a PM task is added, but do not fully explain the cost effect on RT. PMID:21443332

  8. Diffusion formation and psychiatric diseases; Diffusionsbildung und psychiatrische Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Kulikovski, J. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    The basic principle behind diffusion is Brownian motion. The diffusion parameters obtained in a clinical association provide information on the spatial distribution of water molecule mobility and, therefore, evidence of the morphological integrity of the white and grey matters of the brain. In recent years functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could contribute to obtaining a detailed understanding of the cortical and subcortical cerebral networks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations can demonstrate the extent of anisotropy and the fiber pathways in so-called parametric images. For example, in Alzheimer's disease DTI reveals a reduced structural connectivity between the posterior cingulum and the hippocampus. This article shows examples of the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [German] Die Grundlagen der Diffusion bildet die brownsche Molekularbewegung. Die im klinischen Zusammenhang gewonnenen Diffusionsparameter geben Auskunft ueber die raeumliche Verteilung der Wassermolekuelmobilitaet und damit Hinweise auf die morphologische Integritaet der weissen und grauen Hirnsubstanz. Die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) konnte in den letzten Jahren dazu beitragen, ein detailliertes Verstaendnis der kortikalen und subkortikalen zerebralen Netzwerke zu erlangen. Diffusion-tensor-imaging(DTI)-Untersuchungen koennen in sogenannten Parameterbildern das Ausmass der Anisotropie und den Faserverlauf darstellen. So zeigte z. B. die DTI bei der Alzheimer-Demenz eine verminderte strukturelle Konnektivitaet zwischen dem posterioren Zingulum und dem Hippokampus. Dieser Beitrag zeigt Beispiele der Anwendung der Diffusionsbildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI) bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen. (orig.)

  9. Pepsin diffusion in dairy gels depends on casein concentration and microstructure. (United States)

    Thévenot, J; Cauty, C; Legland, D; Dupont, D; Floury, J


    Fundamental knowledge of gastric digestion had only focused on acid diffusion from the gastric fluid, but no data are available for pepsin diffusion. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, diffusion coefficients D of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-pepsin were measured in rennet gels across a range of casein concentrations allowing to form networks of protein aggregates with different structures. To investigate the microstructural parameters of native gels, electron microscopy image analysis were performed and qualitatively related to diffusion behavior of FITC-pepsin in these dairy gels. This study is the first report on quantification of pepsin diffusion in dairy product. Pepsin diffusion in rennet gels depends on casein concentration and microstructure. Models of polymer science can be used to assess D in dairy gel. Such data should be confronted with pepsin activity in acidic environment, and will be very useful as input parameters in mathematical models of food degradation in the human stomach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: a test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay. (United States)

    Van Loon, Luc R; Müller, Werner


    A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming


    , protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk...... based on hyper-spectral light scattering. Our approach is motivated by Carstensen and Møller [2]. They demonstrated the correlation between diffuse reflectance profiles and rheology of a milk sample during acidification. In this work we employ a super-continuum laser light source coupled with an acousto......-invasive method, the system also has potential as a design platform for creating specialized and cost-efficient vision systems. Our preliminary results are highly encouraging and show a clear relation between rheology and diffuse reflectance. A factorial experiment studying the effects of the content of fat...

  12. Denoising of diffusion MRI using random matrix theory (United States)

    Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S.; Christiaens, Daan; Ades-aron, Benjamin; Sijbers, Jan; Fieremans, Els


    We introduce and evaluate a post-processing technique for fast denoising diffusion-weighted MR images. By exploiting the intrinsic redundancy in diffusion MRI using universal properties of the eigenspectrum of random covariance matrices, we remove noise-only principal components, thereby enabling signal-to-noise ratio enhancements, yielding parameter maps of improved quality for visual, quantitative, and statistical interpretation. By studying statistics of residuals, we demonstrate that the technique suppresses local signal fluctuations that solely originate from thermal noise rather than from other sources such as anatomical detail. Furthermore, we achieve improved precision in the estimation of diffusion parameters and fiber orientations in the human brain without compromising the accuracy and/or spatial resolution. PMID:27523449

  13. Systematic Optimization of Boron Diffusion for Solar Cell Emitters (United States)

    Ebrahimi, P.; Kolahdouz, M.; Iraj, M.; Ganjian, M.; Aghababa, H.; Asl-Soleimani, E.; Radamson, Henry H.


    To achieve p- n junctions for n-type solar cells, we have studied BBr3 diffusion in an open tube furnace, varying parameters of the BBr3 diffusion process such as temperature, gas flows, and duration of individual process steps, i.e., predeposition and drive-in. Then, output parameters such as carrier lifetime, sheet resistance, and diffusion profile were measured and statistically analyzed to optimize the emitter characteristics. Statistical analysis (factorial design) was finally employed to systematically explore the effects of the set of input variables on the outputs. The effect of the interactions between inputs was also evaluated for each output, quantified using a two-level factorial method. Temperature and BBr3 flow were found to have the most significant effect on different outputs such as carrier lifetime, junction depth, sheet resistance, and final surface concentration.

  14. Dependence of chaotic diffusion on wave phase spectrum (United States)

    Huang, Yueheng; Xiang, Nong; Li, Dehui; Chen, Jiale; Fan, Peifeng


    The chaotic diffusion in velocity space has been studied by numerically solving the motion equation of charged particles in the wave field with different kinds of wave phase spectra and analytically calculating the correlation functions. It is found that the diffusion in velocity space strongly depends on the wave phase spectrum. For the periodic spectrum with two different phases, the small relative phase makes the diffusion deviate from the quasi-linear one even for an arbitrarily large overlap parameter. The quasi-linear approximation is valid when the overlap parameter is large for the spectrum in which the wave phases of any group of three neighboring waves are different. The quasi-linear threshold can be much larger than the one of the zero phased standard mapping.

  15. A gravitational diffusion model without dark matter (United States)

    Britten, Roy J.


    In this model, without dark matter, the flat rotation curves of galaxies and the mass-to-light ratios of clusters of galaxies are described quantitatively. The hypothesis is that the agent of gravitational force is propagated as if it were scattered with a mean free path of ≈5 kiloparsecs. As a result, the force between moderately distant masses, separated by more than the mean free path, diminishes as the inverse first power of the distance, following diffusion equations, and describes the flat rotation curves of galaxies. The force between masses separated by <1 kiloparsec diminishes as the inverse square of distance. The excess gravitational force (ratio of 1/r:1/r2) increases with the scale of structures from galaxies to clusters of galaxies. However, there is reduced force at great distances because of the ≈12 billion years that has been available for diffusion to occur. This model with a mean free path of ≈5 kiloparsecs predicts a maximum excess force of a few hundredfold for objects the size of galactic clusters a few megaparsecs in size. With only a single free parameter, the predicted curve for excess gravitational force vs. size of structures fits reasonably well with observations from those for dwarf galaxies through galactic clusters. Under the diffusion model, no matter is proposed in addition to the observed baryons plus radiation and thus the proposed density of the universe is only a few percent of that required for closure. PMID:9520368

  16. The Diffuse Light of the Universe (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc


    In 1965, the discovery of a new type of uniform radiation, located between radiowaves and infrared light, was accidental. Known today as Cosmic Microwave background (CMB), this diffuse radiation is commonly interpreted as a fossil light released in an early hot and dense universe and constitutes today the main 'pilar' of the big bang cosmology. Considerable efforts have been devoted to derive fundamental cosmological parameters from the characteristics of this radiation that led to a surprising universe that is shaped by at least three major unknown components: inflation, dark matter and dark energy. This is an important weakness of the present consensus cosmological model that justifies raising several questions on the CMB interpretation. Can we consider its cosmological nature as undisputable? Do other possible interpretations exist in the context of other cosmological theories or simply as a result of other physical mechanisms that could account for it? In an effort to questioning the validity of scientific hypotheses and the under-determination of theories compared to observations, we examine here the difficulties that still exist on the interpretation of this diffuse radiation and explore other proposed tracks to explain its origin. We discuss previous historical concepts of diffuse radiation before and after the CMB discovery and underline the limit of our present understanding.

  17. Two-parameter entropies, Sk,r, and their dualities (United States)

    Asgarani, Somayeh; Mirza, Behrouz


    This paper investigates the dualities of two-parameter entropies, Sk,r Kaniadakis et al. (2005). Two kinds of dualities are found, namely inverse (r → - r) and inverse-scaling (r → - rs , k → ks) which recovers the additive (q → 2 - q) and multiplicative (q → 1 / q) dualities in the Tsallis limit.

  18. From a contractors perspective: what is needed to recover used CCA treated lumber? (United States)

    Delton R. Alderman; Robert L. Smith; Philip A. Araman


    The rationale of this research was to discern the factors that currently are preventing contractors from recovering and recycling spent chromated copper arsenate (CCA) lumber. This study examines the effects of evaluations and beliefs, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and awareness of the contractor's decision intention to recover used CCA lumber....


    The report gives results of an investigation of the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICS) during "recovered" trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) incineration. Tests involved burning the recovered CFC-11 in a propane gas flame. combustion gas samples were taken and an...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment... Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 82—Standard for Recycle/Recover Equipment... the ozone layer, recycle of CFC-12 (R-12) used in mobile air-conditioning systems is required to...

  1. First-Order Hyperbolic System Method for Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Problems (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki


    A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion system is discretized by the second-order upwind residual-distribution scheme in a unified manner, and the system of implicit-residual-equations is solved by Newton's method over every physical time step. The numerical results are presented for linear and nonlinear advection-diffusion problems, demonstrating solutions and gradients produced to the same order of accuracy, with rapid convergence over each physical time step, typically less than five Newton iterations.

  2. Surface diffusion control of the photocatalytic oxidation in air/TiO2 heterogeneous reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsekov, R


    The diffusion of superoxide radical anions on the surface of TiO2 catalysts is theoretically considered as an important step in the kinetics of photocatalytic oxidation of toxic pollutants. A detailed analysis is performed to discriminate the effects of rotation, anion and adsorption bonds vibrations on the diffusion coefficient. A resonant dependence of the diffusivity on the lattice parameters of the TiO2 surface is discovered showing that the most rapid diffusion takes place when the lattice parameters are twice larger than the bond length of the superoxide radical anions. Whereas the rotation and vibrations normal to the catalyst surface are important, the anion bond vibrations do not affect the diffusivity due to their low amplitudes as compared to the lattice parameters.

  3. Advanced diffusion MRI and biomarkers in the central nervous system: a new approach. (United States)

    Martín Noguerol, T; Martínez Barbero, J P

    The introduction of diffusion-weighted sequences has revolutionized the detection and characterization of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Nevertheless, the assessment of diffusion studies of the CNS is often limited to qualitative estimation. Moreover, the pathophysiological complexity of the different entities that affect the CNS cannot always be correctly explained through classical models. The development of new models for the analysis of diffusion sequences provides numerous parameters that enable a quantitative approach to both diagnosis and prognosis as well as to monitoring the response to treatment; these parameters can be considered potential biomarkers of health and disease. In this update, we review the physical bases underlying diffusion studies and diffusion tensor imaging, advanced models for their analysis (intravoxel coherent motion and kurtosis), and the biological significance of the parameters derived. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Models of diffuse solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Brown, Bruce [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)


    For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from trigonometry, we need to have diffuse on the horizontal available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse radiation on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia [Spencer JW. A comparison of methods for estimating hourly diffuse solar radiation from global solar radiation. Sol Energy 1982; 29(1): 19-32]. Boland et al. [Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Environmetrics 2001; 12: 103-16] developed a validated model for Australian conditions. We detail our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the approach reported therein, particularly the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Additionally, we have also constructed a method, using quadratic programming, for identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. This allows us to eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. (author)

  5. Anomalous diffusion in one dimension (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.


    In view of the interest in the occurrence of anomalous diffusion ( ∼ t 2H, 0 ∼ t2 H; the diffusive spread of the initial condition is given by xε( t) ∼ tH; and the first passage time from the origin to the point x has a stable Lévy distribution with an exponent equal to H.

  6. Persistent diffusion on a line (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Chaturvedi, S.


    We consider solutions to the telegraph equation describing persistent diffusion on a line under various initial conditions. The first passage time distribution is evaluated in closed form. Biased persistent diffusion is also considered. A direct derivation of the telegraph equation from the stochastic equation for the displacement is presented in an appendix.

  7. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts


    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  8. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg


    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures...

  9. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  10. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at

  11. Mobile telecommunications’ diffusion in Russia


    Rachinskiy, Andrey


    In the beginning of the 21st century mobile telecommunications spread out rapidly in Russia and became basic commodity Mobile technology arises first in large and rich regions with developed infrastructure Speed of technological diffusion grows over time; regions where mobile technology came lately catch up leaders Infrastructure development positively affects speed of technological diffusion

  12. Supersymmetry model of a binary mixture with noise of the diffusion flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olemskoi, Alexander [Applied Physics Institute, 58, Petropavlovskaya street, 40030 Sumy (Ukraine)]. E-mail:; Galenko, Peter [Institute of Materials Physics in Space, German Aerospace Center, 51170 Cologne (Germany)]. E-mail:; Shmatko, Anna [Kharkov National University, 4, Svoboda square, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail:


    Supersymmetry theory of diffusion is elaborated to study analytically a non-equilibrium binary mixture with relaxation of diffusion flux. Within such a scheme, Bose components represent order parameter and amplitude of fluctuations of the diffusion flux, while the mutually conjugated combination of Fermi-components gives the mixture concentration. For above variables, the system of equations is found to describe self-consistent behavior of a binary mixture, when the shortest observable time interval is longer than the flux relaxation time.

  13. River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials (River DREAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Daniel P. [Bayer MaterialScience LLC


    The purpose of this project is to develop a generator called a Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED). It uses a galloping prism to convert water flow into linear motion. This motion is converted into electricity via a dielectric elastomer generator (DEG). The galloping mechanism and the DEG are combined to create a system to effectively generate electricity. This project has three research objectives: 1. Oscillator development and design a. Characterize galloping behavior, evaluate control surface shape change on oscillator performance and demonstrate shape change with water flow change. 2. Dielectric Energy Generator (DEG) characterization and modeling a. Characterize and model the performance of the DEG based on oscillator design 3. Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED) system modeling and integration a. Create numerical models for construction of a system performance model and define operating capabilities for this approach Accomplishing these three objectives will result in the creation of a model that can be used to fully define the operating parameters and performance capabilities of a generator based on the GHEED design. This information will be used in the next phase of product development, the creation of an integrated laboratory scale generator to confirm model predictions.

  14. Recovering Galaxy Properties Using Gaussian Process SED Fitting (United States)

    Iyer, Kartheik; Awan, Humna


    Information about physical quantities like the stellar mass, star formation rates, and ages for distant galaxies is contained in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs), obtained through photometric surveys like SDSS, CANDELS, LSST etc. However, noise in the photometric observations often is a problem, and using naive machine learning methods to estimate physical quantities can result in overfitting the noise, or converging on solutions that lie outside the physical regime of parameter space.We use Gaussian Process regression trained on a sample of SEDs corresponding to galaxies from a Semi-Analytic model (Somerville+15a) to estimate their stellar masses, and compare its performance to a variety of different methods, including simple linear regression, Random Forests, and k-Nearest Neighbours. We find that the Gaussian Process method is robust to noise and predicts not only stellar masses but also their uncertainties. The method is also robust in the cases where the distribution of the training data is not identical to the target data, which can be extremely useful when generalized to more subtle galaxy properties.

  15. Asymptotic inference for jump diffusions with state-dependent intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, Gaia; Drost, Feico; Werker, Bas


    We establish the local asymptotic normality property for a class of ergodic parametric jump-diffusion processes with state-dependent intensity and known volatility function sampled at high frequency. We prove that the inference problem about the drift and jump parameters is adaptive with respect to

  16. On Polarization and Frequency Dependence of Diffuse Indoor Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    The room electromagnetics (RE) theory describes the radio propagation in a single room assuming diffuse scat- tering. A main characteristic is the exponential power-delay profile (PDP) decaying with the so-called reverberation time (RT) parameter, depending only on the wall area, the volume...

  17. On the existence of hydrodynamic instability in single diffusive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Appl. 175 (1993) 458), to establish mathematically, the existence of hydrodynamic instability in single diffusive bottom heavy systems, when considered in the more general framework of the boundary conditions of the type specified by Beavers and Joseph (J. Fluid Mech. 30 (1967) 197), in the parameter regime T 0 2 > 1 ...

  18. Suppression of oscillations in mean-field diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 28, 2015 ... We study the role of mean-field diffusive coupling on suppression of oscillations for systems of limit cycle oscillators. We show that this coupling scheme not only induces amplitude death (AD) but also oscillation death (OD) in coupled identical systems. The suppression of oscillations in the parameter space ...

  19. Addimer diffusions on Si(100)

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G D; Lu, Z Y; Ho, K M


    The diffusion pathways along the trough and between the trough and the dimer row on the Si(100) surface are investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics calculations using the environment dependent tight-binding silicon potential and by ab initio calculations using the Car-Parrinello method. The studies discover new diffusion pathways consisting of rotation of addimer. The calculated energy barrier are in excellent agreement with experiment. The rotational diffusion pathway between the trough and the dimer row is much more energetically favorable than other diffusion pathways by parallel and perpendicular addimer. The new pathway along the trough is nearly same as the energy barrier of the diffusion pathway by dissociation of the addimer.

  20. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation (United States)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm


    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  1. Lithium diffusion in silicate melts (United States)

    Cunningham, G. J.; Henderson, P.; Lowry, R. K.; Nolan, J.; Reed, S. J. B.; Long, J. V. P.


    The diffusion properties of Li in an andesitic and pitchstone melt have been determined over the temperature range 1300-1400°C. The diffusion data have been fitted to an Arrhenius relationship between log D0 and 1/ T, and give relatively small activation energies of diffusion: 21.4±5.8 kcal mol -1 in the andesite and 20.1±2.8 kcal mol -1 in the pitchstone. Li +, unlike several other cations, shows similar diffusivities in these melt compositions to that in a basaltic melt. Despite the similar ionic radius of Li + to that of Co 2+, the diffusion properties of the two ions are very different from each other.

  2. A Natural Analogy to the Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya


    Full Text Available A new mathematical approach to the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies is presented using the diffusion of natural processes as an analogy. This approach is applied to the diffusion of the electric arc furnace in Japan. The main advantage offered by the new approach is the incorporation of an average effect of barriers to, and support measures for, innovation. This approach also incorporates some of the parameters influencing the cost-effectiveness of the investment in the new technology as the main driver for adopting the innovation. The straightforward equivalence between natural phenomena and the diffusion of innovation requires the conceptual abstraction of setting a dimension (and defining the medium in which the diffusion takes place. This new approach opens new research paths to analysing under what circumstances innovations can take-off, the effect of barriers in the diffusion of energy efficient technologies, or how the diffusion process is incorporated in energy-system models.

  3. Atrial lesion transmurality assessment using multi-fiber diffuse reflectance (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Hendon, Christine P.


    In non-pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrhythmias such as catheter ablation therapy, long-term treatment effectiveness is related in part to the quality of lesion generation. Superficial lesions may lead to arrhythmia recurrence by allowing recovery along conduction channels for arrhythmic impulses to propagate; conversely transmural lesions inhibit conduction. Conventional techniques rely on measurement of surrogate parameters such as change in bioelectrical impedance, or electrogram amplitude dampening as a qualitative assessment for lesion size. In previous work, we've demonstrated a relationship between lesion dimensions and spectroscopic parameters extracted using an optically-integrated ablation catheter. Though these metrics present some trend, a method to directly assess lesion transmurality maybe better suited. In this work, we report a method for direct recovery of lesion depth in cardiac tissue using diffusely reflected optical measurements and present initial in silico validation. Photon transport throughout a heterogeneous volume was simulated for a series of source-detector pairs and optical properties using a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) code. Results were used to generate a multi-dimensional look-up table for each collection geometry for partial to transmural lesions. A genetic algorithm-based two-step inversion method was employed to extract lesion transmurality. MC simulated optical measurements for various lesion sizes were generated using optical properties for ablated and normal cardiac tissue found in literature and were fitted using our algorithm. Recovered lesion depths ranged between 2-10% for lesions less than 3mm and were within 20% for lesions greater than 4mm. These results support the application of this technique for lesion validation for atrial tissue.

  4. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura


    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  5. Multidimensional diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W


    From the reviews: "… Both the Markov-process approach and the Itô approach … have been immensely successful in diffusion theory. The Stroock-Varadhan book, developed from the historic 1969 papers by its authors, presents the martingale-problem approach as a more powerful - and, in certain regards, more intrinsic-means of studying the foundations of the subject. […] … the authors make the uncompromising decision not "to proselytise by intimidating the reader with myriad examples demonstrating the full scope of the techniques", but rather to persuade the reader "with a careful treatment of just one problem to which they apply". […] Most of the main tools of stochastic-processes theory are used, ..but it is the formidable combination of probability theory with analysis … which is the core of the work. […] I have emphasized the great importance of the Stroock-Varadhan book. It contains a lot more than I have indicated; in particular, its many exercises conain much interesting material. For immediat...

  6. Diffusion-Reorganized Aggregates: Attractors in Diffusion Processes? (United States)

    Filoche, Marcel; Sapoval, Bernard


    A process based on particle evaporation, diffusion, and redeposition is applied iteratively to a two-dimensional object of arbitrary shape. The evolution spontaneously transforms the object morphology, converging to branched structures. Independently of initial geometry, the structures found after a long time present fractal geometry with a fractal dimension around 1.75. The final morphology, which constantly evolves in time, can be considered as the dynamic attractor of this evaporation-diffusion-redeposition operator. The ensemble of these fractal shapes can be considered to be the dynamical equilibrium geometry of a diffusion-controlled self-transformation process.

  7. The diffusion-buffer phenomenon in a mathematical model of biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu [Yaroslavl Demidov State University (Russian Federation); Rozov, Nikolai Kh [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We consider the Neumann problem for partial differential-difference equations with diffusion that models a predator-prey problem. Using infinite-dimensional normalization, we establish the diffusion-buffer phenomenon, which means that the system can have any number of stable spatially inhomogeneous cycles if its parameters are properly chosen.

  8. Bayesian estimation of discretely observed multi-dimensional diffusion processes using guided proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, F.H.; Schauer, M.R.


    Estimation of parameters of a diffusion based on discrete time observations poses a difficult problem due to the lack of a closed form expression for the likelihood. From a Bayesian computational perspective it can be casted as a missing data problem where the diffusion bridges in between

  9. Bayesian estimation of discretely observed multi-dimensional diffusion processes using guided proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der F.; Schauer, M.


    Estimation of parameters of a diffusion based on discrete time observations poses a difficult problem due to the lack of a closed form expression for the likelihood. From a Bayesian computational perspective it can be casted as a missing data problem where the diffusion bridges in between

  10. Diffusion Tensor MRI of the Heart – In Vivo Imaging of Myocardial Fiber Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froeling, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648354; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Chamuleau, SAJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/236454161; Luijten, PR|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821098

    Despite many difficulties, the field of cardiac diffusion imaging is slowly but steadily making progress. In recent years it was demonstrated that reproducible measurement of diffusion parameters and fiber architecture in healthy and diseased hearts is possible. In this review we will discuss the

  11. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana


    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  12. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika


    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively

  13. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.


    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  14. Fast fabrication of integrated surface-relief and particle-diffusing plastic diffuser by use of a hybrid extrusion roller embossing process. (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Chien; Ciou, Jian-Ren; Huang, Po-Hsun; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Yang, Sen-Yeu


    Most plastic diffusers are either of surface-relief or particle-diffusing types, based on different principles and fabrication methods. This paper reports an innovative extrusion roller embossing process, which enables the fabrication of diffusers with both surface-relief and particle-diffusing functions. An extruder with die is employed to fabricate the thin film of PC/bead composite; the roller micro-embossing process is used to replicate the microstructure onto the surface of PC composite film. A metallic roller mold with microstructures is fabricated using turning process. During the extrusion rolling embossing process, the extruded film of PC with diffusion beads is immediately pressed against the surface of the roller mold. Under the proper processing parameters, the plastic diffusers integrating surface-relief and particle-diffusing functions have been successfully fabricated. The shape, uniformity, and optical properties of fabricated diffuser have been verified. This method shows the great potential for continuous fabrication of high-performance plastic diffusers integrating surface-relief and particle-diffusing functions with high throughput.

  15. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tabibzadeh, Siamak, E-mail: [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Dept of Oncologic Radiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  16. A Preliminary Study Examining Women's Physical Health and Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use in a Recovering Framework. (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R; Leukefeld, Carl G


    There is a growing need for research on women recovering from nonmedical prescription opioid use. A paradigm shift is to focus on wellness and factors that support, rather than hinder, recovering women. For example, although physical health is impacted by nonmedical prescription opioid use, improved health may be a strength-based factor among recovering women. The aim of this preliminary study was to examine physical health in a recovering framework as women begin recovering from nonmedical prescription opiate use. This study conducted secondary data analysis using self-report data from Kentucky's Targeted Assessment Program (TAP). TAP assesses and provides pretreatment for problems impeding work or interfering with parental responsibilities. Data included 1247 adult women reporting a history of nonmedical prescription opioid use and receiving pretreatment. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses examined whether physical health and access to health services at baseline were associated with substance-related behavior change upon completion of pretreatment. Women reporting better physical health and fewer days with no activities due to health barriers were more likely to engage in pretreatment substance-related behavior change [χ2(8) = 34.6, p medical providers should be incorporated into care to meet the need. Future research should continue to examine factors that support recovering women, using a recovering framework.

  17. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, George J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maggs, James E. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  18. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Tack, F. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Hees, M.; Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)


    The usefulness of uranium concentration in soil solution or recovered by selective extraction as unequivocal bioavailability indices for uranium uptake by plants is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to test if the uranium concentration measured by the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique is a relevant substitute for plant uranium availability in comparison to uranium concentration in the soil solution or uranium recovered by ammonium acetate. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Melvina) is grown in greenhouse on a range of uranium spiked soils. The DGT-recovered uranium concentration (C{sub DGT}) was correlated with uranium concentration in the soil solution or with uranium recovered by ammonium acetate extraction. Plant uptake was better predicted by the summed soil solution concentrations of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, uranyl carbonate complexes and UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  20. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine (United States)

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.