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Sample records for recover heavy hydrocarbons

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2006-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provides onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 13 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  4. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2004-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  5. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGLs) and remove water from raw natural gas. To convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process, we plan to conduct an extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions. The membrane system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR). The MTR membrane system and the compressor are now onsite at BP's Pascagoula, MS plant. The plant is undergoing a very significant expansion and the installation of the membrane unit into the test location is being implemented, albeit at a slower rate than we expected. The startup of the system and conducting of tests will occur in the next six months, depending on the availability of the remaining budget. In the interim, significant commercial progress has been made regarding the introduction of the NGL membrane and systems into the natural gas market.

  6. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-30

    The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  7. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2005-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provided onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 11 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  9. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  10. Alternatives for recovering metals from spent catalysts for hydrotreating of heavy hydrocarbons: a case study; Alternativas para la recuperacion de metales a partir de catalizadores gastados del hidrotratamiento de hidrocarburos pesados: un caso de estudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Fernando; Ramirez, Sergio; Ancheyta, Jorge; Mavil, Martha [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jancheyt@imp.mx

    2008-05-15

    The increasing production of spent hydrotreating catalysts used for processing heavy hydrocarbons and the problems related to their disposal are described in this work. These catalysts contain important amounts of heavy metals such as molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and vanadium (V), which can be recovered and hence an economical benefit may be obtained. The results of experimental tests for alkaline leaching (NaOH) to recover V and Mo, and the effect of operating conditions on metal recovery are also presented. The results show that, in general, the highest recovery of Mo is obtained at pH 8.5 and leaching time of 12 hours, while in the case of V, the highest recovery is observed at pH 9.0 and 8 hours. In both cases, the leaching solution contained 10 wt % alkaline. Based on the experimental information and data from a commercial plant, a preliminary economy study was developed, in which the expected economical benefits of metals recovery from spent catalysts used for hydrotreating heavy hydrocarbon are estimated. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se describe la problematica de la creciente produccion de catalizadores gastados de los procesos de hidrotratamiento de hidrocarburos pesados. Estos catalizadores contienen cantidades importantes de metales pesados como molibdeno (Mo), niquel (Ni), cobalto (Co) y vanadio (V), que son susceptibles de recuperarse y obtener con ello un beneficio economico. Tambien se presentan resultados de pruebas experimentales de lixiviacion alcalina (NaOH) para la recuperacion de V y Mo, y el efecto de las variables de operacion sobre la recuperacion de metales. En general, se encontro que las mejores recuperaciones de Mo fueron a pH de 8.5 y 12 h, mientras que para el V fueron a pH de 9.0 y 8 h, ambos a una concentracion del agente lixiviante de 10% en peso. Con base en la informacion experimental obtenida y datos de una planta industrial se presenta un estudio economico preliminar, en el que se estiman los beneficios

  11. A New Method for Hydrocarbon Loss Recovering of Rock-Eval Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xin-song; WANG Yan-bin; ZOU Xiao-yong

    2004-01-01

    How to accurately recover the hydrocarbon loss is a crucial step in reservoir evaluation by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. However, it is very difficult to determine the recovering coefficients because there are numerous factors causing the hydrocarbon loss. Aiming at this problem, a new method named critical point analysis is put forward in this paper. The first step of the method is to find the critical point by drawing the scatterplot of hydrocarbon contents versus the ratio of the light component of with the heavy component of;And the second step is to calculate the recovering coefficient by contrasting the pyrolysis parameters at the critical point of different sample types. This method is not only been explained reasonably theoretically,but also has got a good application effect in Huanghua depression.

  12. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  13. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  14. Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon contents of sediments from Ikpoba (Edo) and Ethiope (Delta) Rivers of Nigeria. ... THC contents were 6.50mg/kg (Ikpoba river) and 42.10mg/kg (Ethiope river). The organic contents ...

  15. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Kostrena Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Linšak, Dijana; Linšak, Željko; Bešić, Denis; Vojčić, Nina; Teležar, Mirna; Čoklo, Miran; Šušnić, Saša; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22–48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (

  17. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments: consequences on the speciation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Gabellini, Massimo; Rocchetti, Laura; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effects of biostimulation and bioagumentation strategies applied to harbor sediments displaying reducing conditions and high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We compared the microbial efficiency of hydrocarbon removal from sediments maintained for 60 days in anoxic conditions and inoculated with acetate, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains and acetate and sulfate-reducing bacteria. All treatments determined a significant increase in the microbial growth and significant decreases of hydrocarbon contents and of redox potential values. The addition of sulfate-reducing bacterial strains to the sediment was the most efficient treatment for the hydrocarbon removal. In all experiments, significant changes of the heavy metals' phase repartition were observed. The results reported here suggest that the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments may be enhanced by stimulating microbial anaerobic metabolism, but care should be applied to monitor the potential changes in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals induced by bio-treatments.

  20. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  1. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  2. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10-13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  3. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

    2004-10-01

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C&D debris fines from 13 C&D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies.

  5. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems.

  6. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  7. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results.

  8. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Nitsche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of leaf litter have to be disposed of by city administrations. This biomass has the potential for energy conversion, but contamination with pollutants can adversely affect this usage. We investigated leaf litter samples from the city of Kassel by analyzing their heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH concentrations. Leaf samples were indeed contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs and contamination was influenced by provenience and collection technique. A simple cleaning system of washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering significantly reduced heavy metal concentration. Regression models were developed for contamination with heavy metals which showed that contamination could be successfully estimated using the total ash content of the sample as a predictor, with an R2 of up to 0.77. It can be concluded that leaf litter from cities is a possible feedstock for energetic conversion, provided a cleaning step is applied.

  9. Distribution of Heavy Hydrocarbon in Coal Seams and Its Use in Predicting Outburst of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋承林; 李增华; 韩颖

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify whether any special gas component exists in outburst samples or not, coal samples from both outburst coal seams and non-outburst coal seams were collected. Some gases were extracted from the samples and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on chromatogram-mass spectrograph. The qualitative analysis show that there is no special gases in coal seams. And the quantitative analysis indicates that the heavy hydrocarbon content in coal samples from outburst coal seams is apparently higher than that from non-outburst district ones, which reflects the damage of geological tectonic movement to coal body in history. Therefore, the heavy hydrocarbon content of coal sample can be used as an index to predict coal outburst.

  10. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  11. Accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Haiqing; SONG Qian; WANG Xuchen

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation and distributions of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in tissues of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from 5 sites in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbon and PAHs ranged from 570 to 2 574 ng/gdw (gram dry weight) and from 276 to 939 ng/gdw, in the most and least polluted sites, respectively. The bio-accumulation of hydrocarbons and PAHs in the clams appeared to be selective. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were predominantly represented by short chain (hydrocarbons were likely the major contamination source. The selective uptake of 3 and 4 ring PAHs, such as naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, by the clams was probably related to the physiological and bio-kinetic processes that were energetically favorable for uptake of compounds with fewer rings. Accumulation of the metals Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg, and As in the clam tissues also showed high variability, ranging from 0.043 to 87μg/gdw. Among the 7 detected metals, Zn, Cd, Cu, and As had a particularly high potential of accumulation in R. philippinarum. In general, a positive correlation was found between the tissue concentrations and sediment concentrations of hydrocarbons and of some metals. Our study suggests that moderate contamination with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and low to moderate contamination with metals, currently exists for clam R. philippinarum in Jiaozhou Bay, in comparison with other regional studies. A long-term monitoring program is certainly needed for assessment of the potential ecological influence and toxicity of these contaminants of R. philippinarum in Jiaozhou Bay.

  12. Impact of hydrocarbons, PCBs and heavy metals on bacterial communities in Lerma River, Salamanca, Mexico: Investigation of hydrocarbon degradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; De la Cruz Barrón, Magali; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Andrade, Leandro H; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Simon, Maryse; Guyoneaud, Remy

    2015-07-15

    Freshwater contamination usually comes from runoff water or direct wastewater discharges to the environment. This paper presents a case study which reveals the impact of these types of contamination on the sediment bacterial population. A small stretch of Lerma River Basin, heavily impacted by industrial activities and urban wastewater release, was studied. Due to industrial inputs, the sediments are characterized by strong hydrocarbon concentrations, ranging from 2 935 to 28 430μg·kg(-1) of total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These sediments are also impacted by heavy metals (e.g., 9.6μg·kg(-1) of Cd and 246μg·kg(-1) of Cu, about 8 times the maximum recommended values for environmental samples) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ranging from 54 to 123μg·kg(-1) of total PCBs). The bacterial diversity on 6 sediment samples, taken from upstream to downstream of the main industrial and urban contamination sources, was assessed through TRFLP. Even though the high PAH concentrations are hazardous to aquatic life, they are not the only factor driving bacterial community composition in this ecosystem. Urban discharges, leading to hypoxia and low pH, also strongly influenced bacterial community structure. The bacterial bioprospection of these samples, using PAH as unique carbon source, yielded 8 hydrocarbonoclastic strains. By sequencing the 16S rDNA gene, these were identified as similar to Mycobacterium goodii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas lundensis or Aeromonas veronii. These strains showed high capacity to degrade naphthalene (between 92 and 100% at 200mg·L(-1)), pyrene (up to 72% at 100mg·L(-1)) and/or fluoranthene (52% at 50mg·L(-1)) as their only carbon source on in vitro experiments. These hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were detected even in the samples upstream of the city of Salamanca, suggesting chronical contamination, already in place longer before. Such microorganisms are clearly potential candidates for hydrocarbon degradation in the

  13. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  14. Isolation and characterization of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria adapted to electrokinetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmei; Guo, Shuhai; Hartog, Niels; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Xuelian

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria capable of growing under electrokinetic conditions were isolated using an adjusted acclimation and enrichment procedure based on soil contaminated with heavy PAHs in the presence of an electric field. Their ability to degrade heavy PAHs under an electric field was individually investigated in artificially contaminated soils. The results showed that strains PB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and FB6 (Kocuria sp.) were the most efficient heavy PAH degraders under electrokinetic conditions. They were re-inoculated into a polluted soil from an industrial site with a PAH concentration of 184.95 mg kg(-1). Compared to the experiments without an electric field, the degradation capability of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Kocuria sp. was enhanced in the industrially polluted soil under electrokinetic conditions. The degradation extents of total PAHs were increased by 15.4 and 14.0% in the electrokinetic PB4 and FB6 experiments (PB4 + EK and FB6 + EK) relative to the PB4 and FB6 experiments without electrokinetic conditions (PB4 and FB6), respectively. These results indicated that P. fluorescens and Kocuria sp. could efficiently degrade heavy PAHs under electrokinetic conditions and have the potential to be used for the electro-bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil, especially if the soil is contaminated with heavy PAHs.

  15. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical condu...

  16. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides.

  17. Nonthermal plasma reactors for the production of light hydrocarbon olefins from heavy oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, nonthermal plasma technology was applied in many different fields, focusing attention on the destruction of harmful compounds in the air. This paper deals with nonthermal plasma reactors for the conversion of heavy oil into light hydrocarbon olefins, to be employed as gasoline components or to be added in small amounts for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide compounds in the treatment of exhaust gas at power plants. For the process, the plate-plate nonthermal plasma reactor driven by AC high voltage was selected. The reactor was modeled as a function of parameter characteristics, using the methodology provided by the statistical experimental design. The parameters studied were gap distance between electrodes, carrier gas flow and applied power. Results indicate that the reactions occurring in the process of heavy oil conversion have an important selective behavior. The products obtained were C1-C4 hydrocarbons with ethylene as the main compound. Operating the parameters of the reactor within the established operative window of the system and close to the optimum conditions, efficiencies as high as 70 (mul/joule were obtained. These values validate the process as an in-situ method to produce light olefins for the treatment of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas from diesel engines.

  18. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  19. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  20. Evaluation of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals with using Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary Mehrabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil pollution is an inevitable worldwide phenomenon in oil producing and consuming areas that stems from human error, accidental discharge and other sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of vinca in petroleum-polluted soil. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in 3 replications with different concentrations of crude oil (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % V/W in pot planting stage. At the end of the 70-day period, soil samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons removal. Contents of pb, zn and Ni were measured by atomic absorption from the soils and the leaves. Statistical analysis of data were performed on the basis of duncan’s test and by using of SPSS16 software. In concentrations higher than 3 % no growth was observed. The growth parameters such as stem length, stem fresh and dry matter decreased progressively from 0.5-3 % crude oil in soil. The results showed heavy metal accumulation in plant leaves and reduction of them in the soil. Heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel in plant increased in different concentration of crude oil. Total hydrocarbons and heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel reduced were in planted contaminated soil. This study showed that Periwinkle was able to grow and survive in low concentrations of oil and reduced pollutants in the soil. Based upon these results, Catharanthus roseus can be used as phytoremediator of petroleum-contaminated soil in low concentrations.

  1. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  2. Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesana, A.; Dalloro, L.; Rivetti, F.; Buzzoni, R.; Bignazzi, R. [ENI S.p.A., Novara (Italy). Refining and Marketing Div.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of the present study was upgrading a set of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures whose commercial value ranks close to fuel oil and should become even lower in the next future because of the introduction of more stringent regulations on fuels, through hydro-conversion to a synthetic feed for steam-cracking. The resulting process provides an opportunity to improve the economic return of a steamcracking plant, offering the chance of converting low-value mixtures produced by the plant itself, such as fuel oil of cracking (FOK), saving an equivalent amount of naphtha. The method can also be used for converting pyrolysis gasoline (pygas). Although pygas has at present a fair commercial value, it could suffer a significant penalization in the future due to further limitations on total aromatic content in gasoline. Pygas hydro-conversion to a synthetic steam-cracking feedstock has been recently reported. Fractions from refinery, such as heavy distillates (e.g. Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil, VGO), deasphalted resides (DAO), or some FCC streams (e.g. LCO) resulted suitable and very attractive mixtures to be treated as well. No more than deasphalting was required as pretreatment of the feed mixture and only when the asphalts were >2%. Hetero-elements are often present in such kind of feeds at quite high concentrations, but no problems were observed due to the presence of sulphur and nitrogen, respectively, up to 15000 and 5500 ppm. (orig.)

  3. Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, E O; Wegwu, M O; Nwosu, U L

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the importance of clean and fertile agricultural soil for the continued existence of man, this study investigated the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals in soils and selected commonly consumed vegetables and tubers from oil-polluted active agricultural farmland in Gokana of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples from Umuchichi, Osisioma Local Government Area in Abia State, Nigeria, a non-oil-polluted area constituted the control. In test and control, up to 3,830 ± 19.6 mgkg(-1) dw and 6,950 ± 68.3 mgkg(-1) dw (exceeding DPR set limits) and 11.3 ± 0.04 mgkg(-1) dw and 186 ± 0.02 mgkg(-1) dw for TPH and PAHs, respectively, were recorded in test soil and plant samples, respectively. Among the metals studied (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn), Pb and Cr uptake exceeded WHO set limits for crops in test samples. Combined sources of pollution were evident from our studies. Bitterleaf and Waterleaf could be tried as bioindicators owing to expressed contaminants uptake pattern.

  4. Activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni, moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.

  5. [Characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Zelong

    2012-02-01

    An analytical method for separating and identifying the aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was established. The two-dimensional distribution by ring number of the aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained. Besides phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrene, many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were identified by using the retention times, standard mass spectra or literature reports. The method was successfully applied to the hydrotreating process of heavy gas oil and the hydrotreated products of phenanthrene, pyrene were identified. This method provided technical support for the characterization of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy gas oil and the investigation of hydrogenation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Compared with the conventional method, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the GC x GC-TOF MS method illustrated the obvious advantages for heavy gas oil analysis.

  6. Heavy metal ions affecting the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi with heavy-metal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ling Wu, Ling; Fam, Hala

    2014-12-01

    The co-occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) is very common in contaminated environments. It is of paramount importance and great challenge to exploit a bioremediation to remove PAHs in these environments with combined pollution. We approached this question by probing the influence of HMs coexisting with PAHs on the removal of PAHs by Acremonium sp. P0997 possessing metal resistance. A removal capability for naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthenepresentalone (98.6, 99.3, 89.9, 60.4, and 70 %, respectively) and in a mixture (96.9, 71.8, 67.0, 85.0, and 87.9 %, respectively) was achieved in mineral culture inoculated with Acremonium sp. P0997, and this strain also displayed high resistance to the individual HMs (Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Al(3+), and Pb(2+)). The removal of individual PAHs existing in a mixture was differently affected by the separately tested HMs. Cu(2+)enhanced the partition process of anthracene to dead or alive mycelia and the contribution of the biosorption by this strain but imposed a little negative influence on the contribution of biodegradation to the total removal of anthracene individually in a culture. However, Mn(2+) had an inhibitory effect on the partition process of anthracene to dead or alive mycelia and decreased the contributions of both biosorption and biodegradation to the total anthracene removal. This work showcased the value of fungi in bioremediation for the environments with combined pollution, and the findings have major implications for the bioremediation of organic pollutants in metal-organic mixed contaminated sites.

  7. Influence of mid-point temperature of heavy hydrocarbons separator to the liquefaction process for small LNG plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, H. A.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) process production, one of the important units is heavy hydrocarbon removal unit to prevent freezing during liquefaction. For small scale of LNG plant, this unit is usually integrated with main heat exchanger. Feed is obtained from main heat exchanger then flows to separator to separate liquid from gas. The separator operating condition is called as Midpoint condition. Selecting Midpoint conditions have impact to light hydrocarbon losses, Specific Brake Horse Power (SBHP) process, and heating value of LNG. Hence understanding of selecting this condition and its effect to light hydrocarbon losses, SBHP process, and HHV of LNG will help to design more efficient LNG plant. According to study, the lower of Mid-Point temperature will result in lower SBHP, lower of light hydrocarbon losses, and increase LNG of HHV value. Meanwhile, the higher Mid-Point pressure will result in lower SBHP, higher light hydrocarbon losses, and lower LNG of HHV value. The change of Mid-Point pressures have more impact to light hydrocarbon losses than SBHP process.

  8. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Karoon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Mokhtarzadeh, Zeinab; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Rostami, Soqra; Kaabi, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Karoon is the longest river in Iran and provides water for industries located along its banks, such as metal, petrochemical, and oil industries. It is also the source of drinking water for cities such as Ahwas, Abadan, and Khorramshahr. In this study, 34 and 18 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measured concentrations of heavy metals were compared with US EPA sediment quality guidelines, and the results showed that Cu concentration was above the threshold effect level (TEL) in 65.67% of the samples and Hg concentration was above the effect range median (ERM) in some samples. The results revealed that Hg was severely enriched (5 < enrichment factor < 20) and classified in very high ecological risk index category. It is the major metallic contaminant in the study area. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 11.54-117,730 μg/kg, with the mean value of 7034.55 μg/kg dominated by lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs. The total potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑cPAHs) in sediment samples ranged from 2.09 to 31,930 μg/kg, indicating high carcinogenic potential of sediments in the study area. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) values ranged from 1.06 to 7228.7 μg/kg. Maximum TEQ occurred in Abadan oil refinery station followed by Khorramshahr soap factory and Abadan petrochemical complex. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis also revealed the relationships between the studied parameters and identified their probable sources.

  9. Hydrocarbon Pollution and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Oturuba Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekwe Clinton Ifeanyichukwu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the impact of oil pollution from artisanal oil refineries on the Oturuba river ecosystem using active river bottom sediment. Specific objectives included to determine the level of hydrocarbons and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, V and Mg in the sediments and to relate this with general ecosystem health. The study found elevated concentrations of both hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the range above most sediment quality guidelines exceeding the respective Threshold Effects Level and Probable Effects. Level guideline values and occurring at levels where impairment to biological communities is certain an d where toxicity levels can lead to negative impacts on benthic animals or infaunal communities. Heavy metal geochemical accumulation index and potential ecological risk analysis also returned anomalously high concentrations in the range of very highly polluted sediment environments with very high ecological risk indices, thereby ranking the Oturuba Creek as one of the most polluted coastal river systems in the world.

  10. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Mandal, Asit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-15

    Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC>unmodified bentonite>Arquad-bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10-43%) as well as activities (respiration 3-44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  11. Heavy metals and polycyclic hydrocarbon compounds in benthic organisms of the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungspreugs, M.; Silpipat, S.; Tonapong, C.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Tenore, K.R.

    1984-06-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in bivalves collected in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. PAHs detected included acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, methylphenanthrene, phenanthrene and triphenylene. Benzol(a)pyrene was detected in all species at concentrations varying from 1.0 to 8.2 ng.g/sup -1/. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, and nickel were significantly lower in bivalves from the Gulf than in green mussels collected from the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. No correlation was found between metal concentrations in animals and sediment, with the exception of copper. Copper concentrations in polychaetes and clams appeared to correlate with the copper:iron ratio of sediments. High rates of degradation were observed when radiolabelled chlorobenzene, phenanthrene and chrysene were added to water and sediment of the Chao Phraya River. Rates were lower in the waters and sediment of the Gulf of Thailand. The calculated half-lives of chlorobenzene in the Gulf of Thailand and the Chao Phraya River were about 130 and 68 days, respectively. 32 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mohsen; Li, Loretta Y; Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh

    2012-08-15

    50 street dust samples from four major streets in eastern and southern Tehran, the capital of Iran, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn and Li). Hakanson's method was used to determine the Risk Index (RI) and ecological risks. Amongst these samples, 21 were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Correlation, cluster and principal component analyses identified probable natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants. The dust had elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and PAHs. Enrichment factors of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn showed that the dust is extremely enriched in these metals. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and PAHs and, to a lesser extent, Cr and Ni have common anthropogenic sources. While Mn and Li were identified to have natural sources, Cd may have different anthropogenic origins. All samples demonstrated high ecological risk. Traffic and related activities, petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are likely to be the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and PAHs in Tehran dust.

  13. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  14. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  15. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  16. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Mandal, Asit [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Division of Soil Biology, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel metal-immobilizing organoclay (MIOC) synthesized and characterized. • MIOC immobilizes toxic metals and reduces metal bioavailability. • It enhances PAH-bioavailability to soil bacteria. • It improves microbial growth and activities in mixed-contaminated soils. • MIOC facilitates PAH-biodegradation in metal co-contaminated soils. - Abstract: Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad{sup ®} 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC > unmodified bentonite > Arquad–bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10–43%) as well as activities (respiration 3–44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  17. Mechanochemical process to recover heavy metals from industrial ash; Procedimenti meccanochimici per l'estrazione di metalli pesanti da ceneri industriali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Barbera, A.; Bimbi, C.; De Francesco, M.; Padella, F. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ranaldi, E. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    An innovative mechanochemical process has been conceived to recover heavy metals from industrial ashes. The low environmental impact process is based on the transformation of heavy metals oxides into soluble salts. In particular high energy ball milling has been successfully applied on real samples from iron electrometallurgy. Heavy metals extractions higher than the ones resulting from the typical acid attack were obtained. [Italian] A partire da simulazioni termidinamiche, e' stato ideato un innovativo processo meccanochimico a basso impatto ambientale per il recupero di metalli pesanti da ceneri pericolose di origine industriale. Il processo, che prevede la conversione in fasi solubili di metalli pesanti presenti nelle ceneri sotto forma di ossidi misti insolubili, e' stato sperimentato con successo sia su campioni di laboratorio che su campioni reali. In particolare la macinazione ad alta energia e' stata applicata a campioni di cenere provenienti da elettrometallurgia del ferro, con un elevato contenuto di zinco, ottenendo risultati migliori di quelli ottenibili da un tradizionale attacco acido.

  18. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  19. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

    1975-12-01

    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  20. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  1. Sediment baseline study of levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Lake Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye, Katrine; Weisser, Johan; Borggaard, Ole K.;

    2014-01-01

    Selected metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in sediment samples from 24 sites in Lake Nicaragua sampled May 2010 to provide a baseline of pollution levels. Cu exceeded the Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guideline (CBSQG) Threshold Effect Concentrations (TECs) at 21...... showed that the CBSQG TECs were exceeded by naphthalene at five sites. The sum concentrations of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs (∑PAH16) ranged from 0.01mgkg(-1)dw to 0.64mgkg(-1)dw. The highest ∑PAH16 concentration was found upstream in River Mayales and the PAH composition revealed a heavy PAH fraction (e....... This study concluded that areas of Lake Nicaragua represent an important pollution baseline for future studies in this lake and other tropical lakes....

  2. Hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum heavy fractions using the TLC-FID technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.K.; Sarowha, S.L.S.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India); Tiwari, R.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Venkataramani, P.S. [Defence Materials and Stores, Research and Development, Establishment, Kanpur (India)

    1998-03-01

    Hydrocarbon group type analysis is important in all conversion processes and in preparation of feed for these conversion processes so as to learn the selectivity of the different type of catalysts for product yield and quality. The use of the Mark 5 Iatroscan detector and the method reported here allowed for a rapid and quantitative hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum residues without prior separation of asphaltenes. SARA type analyses of petroleum residues have been performed by a three stage development using n-hexane, toluene and DCM (95%):MeOH (5%). The standard deviation and coefficient of variation in repeated measurements by this method were as low as 0.65 wt% or less and 3.5 wt% or less, respectively. The time required for analysis of 10 samples could be as short as 90 min. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace heavy metals in roadside soils along the Lagos-Badagry expressway, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Adeleke A; Owoade, Olabisi J

    2010-08-01

    This study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace heavy metals (lead, copper, and cadmium) in soil samples collected randomly from Iyana-Iba garage, Lagos State University bus stop, Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education bus stop, and a control site off Lusada-Atan road, near Crawford University, Igbesa, Ogun state. TPH was estimated gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction and column clean up, while soil metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using mineral acid digestion. For TPH, the sites have mean values of 19.43+/-1.27, 16.11+/-1.85, and 11.43+/-4.33 mg/g with a control mean value of 0.33+/-0.16 mg/g. For trace heavy metals, cadmium was not detected. However, the mean levels of lead are 4.24+/-3.10, 3.72+/-0.60, and 3.70+/-1.32 microg/g, respectively, whereas mean copper concentrations are 20.63+/-9.02, 19.35+/-3.61, and 16.76+/-3.02 microg/g in all sites, respectively, compared to the control mean of 0.25+/-0.13 and 5.99+/-1.23 microg/g for lead and copper, respectively. Sites studied have higher levels of TPH and metals compared to the control soil samples. This is indicated by a statistically significant difference found between the concentration of analyzed elements in soils collected along Lagos-Badagry expressway and the control site.

  4. Interaction effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals on a soil microalga, Chlorococcum sp. MM11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Environmental risk assessment of sites contaminated with chemicals needs to also consider mixtures of chemicals as these toxicants act more differently in a mixture than when they occur alone. In this study, we describe, for the first time, the use of a full factorial design experiment to evaluate the toxicity of a quaternary mixture comprising two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe)) and two heavy metals (cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)) toward a soil microalga, Chlorococcum sp. MM11. Biomass, in terms of cell number, and proline accumulation were used to evaluate toxicity responses. Factorial analysis of the data revealed statistically significant interaction effects between the mixtures of toxicants on 96-h biomass endpoint, while no significant interaction effects were observed on proline accumulation in the microalga. A comparison of the data on the toxicity of individual chemicals and those of the factorial main effect analysis clearly showed that Cd is more toxic to the alga, followed by BaP, Pb, and Phe. There was a substantial heavy metal accumulation and PAH degradation by the strain MM11 at EC10 and EC50 of the chemical mixtures.

  5. Hydrocracking of heavy ends to light hydrocarbons for steam-crackers feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesana, A.; Buzzoni, R. [Eni S.p.A., Research Centre for Non-Conventional Energies, Novara (Italy). Ist. Eni Donegani

    2010-12-30

    Low value aromatic fractions, i.e. heavy pygas and pyrolysis fuel oil from naphtha steamcrackers or heavy distillates and ends from refinery, can be conveniently upgraded as high quality steamcracker feeds by severe hydrocracking treatment at 450 -530 C, 6 MPa H{sub 2} employing Ni-Mo or Zn-Mo on H-USY zeolite as catalysts. The process mainly leads to linear C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} alkanes with a low yield to CH{sub 4}. The robust catalytic system allows upgrading fractions with a high content of sulfur and nitrogen. Catalyst life and industrial feasibility have been assessed by long life runs using genuine industrial feedstocks. (orig.)

  6. Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesana, A.; Dalloro, L.; Rivetti, F.; Buzzoni, R. [Eni S.p.A., Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Novara (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Low value aromatic fractions, i.e. heavy pygas and pyrolysis fuel oil from naphtha steamcrackers or heavy distillates and ends from refinery, can be conveniently upgraded as high quality steamcracker feeds by severe hydrocracking treatment at 450 -530 C, 6 MPa H{sub 2} employing Ni-Mo or Zn-Mo on H-USY zeolite as catalysts. The process mainly leads to linear C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} alkanes with a low yield to CH{sub 4}. The robust catalytic system allows upgrading fractions with a high content of sulfur and nitrogen. Catalyst like and industrial feasibility have been assessed by long life runs using genuine industrial feedstocks. (orig.)

  7. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  8. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  9. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low

  10. Novel lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by hydrocarbon degrading and heavy metal tolerant bacterium Escherichia fergusonii KLU01 as a potential tool for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Gayathiri, Shanmugakani; Gnanaselvi, Ulaganathan; Jenifer, Paulraj Stanly; Mohan Raj, Subramanian; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-10-01

    Escherichia fergusonii KLU01, a propitious bacterial strain isolated from oil contaminated soil was identified to be hydrocarbon degrading, heavy metal tolerant and a potent producer of biosurfactant using diesel oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The biosurfactant produced by the strain was characterized to be a lipopeptide. The minimum active dose and critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant were found as 0.165±0.08 μg and 36 mg/L, respectively. In spite of being an excellent emulsifier, the biosurfactant showed an incredible stability at extremes of temperature, pH and at various concentrations of NaCl, CaCl₂ and MgCl₂. Also the bacterium manifested tolerance towards Manganese, Iron, Lead, Nickel, Copper and Zinc. The strain emerges as a new class of biosurfactant producer with potential environmental and industrial applications, especially in hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal bioremediation.

  11. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  12. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) media sequence for the remediation of heavy metal and hydrocarbon contaminated water: A field assessment at Casey Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Tom M; Stark, Scott C; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-03-01

    A field trial was conducted at Casey Station, Antarctica to assess the suitability of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) media sequence for the remediation of sites containing both hydrocarbon and heavy metal contamination. An existing PRB was modified to assess a sequence consisting of three sections: (i) Nutrient release/hydrocarbon sorption using ZeoPro™ and granular activated carbon; (ii) Phosphorus and heavy metal capture by granular iron and sand; (iii) Nutrient and excess iron capture by zeolite. The media sequence achieved a greater phosphorus removal capacity than previous Antarctic PRB configurations installed on site. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced during flow through the iron/sand section and iron concentrations were reduced within the zeolite section. However, non-ideal flow was detected during a tracer test and supported by analysis of media and liquid samples from the second summer of operation. Results indicate that the PRB media sequence trialled might be appropriate for other locations, especially less environmentally challenging contaminated sites.

  13. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy products derived from coal and petroleum by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changming; Zhang, Xiaohang; Yang, Jianli; Liu, Zhenyu

    2007-10-12

    A systematic study was made on the identification and quantitative determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in heavy products derived from coal and petroleum with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the separation of PAHs by a high-resolution column, identification was made through four methods: (1) the relative retention time (RRT) method, (2) the stop-flow-UV scanning method, (3) the method of fluorescence characteristic index Phi' and (4) the method of V' index at different UV wavelengths. For the quantitative determination of the components, methods of external standard (E-X), internal standard (I-N) and external standard-response factors (E-F) were compared. The E-F method was recommended by the present paper. For the determination of quantitative response factors (F) two methods were studied, including the HPLC peak-area method (Peak-area method) and the UV absorbance method using a UV spectrometer (absorbance method). The absorbance method was better and is recommended by the present paper. The F values of 30 PAHs from the two different methods are given. The samples analyzed include a coal tar pitch, a thermal cracking residue oil and a residual oil from ethylene production.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Stormwater Detention Basin Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Kasaraneni, V. K.; Boving, T. B.; Craver, V.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices, such as retention/detention ponds. While the effectiveness of catchment basins in runoff volume reduction and removal of some contaminants has been established, very little is known about contaminant fate within these structures. Particularly in coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables PAH accumulation in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Here, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and land use (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial). To study the stratification of PAHs one foot sediment cores were collected and analyzed for 17 PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and Retene). The concentrations of PAHs in sediments of detention ponds in urban and industrial land use areas ranged from 20 μg/g to 200 μg/g. Generally higher concentrations of contaminants were found in sediments near the pond inlet and a decreasing concentration gradient is observed laterally and vertically throughout the pond. To compare stormwater ponds in various land use settings a new index based on sediment contamination, pond size and age, and catchment area will be presented. Further, it will be investigated whether BMP maintenance has to be targeted towards pollutant removal to maintain an effective stormwater treatment system.

  15. Marine pollution by heavy oil and bio-purification. Bacteria decomposing oil hydrocarbon; Juyu ni yoru umi no osen to seibutsu joka. Juyu tanka suiso wo bunkaisuru saikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, E. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-10-20

    It is said that 23 genuses of bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon such as bacterium species, actinomycetes species, mold species and yeast of 10-10{sup 5}/ml live in seawater. No survey has been made on bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon in the area contaminated by heavy oil from Russian tanker `Nakhodka` in the Sea of Japan. Survey was thus made on the existence and distribution of bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon along the coast of Kaga district, Ishikawa prefecture. Such bacteria were successfully separated by repeated cultivation. The bacteria are short bacillus of nearly 1{mu}m long, and show a spherical shape as preserved at low temperature. Since the bacteria change their shape according to growth conditions, those are the germ of `Arthrobacter` genus. The bacteria of nearly 10{sup 5}/g lived along the sand beach in spite of low seawater and air temperatures in the early spring. The bacteria increased to nearly 10{sup 7}/g in May, however, decreased with a progress of oil decomposition in June. 3 figs.

  16. Evaluation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulation in plants from typical industrial sites: potential candidate in phytoremediation for co-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan; Zhu, Ganghui; Ma, Dong

    2014-11-01

    The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation.

  17. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  18. Polymerin and lignimerin, as humic acid-like sorbents from vegetable waste, for the potential remediation of waters contaminated with heavy metals, herbicides, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Renato; De Martino, Antonio

    2010-10-13

    Polymerin is a humic acid-like polymer, which we previously recovered for the first time from olive oil mill waste waters (OMWW) only, and chemically and physicochemically characterized. We also previously investigated its versatile sorption capacity for toxic inorganic and organic compounds. Therefore, a review is presented on the removal, from simulated polluted waters, of cationic heavy metals [Cu(II), Zn, Cr(III)] and anionic ones [Cr(VI)) and As(V)] by sorption on this natural organic sorbent in comparison with its synthetic derivatives, K-polymerin, a ferrihydrite-polymerin complex and with ferrihydrite. An overview is also performed of the removal of ionic herbicides (2,4-D, paraquat, MCPA, simazine, and cyhalofop) by sorption on polymerin, ferrihydrite, and their complex and of the removal of phenanthrene, as a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by sorption on this sorbent and its complexes with micro- or nanoparticles of aluminum oxide, pointing out the employment of all these sorbents in biobed systems, which might allow the remediation of water and protection of surface and groundwater. In addition, a short review is also given on the removal of Cu(II) and Zn from simulated contaminated waters, by sorption on the humic acid-like organic fraction, named lignimerin, which we previously isolated for the first time, in collaboration with a Chilean group, from cellulose mill Kraft waste waters (KCMWW) only. More specifically, the production methods and the characterization of the two natural sorbents (polymerin and lignimerin) and their derivatives (K-polymerin ferrihydrite-polymerin, polymerin-microAl(2)O(3) and -nanoAl(2)O(3), and H-lignimerin, respectively) as well as their sorption data and mechanism are reviewed. Published and original results obtained by the cyclic sorption on all of the considered sorbents for the removal of the above-mentioned toxic compounds from simulated waste waters are also reported. Moreover, sorption capacity

  19. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Relation of sulfur with hydrocarbons in Brazilian heavy and extra-heavy crude oil; Relacao do enxofre com os hidrocarbonetos em petroleos pesados e extra pesados brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Sonia Maria Badaro Mangueira; Guimaraes, Regina Celia Lourenco; Silva, Maria do Socorro A. Justo da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Alexander Vinicius Moraes da [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the occurrence of heavy and extra-heavy oils increases sensitively, their participation in the refineries feeding also becomes greater. Heavy oils usually have lower price than a light one, because they produce lower quality derivatives and it's more difficult to meet the specifications. Crude oils are a complex mixture, mostly compounded by carbon and hydrogen and also by impurities like sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals. Sulfur is the third most abundant component of crude oils, following carbon and hydrogen. In general there is a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of polar compounds (aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), and the sulfur content. This work presents graphically sulfur content and polar compounds concentrations for Brazilian and foreign heavy and extra-heavy oils (< 20 deg API). The results of the data analysis indicate that Brazilian crude oils behave differently from foreign heavy and extra-heavy oils. (author)

  1. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  2. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  3. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  4. Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) growing nearby different industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangfang; Wen, Dazhi; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Jiong; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from industrial activities pose a serious threat to human health and impose the need for monitoring both inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial areas. We selected Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) as potential biomonitor and collected the current (C) and previous year (C+1) needles from three industrial sites dominated by petrochemical, ceramics manufacturing, and iron and steel smelting plants and one remote site to determine heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni and Co) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in unwashed and water-washed needles. Both unwashed and washed C+1 needles showed generally higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than C needles, although the washed needles more clearly spotlighted the accumulation effect of PAHs over exposure time. Water-washing resulted in a significant decrease in needle PAH concentrations with more significant effects shown in C needles. By contrast, needle heavy metal concentrations were much less affected by washing. Although heavy metals and PAHs might differ in adsorption and uptake strategies, their higher concentrations in the needles at the industrial sites indicated conspicuous contamination due to industrial emissions there. The PAH distribution patterns in pine needles accorded with the real types of energy consumption in the study sites and were efficiently used for pinpointing local pollutant sources.

  5. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  6. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  7. Assessment and source identification of pollution risk for touristic ports: Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of 4 marinas of the Apulia region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Piccinni, Alberto Ferruccio

    2017-01-30

    The Apulia region in Italy has the longest Adriatic coastline; thus, maritime tourism is the driving force for its economic development. Pollution risk for four representative touristic ports of the region was assessed by determining the concentrations of 10 metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) congeners, and the main nutrients. The cumulative mean Effects Range-Median quotient (mERMq) was used to assess the hazard degree, while the distribution patterns and content ratios of different PAH sediment concentrations were investigated to identify the pollution sources. Principal component analyses indicated an anomalous pollution trend for one of the small touristic ports assessed; this trend emerged from contamination by heavy metals and PAHs to a larger extent than expected, considering the main activity in this port, especially in its inner basin. The reason of this anomaly is thought to be the hydrodynamic and/or other stress factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GENOTOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND HEAVY METALS IN LEUCISCUS CEPHALUS FROM PESCARA RIVER (ABRUZZO - ITALY: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Piccoli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the water quality and the ecosystem health of a segment of Pescara river (Abruzzo-Italy with the aid of an integrated approach. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were determinated in water and chub samples in order to calculate the bioconcentration factor. Biochemical, physical and microbiological characterisation were also carried out on water samples. Moreover, real and synergic effects of water pollution on biota were investigated by genotoxicological tests. Water samples were tested by Salmonella mutagenicity assay, whereas micronucleus assay on chub  was used to evaluate environmental genotoxic effects on fish. The characterisation of  water samples did not reveal any relevant contamination of Pescara river, but some analytical results obtained for biota were remarkable. In particular, the comparison between the site downstream from the industrial area of Chieti and the control site showed significant differences in chub micronuclei frequencies.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Wangzhen [Institute of Industrial Health, Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation, Wuhan 430070, China. (China); Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Guo, Huan, E-mail: ghuan5011@hust.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  11. Depressed height gain of children associated with intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals: the cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Majewska, Renata; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elżbieta; Roen, Emily L; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to environmental toxicants may program the development of children and have long-lasting health impacts. The study tested the hypothesis that depressed height gain in childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead and mercury). The study sample comprised 379 children born to non-smoking mothers among whom a total of 2011 height measurements were carried out over the 9-year follow-up period. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring of the mother in the second trimester of pregnancy and heavy metals were measured in cord blood. At the age of 3 residential air monitoring was done to evaluate the level of airborne PAH, and at the age 5 the levels of heavy metals were measured in capillary blood. The effect estimates of prenatal PAH exposure on height growth over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) models for a wide set of relevant covariates. Prenatal exposure to airborne PAH showed a significant negative association with height growth, which was significantly decreased by 1.1cm at PAH level above 34.7 ng/m(3) (coeff.=-1.07, p=0.040). While prenatal lead exposure was not significantly associated with height restriction, the effect of mercury was inversely related to cord blood mercury concentration above 1.2 μg/L (coeff.=-1.21, p=0.020), The observed negative impact of prenatal PAH exposure on height gain in childhood was mainly mediated by shorter birth length related to maternal PAH exposure during pregnancy. The height gain deficit associated with prenatal mercury exposure was not seen at birth, but the height growth was significantly slower at later age.

  12. Deep catalytic oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; Oxydation catalytique totale des hydrocarbures lourds sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, F.

    1998-12-09

    Deep oxidation by air on Pt supported on alumina of a large number of heavy hydrocarbons representative of those found in a real Diesel car exhaust has been studied. Light-off temperatures between 140 and 320 deg. C on 1%Pt/alumina (80% metal dispersion) have been found. Results show that not only the physical state around the conversion area but also the chemical nature of the hydrocarbon plays an important role. Heavy hydrocarbons deep oxidation behaviour has been classified as a function of their chemical category (alkane, alkene, aromatics etc..). Oxidation of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons has shown strong inhibition effects on n-alkane or CO oxidation by polycyclic compounds like 1-methyl-naphthalene. In some cases, by-product compounds in the gas effluent (other than CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) have been identified by mass-spectrometry leading to oxidation mechanism proposals for different hydrocarbons. Catalyst nature (metal dispersion, content) influence has also been studied. It is shown that turn-over activity is favoured by the increase of the metal bulk size. Acidity influence of the carrier has shown only very little influence on n-alkane or di-aromatic compound oxidation. (author)

  13. Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of different land uses in Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadian, Keyvan; Sacchi, Elisa; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam

    2016-11-01

    Urban soil contamination is a growing concern for the potential health impact on the increasing number of people living in these areas. In this study, the concentration, the distribution, the contamination levels, and the role of land use were investigated in Erbil metropolis, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. A total of 74 soil samples were collected, treated, and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, and for 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and 16 PAH contents. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Cu Pb, and Zn, were found. The Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), along with correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn have similar behaviors and spatial distribution patterns. Heavy traffic density mainly contributed to the high concentrations of these metals. The total concentration of ∑PAHs ranged from 24.26 to 6129.14 ng/g with a mean of 2296.1 ng/g. The PAH pattern was dominated by 4- and 5-ring PAHs, while diagnostic ratios and PCA indicated that the main sources of PAHs were pyrogenic. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values ranged from 3.26 to 362.84 ng/g, with higher values in central parts of the city. A statistically significant difference in As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH concentrations between different land uses was observed. The highest As concentrations were found in agricultural areas while roadside, commercial, and industrial areas had the highest Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH contents.

  14. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution.

  15. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing

    KAUST Repository

    Tromp, Karin

    2012-02-01

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals fixed to the lift station sediments of the Paris agglomeration; Hydrocarbures et metaux lourds associes aux sediments de stations de relevage de l'agglomeration parisienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocher, V.; Gasperi, J.; Azimi, S.; Moilleron, R. [Paris-12 Univ., CEREVE, Faculte de Sciences et Technologie, 94 - Creteil (France); Celaudon, Th. [Mairie de Paris, Dir. de la Voirie et des Deplacements, 94 - Ivry sur Seine (France); Chebbo, G. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, CEREVE, 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2004-07-01

    During rain events, great quantities of hydrocarbons (aliphatic and aromatic) and heavy metals enter the combined sewer by way of roof and road runoff. The decrease of these inputs, necessary to the combined sewer overflow reduction, requires knowledge of pollutant nature and origin. This work, focused on lift station sediments, aims to characterised the contents and fingerprints of pollutants associated to road runoff. Hydrocarbon contamination levels, calculated at 80 and 24 {mu}g.g-1 dw for aliphatic and aromatic compounds, are of the same order of magnitude than those reported in the literature. In the same way, heavy metal contamination levels are in a good agreement with previous studies. Nevertheless, a decrease of Pb contents, induced by the recent restriction of the Pb traffic emission, and an increase of Cu contents, probably linked to the occurrence of intensive brake lining abrasion, were noticed. Moreover, hydrocarbon fingerprints underline the variability of the hydrocarbon origin. Indeed, aliphatic distributions reflect the combination of biologic (vegetal) and petrogenic (lubricating oils, gasoline, etc.) inputs, while aromatic distributions indicate a major pyrolytic origin with traces of petrogenic contaminations. (authors)

  17. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jefferey C.; Urquhart, Scott; Williamson, Mike; Fleming, John B.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium- and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly- even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. Currently, the only means for mapping an oil-spill plume is to park a large ship in the ocean and drop a sampling string over the side, requiring hours of time per sampling point. The samples must then be chemically analyzed, adding additional time and expense. We believe that an extension of the marine IP technology could also apply to rapidly mapping both seafloor- blanket and disseminated hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean, as hydrocarbon droplets in conductive seawater are topologically equivalent to a metal-plates-and-dielectric capacitor. Because the effective capacitance would be frequency-dependent on droplet size, the approach we advocate holds the potential to not only map, but also to characterize the evolution and degradation of such a plume over time. In areas where offshore oil field development has been practiced for extended periods, making IP measurements from a towed streamer may be useful for locating buried

  18. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  19. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.121-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The hydrocarbon... FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzers shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response....

  20. Heavy metals ,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in the surface sediments of mangrove swamps from coastal sites along the Leizhou Peninsula ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yijie; FANG Zhanqiang; YU Shixiao

    2008-01-01

    Contents of heavy metals,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),diehlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexaehlorcy- clohexanes (HCHs) in surface sediments from mangrove areas of the Leizhou Peninsula were analyzed in July and November 2005.Risk assessment criteria applied by Long E R et al.(1995) and Long E D et al.(1998) (effects range low,ERL;effects range mean,ERM) of chemicals in sediments from the gulf or estuary were used to assess the potential ecological risks of heavy metals,PAHs,DDTs and HCHs to aquatic organisms in the studied area.The results indicated that the average contents of zinc, nickel,chromium,lead,copper,arsenic and mercury were (61.97±55.87),(59.99±39.01 ),(47.93±28.37), (26.64±13.00),(23.45±41.96),(9.32±3.62),(0.14±0.18) mg/kg in dry weight in the sediment samples col- lected from five studied sites in the Leizhou Peninsula,respectively.Cadmium was not calculated due to its content being below the detection limit ( < 0.3 mg/kg).The average levels of Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb,Zn and Hg exceed their background values.The av- erage contents of Ni were higher than ERM.The contents of PAHs in the sediments from the five studied sites were (79.78± 43.70) ng/g in dry weight,far lower than ERL(4 022 ng/g).The contents of DDE,DDD and DDTs in the sediments from five studied sites were (2.60±4.68),( 17.52±27.25),(27.78±46.64) ng/g in dry weight respectively,clearly higher than ERL,and the average contents of DDT were (7.66±15.93) ng/g in dry weight,much higher than ERM.HCHs could be de- tected in the sediments only from Gaoqiao sampling site,with the average contents (0.07±0.08) ng/g in dry weight.

  1. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  2. Accidental contamination during hydrocarbon exploitation and the rapid transfer of heavy-mineral fines through an overlying highly karstified aquifer (Paradiso Spring, SE Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Rosario; Forti, Paolo; Antoci, Maria Lucia; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    The area around Ragusa in Sicily is well known for the exploration of petroleum deposits hosted in Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These reservoirs are overlain by less permeable rocks, whereas the surface geology is characterized by outcrops of Oligo-Miocene carbonate units hosting important aquifers. Some of the karst springs of the area are used as drinking water supplies, and therefore these vulnerable aquifers should be monitored and protected adequately. In the early afternoon (14:00) of 27 May until the late evening (19:30) of 28 May 2011, during the construction of an exploitation borehole (Tresauro 2), more than 1000 m3 of drilling fluids were lost in an unknown karst void. Two days later, from 06:30 on 30 May, water flowing from Paradiso Spring, lying some 13.7 km SW of the borehole and 378 m lower, normally used as a domestic water supply, was so intensely coloured that it was unfit for drinking. Bulk chemical analyses carried out on the water have shown a composition that is very similar to that of the drilling fluids lost at the Tresauro borehole, confirming a hydrological connection. Estimations indicate that the first signs of the drilling fluids took about 59 h to flow from their injection point to the spring, corresponding to a mean velocity of ∼230 m/h. That Paradiso Spring is recharged by a well-developed underground drainage system is also confirmed by the marked flow rate changes measured at the spring, ranging from a base flow of around 10-15 l/s to flood peaks of 2-3 m3/s. Reflecting the source and nature of the initial contamination, the pollution lasted for just a few days, and the water returned to acceptable drinking-water standards relatively quickly. However, pollution related to heavy-mineral fines continues to be registered during flooding of the spring, when the aqueducts are normally shut down because of the high turbidity values. This pollution event offers an instructive example of how hydrocarbon exploitation in intensely karstified

  3. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the different sewer deposits in the ‘Le Marais’ catchment (Paris, France): stocks, distributions and origins

    OpenAIRE

    Rocher, Vincent; Azimi, Sam; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The knowledge of the pollution stored in combined sewers is of prime importance in terms of management of wet weather flow pollution since sewer deposits play a significant role as source of pollution in combined sewer overflows. This work, which focused on the hydrocarbon (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) and metallic (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) pollution fixed to the different kinds of sewer deposits (gross bed sediment wGBSx, organic layer wOLx and biofilm), was per...

  4. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Mr. Abhijit Datta; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  5. Recovering from Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suicidal thoughts, or any thoughts of harming your baby While recovering from delivery can be a lot to handle, things will get easier. Before you know it, you will be able to fully focus on enjoying your new baby. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: June ...

  6. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and...

  8. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively.

  9. Increased cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bronchial epithelium of heavy smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma carries a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsunehiro; Sugio, Kenji; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Iwata, Teruo; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Isse, Toyohi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Kagawa, Norio; Yasumoto, Kosei; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Smoking induces mutations via the formation of DNA-adducts in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium and contributes to the development of lung cancer. Benz(a)pyrene and nitrosamine, typical carcinogens in cigarette smoke, undergo metabolic activation by the phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1. The transcriptional regulation of these phase I enzymes is regulated by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AH-R) which binds many well-known carcinogens. To identify a cause and effect relationship, the expression of cytochrome CYP and AH-R in the bronchial epithelium was correlated with the history of cigarette smoking in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although CYP3A+ cells were absent in the bronchial epithelium of all patients, there were many CYP2E1+ cells in heavy (>1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (38.5%). In contra-distinction, there was significantly less number of CYP2E1+ cells in light (less than 1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (15.6%) or non-smokers (10.0%). Similarly, there were more CYP1A1+ (19.2%) and CYP2A6+ cells in heavy (65.4%) smokers as compared to non-smokers. The number of AH-R+ cells was also significantly higher in cases with p53 mutation (62.5%) than those without (12.2%) mutation. Since in patients with early NSCLC, CYP positivity showed a close correlation with a poor survival (p less than 0.01), expression of CYP in bronchial epithelium has a prognostic potential.

  10. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  11. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  12. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of generation have been obtained for different hydrocarbon classes, including methane, C2-C5 gas hydrocarbons, C6-C13 light hydrocarbons and C13+ heavy hydrocarbons, and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) by the kinetic simulating experiment of kerogen cracking. Then, combined with the detailed geology of Sichuan Basin, the effective gas-generating intensity of the Lower Cambrian source rock is approximately estimated by applying these parameters.

  13. Geobacter daltonii sp. nov., an Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium isolated from a shallow subsurface exposed to mixed heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas M; Dalton, Dava D; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Green, Stefan J; Akob, Denise M; Wanger, Greg; Kostka, Joel E

    2010-03-01

    An Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium, designated strain FRC-32(T), was isolated from a contaminated subsurface of the USA Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where the sediments are exposed to mixed waste contamination of radionuclides and hydrocarbons. Analyses of both 16S rRNA gene and the Geobacteraceae-specific citrate synthase (gltA) mRNA gene sequences retrieved from ORFRC sediments indicated that this strain was abundant and active in ORFRC subsurface sediments undergoing uranium(VI) bioremediation. The organism belonged to the subsurface clade of the genus Geobacter and shared 92-98 % 16S rRNA gene and 75-81 % rpoB gene sequence similarities with other recognized species of the genus. In comparison to its closest relative, Geobacter uraniireducens Rf4(T), according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FRC-32(T) showed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 21 %. Cells of strain FRC-32(T) were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, curved rods, 1.0-1.5 microm long and 0.3-0.5 microm in diameter; the cells formed pink colonies in a semisolid cultivation medium, a characteristic feature of the genus Geobacter. The isolate was an obligate anaerobe, had temperature and pH optima for growth at 30 degrees C and pH 6.7-7.3, respectively, and could tolerate up to 0.7 % NaCl although growth was better in the absence of NaCl. Similar to other members of the Geobacter group, strain FRC-32(T) conserved energy for growth from the respiration of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide coupled with the oxidation of acetate. Strain FRC-32(T) was metabolically versatile and, unlike its closest relative, G. uraniireducens, was capable of utilizing formate, butyrate and butanol as electron donors and soluble ferric iron (as ferric citrate) and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors. Growth on aromatic compounds including benzoate and toluene was predicted from preliminary genomic analyses and was confirmed through successive transfer with

  14. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals on terrestrial annelids in urban soils O efeito de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos e metais pesados em anelídeos terrestres de solos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pižl Václav

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals on earthworms and enchytraeids was studied in urban parks, in Brno, Czech Republic. In spring and autumn 2007, annelids were collected and soil samples taken in lawns along transects, at three different distances (1, 5 and 30 m from streets with heavy traffic. In both seasons, two parks with two transects each were sampled. Earthworms were collected using the electrical octet method. Enchytraeids were extracted by the wet funnel method from soil cores. All collected annelids were counted and identified. Basic chemical parameters and concentrations of 16 PAH, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were analysed from soil from each sampling point. PAH concentrations were rather low, decreasing with the distance from the street in spring but not in autumn. Heavy metal concentrations did not decrease significantly with increasing distance. Annelid densities did not significantly differ between distances, although there was a trend of increase in the number of earthworms with increasing distance. There were no significant correlations between soil content of PAH or heavy metals and earthworm or enchytraeid densities. Earthworm density and biomass were negatively correlated with soil pH; and enchytraeid density was positively correlated with soil phosphorus.O efeito da contaminação do solo por hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (PAH e metais pesados em minhocas e enquitreídeos foi estudado em parques urbanos, em Brno, República Tcheca. Na primavera e outono de 2007, os anelídeos foram coletados, e amostras de solo foram retiradas de gramados ao longo de transectos, em três diferentes distâncias (1, 5 e 30 m de ruas com muito tráfego. Nas duas estações, foram amostrados dois parques com dois transectos cada um. As minhocas com uso do método do octeto elétrico, e os enquitreídeos foram extraídos das amostras de solo pelo método do funil úmido. Todos os anel

  15. Former heavy drinkers’ multiple narratives of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Anne-Sofie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.

  16. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  17. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  18. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  19. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  20. Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72,000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130,000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport.

  1. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  2. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  3. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Geoffr-Ey-Kraff

    2003-01-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams FR-om an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible FR-om either a conventional linac, or FR-om storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend FR-om high power FR-ee-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  4. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  5. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  6. Ventilation and Heat Recovering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bancea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects concerning the heat reducing for ventilation, achieved by using heat recovering components and a combined heating--ventilating system, assuring both comfort and human health are presented. The floor imbedded systems together with air outlets elements could fulfill all the aesthetically desires, as well as comfort and they are ideal for family houses.

  7. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Arrigo, A., E-mail: antonio.darrigo@dmfci.unict.it [CNR-IMM UOS Università (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Franco, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Benenti, G. [CNISM and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Paladino, E.; Falci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IMM UOS Università (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Viale S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  8. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  9. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  10. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  11. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic study of the hydrocarbon generation from marine carbonate source rocks characterization of products of gas and liquid hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Xinhua; GENG Ansong; XIONG Yongqiang; LIU Jinzhong; ZHANG Haizu; ZHAO Qingfang

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of hydrocarbon generation from the marine carbonate source rocks were determined and calibrated through kinetic simulating experiment. The kinetic parameters of hydrocarbon generation then were extrapolated to geological condition by using the relative software.The result shows that gaseous hydrocarbons (C1, C2,C3, C4-5) were generated in condition of 150℃<T<220℃(1.0%<Ro <3.0% ). Light hydrocarbons (C6-13)and heavy hydrocarbons ( C13+) were generated in condition of 100 ℃<T<170 ℃ (0.5%<Ro<1.5%). A quantitative reference to examine the natural evolution of hydrocarbon of marine carbonate source rocks can be established through the results. It also provides a new method for evaluating the highly mature marine carbonate source rock more reasonably.

  13. A novel process for heavy residue hydroconversion using a recoverable pseudo-homogenous catalyst PHC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romocki, S.M.; Rhodey, W.G. [Mobis Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pseudo-homogenous catalyst (PHC) designed to refine heavy hydrocarbon residues containing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltene impurities known to clog pores and deactivate traditional hydrocrackers. The heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process incorporated a single particle, chemically generated PHC uniformly distributed in the feed. Thermal decomposition within the reaction system of a water-in-oil emulsion containing ammonium paramolybdate was used to form molybdenum oxide, which was then sulfided within the feed in order to create an ultra-dispersed suspension of catalytically active molybdenum disulfide particles measuring between 2 and 9 nm. A proprietary online catalyst recovery and regeneration step was used to maintain high catalyst activity. The molybdenum was then recovered from a purge stream and then reintroduced to the catalyst preparation area as a catalyst precursor. After being conditioned, the feed was combined with hydrogen and a water-oil catalyst emulsion and introduced into a furnace. Heavy components were cracked, hydrogenated and converted to lighter products. The high performance catalyst system was able to convert 95 per cent of residues at pressures below 7.3 Mpa and at reaction temperatures ranging between 400 and 460 degrees C. The catalyst was tested at a pilot plant using Athabasca vacuum bottoms. It was concluded that the HRH process is now being successfully used to produce 200 barrels of heavy oil per day. Designs for commercial installations are now being prepared. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  16. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  17. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  18. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

  19. Impact of the Prestige oil spill on marsh soils: Relationship between heavy metal, sulfide and total petroleum hydrocarbon contents at the Villarrube and Lires marshes (Galicia, Spain); Impacto de la marea negra del Prestige en suelos de marisma: relacion entre los contenidos de metales pesados, sulfuros e hidrocarburos en las marismas de Villarrube y Lires (Galicia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, L.; Marcet, P.; Covelo, E.F.; Vega, F.A. [Department of Vegetable Biology and Soil Science, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez-Feal, L.; Fernandez-Feal, C. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Ferrol (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the Prestige oil spill on the total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metal contents of soils in two marshes (Lires and Villarrube, Galicia, Spain) and the relationship between their oxidation-reduction potential and the solubility of heavy metals with sulfide and sulfate contents. Soil samples were taken from polluted and unpolluted areas and their petroleum hydrocarbon contents, heavy metal contents and other chemical characteristics were measured. The soils affected by the oil spill show remarkable contents of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V. The Lires marsh soils are more affected by fuel oil than Villarrube marsh. The effects of the contaminating agents on the soils reach distances of up to 500 m from the coastline. In the first 400 m, there are important spatial variations because the fuel oil penetrated into the soils through tidal action and not directly. The Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V contents of polluted soils were between 50 and 200 times higher than those of their unpolluted counterparts and the background concentrations in Galician coastal sediments. In the case of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V, their origin through the fuel oil was corroborated by the high correlation (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of these metals and the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the polluted soils, which shows the combined addition of these metals through the fuel oil. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar el efecto de la marea negra del buque tanque Prestige en el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados en suelos de dos marismas (Lires y Villarrube, Galicia, Espana) y la relacion entre el potencial de oxidacion-reduccion y la solubilidad de los metales pesados con los contenidos de sulfuros y de sulfatos. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de las zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas y se determinaron diversas caracteristicas quimicas, el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados. Los

  20. Comparison between different bio-treatments of a hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramya

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.1705. ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals .... is designed to avoid, reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, treat and dispose of .... water holding capacity) or in this modified nutrient solution. .... (a) i. Figure 1. Average residual total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in different laboratory.

  1. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  2. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  4. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  5. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2015) > ... The degradation of 2 % heavy crude oil and other PAHs from the isolate PM-1 was assessed ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. ' HEAVY METALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  7. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  8. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. nvestigation on influencing factors in determination of hydrocarbons in heavy oils by thin-layer chromatography flame/ionization detector.%棒状薄层色谱/氢火焰离子化检测器法测定重油烃族组成影响因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海鹰; 顾洁; 蔺玉贵

    2001-01-01

    The influencing factors in the determination of hydrocarbons (saturates, aromatics, resins) in heavy oils by thin layer chromatography/flame ionization detection (TLC/FID) were investigated. It has been found that the solvent co -volatization may cause sample loss during the spotting and developing process, and that the quantitative calibration factors can not be used universally. Because the flame temperature of TLC/FLD is much lower than that of GC/FID, the transformation of different compounds in the flame of FID is varied.%对应用棒状薄层色谱/氢火焰离子化检测器(TLC/FID)测定重油烃族组成(饱和烃、芳烃、胶质)时的影响因素作了探讨。研究发现,在点样及展开过程中,溶剂共挥发可引起样品损失;而且,由于TLC/FID的火焰温度远低于一般GC条件下FID的火焰温度,使不同化合物在FID上的燃烧转化情况有差异,因而其定量校正因子不具有通用性。

  10. Primary Analysis of Two Kinds of Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons Content in Benthos in Yacheng Oil Field%崖城气田底栖动物中2种重金属及石油烃残毒量初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖华; 张浩

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation data in 2009-2010 about the residual poison in the organism, the contents of contamination in benthos in Yacheng oil field were analyzed and assessed. The results showed that the change of contamination content in benthos was not obvious from 2009 to 2010 and the benthos were not severely polluted by heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbons. The quality of the various species of benthos in this area was good and the impact of oil field on nearby waters was little.%根据2009年和2010年的调查资料,对崖城气田附近海域底栖动物污染物含量现状进行分析与评价.结果表明,2009年到2010年该气田附近生物体内污染物含量变化不明显,底柄动物未严重受到重金属和石油烃污染,该区域底柄动物各类群的生物质量状况良好,气田的开发活动对附近海区影响相对较小.

  11. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  12. Localization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in surface soil of Asia’s oldest oil and gas drilling site in Assam, north-east India: Implications for the bio-economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemen Sarma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental influx of hazardous contaminants viz PAHs and HMs occurs due to oil and gas drilling, and processing of petroleum products in industrial facilities and refineries. This problem plagues crude oil drilling sites as PAHs are an essential component of and HMs coexist with crude oil. We analyzed the spatial distribution of 16 PAHs and 8 HMs in 10 contaminated sites of Assam, a state in India. These included Digboi, where crude oil was drilled in 1867 and the first oil well in Asia that was drilled. The Ʃ16 PAHs in soil were detected with a minimum of 13.48 and a maximum of 86.3 mgkg−1 and Ʃ 8 heavy metal concentrations in the soil ranged between 69.51 and 336.06 mgkg−1. A negative correlation was detected between the relative concentrations of PAHs and HMs. The results confirmed that the non-biodegradable nature of HMs made them stay in the soil for longer periods of time. In our study, we found that the levels of lead, copper, nickel, and chromium (total in soil were 73.62, 11.86, 58.97 and 158.66 mgkg−1. The recovery percentage for PAHs and HMs were in the range of 67–97% and 90–95% respectively. Spatial distribution indices for Phenanthrene/Anthracene, Naphthalene/Acenapthhylene, Chyrsene/Benzo (g, h, i perylene and Fluranthene/Pyrene calculated for soil samples indicated that the spatial distribution of PAHs in soil is uneven which might be due to variations in contaminates disseminated in soil. Such regionalized concentration has serious implications on the bio-economy both in terms of health and economy, especially since the proximity of crude oil sites to paddy fields and/or tea plantations uniquely marks the landscape of upper Assam.

  13. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  14. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) By Mayo Clinic Staff Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy ...

  15. Damage to and recovery of coastlines polluted with C-heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nomura, Maki; Nakagawa, Takuya; Oguri, Seiji; Kawanishi, Takuya; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-03-01

    The damage to and recovery of the Japanese coastline from Suzu, Ishikawa Prefecture to Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture was investigated visually over three years after a C-heavy oil spill from the Russian tanker "Nakhodka" in the Japan Sea on January 2, 1997. The beached C-heavy oil tended to remain for a long time on coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble but it was removed rapidly from coasts of gravel/sand and man-made structures such as concrete tetrapods. On the coasts of the latter type, wave energy appeared to be the main force removing the oil. One year after the spill, C-heavy oil tended to remain strongly on the sheltered coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble. Even on coasts of this type, the contamination was remarkably absent by 2 years after the spill. The concentration levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil lumps, sand and seawater were monitored during 3 years following the spill. The concentrations of PAHs having 2 or 3 rings decreased more quickly than did those of PAHs having 4 or more rings, suggesting that volatilization was the main cause of the decrease. On the other hand, the concentrations of PAHs having 4 to 6 rings did not start to decrease until 7 months after the spill. The main cause of the decrease seemed to be photolysis. The concentration of BaP in seawater off the polluted coasts was high 1 month after the spill and then decreased. Three years after the spill, the level fell to the sub ng/L level, which was as low as the level in seawater along unpolluted clean coasts in Japan. The concentration of BaP in greenling was higher than the normal level only during the first two months after the spill. These results suggest that the coastlines in Ishikawa and Fukui Prefectures that were polluted with C-heavy oil recovered in 3 years.

  16. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  17. Hard-to-recover oils with anomalous physical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Y. M.

    2016-11-01

    Using the global database on physical and chemical properties of oils, the analysis of distribution of viscous, heavy, waxy and highly resinous oils in terms of volumes of their reserves was carried out. It is known that heavy and viscous oils account for slightly more than 33% of the total sample. Resinous and paraffin oils account for less than 30% of the total sample. The criteria necessary to classify oils as hard-to-recover oil reserves are determined. Features of physicochemical properties of these oils are studied under various conditions. The results obtained could be used to solve practical issues in the oil sector.

  18. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  19. Medication errors recovered by emergency department pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Churchill, William; Erickson, Abbie; Munz, Kristin; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Salzberg, Claudia A; Lewinski, Daniel; Shane, Rita; Aazami, Roshanak; Patka, John; Jaggers, Rondell; Steffenhagen, Aaron; Rough, Steve; Bates, David W

    2010-06-01

    We assess the impact of emergency department (ED) pharmacists on reducing potentially harmful medication errors. We conducted this observational study in 4 academic EDs. Trained pharmacy residents observed a convenience sample of ED pharmacists' activities. The primary outcome was medication errors recovered by pharmacists, including errors intercepted before reaching the patient (near miss or potential adverse drug event), caught after reaching the patient but before causing harm (mitigated adverse drug event), or caught after some harm but before further or worsening harm (ameliorated adverse drug event). Pairs of physician and pharmacist reviewers confirmed recovered medication errors and assessed their potential for harm. Observers were unblinded and clinical outcomes were not evaluated. We conducted 226 observation sessions spanning 787 hours and observed pharmacists reviewing 17,320 medications ordered or administered to 6,471 patients. We identified 504 recovered medication errors, or 7.8 per 100 patients and 2.9 per 100 medications. Most of the recovered medication errors were intercepted potential adverse drug events (90.3%), with fewer mitigated adverse drug events (3.9%) and ameliorated adverse drug events (0.2%). The potential severities of the recovered errors were most often serious (47.8%) or significant (36.2%). The most common medication classes associated with recovered medication errors were antimicrobial agents (32.1%), central nervous system agents (16.2%), and anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents (14.1%). The most common error types were dosing errors, drug omission, and wrong frequency errors. ED pharmacists can identify and prevent potentially harmful medication errors. Controlled trials are necessary to determine the net costs and benefits of ED pharmacist staffing on safety, quality, and costs, especially important considerations for smaller EDs and pharmacy departments. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians

  20. Geochemistry and genesis of heavy oil in the Erlian Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jie; GU Lianxing

    2005-01-01

    Heavy oil is commonly distributed in the Erlian Basin, North China. It can be divided into two genetic types: the primary and the secondary. Primary heavy oil is generated directly by Cretaceous immature or low-mature hydrocarbon sources, or is derived from differentiation of crude oil during migration. Oil of this type has viscosity vagrees, is resultant from a combination of biodegradation, water-leaching and oxidation of primary heavy oil. Based upon a large number of determinations on the physical properties of crude oil, GC analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and GC-MS analyses of steranes and terpanes, the characteristics of heavy oil of various types have been described. Differences in inspissation degree have made it possible the grouping of heavy oil of the Erlian Basin inspissation, the products vary from common heavy to over-heavy oil. Slope and uplifted areas inside a reservoir basin are most favorable to the inspissation and formation of heavy oil. Interaction of several mechanisms of inspissation has resulted in a widespread distribution of heavy oil within the Erlian Basin.

  1. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  2. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  3. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kohno, Kumiko

    2004-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi [Kagoshima University (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Kohno, Kumiko [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination. (author)

  6. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  7. Some Representation Theorems for Recovering Contraction Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Hou

    2005-01-01

    One of the important topics in the study of contraction inference relations is to establish the representation theorems for them. Various methods have been employed for giving representation of a broad class of contraction operations.However, there was not any canonical approach to dealing with the representation results for the contraction relations in the literature. Recently, in order to obtain the representation result for recovering contraction inference relations satisfying the condition weak conjunctive inclusion (wci), a notion of an image structure associated with the canonical epistemic state has been introduced. Based on the image structure, this paper establishes three representation results for recovering contraction inference relations which satisfy the conditions CL, CR1 and DR* respectively by the standard epistemic AGM states. A unique technique and uniform proofs to represent these contraction relations are adopted, which could overcome the core objection in previous description of contraction relations. The paper shows as well that the image structure and canonical epistemic states can be used not only to get the representation result for wci-recovering contraction relation, but also to provide semantic characterizations for a wide range of recovering contraction relations.

  8. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  9. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  10. Geological and Geochemical Studies of Heavy Oil Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡见义; 徐树宝; 等

    1989-01-01

    Thickened heavy oils in China are genetically characteristic of continenta .As to their physico-chemical properties,these oils are very high in viscosity and low in sulphur and trace element con-tents.In the group constituents,the concentrations of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltene are very high but those of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatics are very low.The gas chromatograms of alkanes show that these heavy oils have high abundances of iso-alkanes and cyclic hydrocarbons.In all the steroids and terpenoids ,bicyclic sesquiterpenoids,tricyclic diterpenoids,re-arranged steranes and gammacerane are strongly bildegradation-resistent.The formation of heavy oil reservoirs is controlled mainly by late basin ascendance,biodegradation,flushing by meteoric water and oxidation in the oil-bearing formations.Ac-cording to their formation mechanisms,heavy oil reservoirs can be classified as four categories:weathering and denudation,marginal oxidation,secondary migration and thickening of bottom water .Spacially,heavy thick oil reservoirs are distributed regularly:they usually show some paragenetic relationships with normal oil reservoirs.Heavy oil reservoirs often occur in structural highs or in overlying younger strata.Their burial depth is about 200m.Horizontally,most of them are distributed on the margins of basins or depressions.

  11. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels.

  12. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  13. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.

  14. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Essam Nasher; Lee Yook Heng; Zuriati Zakaria; Salmijah Surif

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionizatio...

  15. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  16. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  17. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovering chaotic properties from small data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenxi; Fang, Fang; Liu, Qingqing; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Binghong; Yin, Peifeng

    2014-12-01

    Physical properties are obviously essential to study a chaotic system that generates discrete-time signals, but recovering chaotic properties of a signal source from small data is a very troublesome work. Existing chaotic models are weak in dealing with such case in that most of them need big data to exploit those properties. In this paper, geometric theory is considered to solve this problem. We build a smooth trajectory from series to implicitly exhibit the chaotic properties with series-nonuniform rational B-spline (S-NURBS) modeling method, which is presented by our team to model slow-changing chaotic time series. As for the part of validation, we reveal how well our model recovers the properties from both the statistical and the chaotic aspects to confirm the effectiveness of the model. Finally a practical chaotic model is built up to recover the chaotic properties contained in the Musa standard dataset, which is used in analyzing software reliability, thereby further proves the high credibility of this model in practical time series. The effectiveness of the S-NURBS modeling leads us to believe that it is really a feasible and worthy research area to study chaotic systems from geometric perspective. For this reason, we reckon that we have opened up a new horizon for chaotic system research.

  19. Medical errors recovered by critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Patricia C; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Hurley, Ann C

    2010-05-01

    : The frequency and types of medical errors are well documented, but less is known about potential errors that were intercepted by nurses. We studied the type, frequency, and potential harm of recovered medical errors reported by critical care registered nurses (CCRNs) during the previous year. : Nurses are known to protect patients from harm. Several studies on medical errors found that there would have been more medical errors reaching the patient had not potential errors been caught earlier by nurses. : The Recovered Medical Error Inventory, a 25-item empirically derived and internally consistent (alpha =.90) list of medical errors, was posted on the Internet. Participants were recruited via e-mail and healthcare-related listservs using a nonprobability snowball sampling technique. Investigators e-mailed contacts working in hospitals or who managed healthcare-related listservs and asked the contacts to pass the link on to others with contacts in acute care settings. : During 1 year, 345 CCRNs reported that they recovered 18,578 medical errors, of which they rated 4,183 as potentially lethal. : Surveillance, clinical judgment, and interventions by CCRNs to identify, interrupt, and correct medical errors protected seriously ill patients from harm.

  20. Method for recovering materials from waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  1. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  2. Extraction of hydrocarbons from microalga Botryococcus braunii with switchable solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Giulia; Fabbri, Daniele; Galletti, Paola; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella; Tagliavini, Emilio

    2010-05-01

    Lipid extraction is a critical step in the development of biofuels from microalgae. Here a new procedure was proposed to extract hydrocarbons from dried and water-suspended samples of the microalga Botryococcus braunii by using switchable-polarity solvents (SPS) based on 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and an alcohol. The high affinity of the non-ionic form of DBU/alcohol SPS towards non-polar compounds was exploited to extract hydrocarbons from algae, while the ionic character of the DBU-alkyl carbonate form, obtained by the addition of CO(2), was used to recover hydrocarbons from the SPS. DBU/octanol and DBU/ethanol SPS were tested for the extraction efficiency of lipids from freeze-dried B. braunii samples and compared with n-hexane and chloroform/methanol. The DBU/octanol system was further evaluated for the extraction of hydrocarbons directly from algal culture samples. DBU/octanol exhibited the highest yields of extracted hydrocarbons from both freeze-dried and liquid algal samples (16% and 8.2% respectively against 7.8% and 5.6% with n-hexane).

  3. Evidence of shallow hydrocarbons offshore northern Santa Cruz county, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, H.T.; Nagel, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and hydrocarbon samples indicate that natural hydrocarbon seepage is occurring along the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay fault zones offshore northern Santa Cruz County, California. A variety of anomalous seismic reflection features such as a water-column anomalies, subsurface amplitude anomalies (''bright spots''), and seismic ''smears/wipeouts'' has been observed and mapped. More than 100 water-column anomalies (probably gas seeps) occur in the study area of approximately 270 mi/sup 2/ (700 km/sup 2/). Many of these seismic anomalies are associated with subsurface geologic structures, which suggest hydrocarbon migration from depth. Samples of natural gas collected from a shallow coastal water well contain 74 to 91% methane, 7 to 23% nitrogen, approx.2% carbon dioxide, and < 1% ethane. The methane appears to be thermogenic in origin, having delta/sup 13/C values of -29.51 to -32.55% PDB. Rock dredges from 2,300 ft (700 m) of water in Ascension Submarine Canyon have also recovered oil-saturated sandstones, further suggesting the seepage of hydrocarbons. The shallow occurrence of most of these hydrocarbons are interpreted to be the result of migration from depth along active faults within the San Gregorio and Monterey Bay faults zones.

  4. The Use of TaBoRR as a Heavy Oil Upgrader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones

    2009-02-05

    Preliminary testing has shown that Western Research Institute's (WRI) Tank Bottom Recovery and Remediation (TaBoRR{reg_sign}) technology shows promise for heavy oil upgrading. Approximately 70 to 75 wt% of a Canadian Cold Lake bitumen feed was converted to a partially upgraded overhead product that could be transported directly by pipeline or blended with the parent bitumen to produce transportable crude. TaBoRR{reg_sign} was originally developed to remediate tank bottom wastes by producing a distillate product and solid waste. TaBoRR{reg_sign}'s processing steps include breaking a water-oil emulsion, recovering a light hydrocarbon fraction by distillation in a stripper unit, and pyrolyzing the residua reducing it to additional overhead and a benign coke for disposal. Cold Lake bitumen was tested in WRI's bench-scale equipment to evaluate the potential use of TaBoRR{reg_sign} technology for heavy oil upgrading to produce a stable, partially (or fully) upgraded product that will allow diluent-reduced or diluent-free transportation of bitumen or ultra-heavy crudes to market. Runs were conducted at temperatures of low, intermediate and high severity in the stripper to produce stripper overhead and bottoms. The bottoms from each of these runs were processed further in a 6-inch screw pyrolyzer to produce pyrolyzer overhead for blending with the corresponding stripper overheads. Proceeding in this fashion yielded three partially upgraded crudes. The products from TaBoRR{reg_sign} processing, the parent bitumen, and bitumen blends were subjected to stability and compatibility testing at the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT). Chemical analyses of the overhead product blends have met pipeline specifications for viscosity and density; however the bromine number does not, which might indicate the need for mild hydrotreating. Storage stability tests showed the blends to be stable. The blends were also soluble and compatible with most other Alberta

  5. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical...

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Simplified Modeling of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    A method of simplified computational modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbons is undergoing development. This is one of several developments needed to enable accurate computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. At present, accurate computational simulation of such flows is difficult or impossible in most cases because (1) the numbers of grid points needed for adequate spatial resolution of turbulent flows in realistically complex geometries are beyond the capabilities of typical supercomputers now in use and (2) the combustion of typical hydrocarbons proceeds through decomposition into hundreds of molecular species interacting through thousands of reactions. Hence, the combination of detailed reaction- rate models with the fundamental flow equations yields flow models that are computationally prohibitive. Hence, further, a reduction of at least an order of magnitude in the dimension of reaction kinetics is one of the prerequisites for feasibility of computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. In the present method of simplified modeling, all molecular species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons are classified as either light or heavy; heavy molecules are those having 3 or more carbon atoms. The light molecules are not subject to meaningful decomposition, and the heavy molecules are considered to decompose into only 13 specified constituent radicals, a few of which are listed in the table. One constructs a reduced-order model, suitable for use in estimating the release of heat and the evolution of temperature in combustion, from a base comprising the 13 constituent radicals plus a total of 26 other species that include the light molecules and related light free radicals. Then rather than following all possible species through their reaction coordinates, one follows only the reduced set of reaction coordinates of the base. The behavior of the base was examined in test computational simulations of the combustion of

  8. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  9. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...... for both catchments low and no correlations between PAH concentrations in the pond and toxicity were found....

  10. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  11. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  12. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  13. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2009-05-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  14. Different strategies for recovering metals from CARON process residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, G., E-mail: gema.cabrera@uca.es [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain); Gomez, J.M., E-mail: josemanuel.montesdeoca@uca.es [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain); Hernandez, I., E-mail: ianeyahd@fbio.uh.cu [Laboratory of Metals, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Havana (Cuba); Coto, O., E-mail: ocoto@fbio.uh.cu [Laboratory of Metals, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Havana (Cuba); Cantero, D., E-mail: domingo.cantero@uca.es [Biological and Enzymatic Reactors Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cadiz (Spain)

    2011-05-30

    The capacity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DMS 11478 to recover the heavy metals contained in the residue obtained from the CARON process has been evaluated. Different bioreactor configurations were studied: a two-stage batch system and two semi-continuous systems (stirred-tank reactor leaching and column leaching). In the two-stage system, 46.8% Co, 36.0% Mg, 26.3% Mn and 22.3% Ni were solubilised after 6 h of contact between the residue and the bacteria-free bioacid. The results obtained with the stirred-tank reactor and the column were similar: 50% of the Mg and Co and 40% of the Mn and Ni were solubilised after thirty one days. The operation in the column reactor allowed the solid-liquid ratio to be increased and the pH to be kept at low values (<1.0). Recirculation of the leachate in the column had a positive effect on metal removal; at sixty five days (optimum time) the solubilisation levels were as follows: 86% Co, 83% Mg, 72% Mn and Ni, 62% Fe and 23% Cr. The results corroborate the feasibility of the systems studied for the leaching of metals from CARON process residue and these methodologies can be considered viable for the recovery of valuable metals.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY BY GREENERY RECOVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мargarita Radomska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principal reasons of chemical pollution caused by the activity of filling stations, namely losses of hydrocarbon material, which takes place at transport operations and exploitation of imperfect equipment, have been analyzed. The primary sources of filling stations negative environmental impacts are shown to be storm waters, which wash off poured out petrochemicals from their territory, while direct environment pollution as a result of emergency overflows of petrochemicals is a rare phenomenon. It is indicated that the negative consequences of filling stations activity spread on atmospheric air, adjoining soils and water objects, including ground and underground water, and it is expressed in contamination of these environment components with petrochemicals and creation of threats for human health.

  16. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  18. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  19. Quantification of compositional changes of petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and GC/MS during a long-term bioremediation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine S.; Arvin, Erik; Svensmark, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Samples from a long-term bioremediation experiment contaminated with two crude oils, Arabian Heavy and Gullfax, was used to analyze the compositional change of petroleum hydrocarbons. A time course of five different homologous series of petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed by GC/FID and GC...

  20. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  1. Asphaltene Precipitation inHeavy-Oil Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Verås, Tor Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Vapor-Assisted Petroleum Extraction (VAPEX) is a relatively new and promising method for recovering heavy crude oils in Canada. The technique upgrades the oil in-situ through asphaltene precipitation, but it may also cause damage to the formation by clogging its pore throats. This thesis brings some clarity to what asphaltenes are and how they form from mixes of bitumen and solvent, depending on the type and amount of solvent used. This was investigated through a series of laboratory experime...

  2. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  3. Neutron scattering applications in hydrocarbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min Y.; Peiffer, Dennis G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States); Zhang, Yimin; Rafailovich, Miriam [Dept. of Materials Sci. and Eng., State University of New York, NY (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Neutron scattering methods are a powerful probe to complex fluids, soft matters as well as solid materials of nano- and micro-structures and their related dynamic properties. They complement other microstructural probing tools, such as microscopes, x-ray and light scattering techniques. Because neutron does not carry charges, it interacts only with nuclei of the matter, therefore not only can it penetrate a longer length into matters, it can also see' many features other methods can't due to their lack of proper contrast or heavy absorption. One of the largest contrasts in neutron methods is from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) difference. Therefore, hydrocarbons can be easily studied by neutrons when H/D isotope substitution is applied. Here at National Institute of Standards and Technology's Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, one of the USA's premier neutron scattering facilities, we have been using neutron scattering techniques to study microstructures of asphaltenes, waxes, gas hydrates, porous media, surfactant solutions, engine oils, polymers, nanocomposites, fuel cell element and other hydrocarbon materials. With the completion of a new Neutron Spin Echo instrument, we can also look at the dynamics of the above mentioned systems. (author)

  4. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  5. Biodegradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Extremely Acidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Raymond D.; Savage, Dwayne C.; Sayler, Gary S.; Stacey, Gary

    1998-01-01

    The potential for biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in soil samples recovered along gradients of both contaminant levels and pH values existing downstream of a long-term coal pile storage basin. pH values for areas greatly impacted by runoff from the storage basin were 2.0. Even at such a reduced pH, the indigenous microbial community was metabolically active, showing the ability to oxidize more than 40% of the parent hydrocarbons, naphthalene and toluene, to carbon dioxide and water. Treatment of the soil samples with cycloheximide inhibited mineralization of the aromatic substrates. DNA hybridization analysis indicated that whole-community nucleic acids recovered from these samples did not hybridize with genes, such as nahA, nahG, nahH, todC1C2, and tomA, that encode common enzymes from neutrophilic bacteria. Since these data suggested that the degradation of aromatic compounds may involve a microbial consortium instead of individual acidophilic bacteria, experiments using microorganisms isolated from these samples were initiated. While no defined mixed cultures were able to evolve 14CO2 from labeled substrates in these mineralization experiments, an undefined mixed culture including a fungus, a yeast, and several bacteria successfully metabolized approximately 27% of supplied naphthalene after 1 week. This study shows that biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in environments with extremely low pH values. PMID:9797263

  6. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  7. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  8. Normal hydrocarbons as a source of resin formation in the process of obtaining isoprene from isopentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Sire, Y.M.; Vasil' yeva, V.P.; Gitis, K.M.; Rozengart, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on a catalyst of dehydrogenation of olefins of the conversion of isoamylenes and other C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons (isoprene, n-pentenes, piperylene), formed during dehydrogenation of isoamylenes to isoprene. It was found that the yield of heavy products increases on transition from hydrocarbons of iso-structure to normal hydrocarbons, which is due to the greater ease of polycondensation of cyclopentadiene formed from n-pentenes and particularly from piperylene under conditions of dehydrogenation. A study was made by chromato-mass-spectrometry of the composition of heavy products of conversion of piperylene and isoprene. In contrast with the catalysate of isoprene, the catalysate of piperylene contains a significant proportion of hydrocarbons containing a five-membered ring in the molecule (dicyclopentadiene, indane, indene, methylindenes, azilene), this being due to the participation of cyclopentadiene in the formation of heavy products. In the two-stage process of dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoprene 95% normal hydrocarbons are formed on dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoamylenes. (JMT)

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  10. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  11. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  12. Carbon isotope biogeochemistry of plant resins and derived hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.P.; Edwards, D.; Hope, J.M.; Boreham, C.J. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    Hydrocarbons derived from plant resins are major components of some terrigenous oils and bitumens. These compounds are structurally distinct and this makes then useful biomarkers applicable in petroleum exploration as well as sources of biogeochemical information about palaeoenvironment and palaeobotany. Although recent studies have elucidated the molecular structure of resinites, very little information has been available for the carbon isotope composition of resinites and no studies of resin-derived compounds in oils had been performed prior to the present study. Hence, carbon stable isotope analyses were carried out on a suite of modern and fossil resins of diverse origins, including compound specific isotope analysis of individual hydrocarbons produced during resin pyrolysis. Oils derived from resinite source organic matter were also analysed. The results showed that ``Class I`` resinites derived from gymnosperms were enriched in the heavy carbon isotope compared with those from angiosperms (``Class I`` resinites). Furthermore, both fossil resinites themselves and individual hydrocarbons derived from them were isotopically heavy compared with modern plant resins. The isotopic signatures of diterpanes and triterpanes in various early Tertiary oils from Australasia and Southeast Asia reflect their origins from gymnosperms and angiosperms, respectively. (author)

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of nickel and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetibo, Ganiyu Oladunjoye; Ilori, Matthew Olusoji; Obayori, Oluwafemi Sunday; Amund, Olukayode Oladipo

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation of environments co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals often pose a challenge as heavy metals exert toxicity to existing communities of hydrocarbon degraders. Multi-resistant bacterial strains were studied for ability to degrade hydrocarbons in chemically defined media amended with 5.0 mM Ni(2+), and Co(2+). The bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CA207Ni, Burkholderia cepacia AL96Co, and Corynebacterium kutscheri FL108Hg, utilized crude oil and anthracene without lag phase at specific growth rate spanning 0.3848-0.8259 per day. The bacterial populations grew in hydrocarbon media amended with nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) at 0.8393-1.801 days generation time (period of exponential growth, t = 15 days). The bacteria degraded 96.24-98.97, and 92.94-96.24% of crude oil, and anthracene, respectively, within 30 days without any impedance due to metal toxicity (at 5.0 mM). Rather, there was reduction of Ni and Co concentrations in the axenic culture 30 days post-inoculation to 0.08-0.12 and 0.11-0.15 mM, respectively. The metabolic functions of the bacteria are active in the presence of toxic metals (Ni and Co) while utilizing petroleum hydrocarbons for increase in biomass. These findings are useful to other baseline studies on decommissioning of sites co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and toxic metals.

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements as a Proxy for Hydrocarbon Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewafy, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Werkema, D.; Revil, A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Skold, M.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements have been commonly used in paleoclimate studies, as a proxy for environmental pollution such as heavy metal contamination, and for delineating zones of oil seeps related to hydrocarbon exploration. Few studies have assessed the use of MS measurements for mapping zones of oil pollution. In this study, we investigated the variation in magnetic susceptibility across a hydrocarbon contaminated site undergoing biodegradation. Our objective was to investigate if MS measurements could be used as a proxy indicator of intrinsic bioremediation linked to the activity of iron reducing bacteria. An improved understanding of the mechanisms generating geophysical signatures associated with microbial enzymatic activity could permit the development of geophysical imaging technologies for long-term, minimally invasive and sustainable monitoring of natural biodegradation at oil spill sites. We used a Bartington MS probe to measure MS data along fifteen boreholes within contaminated (both free phase and dissolved phase hydrocarbon plumes) and clean areas. Our results show the following: (1) an enhanced zone of MS straddling the water table at the contaminated locations, not observed at the clean locations; (2) MS values within the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; (3) the MS values within the vadoze zone above the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; 4) the zone of high MS is thicker within the free product plume compared to the dissolved product plume. We suggest that the zone of enhanced MS results from the precipitation of magnetite related to the oxidation of the hydrocarbons coupled to iron reduction. Our data documents a strong correlation between MS and hydrocarbon concentration. We conclude that recognition of these zones of enhanced magnetite formation allows for the application of MS measurements as a: (1) low cost, rapid monitoring

  15. Metagenomics of hydrocarbon resource environments indicates aerobic taxa and genes to be unexpectedly common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Agrawal, Akhil; Brown, Damon; Budwill, Karen; Dong, Xiaoli; Dunfield, Peter F; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M; Hallam, Steven J; Hanson, Niels W; He, Zhiguo; Jack, Thomas R; Klassen, Jonathan; Konwar, Kishori M; Kuatsjah, Eugene; Li, Carmen; Larter, Steve; Leopatra, Verlyn; Nesbø, Camilla L; Oldenburg, Thomas; Pagé, Antoine P; Ramos-Padron, Esther; Rochman, Fauziah F; Saidi-Mehrabad, Alireeza; Sensen, Christoph W; Sipahimalani, Payal; Song, Young C; Wilson, Sandra; Wolbring, Gregor; Wong, Man-Ling; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-09-17

    Oil in subsurface reservoirs is biodegraded by resident microbial communities. Water-mediated, anaerobic conversion of hydrocarbons to methane and CO2, catalyzed by syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea, is thought to be one of the dominant processes. We compared 160 microbial community compositions in ten hydrocarbon resource environments (HREs) and sequenced twelve metagenomes to characterize their metabolic potential. Although anaerobic communities were common, cores from oil sands and coal beds had unexpectedly high proportions of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Likewise, most metagenomes had high proportions of genes for enzymes involved in aerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. Hence, although HREs may have been strictly anaerobic and typically methanogenic for much of their history, this may not hold today for coal beds and for the Alberta oil sands, one of the largest remaining oil reservoirs in the world. This finding may influence strategies to recover energy or chemicals from these HREs by in situ microbial processes.

  16. Hydrocarbon generation conditions and exploration potential of the Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wenzhe

    2009-01-01

    The Taoudeni Basin is a typical and steady intracratonic basin in Mauritania, northwest Africa. There are six sets of potential source rocks and five regional unconformable surfaces of the Infracambrian and Paleozoic developed in the basin. We used seismic stratigraphic correlation to recover the denudation thickness of formations at a particular well location. Studies of the hydrocarbon generation history of the basin illustrate that hydrocarbon migration and accumulation occurred in the end of the Carboniferous, and after that, the whole basin suffered denudation for a long period of time. Because there is no thick Mesozoic overburden in the basin, the Silurian source rocks could not generate hydrocarbon in the Mesozoic era for the second time. Consequently, the prospects for successful hydrocarbon exploration in the basin are not good.

  17. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  18. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated Sub-Antarctic soil through cultivation using a high and a novel low nutrient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Carlene Ferrari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and are well described for recovering greater diversity from the hitherto unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the hitherto unculturable bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different species to that recovered using low nutrient media. By combining both approaches to cultivation from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 99 fungal species were recovered, including 42 yet unidentified species, several of which were isolated from soils containing high concentrations of diesel fuel. These novel species will now be characterized for their potential role in hydrocarbon degradation.

  19. Association of microbial community composition and activity with lead, chromium, and hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Becker, J; Bischoff, M; Turco, R F; Konopka, A E

    2002-08-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil(-1), 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil(-1), and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil(-1). Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil samples. Statistical analyses suggested that the variation in PLFA was more correlated with soil hydrocarbons than with the levels of Cr and Pb. The metal sensitivity of the microbial community was determined by extracting bacteria from soil and measuring [(3)H]leucine incorporation as a function of metal concentration. Six soil samples collected in the spring of 1999 had IC(50) values (the heavy metal concentrations giving 50% reduction of microbial activity) of approximately 2.5 mM for CrO(4)2- and 0.01 mM for Pb2+. Much higher levels of Pb were required to inhibit [14C]glucose mineralization directly in soils. In microcosm experiments with these samples, microbial biomass and the ratio of microbial biomass to soil organic C were not correlated with the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. However, microbial C respiration in samples with a higher level of hydrocarbons differed from the other soils no matter whether complex organic C (alfalfa) was added or not. The ratios of microbial C respiration to microbial biomass differed significantly among the soil samples (P < 0.05) and were relatively high in soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Our results suggest that the soil microbial community was predominantly affected by hydrocarbons.

  20. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H. Marike; Huo, Xia

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals

  1. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  2. Heavy hadron decays with conserved heavy flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the decays of heavy hadrons where the heavy quark acts as a spectator and the light quark decays in a weak transition. For these s → u or d → u decays we show that the decay rates can be reliably computed.

  3. Extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide at the pressure values changing from 16 to 56 MPa at the fixed value of temperature: 60oC. The amount of the recovered liquid phase of oil was calculated as a percentage of the extracted amount to the initial...

  4. A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, Berk; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad; Avci, Recep

    2011-10-01

    A custom-made stainless steel column was designed to contain various materials that would trap the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives during the processes of fungal fermentation ultimately yielding preparative amounts of volatile organic substances (VOCs). Trapping materials tested in the column were Carbotrap materials A and B (Supelco) as well as bentonite-shale from the oil bearing areas of Eastern Montana, the former allowed for the effective and efficient trapping of VOCs from purged cultures of Hypoxylon sp. Trapping efficiencies of various materials were measured by both gravimetric as well as proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopy with the Carbotraps A and B being 99% efficient when tested with known amounts of 1,8-cineole. Trapped fungal VOCs could effectively be removed and recovered via controlled heating of the stainless steel column followed by passage of the gases through a liquid nitrogen trap at a recovery rate of ca 65-70%. This method provides for the recovery of mg quantities of compounds normally present in the gas phase that may be needed for spectroscopy, bioassays and further separation and analysis and may have wide applicability for many other biological systems involving VOCs. Other available Carbotraps could be used for other applications.

  5. Physics of heavy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, J

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental situation in physics of heavy neutrinos (M_N>M_Z) is briefly presented. Various experimental bounds on heavy neutrino masses and mixings are shortly reviewed. Special attention is paid to possibility of detecting heavy neutrinos in future lepton linear colliders.

  6. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  7. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  8. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  9. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  10. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  11. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  12. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  13. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  16. Mesozooplankton affinities in a recovering freshwater estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambord, Sophie; Maris, Tom; Colas, Fanny; Van Engeland, Tom; Sossou, Akoko-C.; Azémar, Frédéric; Le Coz, Maïwen; Cox, Tom; Buisson, Laetitia; Souissi, Sami; Meire, Patrick; Tackx, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    for their decline. Water quality improvement in the freshwater Scheldt estuary has led to environmental, post-heavy polluted conditions, under which no data on zooplankton populations in this estuary were available. This has indicated a plasticity in the temperature tolerance of E. affinis.

  17. Hydrocarbon status of soils under atmospheric pollution from a local industrial source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Contents and compositions of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and free and retained hydrocarbon gases in soils along a transect at different distances from the local industrial source of atmospheric pollution with soot emissions have been studied. The reserves of PAHs progressively decrease when the distance from the source increases. Among the individual PAHs, the most significant decrease is observed for benzo[ a]pyrene, tetraphene, pyrene, chrysene, and anthracene. On plowlands, the share of heavy PAHs—benzo[ ghi]perylene, benzo[ a]pyrene, perylene, etc.—is lower than in the forest soils. In automorphic soils of the park zone adjacent to the industrial zone, the penetration depth of four-, five-, and sixring PAHs from the atmosphere is no more than 25 cm. In soils under natural forest vegetation, heavy PAHs do not penetrate deeper than 5 cm; in tilled soils, their penetration depth coincides with the lower boundary of plow horizons. Analysis of free gases in the soil air revealed hydrocarbons only under forest. From the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the content, reserves, and compositions of different hydrocarbons, the following modification types of hydrocarbon status in the studied soils were revealed: injection, atmosedimentation-injection, atmosedimentation-impact, atmosedimentation-distant, and biogeochemical types.

  18. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-29

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  19. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  20. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-05-03

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  1. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-15

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  2. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Effect of various amendments on heavy mineral oil bioremediation and soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Bang-Il; Kim, Jeong-gyu

    2008-05-01

    To examine the effects of amendments on the degradation of heavy mineral oil, we conducted a pilot-scale experiment in the field for 105 days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically to determine the amount of residual hydrocarbons and evaluate the effects of the amendments on microbial activity. After 105 days, the initial level of contamination (7490+/-480 mg hydrocarbon kg(-1) soil) was reduced by 18-40% in amended soils, whereas it was only reduced by 9% in nonamended soil. Heavy mineral oil degradation was much faster and more complete in compost-amended soil than in hay-, sawdust-, and mineral nutrient-amended soils. The enhanced degradation of heavy mineral oil in compost-amended soil may be a result of the significantly higher microbial activity in this soil. Among the studied microbial parameters, soil dehydrogenase, lipase, and urease activities were strongly and negatively correlated with heavy mineral oil biodegradation (Pamended soil.

  5. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  6. Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of the Silurian in the Tazhong Uplift of Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÜ, Xiuxiang; BAI, Zhongkai; ZHAO, Fengyun

    Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift of Tarim basin is characterized by "two sources and three stages". "Two sources" means that the hydrocarbons are derived from two source rocks of the Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician. "Three stages" means that asphalt and movable oil undergoes three hydrocarbon accumulation stages, i.e., Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian, and Yanshanian-Himalayan. The formation of asphalt resulted from the destruction of the hydrocarbons accumulated and migrated in the early stages. The present movable oil, mostly derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock, resulted from the hydrocarbons accumulated in the late stage. There are three types of reservoirs, i.e., anticline structural, stratigraphic lithological, and lava shield reservoirs in the Tazhong uplift. Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift is controlled by the three factors. (1) The background of uplift structure. Around the ancient uplift, the compounding of many types makes up the composite hydrocarbon accumulation areas. (2) Effective cover. The show of oil gas including asphalt, heavy crude oil, and normal oil is quite active in the Silurian. Asphalt and heavy crude oil are distributed under the red mudstone member and movable oil is distributed under the gray mudstone member. (3) High quality reservoir bed. Sandstone is distributed widely in the Tazhong area. Reservoir pore space can be divided into three types: a) secondary origin-primary origin pore space; b) primary origin-secondary origin pore space, and c) micropore space. Porosity is 3.3-17.4%, and permeability is (0.1-667.97) × 10 -3 μm 2.

  7. The use of macrophytes for heavy metal pollution control in urban wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tiantian

    1990-01-01

    A literature survey has been undertaken to identify the role and function of aquatic macrophytes in the removal of contaminants from polluted surface waters. The survey focussed primarily on heavy metals, however nitrate, phosphate and hydrocarbon removal are also discussed and the application of aquatic macrophytes in wastewater treatment systems is also described. The objectives of the research are: To determine heavy metal variations in water, sediment and plant tissues in both fiel...

  8. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Alcohol, Specially Denatured Rum, or Articles § 20.213 Reuse of recovered spirits. (a) If the...

  9. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  10. Language Production Abilities of Children Whose Stuttering Persisted or Recovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ruth V.; Yairi, Ehud

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the language production of 12 children (ages 5-8) who continued stuttering for 36 months or more after onset, 10 who recovered 18-36 months post onset, and 10 who recovered within 18 months of onset of stuttering. The majority of the children performed in the average range on measures of language production. (Author/CR)

  11. On the recovering of a coupled nonlinear Schroedinger potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: ccg@hp9000a1.uam.mx

    2000-04-28

    We establish a priori conditions for a Gel'fand-Levitan (GL) integral using some results of the Fredholm theory. As consequence, we obtain a recovering formula for the potential of the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The remarkable fact is that the recovering formula is given in terms of the solutions of a classical GL-integral equation. (author)

  12. Beyond coherence: Recovering structured time-frequency representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    pursuit and (orthogonal) matching pursuit algorithms to recover a structured representation of an admissible signal. The sufficient conditions take into account the structure of the wavelet/Wilson dictionary and allow very large (even infinite) support sets to be recovered even though the dictionary...

  13. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  14. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  15. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Muddasar, E-mail: muddasar77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip [Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  16. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  17. Production of heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  18. A Review of Laboratory-Scale Research on Upgrading Heavy Oil in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demand for energy and the depletion of conventional crude oil, heavy oil in huge reserve has attracted extensive attention. However, heavy oil cannot be directly refined by existing processes unless they are upgraded due to its complex composition and high concentration of heteroatoms (N, S, Ni, V, etc.. Of the variety of techniques for heavy oil upgrading, supercritical water (SCW is gaining popularity because of its excellent ability to convert heavy oil into valued, clean light oil by the suppression of coke formation and the removal of heteroatoms. Based on the current status of this research around the world, heavy oil upgrading in SCW is summarized from three aspects: Transformation of hydrocarbons, suppression of coke, and removal of heteroatoms. In this work, the challenge and future development of the orientation of upgrading heavy oil in SCW are pointed out.

  19. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  20. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  2. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induc

  3. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No

  4. Biosurfactant produced by novel Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 with biodegradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Du, Zhifeng; Cui, Qingfeng; Dong, Hao; Wang, Fuyi; He, Panqing; Tang, YongChun

    2014-07-15

    Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have threatened the environment due to toxicity and poor bioavailability. Interest in degradation of these hazardous materials by biosurfactant-producing bacteria has been steadily increasing in recent years. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 was isolated to degrade a wide range of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactant was observed in all biodegradable studies. These lipopeptides were purified and identified by C18 RP-HPLC system and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results of structural analysis showed that these lipopeptides generated from different hydrocarbons were classified to be surfactin, fengycin and lichenysin. Heavy-oil sludge washing experiments demonstrated that lipopeptides produced by Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 have 92.46% of heavy-oil washing efficiency. The obtained results indicate that this novel bacterial strain and its lipopeptides have great potentials in the environmental remediation and petroleum recovery.

  5. Hydrocarbon recovery comprising injecting a slug comprising oil soluble alkoxylated surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; DaGue, M.G.; Dunn, N.G.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of oil soluble surfactants produced from lignin, said oil soluble surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into relatively low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen, said reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200 C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reaction mixture, alkoxylating the lignin phenols by reacting the lignin phenols with an a-olefin epoxide having about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms at about 100 to about 200 C for about 1 to about 3 hours in an organic solvent, and changing the alkoxylated lignin phenols into oil soluble lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of sulfonation, sulfation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  6. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  7. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  8. Resummation of large logarithms in the heavy quark effects on the parton distributions inside the virtual photon

    CERN Document Server

    Kitadono, Yoshio; Uematsu, Tsuneo; Ueda, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the resummation of the large logarithmic terms appearing in the heavy quark effects on parton distribution functions inside the virtual photon. We incorporate heavy quark mass effects by changing the initial condition of the leading-order DGLAP evolution equation. In a certain kinematical limit, we recover the logarithmic terms of the next-to-leading order heavy quark effects obtained in the previous work. This method enables us to resum the large logarithmic terms due to heavy quark mass effects on the parton distributions in the virtual photon. We numerically calculate parton distributions using the formulae derived in this work, and discuss the property of the resummed heavy quark effects.

  9. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  10. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  11. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  12. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2001-12-18

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  13. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barufet, Maria

    2002-11-20

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  14. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2002-11-20

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  15. Aquathermolysis of conventional heavy oil with superheated steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guangshou; Zhou Tiyao; Cheng Linsong; Wang Yunxian; Tian Guoqing; Pi Jian; Zhang Zheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new aquathermolysis study of conventional heavy oil in superheated steam. A new high temperature autoclave was designed, where volume and pressure could be adjusted. Aquathermolysis was studied on two different conventional heavy oil samples under different reaction times and temperatures. Experimental results show that aquathermolysis does take place for conventional heavy oil. As reaction time increases, the oil viscosity reduces. However, the reaction will reach equilibrium after a certain period of time and won't be sensitive to any further reaction time any more. Analysis shows that, while resin and asphaltenes decrease, saturated hydrocarbons and the H/C ratio increase after reaction. The main mechanism of aquathermolysis includes hydrogenization, desulfuration reaction of resin and asphaltenes, etc.

  16. [Characterization of a thermophilic Geobacillus strain DM-2 degrading hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-kun; Wang, Jun; Li, Guo-qiang; Ma, Ting; Liang, Feng-lai; Liu, Ru-lin

    2008-12-01

    A thermophilic Geobacillus strain DM-2 from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir was investigated on its capability of degrading crude oil under various conditions as well as its characters on degrading hydrocarbons in optimal conditions. The results showed that Geobacillus strain DM-2 was able to degrade crude oil under anoxic wide-range conditions with pH ranging from 4.0 to 10.0, high temperature in the range of 45-70 degrees C and saline concentration ranging from 0.2% to 3.0%. Furthermore, the optimal temperature and pH value for utilizing hydrocarbons by the strain were 60 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. Under such optimal conditions, the strain utilized liquid paraffine emulsified by itself as its carbon source for growth; further analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and infrared absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that it was able to degrade n-alkanes (C14-C30), branched-chain alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil and could also utilize long-chain n-alkanes from C16 to C36, among of which the degradation efficiency of C28 was the highest, up to 88.95%. One metabolite of the strain oxidizing alkanes is fatty acid.While utilizing C16 as carbon source for 5 d, only one fatty acid-acetic acid was detected by HPLC and MS as the product, with the amount of 0.312 g/L, which indicated that it degraded n-alkanes with pathway of inferior terminal oxidation,and then followed by a beta-oxidation pathway. Due to its characters of efficient emulsification, high-performance degradation of hydrocarbons and fatty-acid production under high temperature and anoxic condition, the strain DM-2 may be potentially applied to oil-waste treatment and microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery in extreme conditions.

  17. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  18. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is reported herein. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. The work was done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in.) to 55.9 cm (22 in.). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by 'reaming' each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  19. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is examined. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. Experiments were done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in) to 55.9 cm (22 in). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by reaming each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  20. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  1. What People Recovering from Alcoholism Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Recovering from Alcoholism Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: PDF (76 KB) Related Resources ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become ...

  2. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  3. Altered Reward Processing in Women Recovered From Anorexia Nervosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venkatraman, Vijay K; Fischer, Lorie; Bailer, Ursula F; Aizenstein, Howard; May, J. Christopher; Frank, Guido K; Carter, Cameron; Putnam, Karen; Fudge, Julie; Kaye, Walter H; Wagner, Angela; Mazurkewicz, Laura; Nguyen, Van

    2007-01-01

    .... To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, the authors compared 13 healthy comparison women and 13 women who had recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa and had 1 year of normal...

  4. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Recovering a Basic Space from Issue Scales in R

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    basicspace is an R package that conducts Aldrich-McKelvey and Blackbox scaling to recover estimates of the underlying latent dimensions of issue scale data. We illustrate several applications of the package to survey data commonly used in the social sciences. Monte Carlo tests demonstrate that the procedure can recover latent dimensions and reproduce the matrix of responses at moderate levels of error and missing data.

  6. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...... different recycling processes, mechanical, burn off, pyrolysis and glycolysis are selected are compared based on the properties of the glass fiber recovered. The intention is to use the same characterization methodology....

  7. Bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Heng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, knowledge in regard to bioremediation of combined pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi has been widely developed. This paper reviews the species of bacteria and fungi which can tackle with various types of PAHs and heavy metals entering into environment simultaneously or successively. Microbial activity, pollutants bioavailability and environmental factors (e.g. pH, temperature, low molecular weight organic acids and humic acids) can all affect the bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. Moreover, this paper summarizes the remediation mechanisms of PAHs and heavy metals by microbes via elucidating the interaction mechanisms of heavy metals with heavy metals, PAHs/PAHs metabolites with PAHs and PAHs with heavy metals. Based on the above reviews, this paper also discusses the potential research needs for this field.

  8. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Wood; William Quinlan

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  9. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Synthesis and investigation dark polymer hydrocarbon resins in the bitumen composites

    OpenAIRE

    Никулишин, Ірена Євгенівна; Піх, Зорян Григорович; Шевчук, Лілія Іванівна; Рипка, Анна Мирославівна; Чайківська, Руслана Тарасівна

    2016-01-01

    Thermal gas-phase pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw materials in pipe furnaces remains to be the main strategic process of ethylene and propylene production. Nowadays, the possibility of the pyrolysis process intensification to increase the target product yield draws attention of scientists. But besides the olefins (target products) the pyrolysis process is the source of heavy pyrolysis pitch. Considerable development of petrochemical industry requires finding new applications of the by-products f...

  11. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  12. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  14. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  15. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

  16. Study of three-phase flow vertical patterns applied to the lift and transport of heavy oil; Estudo dos padroes de fluxo trifasico vertical aplicado a elevacao e transporte de oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Fernando Fabris; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The E and P activity has a great importance in the oil industry. First, it assesses hydrocarbon reserves that can be recovered in order to provide the highest revenues. Second, it supplies the forecast oil and gas production through adequate lift and transportation methods. These flows become rather difficult and requires high investments for heavy oils, which can be understood as having density larger than 934 kg/m{sup 3} (API grade smaller than about 20) and viscosity higher than 100 cP at reservoir conditions. In this work, the flow of a heavy crude oil and air mixture was made viable by injecting water in the pipe, in order to lubricate the flow and reduce pressure drop, as in the core flow technique. The main objective is to observe the three-phase flow patterns formed in the vertical pipe at different mixture compositions, for application in artificial lift. The oil flow rate was measured through a mass flow meter. Water and gas flow rates were given by rotameters. A high-speed VHS camera (1000 frames/s) attached to the pipeline was used to record the experiments for the determination of the final patterns. These are described and represented in flow maps. (author)

  17. Methane and other hydrocarbon gases in sediment from the southeastern North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Residual concentrations and distributions of hydrocarbon gases from methane to n-heptane were measured in sediments at seven sites on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 164. Three sites were drilled at the Cape Fear Diapir of the Carolina Rise, and one site was drilled on the Blake Ridge Diapir. Methane concentrations at these sites result from microbial generation which is influenced by the amount of pore-water sulfate and possible methane oxidation. Methane hydrate was found at the Blake Ridge Diapir site. The other hydrocarbon gases at these sites are likely the produce of early microbial processes. Three sites were drilled on a transect of holes across the crest of the Blake Ridge. The base of the zone of gas-hydrate occurrence was penetrated at all three sites. Trends in hydrocarbon gas distributions suggest that methane is microbial in origin and that the hydrocarbon gas mixture is affected by diagenesis, outgassing, and, near the surface, by microbial oxidation. Methane hydrate was recovered at two of these three sites, although gas hydrate is likely present at all three sites. The method used here for determining amounts of residual hydrocarbon gases has its limitations and provides poor assessment of gas distributions, particularly in the stratigraphic interval below about ~ 100 mbsf. One advantage of the method, however, is that it yields sufficient quantities of gas for other studies such as isotopic determinations.

  18. Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis coupled with chromatography as a thermal simulation experimental method and its application to gaseous hydrocarbons from different source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ji'an; ZHAO Xin; WANG Qi; LIU Quanyou

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis method coupled with chromatography (TG-DTA-GC) has been adopted to simulate the generation of gaseous hydrocarbons from different hydrocarbon source rocks such as coals, mudstones, and carbonate rocks with different maturities. The temperature programming for thermal simulation experiment is 20℃/min from ambient temperature to 700℃. As viewed from the quantities and composition of generated gaseous hydrocarbons at different temperatures, it is shown that low-mature coal has experienced the strongest exothermic reaction and the highest loss of weight in which the first exothermic peak is relatively low. Low-mature coal samples have stronger capability of generating gaseous hydrocarbons than high-mature samples. The amounts and composition of gaseous hydrocarbons generated are closely related not only to the abundance of organic carbon in source rocks, but also to the type of kerogen in the source rocks, and their thermal maturity. In the present highly mature and over-mature rock samples organic carbon, probably, has already been exhausted, so the production of gaseous hydrocarbons in large amounts is impossible. The contents of heavy components in gaseous hydrocarbons from the source rocks containing type-Ⅰand -Ⅱ kerogens are generally high; those of light components such as methane and ethane in gaseous hydrocarbons from the source rocks with Ⅲ-type kerogens are high as well. In the course of thermal simulation of carbonate rock samples, large amounts of gaseous hydrocarbons were produced in a high temperature range.

  19. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  20. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  1. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Heavy Hadrons in Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos; Nieves, Juan; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of dynamically-generated baryon resonances with heavy-quark content within a unitarized coupled-channel theory in matter that fulfills heavy-quark spin symmetry constraints. We analyze the implications for the formation of charmed mesic nuclei and the propagation of heavy mesons in heavy-ion collisions from RHIC to FAIR.

  4. Sedimentology of cores recovered from the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Saint-Ange, F.; Pohlman, J.; Higgins, J.; Mosher, D. C.; Lorenson, T. D.; Hart, P.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers from the United States and Canada are collaborating to understand the tectonic and sedimentary history of the Arctic Ocean between Canada and Alaska. As part of this on-going study, a joint US-Canadian ice breaker expedition operated in parts of the Canada Basin during August 2010. Occasional interruptions of the seismic data acquisition provided the ship time to collect gravity and piston cores at five sites-of-opportunity throughout the basin. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiler data collected immediately prior to coring reveal the fine-scale morphology of each site. Core photographs, X-ray radiographs, and physical property data support the following descriptions. Two piston cores were collected from the Beaufort Sea continental margin in a region of known bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Site 1 (2538 m water depth): This core recovered 5.72 m of gas-charged, gray sticky clay and silty-clay from an approximately 1100 m diameter, 130 m high conical mound overlying the crest of a buried anticline. Gas hydrate recovered in the core catcher combined with cracks and voids, methane and other hydrocarbon gasses, pyrite concretions, chemosynthetic clams, carbonate nodules, and soft carbonate masses indicate the likely upward migration of deep-seated fluids. Site 2 (1157 m water depth): This core, positioned 40 km upslope from the gas hydrate core, recovered 3 m of gray sticky silty clay and clayey silt near the base of an erosional scarp. Some voids and fracturing are apparent but carbonate masses and pyrite concretions are absent. Site 3 (3070 m water depth): This core from the top of a seamount discovered in 2009 in the north-central part of the Canada Basin recovered 4.94 m of sediment. More than 3 m of dark brown to yellowish brown, massive interbedded silty clays with sands and matrix-supported gravels (ice rafted debris [IRD]) occur in abrupt contact with underlying reddish yellow to brownish yellow silty clay and

  5. Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Susceptible-infected-recovered model with recurrent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze a stochastic lattice model describing the spreading of a disease among a community composed by susceptible, infected and removed individuals. A susceptible individual becomes infected catalytically. An infected individual may, spontaneously, either become recovered, that is, acquire a permanent immunization, or become again susceptible. The critical properties including the phase diagram is obtained by means of mean-field theories as well as numerical simulations. The model is found to belong to the universality class of dynamic percolation except when the recovering rate vanishes in which case the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  8. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  9. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  10. RECYCLING RECOVERED WOOD-BASED MATERIALS. FLATNESS, MOR AND MOE OF PANELS MADE FROM RECOVERED WOODEN BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DEÁK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the mechanical properties of recovered solid wood and wood-based materials, to create new panels made of strips of recovered oak and spruce wood, particleboards and blockboards and to study their mechanical properties, feasibility and use. Flatness, MOR and MOE were determined for the solid wood and wood-based materials recovered from construction and demolition sites. Four types of experimental panels (PL1, PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 were manufactured from solid wood strips alternating with either particleboard or blockboard strips glued edge to edge. Some of their physical and mechanical properties were investigated. All new panels made from recovered materials fell within allowable limits specified in European standard requirements for panel flatness. Panels type PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 show better values for MoR and MoE parallel to the grain when compared to the respective values for the recovered wood-based materials of which they are made, but panels type PL1 show no change. Panels type PALL2 are preferable to panels type PALL1 due to better mechanical properties. Panels type PL1 and PL2 show no such differences in their structure. The results also show that these new panels can be used successfully in furniture production, provided panels type PL1, PL2 ad PALL1 do not bear loads perpendicular to the grain or receive reinforcing elements.

  11. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  12. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this bl...

  13. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency of Relative Permeability Data in Heavy Oil Systems with Applications to Thermal Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Heavy oil and tar sands are important hydrocarbon resources that are destined to play an increasingly important role in the oil supply of the world. A huge proportion of total world oil resources are in the form of these highly viscous fluids. The main recovery mechanism for these kinds of reservoirs is to somehow reduce their viscosity by the application of heat. In these extra heavy oil reservoirs, the reservoir has almost no injectivity, and therefore conventional steam flooding is hard to...

  14. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  15. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  16. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  17. 40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 91....316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer as described... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  18. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon...

  19. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylarde Christine C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.

  20. Effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides upon quail and pheasants

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1955-01-01

    Previous studies had shown that heavy or repeated applications of DDT resulted in decreases.in bird populations, but long-range effects of this and other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides had not been fully evaluated. Experiments were conducted to determine toxiCitY to quail and pheasants of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and strobane, and to determine effects of these compounds upon survival, growth, and reproduction....Feeding of diets containing 0.02% DDT to breeding quail resulted in significant decreases in hatchability of eggs and in viability of chiCks. Similar results were obtained by feeding 0.001% dieldrin, but effects upon reproduct.ion of short-term feeding of aldrin and endrin could not be determined....Aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin were lethal to both male and female quail when fed at levels of 0.0005% in the diets. Female pheasants appeared more resistant than males to the effects of these compounds.

  1. Loads Limits Values of Soils with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Vladimirescu, Andreea

    2017-04-01

    The high demand for oil and associated products as a source of energy, resulting in increased oil exploitation, producing, refining, transportation, storage, marketing and use led to high levels of environmental pollution. The optimum bioremediation variant proved to be the one in which fertilizer (potassium humate in NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides) applied in a 650 l/ha dose was used together with the Zeba absorbent in 32 kg/ha dose, where the TPH level dropped by 58% in 45 days from the pollution with 3% crude oil. Most of these areas are affected by historical pollution. Many organic contaminants may undergo an ongoing process in the soil, whereby over time contaminant become less and less subject to decomposition even though relatively can still be detected in the laboratory analyses. In Romania about 50.000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The bioremediation was the main method of rehabilitation. The Regulation on the assessment of environmental pollution, the following are presented as guide values for total oil hydrocarbons content in soil: - normal: less than 100 mg/kg; - alert values for sensitive soils: 200 mg/kg; - alert values for less sensitive soils: 1000 mg/kg; - intervention values for sensitive soils: 500 mg/kg; - intervention values for less sensitive soils: 2000 mg/kg. Researches done in laboratory monitored the effect of various concentrations of oil (under 2000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg, 7000 mg/kg, 10 000 mg/kg) on germination of wheat seeds at 5 and 7 days after seeding and (fresh and dry) biomass production after 40 days. Tree experiments were done: one with recently contaminated light oil, one with recently contaminated heavy oil and one with old contamination. After 5 days from sowing, the largest number of germinated seeds was found in the experiments with old contamination. The fewest germinated seeds was found in the experience with light oil. The experience with heavy oil showed an intermediate number of

  2. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  3. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...

  4. Recovering the spacetime metric from a holographic dual

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent proposal to use certain spatial cross-sections of the boundary at infinity -- light-cone cuts -- to recover the conformal metric in the bulk. We discuss some extensions of this work, including how to obtain the conformal metric near the horizon of a collapsing black hole. We also show how to obtain the conformal factor under certain conditions.

  5. Recovering full-length viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractInfectious disease metagenomics is driven by the question: "what is causing the disease?" in contrast to classical metagenome studies which are guided by "what is out there?" In case of a novel virus, a first step to eventually establishing etiology can be to recover a full-length viral

  6. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  7. Colonizing and Decolonizing Projects of Re/covering Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Subedi, Binaya

    2014-01-01

    In this postcolonial inquiry, we analyze how spirituality has been simultaneously appropriated/re-covered and re-appropriated/recovered for the purpose of (re)colonizing as well as decolonizing projects. By drawing from discrete yet interconnected literatures of decolonizing, (post)(anti)colonial, Indigenous, and ethnic studies based theories, we…

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recovered materials content for EPA-designated items to be delivered or used in the performance of the contract will be at least the amount required by the applicable contract specifications or other... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ensuring that the goals and purposes of the Plan are achieved. RECOVER has been organized into a Leadership... and assessment program; evaluating alternatives developed by Project Delivery Teams to achieve the... goals in accordance with § 385.38; (v) Assessing progress towards achieving the interim...

  10. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  11. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  12. Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangcan; Liu, Qingshan; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of recovering the authentic samples that lie on a union of multiple subspaces from their corrupted observations. Due to the high-dimensional and massive nature of today's data-driven community, it is arguable that the target matrix (i.e., authentic sample matrix) to recover is often low-rank. In this case, the recently established Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) method already provides us a convenient way to solve the problem of recovering mixture data. However, in general, RPCA is not good enough because the incoherent condition assumed by RPCA is not so consistent with the mixture structure of multiple subspaces. Namely, when the subspace number grows, the row-coherence of data keeps heightening and, accordingly, RPCA degrades. To overcome the challenges arising from mixture data, we suggest to consider LRR in this paper. We elucidate that LRR can well handle mixture data, as long as its dictionary is configured appropriately. More precisely, we mathematically prove that LRR can weaken the dependence on the row-coherence, provided that the dictionary is well-conditioned and has a rank of not too high. In particular, if the dictionary itself is sufficiently low-rank, then the dependence on the row-coherence can be completely removed. These provide some elementary principles for dictionary learning and naturally lead to a practical algorithm for recovering mixture data. Our experiments on randomly generated matrices and real motion sequences show promising results.

  13. Emulsification of Hydrocarbons by Biosurfactant: Exclusive Use of Agrowaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Solomon Amodu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated environments that exclusively utilize agro-waste as their primary carbon source for the expression of biosurfactants. These were quantified using various standardized methods. Among the agro-waste screened, Beta vulgaris (Beetroot proved to be the most suitable substrate, for which the biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates–B. licheniformis STK01, B. subtilis STK02, and P. aeruginosa STK03–lowered the surface tension of the culture media to 30.0, 32.98, and 30.37 mN/m, respectively. The biosurfactants achieved considerable emulsification activity, particularly for heavy hydrocarbons, with the highest emulsification indices being 65.5% and 95% for anthracene and lubricant oil, respectively. The emulsion formed with lubricant oil was thermally stable even up to 50 °C for 21 days. The results showed the proficiency of the novel bacterial isolates used, as well as the suitability of solid agro-waste for biosurfactant production, thus suggesting that exclusive utilization of solid agro-waste is a promising option for use in biosurfactant production for environmental remediation. The outstanding emulsification activity and thermal stability demonstrated by the biosurfactants produced showed their potential applications in enhancing bioavailability and bioremediation of recalcitrant and hydrophobic environmental contaminants.

  14. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  15. Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchee, R.E.; Kittel, J.A. [eds.] [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Reisinger, H.J. [ed.] [Integrated Science and Technology, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. The papers in this volume focus on petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation, with an emphasis on pilot-scale and field-scale applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Heavy Exotic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ to be observed.

  17. Heavy exotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  18. Aquathermolysis of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J.B.; Clark, P.D.; Clarke, R.A.; Koo, J.; Greidanus, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    The use of steam injection as a recovery method is based mainly on the physical effect of transferring the energy of the steam to enhance the flow properties of heavy oils. Other physical effects, such as emulsification, also may take place but little attention has been given to the possibility of a chemical reaction between the steam and some of the heavy oil components. This work addresses the question of such a chemical reaction to which the name, Aquathermolysis, has been given. The results of gas analyses to simulate field conditions of steam injection are presented. Two samples were used. Means to enhance the flow properties during the aquathermolysis process also were determined.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  20. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  2. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  3. Phenomenology of Heavy Flavors in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Isayev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Some recent experimental results obtained in collisions of heavy nuclei ($\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV) at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are discussed. The probes of dense matter created in heavy-ion collision by quarkonia, $D$ and $B$ mesons containing heavy charm and beauty quarks are considered. The centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum dependences of the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow coefficient are presented and their possible theoretical interpretation is provided.

  4. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  5. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  6. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  7. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  8. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  9. Heavy quarkonium effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mannel, T

    1995-01-01

    We formulate a QCD-based effective theory approach to heavy quarkonia-like systems as \\bar{c} c and \\bar{b} b resonances and B_c states. We apply the method to inclusive decays, working out a few examples in detail.

  10. Dolly For Heavy Towbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed lightweight dolly enables operator to cart heavy towbar to remote site over unpaved roads or rough terrain. Acts as simple, lightweight towed vehicle to support rear of towbar. Removed quickly at point of use. Saves labor, and eliminates need for truck and forklift.

  11. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer....

  12. Process for simultaneously processing of used metal and/or metal scrap and scrap containing halogenated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapper, G.; Kirchner, W.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-03-02

    A process is presened for reducing environmental pollution resulting from disposal of waste containing halogenated hydrocarbons by simultaneous treatment with used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures. The halogenated hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed and the resulting hydrogen halide containing gas is brought into contact with the used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures so as to form metal halogenides that are volatile under the conditions applied. The volatile metal halogenides are largely separated from the gaseous mixture formed, and at least part of the remaining gaseous mixture and/or hydrocarbon residue is used as fuel to maintain the required temperature. The waste feed compositions and process conditions can be chosen to effect separation between various metals by selective halogenation and condensation, and substantially all of the hydrogen halide can be tied up and recovered as metal halogenides.

  13. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground.

  14. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions in a membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Morici, Claudia; Ødegaard, Hallvard

    2016-11-01

    The joint effect of wastewater salinity and hydrocarbons on nitrous oxide emission was investigated. The membrane bioreactor pilot plant was operated with two phases: i. biomass acclimation by increasing salinity from 10gNaClL(-1) to 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase I); ii. hydrocarbons dosing at 20mgL(-1) with a constant salt concentration of 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase II). The Phase I revealed a relationship between nitrous oxide emissions and salinity. During the end of the Phase I, the activity of nitrifiers started to recover, indicating a partial acclimatization. During the Phase II, the hydrocarbon shock induced a temporary inhibition of the biomass with the suppression of nitrous oxide emissions. The results revealed that the oxic tank was the major source of nitrous oxide emission, likely due to the gas stripping by aeration. The joint effect of salinity and hydrocarbons was found to be crucial for the production of nitrous oxide.

  16. Electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge ash for the recovery of phosphorous and separation of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Benjamin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2012-01-01

    in separation from the ash suspension to the anode compartment. Although 96% of the recovered P was mobilized, only 55% was separated from the ash suspension. Less mobilization (m), but better separation (s), from the ash and ash suspension was observed for heavy metals, 78% (m) 69% (s) for Cd; 24% (m) 7% (s...

  17. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  18. Probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W E; Ferreira, J L; Payne, W L; Jones, V M

    1985-01-01

    The probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from food by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method was determined by the effects of several factors: the number of strains per food, the ability of pathogenic strains to survive enrichment, and the frequency of plasmid loss during enrichment. Biochemical patterns indicated the presence of about six E. coli strains per food sample. About half of the strains isolated from humans did not survive enrichment. Among those which grew, plasmid loss, as determined by gel electrophoresis and DNA colony hybridization, ranged from 20 to 95%. The combined effects of failure to survive enrichment and plasmid loss decreased the relative numbers of these strains and reduced the chance of detecting pathogens. To counteract this tendency and obtain a 90 to 95% probability off recovering a given pathogenic strain, 40 to 50 colonies per food sample should be picked during the routine testing of foods. PMID:3893320

  19. Recovering Epipolar Geometry from Images of Smooth Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    We present four methods for recovering the epipolar geometry from images of smooth surfaces. Existing methods for recovering epipolar geometry use corresponding feature points that cannot be found in such images. The first method is based on finding corresponding characteristic points created by illumination (ICPM - illumination characteristic points method). The second method is based on correspondent tangency points created by tangents from epipoles to outline of smooth bodies (OTPM - outline tangent points method). These two methods are exact and give correct results for real images, because positions of the corresponding illumination characteristic points and corresponding outline are known with small errors. But the second method is limited either to special type of scenes or to restricted camera motion. We also consider two else methods, termed CCPM (curve characteristic points method) and CTPM (curve tangent points method), for search epipolar geometry for images of smooth bodies based on a set of leve...

  20. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Steele, Ryan D; Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew

    2011-03-01

    This study adopted a developmental perspective on recovery from conflict in romantic relationships. Participants were 73 young adults (target participants), studied since birth, and their romantic partners. A novel observational coding scheme was used to evaluate each participant's degree of conflict recovery, operationalized as the extent to which the participant disengaged from conflict during a 4-min "cool-down" task immediately following a 10-min conflict discussion. Conflict recovery was systematically associated with developmental and dyadic processes. Targets who were rated as securely attached more times in infancy recovered from conflict better, as did their romantic partners. Concurrently, having a romantic partner who displayed better recovery predicted more positive relationship emotions and greater relationship satisfaction. Prospectively, target participants' early attachment security and their partners' degree of conflict recovery interacted to predict relationship stability 2 years later, such that having a partner who recovered from conflict better buffered targets with insecure histories.

  1. Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip

    2006-11-01

    It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken.

  2. Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model on Euclidean network

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model on a Euclidean network in one dimension in which nodes at a distance $l$ are connected with probability $P(l) \\propto l^{-\\delta}$ in addition to nearest neighbors. The topology of the network changes as $\\delta$ is varied and its effect on the SIR model is studied. $R(t)$, the recovered fraction of population up to time $t$, and $\\tau$, the total duration of the epidemic are calculated for different values of the infection probability $q$ and $\\delta$. A threshold behavior is observed for all $\\delta$ up to $\\delta \\approx 2.0$; above the threshold value $q = q_c$, the saturation value $R_{sat}$ attains a finite value. Both $R_{sat}$ and $\\tau $ show scaling behavior in a finite system of size $N$; $R_{sat} \\sim N^{-\\beta/{\\tilde{\

  3. Recovering lost 21 cm radial modes via cosmic tidal reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    21 cm intensity mapping has emerged as a promising technique to map the large-scale structure of the Universe, at redshifts $z$ from 1 to 10. Unfortunately, many of the key cross correlations with photo-$z$ galaxies and the CMB have been thought to be impossible due to foreground contamination for radial modes with small wavenumbers. These modes are usually subtracted in the foreground subtraction process. We recover the lost 21 cm radial modes via cosmic tidal reconstruction and find more than 60\\% cross-correlation signal at $\\ell\\lesssim100$ and even more on larger scales can be recovered from null. The tidal reconstruction method opens up a new set of possibilities to probe our Universe and is extremely valuable not only for 21 cm surveys but also for CMB and photometric redshift observations.

  4. Priming irrational beliefs in recovered-depressed people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A; Haaga, D A; Brody, C; Kirk, L; Friedman, D G

    1998-08-01

    Major depression has been linked with endorsement of irrational beliefs in cross-sectional research, consistent with the rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model. In this study, the authors extended prior research by using multiple measures of irrationality and by comparing never-depressed (ND) controls with people who had recovered from major depression. Contrary to the REBT model, the recovered-depressed (RD) group did not significantly exceed the ND group in irrational beliefs before, during, or after exposure to simulated stressful situations. However, associations between irrationality and negative mood, and to a lesser extent between situation-specific irrationality and personality vulnerabilities, were obtained in the RD group but not in the ND group. These findings are consistent with the possibility that RD persons on average may be especially susceptible to having irrationality primed by negative mood states or by the important setbacks that can lead to such mood states.

  5. Recovering indium with sulfating roasting from copper-smelting ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A technology for recovering indium from Jinchuan copper-smelting ash was developed. Indium in the ash was first enriched to the leaching-slag in leaching process, and then recovered by sulfating roasting. The method included mixing the leaching-slag with sulfuric acid, making them into particles, roasting the mixture, and then leaching the calcine with hot water. Above 90% of indium in calcine could be dissolved into the leaching solution. The optimized conditions were determined as follows: the mass ratio of sulfuric acid to leaching slag was 0.1, the roasting time was about 1 to 1.5 h in the temperature range of 200-250 ℃, and the calcine was leached for 1 h with 5:1 of liquid/solid ratio at 60℃. Over 99% of indium in leaching solution was finally enriched by Zn substitution or sulfide precipitation.

  6. Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons within the Water Column and Marsh Sediments following the Deepwater Horizon Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Cook, L.; Murray, K.; Cerrito, K.; Faith, S.; Boehm, P.

    2012-12-01

    Physical and chemical dispersion of oil released from the Deepwater Horizon spill between April 20 and July 15, 2010 resulted in fine droplets and dissolved hydrocarbons moving away from the wellhead within the water column. Both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were rapidly biodegraded as evidenced by detailed chemistry measurements using GC and GC-MS analyses of over 10,000 water samples. During the release (April-July), concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) attenuated rapidly with distance from the release point (the wellhead) and were seen to reach biodegradation. Loss of total and high molecular weight alkanes and PAH relative to the conserved biomarker hopane also showed that there was extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. Shortly after the well was capped most of the hydrocarbons in the deepwater had been biodegraded to levels below analytical detection limits. Clearly microbial biodegradation of the oil within the water column removed many of the toxic components and reduced the overall impact of the oil released from the well. Oil that reached the water surface and formed slicks was less extensively biodegraded by microbes as it moved toward the shorelines. A study of impacted Louisiana coastal marshes 1 year later, however, showed that residual oil was very highly weathered with losses of alkanes and PAHs in the MC252 oiled sediment samples. Where sufficient oil was present for detailed chemical analyses changes in C17/pristine, C18/phytane, C2phenanthrene/C2dibenzothiophene, C3phenanthrene/C3dibenzothiophene, total polycyclic aromatics to hopane, and total heavy polycyclic aromatics (4-6 rings) to hopane showed evidence for extensive biodegradation. Molecular analyses performed with PhyloChip, GeoChip and whole metagenome sequencing confirmed that microbial populations in marsh sediments were capable of hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  7. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMishamandani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain – thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment.

  8. Life in oil :Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial mineralization in oil spill-polluted marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which an oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites.One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2,1997.This paper describes the three main processes of the Nakhodka oil spill,including:(1) the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas)and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years;(2) the laboratory-scale biodegradation of the Nakhodka oil spill over a 429-day period;and (3) the bioavailability of kaolinite clay minerals and the role they play in seawater polluted with the Nakhodka oil spill.Upon the slow evaporation of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year weathering,the dendritic crystal growth of paraffin (a mixture of alkanes) occurred in the oil crust under natural conditions.Heavy metals were obtained in the original heavy oil samples of three seashores in the Sea of Japan.Si,S,Ti,Cr,Ni,Cu,and Zn were found in the original Nakhodka oil spill samples whereas these heavy metals and S were no longer present after 9 years.The anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus-type bacteria associated with halite.The hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.A biodegradation process of heavy oil from the Nakhodka oil spill by indigenous microbial consortia was monitored over 429 days in the laboratory.The indigenous microbial consortia consisted of bacteria and fungi as well as the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Atake seashore,Ishikawa Prefecture,Japan.Both bacteria and fungi had a significant role in the observed biodegradation of heavy oil during the 429-day bioremediation with respect to the pH of the solution.Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria had a tendency to

  9. Probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, W E; Ferreira, J. L; Payne, W L; Jones, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    The probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from food by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method was determined by the effects of several factors: the number of strains per food, the ability of pathogenic strains to survive enrichment, and the frequency of plasmid loss during enrichment. Biochemical patterns indicated the presence of about six E. coli strains per food sample. About half of the strains isolated from humans did not survive enrichment. Among those which grew, ...

  10. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    OpenAIRE

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Jordi eFernández-Castro; Jordi eSoler-Oritja; María eÁlvarez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2,...

  11. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this black oil. In addition, researchers have successfully established the possibility of producing electrical energy from this heavy oil. Tar sands and bitumen are able to help improve the economy of Nigeria

  12. Recovering 3D clustering information with angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, Jacobo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Lewis, Antony

    2012-01-01

    We study how to recover the full 3D clustering information of P(\\vec{k},z), including redshift space distortions (RSD), from 2D tomography using the angular auto and cross spectra of different redshift bins C_\\ell(z,z'). We focus on quasilinear scales where the minimum scale \\lambda_{min} or corresponding maximum wavenumber k_{max}= 2\\pi/\\lambda_{min} is targeted to be between k_{max}={0.05-0.2} h/Mpc. For spectroscopic surveys, we find that we can recover the full 3D clustering information when the redshift bin width \\Delta z used in the 2D tomography is similar to the targeted minimum scale, i.e. \\Delta z ~ {0.6-0.8} \\lambda_{min} H(z)/c which corresponds to \\Delta z ~ 0.01-0.05 for z\\Delta z and most radial information is intrinsically lost. The remaining information can be recovered from the 2D tomography if we use \\Delta z ~ 2\\sigma_z. While 3D and 2D analysis are shown here to be equivalent, the advantage of using angular positions and redshifts is that we do not need a fiducial cosmology to convert to ...

  13. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  14. Generation of Solid Recovered Fuel from Sewage Sludge Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kliopova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research which was carried out in KTU APINI when implementing one stage of the PF7 program project “Polygeneration of energy, fuels, and fertilizers from biomass residues and sewage sludge (ENERCOM” (No TREN/FP7/EN/218916. The research objective was to assess possibilities of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF from compost produced from pre-treated sewage sludge and biomass residuals in “Soil-Concept” plant (Luxemburg. Feasibility of producing pellets and briquettes using the composites of compost, sawdust, and peat was analyzed. Technical and environmental evaluations of SRF production were carried out on the basis of pelleting and briquetting tests. Main chemical and physical parameters of produced SRF were analyzed and compared to the recovered fuel classificatory (CEN/TC 343. All pellets and briquettes, produced during the experiment, were attributed to a certain class of recovered fuel. Results of technical and environmental evaluations of SRF production and their burning as well as conclusions and recommendations made are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2742

  15. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    VLT Observes Wolf-Rayet Stars in Virgo Cluster Galaxies [1] Summary Do very massive stars form in metal-rich regions of the Universe and in the nuclei of galaxies ? Or does "heavy element poisoning" stop stellar growth at an early stage, before young stars reach the "heavyweight class"? What may at the first glance appear as a question for specialists actually has profound implications for our understanding of the evolution of galaxies, those systems of billions of stars - the main building blocks of the Universe. With an enormous output of electromagnetic radiation and energetic elementary particles, massive stars exert a decisive influence on the surrounding (interstellar) gas and dust clouds . They also eject large amounts of processed elements, thereby participating in the gradual build-up of the many elements we see today. Thus the presence or absence of such stars at the centres of galaxies can significantly change the overall development of those regions and hence, presumably, that of the entire galaxy. A team of European astronomers [2] has now directly observed the presence of so-called Wolf-Rayet stars (born with masses of 60 - 90 times that of the Sun or more) within metal-rich regions in some galaxies in the Virgo cluster, some 50 million light-years away. This is the first unambiguous detection of such massive stellar objects in metal-rich regions . PR Photo 20a/02 : H II regions in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4254 . PR Photo 20b/02 : Multi-object-slit observation of galaxy NGC 4303 . PR Photo 20c/02 : Spectrum of H II region in NGC 4254 with Wolf-Rayet signatures. Production of heavy elements in the Universe Most scientists agree that the Universe in which we live underwent a dramatic event, known as the Big Bang , approximately 15,000 million years ago. During the early moments, elementary particles were formed which after some time united into more complex nuclei and in turn resulted in the production of hydrogen and helium atoms and their isotopes

  16. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention.

  17. Understanding heavy-oil molecular functionality and relations to fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I. [Schlumberger, DBR Technology Center, Edmonton AB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, knowing oil properties is important to optimizing recovery, transport and refinery. Nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen compounds (NSOs) have an important impact on these properties but this is often overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of functional groups in connection with heavy oil and asphaltenes. Experiments were carried out with asphaltenes altered by chemical surgery that removed specific functional interactions. Titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy were then done. Results highlighted the fact that functional groups are of key importance in the determination of heavy oil properties and that acidity can be considered the most important interaction. This paper demonstrated that the determination of specific interactions could be more important in assessing heavy oil properties than understanding their hydrocarbon structure; further work is needed to fully understand the role of sulfur and nitrogen species.

  18. Evidence of Multi-Stage Hydrocarbon Charging and Biodegradation of the Silurian Asphaltic Sandstones in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫

    2002-01-01

    Asphalts distributed widely in the Silurian sandstones of the Tarim Basin include dry asphalt, soft asphalt and heavy oil. These asphaltic sandstones underwent multi-episodic sedimentary and tectonic events, and their occurrence is diverse and complex, being mixed with normal oil usually. So far, very little work has been done on the asphaltic sandstone origin and hydrocarbon charging ages. After detailed study on the Silurian sandstones, the following highlights were obtained from the analytical results: distribution of the mixed asphalt, heavy oil and normal oil in the Silurian sandstones is the result of multi-stage hydrocarbon charging from the Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks; the characters of asphalts formed from oils of different charging ages are of difference; the most important process constraining.the asphaltic sandstone origin is thought to be biodegradation.

  19. Method for producing diene hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.

    1980-04-28

    A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  1. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  2. Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

    2012-06-27

    In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the

  3. Chemical enhanced recovery of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soveran, D.W.; Scoular, R.J.; Kurucz, L.; Renouf, G.; Verkoczy, B. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    A unique chemical/emulsion enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process was laboratory tested to determine its suitability for field demonstration purposes in 3 heavy oil reservoirs in the Lloydminster area of Saskatchewan. The promising chemical agents for the process were identified and optimized. The 3 reservoirs selected represented a cross-section of crude oil qualities typical for the region. The ultimate objective was to develop a process to replace waterflooding as the standard for post-primary production. Several modified core screening tests were conducted to formulate a chemical mixture for the lowest viscosity crude oil. This proved to be the best candidate among the 3 reservoirs. The mixture resulted in additional oil recovery of 26 per cent original oil in place, which is better than a typical waterflood. Two conventional core displacement tests confirmed the success of the modified core flood method. A new polymer was then used in combination with the new coreflood method to produce an additional oil recovery of 30 per cent. Laboratory studies indicate that the lowest viscosity crude oil field is a good candidate for the chemical EOR field study. Results show that the method can recover even the most highly viscous crude oil at a cost below C$10 per barrel. The field shows good potential for chemical EOR even though produced water from the reservoir formed heavy precipitate. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  5. Capability to Recover Plutonium-238 in H-Canyon/HB-Line - 13248

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    is stored and still available for installation. Out of specification Pu-238 scrap material can be purified and recovered by utilizing the HB-Line Phase- 1 Scrap Recovery Line and the Phase-3 Pu-238 Oxide Conversion Line along with H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery process. In addition, it also covers and describes utilizing the Phase-2 Np-237 Oxide Conversion Line, in conjunction with the H-Canyon Frames Process to restore the H-Canyon capability to process and recover Np-237 and Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets and address potential synergies with other programs like recovery of Pu-244 and heavy isotopes of curium from other target material. (authors)

  6. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    stored and still available for installation. Out of specification Pu-238 scrap material can be purified and recovered by utilizing the HB-Line Phase-1 Scrap Recovery Line and the Phase-3 Pu-238 Oxide Conversion Line along with H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery process. In addition, it also covers and describes utilizing the Phase-2 Np-237 Oxide Conversion Line, in conjunction with the H-Canyon Frames Process to restore the H-Canyon capability to process and recover Np-237 and Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets and address potential synergies with other programs like recovery of Pu-244 and heavy isotopes of curium from other target material.

  7. Heavy hadron spectrum and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D

    1996-01-01

    Starting from the approximate symmetries of QCD, namely chiral symmetry for light quarks and spin and flavor symmetry for heavy quarks, we investigate the low-energy properties of heavy hadrons. For this purpose we construct a consistent picture of quark-antiquark and quark-diquark interactions as a low-energy approximation to the flavor dynamics in heavy mesons and heavy baryons, respectively. Using standard functional integration tools, we derive an effective Lagrangian in terms of heavy hadron fields and discuss several properties, like the mass spectrum, coupling and decay constants, Isgur-Wise form factors.

  8. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  9. Distributed Private Heavy Hitters

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Justin; Roth, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give efficient algorithms and lower bounds for solving the heavy hitters problem while preserving differential privacy in the fully distributed local model. In this model, there are n parties, each of which possesses a single element from a universe of size N. The heavy hitters problem is to find the identity of the most common element shared amongst the n parties. In the local model, there is no trusted database administrator, and so the algorithm must interact with each of the $n$ parties separately, using a differentially private protocol. We give tight information-theoretic upper and lower bounds on the accuracy to which this problem can be solved in the local model (giving a separation between the local model and the more common centralized model of privacy), as well as computationally efficient algorithms even in the case where the data universe N may be exponentially large.

  10. [Heavy particle radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  11. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderately sensitive Kandeler et al. (1994) Batteries? of bioindicators Microbial bioluminescence, earthwormand seed germination Creosote, heavy, medium and light crude oils. Moderately sensitive. Earthworm4seed germination4 bioluminescence 25?17; 400 mggC01.... However, microbial bioluminescence, microbial biomass/counts and soil respiration have been evaluated as potential tools for monitoring of hydrocarbons (Delistraty, 1984; Kandeler et al., 1994; Steinberg et al., 1995; Van Beelen and Doelman, 1997; Phillips...

  12. Receptor modeling of C2─C7 hydrocarbon sources at an urban background site in Zurich, Switzerland: changes between 1993─1994 and 2005─2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reimann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hourly measurements of 13 volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C7 were performed at an urban background site in Zurich (Switzerland in the years 1993–1994 and again in 2005–2006. For the separation of the volatile organic compounds by gas-chromatography (GC, an identical chromatographic column was used in both campaigns. Changes in hydrocarbon profiles and source strengths were recovered by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Eight and six factors could be related to hydrocarbon sources in 1993–1994 and in 2005–2006, respectively. The modeled source profiles were verified by hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The source strengths were validated by independent measurements, such as inorganic trace gases (NOx, CO, SO2, methane (CH4, oxidized hydrocarbons (OVOCs and meteorological data (temperature, wind speed etc.. Our analysis suggests that the contribution of most hydrocarbon sources (i.e. road traffic, solvents use and wood burning decreased by a factor of about two to three between the early 1990s and 2005–2006. On the other hand, hydrocarbon losses from natural gas leakage remained at relatively constant levels (−20%. The estimated emission trends are in line with the results from different receptor-based approaches reported for other European cities. Their differences to national emission inventories are discussed.

  13. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  15. Transformable Heavy Lift Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    the 500 group include climate control, freshwater/seawater systems, mechanical handling, and special purpose systems. Due to the large troop...compliment carried on the JHSS, large amounts of climate control and ventilation were required. The transformable heavy lift ship has only a single... Treeline Connector Innovation Cell Naval Research Enterprise Intern Program Final Report, NSWCCD-20-TR-2005/05 August 2005 "Saturn." Nijhuis

  16. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  17. SHS-produced intermetallides as catalysts for hydrocarbons synthesis from CO and H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Kazantsev, R.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Borshch, V.N.; Pugacheva, E.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science

    2012-07-01

    Raney-type polymetallic alloys were prepared by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis followed by alkaline treating. Surface morphology and composition of were studied using XRD, BET, SEM and EMPA techniques. The samples were tested in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis demonstrated rather high activity and very high selectivity to heavy paraffins. High selectivity to C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons is attributed to high thermal conductivity of alloys which prevents hot spots formation and therefore suppresses formation of methane and light hydrocarbons. Selectivity can be further improved by adding some d-metals in catalyst composition. Promotion with La seems to be particularly suitable for lowering methane formation while doping with Ni enhances methane yield greatly. (orig.)

  18. Biodegradation of anthracene by a novel actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Oluwafemi S; Olatoye, Nojeem O

    2014-01-01

    A novel anthracene-degrading Gram-positive actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. strain SL10 was isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a mechanical engineering workshop in Lagos, Nigeria. The polluted soil had an unusually high total hydrocarbon content of 157 g/kg and presence of various heavy metals. The isolate tolerated salt concentration of more than 4%. It resisted cefotaxime, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to meropenem, linezolid and vancomycin. The isolate exhibited growth rate and doubling time of 0.82 days(-1) and 0.84 days, respectively on anthracene. It degraded 57.5 and 90.12% of anthracene within 12 and 21 days, respectively while the rate of anthracene utilization by the isolate was 4.79 mg l(-1) d(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of anthracene-degrading Microbacterium sp.

  19. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  20. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  1. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  2. Emulsification of hydrocarbons by subsurface bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Thomas, J.M.; Raymond, R.L.; Ward, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been the dominant factor which selected for and encouraged growth of emulsifiers; exposure to hydrocarbon was also important. Biostimulated microorganisms were better emulsifiers of aviation fuel (the contaminant hydrocarbon) than of heavier hydrocarbon to which they were not previously exposed. By measuring surface tension changes of culture broths, 11 out of 41 emulsifiers tested were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reductions indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production.Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been

  3. Solid recovered fuel: An experiment on classification and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessi, C; Lombardi, L; Meoni, R; Canovai, A; Corti, A

    2016-01-01

    The residual urban waste of Prato district (Italy) is characterized by a high calorific value that would make it suitable for direct combustion in waste-to-energy plants. Since the area of central Italy lacks this kind of plant, residual municipal waste is quite often allocated to mechanical treatment plants in order to recover recyclable materials (such as metals) and energy content, sending the dry fractions to waste-to-energy plants outside the region. With the previous Italian legislation concerning Refuse Derived Fuels, only the dry stream produced as output by the study case plant, considered in this study, could be allocated to energy recovery, while the other output flows were landfilled. The most recent Italian regulation, introduced a new classification for the fuel streams recovered from waste following the criteria of the European standard (EN 15359:2011), defining the Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF). In this framework, the aim of this study was to check whether the different streams produced as output by the study case plant could be classified as SRF. For this reason, a sampling and analysis campaign was carried out with the purpose of characterizing every single output stream that can be obtained from the study case mechanical treatment plant, when operating it in different ways. The results showed that all the output flows from the study case mechanical treatment plant were classified as SRF, although with a wide quality range. In particular, few streams, of rather poor quality, could be fed to waste-to-energy plants, compatibly with the plant feeding systems. Other streams, with very high quality, were suitable for non-dedicated facilities, such as cement plants or power plants, as a substitute for coal. The implementation of the new legislation has hence the potential for a significant reduction of landfilling, contributing to lowering the overall environmental impact by avoiding the direct impacts of landfilling and by exploiting the beneficial

  4. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  5. 40 CFR 92.119 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 92... Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and... into service and at least annually thereafter, the HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Procedures § 86.1321-94 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the... into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  8. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by...

  9. A new method of recovering polyhydroxyalkanoate from Azotobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) fermentation for 42-48 h by the Azotobacter chroococcum G-3, the PHA content reached more than 75% of the dry weight. Biomass was isolated from culture by centrifugation and pretreated with freezing to release PHA pellet, then was treated with 10 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for 15 min to effectively solubilize lipid and protein. Subsequently, it was further purified by digesting with 30% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 3 min to remove peptidoglycan and non-PHA biomass. Finally, 98% PHA was obtained by diluting and rinsing with water, and the PHA recovered was suitable for processing.

  10. Arboviruses recovered from sentinel livestock in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, G P; Shorthose, J E; Weir, R P; Walsh, S J; Melville, L F

    1988-10-01

    Over 700 arboviruses were recovered between 1981 and 1987 from the blood of sentinel livestock near Darwin. Twenty-three isolates were made from sheep, goats, swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and horses, and the remainder were from cattle. The isolates have been typed as 27 separate viruses belonging to the bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, Palyam, Simbu, bovine ephemeral fever, Tibrogargan and alphavirus groups. Ten of these viruses have not been isolated elsewhere in Australia and four have been isolated only in Darwin. Considerable annual variations in virus activity and in the durations of detectable viraemia were observed.

  11. On considering the influence of recovered individuals in disease propagations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A. L. S.; Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2016-05-01

    Consider diseases transmitted through personal contacts, for which recovery usually confers complete and long-lasting immunity, like some of the common viral infections of childhood. Here, an epidemic model based on differential equations is proposed to evaluate the influence of the recovered (immune) individuals on the spread of such diseases. Indeed, immune individuals can affect the infection rate of susceptible individuals and the recovery rate of sick individuals. The predictive ability of the proposed model is assessed from records concerning the incidence of varicella in three European countries, in a pre-vaccination era.

  12. Recovering Compressively Sampled Signals Using Partial Support Information

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Michael P; Saab, Rayan; Yilmaz, Ozgur

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study recovery conditions of weighted $\\ell_1$ minimization for signal reconstruction from compressed sensing measurements when partial support information is available. We show that if at least $50%$ of the (partial) support information is accurate, then weighted $\\ell_1$ minimization is stable and robust under weaker conditions than the analogous conditions for standard $\\ell_1$ minimization. Moreover, weighted $\\ell_1$ minimization provides better bounds on the reconstruction error in terms of the measurement noise and the compressibility of the signal to be recovered. We illustrate our results with extensive numerical experiments on synthetic data and real audio and video signals.

  13. Triangulation of 3D Surfaces Recovered from STL Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rypl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an algorithm for the discretization of parametric 3D surfaces has been extended to the family of discrete surfaces represented by stereolithography (STL grids. The STL file format, developed for the rapid prototyping industry, is an attractive alternative to surface representation in solid modeling. Initially, a boundary representation is constructed from the STL file using feature recognition. Then a smooth surface is recovered over the original STL grid using an interpolating subdivision procedure. Finally, the reconstructed surface is subjected to the triangulation accomplished using the advancing front technique operating directly on the surface. The capability of the proposed methodology is illustrated on an example. 

  14. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  15. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Energies from the PMO Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Details a procedure for accurately calculating the quantum mechanical energies of hydrocarbons using the perturbational molecular orbital (PMO) method, which does not require the use of a computer. (BT)

  16. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was reduced by 17% in the .... Identification of bacterial isolates was done by biochemical tests. Atagana 1517 ..... control the prolonged thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill.

  17. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  18. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from ... of the genomic DNA extracted from each bacterial isolate was amplified with ... that16S rRNA-gene-based techniques be used when studying the bacterial ...

  19. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  20. Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate ... compounds from the heavily industrialized Vaal Triangle region. ... benzene ring as cluster, linear or angular (Maliszewska-.

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  2. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  3. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  4. CONCENTRATION OF TOXIC INGREDIENTS (HAEVY METALS AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF HYDROBIONTS IN CENTRAL CASPIAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Incorporation rate of heavy metals in fish is an important informative integrant index that allows estimating the impact of water pollution and fodder hydrobiont contamination on fish organisms. Unlike other contaminating anthropogenic factors of the Caspian Sea, metals are always present in the sea interacting with fish organisms many thousands times as the result of biological and chemical circuit.Methods. We analysed the grade of concentration of heavy metals in tissues and organs of hydrobionts under the program “the Central Caspian District of the Caspian Sea marine environment”. The procedure for determining metals consisted in determination of concentration of heavy metals in accordance with the methodology recommendations of atomic absorption analysis of Dagestan 52.24.28-86, with the help of atomic absorption spectrophotometer Hitachi 180-50.Results. The results after analysis of concentration of heavy metals in the tissues and organs of fish caught in the Central Caspian Sea marine environment are compared with the average annual estimation. The results obtained on the analysis of concentration of hydrocarbons in hydrobionts selected in the Central Caspian District of the Caspian Sea marine environment are within the long-term annual average data that are typical of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. The results obtained help to form scientific foundation of ecological regulation that takes into account some ecosystems’ anthropogenic stability. Concentration of pollutants (heavy metals and hydrocarbons in hydrobiont tissues characterizes the ecological situation on the whole of the Caspian Sea due to hydrobionts’ large-scale migrations. The analysis of the dynamics of the pollutant concentration in tissues reflects the situation created in the drilling areas; it will help forecast and avert the negative impact of hydrocarbon production on the Caspian Sea ecosystem.

  5. AUTOMATIC RECOVERING NODE FAILURE IN WIRELESS SENSOR ACTOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.Subasini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  6. First report: Yersinia enterocolitica recovered from canine tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brenda P; Drummond, Niall; Ringwood, Tamara; O'Sullivan, Edmund; Buckley, James F; Whyte, Paul; Prentice, Mike B; Fanning, Séamus

    2010-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is a known zoonotic pathogen and is often found in pig tonsils as the primary site of colonisation. In this study we investigated whether or not Y. enterocolitica could be recovered from canine tonsils. During a study on the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in animal populations in Ireland, 144 canine tonsils and 72 canine rectal swabs were procured over a ten-month period and subjected to microbiological examination for the presence of this human pathogen. Molecular methods were used to determine virulence and all strains were negative for the chromosomally mediated virulence factor (ail) and plasmid-encoded adhesion molecule (pYad). Y. enterocolitica was recovered from 25 of 216 (12%) samples. Twenty-four strains were from tonsils along with one from a rectal swab. All were biotype 1A. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed two of 25 (8%) were resistant to cephalothin and the remaining strains were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin with six of these additionally resistant to streptomycin. Our evidence that a human pathogen may be harboured in the oral cavity of dogs' adds a new dimension to the epidemiology of this organism, identifying a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs.

  7. High-Current Energy-Recovering Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; David Douglas; Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-12-01

    The use of energy recovery provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices, electron-ion colliders, and other applications in photon science and nuclear and high-energy physics. Energy-recovering electron linear accelerators (called energy-recovering linacs, or ERLs) share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, as their six-dimensional beam phase space is largely determined by electron source properties. However, in common with classic storage rings, ERLs possess a high average-current-carrying capability enabled by the energy recovery process, and thus promise similar efficiencies. The authors discuss the concept of energy recovery and its technical challenges and describe the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Infrared Demonstration Free-Electron Laser (IR Demo FEL), originally driven by a 3548-MeV, 5-mA superconducting radiofrequency (srf) ERL, which provided the most substantial demonstration of energy recovery to date: a beam of 250 kW average power. They present an overview of envisioned ERL applications and a development path to achieving the required performance. They use experimental data obtained at the JLab IR Demo FEL and recent experimental results from CEBAF-ERL GeV-scale, comparatively low-current energy-recovery demonstration at JLab to evaluate the feasibility of the new applications of high-current ERLs, as well as ERLs' limitations and ultimate performance.

  8. Some Chytridiomycota in soil recover from drying and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Letcher, Peter M; McGee, Peter A

    2004-05-01

    Rhizophlyctis rosea was found in 44% of 59 soil samples from national parks, urban reserves and gardens, and agricultural lands of eastern New South Wales, Australia. As some of the soils are periodically dry and hot, we examined possible mechanisms that enable survival in stressful environments such as agricultural lands. Air-dried thalli of R. rosea in soil and pure cultures of R. rosea, two isolates of Allomyces anomalus, one isolate of Catenaria sp., one of Catenophlyctis sp. and one of Spizellomyces sp. recovered following incubation at 90 degrees C for two days. Powellomyces sp. recovered following incubation at 80 degrees. Sporangia of all seven fungi shrank during air-drying, and immediately returned to turgidity when rehydrated. Some sporangia of R. rosea released zoospores immediately upon rehydration. These data indicate that some Chytridiomycota have resistant structures that enable survival through periodic drying and high summer temperatures typical of soils used for cropping. Eleven Chytridiomycota isolated from soil did not survive either drying or heat. Neither habitat of the fungus nor morphological type correlated with the capacity to tolerate drying and heat.

  9. Compressive Structured Light for Recovering Inhomogeneous Participating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinwei; Nayar, Shree K; Grinspun, Eitan; Belhumeur, Peter N; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new method named compressive structured light for recovering inhomogeneous participating media. Whereas conventional structured light methods emit coded light patterns onto the surface of an opaque object to establish correspondence for triangulation, compressive structured light projects patterns into a volume of participating medium to produce images which are integral measurements of the volume density along the line of sight. For a typical participating medium encountered in the real world, the integral nature of the acquired images enables the use of compressive sensing techniques that can recover the entire volume density from only a few measurements. This makes the acquisition process more efficient and enables reconstruction of dynamic volumetric phenomena. Moreover, our method requires the projection of multiplexed coded illumination, which has the added advantage of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquisition. Finally, we propose an iterative algorithm to correct for the attenuation of the participating medium during the reconstruction process. We show the effectiveness of our method with simulations as well as experiments on the volumetric recovery of multiple translucent layers, 3D point clouds etched in glass, and the dynamic process of milk drops dissolving in water.

  10. Recovering Quantum Logic within an Extended Classical Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Garola, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure which allows us to recover classical and nonclassical logical structures as \\emph{concrete logics} associated with physical theories expressed by means of classical languages. This procedure consists in choosing, for a given theory $\\mathcal T$ and classical language $\\mathcal L$ expressing $\\mathcal T$, an observative sublanguage $L$ of $\\mathcal L$ with a notion of truth as correspondence, introducing in $L$ a derived and theory-dependent notion of \\emph{C-truth} (\\emph{true with certainty}), defining a \\emph{physical preorder} induced by C-truth, and finally selecting a set of sentences that are \\emph{verifiable} (or \\emph{testable}) according to $\\mathcal T$, on which a \\emph{weak complementation} is induced by $\\mathcal T$. The triple consisting of the set of verifiable sentences, physical order and weak complementation is then the desired concrete logic. By applying our procedure we recover a classical logic as the concrete logic associated with classical mechanics and standard qu...

  11. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  12. Macroporous polymer foams by hydrocarbon templating

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Venkatram Prasad; Martin, Ivan; Langer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Porous polymeric media (polymer foams) are utilized in a wide range of applications, such as thermal and mechanical insulators, solid supports for catalysis, and medical devices. A process for the production of polymer foams has been developed. This process, which is applicable to a wide range of polymers, uses a hydrocarbon particulate phase as a template for the precipitation of the polymer phase and subsequent pore formation. The use of a hydrocarbon template allows for enhanced control ov...

  13. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  14. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  15. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  16. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  17. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  18. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  19. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  20. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Red Sea of Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil A. AL-SHWAFI; Abdulhakim AL-KHOLIDI; Aref M. O. AL-JABALI; Nengjuan ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    A field work has been carried out to identify the occurrence of oil and oil products pollution in mangrove sediment from Red Sea of Yemen. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons is from 700ng/g at Kamaran Island station to 400 ng/g at Al-Hodiedah station, and the total organic carbon (TOC) in samples ranges from 0.07% at Dhubab station to 0.03% at Kamaran Island station. This pollution is as a result of localized oil pollution and/or heavy ship traffic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  2. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  3. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  4. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  5. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  6. Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xue, Yong; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2008-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake. Microbial degradation represents the major mechanism responsible for the ecological recovery of PAH-contaminated sites. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of microbial PAH catabolism. In the past decade, the genetic regulation of the pathway involved in naphthalene degradation by different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was studied in great detail. Based on both genomic and proteomic data, a deeper understanding of some high-molecular-weight PAH degradation pathways in bacteria was provided. The ability of nonligninolytic and ligninolytic fungi to transform or metabolize PAH pollutants has received considerable attention, and the biochemical principles underlying the degradation of PAHs were examined. In addition, this review summarizes the information known about the biochemical processes that determine the fate of the individual components of PAH mixtures in polluted ecosystems. A deeper understanding of the microorganism-mediated mechanisms of catalysis of PAHs will facilitate the development of new methods to enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  7. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  8. Light is Heavy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, M.B. van der; Hooft, G. W. 't

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspect...

  9. Heavy Metal Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  10. Heavy fermion superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, Jean-Pascal; Glémot, Loı̈c; Suderow, Hermann; Huxley, Andrew; Kambe, Shinsaku; Flouquet, Jacques

    2000-05-01

    The quest for a precise identification of the symmetry of the order parameter in heavy fermion systems has really started with the discovery of the complex superconducting phase diagram in UPt 3. About 10 years latter, despite numerous experiments and theoretical efforts, this is still not achieved, and we will quickly review the present status of knowledge and the main open question. Actually, the more forsaken issue of the nature of the pairing mechanism has been recently tackled by different groups with macroscopic or microscopic measurement, and significant progress have been obtained. We will discuss the results emerging from these recent studies which all support non-phonon-mediated mechanisms.

  11. Light is Heavy

    CERN Document Server

    van der Mark, M B

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspective on the above paradox is given.

  12. Heavy ion storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  13. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  14. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  15. Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceausescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivascu, M.; Papureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.

    1986-02-15

    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  16. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  17. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  18. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  19. Recovering geography from a matrix of genetic distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serva, M.; Vergni, D.; Volchenkov, D.; Vulpiani, A.

    2017-05-01

    Given a population of N elements with their geographical positions and the genetic (or lexical) distances between couples of elements (inferred, for example, from lexical differences between dialects which are spoken in different towns or from genetic differences between animal populations living in different faunal areas) a very interesting problem is to reconstruct the geographical positions of individuals using only genetic/lexical distances. From a technical point of view the program consists in extracting from the genetic/lexical distances a set of reconstructed geographical positions to be compared with the real ones. We show that geographical recovering is successful when the genetic/lexical distances are not a simple consequence of phylogenesis but also of horizontal transfers as, for example, vocabulary borrowings between different languages. Our results go well beyond the simple observation that geographical distances and genetic/lexical distances are correlated. The ascertainment of a correlation, in our perspective, merely is a prerequisite.

  20. Re-connecting with a Recovering River through Imaginative Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Imaginative engagement as a mode of citizen participation—the use of arts-based methods to involve people actively in shared learning experiences—holds promise as a means to increase awareness and understanding, and to build capacity, for sustainable use and management of rivers. We conducted a series of creative writing workshops in a former industrial area of northern England that were focused on a "recovering" river. Participants in the workshops found the process a positive experience and reported changes in their knowledge, attitudes, and actions about the use and management of river environments locally and more generally. The "catchment consciousness" of members appeared to increase, and their raised levels of interest led them to invest time in researching the history and geography of the river. We conclude that the method has significant potential for complementing collaborative approaches to river planning and management.

  1. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guangjun; Liu, Juan, E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com [Computer School, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072 (China); Wu, Xiaoqun, E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: liujuanjp@163.com; Lu, Jun-an [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072 (China); Guo, Chi [Global Navigation Satellite System Research Center, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields.

  2. Technique for Recovering Pile-Up Events from Microcalorimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D.; Jaeckel, F.; McCammon, D.; Morgan, K. M.

    2016-07-01

    We report here a technique for processing microcalorimeter data that offers improved live-time over conventional optimal filtering techniques without loss of spectral resolution. Separate filters optimized for pulse amplitude and pulse arrival time (constructed in the usual way from the averaged signal and noise spectral densities) are applied to the entire pixel data stream. Pulses in the resulting filtered streams are then simultaneously fit as the sum of scaled and shifted copies of an isolated filtered pulse template. Analysis using calibration data from the University of Wisconsin/Goddard Space Flight Center X-ray quantum calorimeter sounding rocket payload demonstrates the ability of this technique to recover pulses separated by as little as the rise-time of the detectors without observable spectral broadening.

  3. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  4. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Hjuler, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    Waste-derived fuels, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), are increasingly being used in, e.g., the cement industry as a means to reduce cost. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF makes it difficult to combust, and many problems may arise within, e.g., combustion control, feeding of fuel, deposit...... formation, or accumulation of impurities. The combustion of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), wood, and SRF were studied in a rotary drum furnace. The combustion was recorded on a camera (60 frames per second), so that any agglomeration or deposition of fuel or ash...... could be monitored. PE and PP pose no significant risk of forming deposits in a combustion environment (T > 800 °C) as a result of a rapid devolatilization, while PET may cause deposits as a result of a sticky char residue. The deposition tendency of the investigated SRF is low, and it may be managed...

  5. Recovering network topologies via Taylor expansion and compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangjun; Wu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Juan; Lu, Jun-an; Guo, Chi

    2015-04-01

    Gaining knowledge of the intrinsic topology of a complex dynamical network is the precondition to understand its evolutionary mechanisms and to control its dynamical and functional behaviors. In this article, a general framework is developed to recover topologies of complex networks with completely unknown node dynamics based on Taylor expansion and compressive sensing. Numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, this method is found to have good robustness to weak stochastic perturbations. Finally, the impact of two major factors on the topology identification performance is evaluated. This method provides a natural and direct point to reconstruct network topologies from measurable data, which is likely to have potential applicability in a wide range of fields.

  6. Action and gait recognition from recovered 3-D human joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junxia; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin; Wu, Youshou

    2010-08-01

    A common viewpoint-free framework that fuses pose recovery and classification for action and gait recognition is presented in this paper. First, a markerless pose recovery method is adopted to automatically capture the 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences from volume data. Second, multiple configuration features (combination of joints) and movement features (position, orientation, and height of the body) are extracted from the recovered 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences. A hidden Markov model (HMM) and an exemplar-based HMM are then used to model the movement features and configuration features, respectively. Finally, actions are classified by a hierarchical classifier that fuses the movement features and the configuration features, and persons are recognized from their gait sequences with the configuration features. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with experiments on the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences data set.

  7. Recovering hidden dynamical modes from the generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Miyazaki, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    In studying large molecular systems, insights can better be extracted by selecting a limited number of physical quantities for analysis rather than treating every atomic coordinate in detail. Some information may, however, be lost by projecting the total system onto a small number of coordinates. For such problems, the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) is shown to provide a useful framework to examine the interaction between the observed variables and their environment. Starting with the GLE obtained from the time series of the observed quantity, we perform a transformation to introduce a set of variables that describe dynamical modes existing in the environment. The introduced variables are shown to effectively recover the essential information of the total system that appeared to be lost by the projection.

  8. Cortical neuroplasticity in patients recovering from acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Frederiksen, Jette L.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with optic neuritis (ON) undergo cortical and subcortical neuroplasticity as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the effect of the heterogeneity of scotomas his not been adequately addressed previously. We introduce a new method of modelling scotomas in f......MRI, to reveal a clearer pattern of neuroplasticity, across a mixed patient population. A longitudinal fMRI-study of visual function in 19 ON patients examined at four timepoints between presentation and 6 months was performed. Four different models were compared. The first model included the four different...... Cortical neuroplasticity during recovery. Moreover, inferences from the fourth model can be extended to the general Population of patients recovering from ON. In Conclusion, we present a method of accommodating subject-specific differences between patients with acute ON by inclusion of an HMD...

  9. Erroneous HIV test isn't grounds for recovering damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-21

    The Florida Supreme Court ruled that a Florida man cannot recover damages for the mental anguish he suffered for nineteen months after being misdiagnosed as HIV-positive. The court refused to drop the state's impact rule, which limits awards for mental anguish in negligence lawsuits to cases with underlying physical injuries or willful misconduct. The plaintiff, known as [name removed], filed suit against Humana Hospital-Lucerne in [name removed], where he received the test; [name removed] Clinical Laboratories, which performed the test and analysis; and the doctor, [name removed]. Although the court rejected [name removed]'s arguments, they gave him leave to file an amended complaint if he could demonstrate that the medical treatment he underwent as a result of his HIV diagnosis caused him physical injury.

  10. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Janke, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  11. Using IRS Products to Recover 7ETM+ Defective Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On May 31st, 2003, Landsat 7 faced an anomaly in the Scan Line Corrector (SLC normal operation. This malfunctioning of SLC caused the individual scan lines alternately overlap each other and consequently produce large gaps at the edges of the image. Regarding the unique specification of ETM+ sensor on board of Landsat-7 satellite such as its spectral bands in the shortwave IR and TIR region and its suitable spatial resolution which is ideal for most of the scientific researches, a technique for the reconstruction of the defected images due to the SLC malfunctioning, was built up. Due to the availability of IRS/1D LISS-III images for our region of interest i.e., southwest of Iran, it was decided to use these images to recover 7ETM+ products. The procedure in reconstructing the defected 7ETM+ images is divided in to two stages. In the first stage, after implementation of some preprocessing to both LISS-III and 7ETM+, a linear regression model between bands 3 and 4 of 7ETM+ and bands 2 and 3 of LISS-III was setup. This model is used to fill up the missing places in 7ETM+ defected image and produced two new images in bands 3 and 4. In the second stage, these two newly reconstructed images of 7ETM+ were used to recover images of 7ETM+ in other spectral bands. At this stage, two methods were introduced, one using linear relationship between band 3 and bands 1 and 2 and in the second method we introduced a planar relationship between bands 3 and 4 with each one of bands 5, 6 and 7. The models are applied to few images and are found to be fairly reliable. The primary and necessary conditions for applying these methods have been explained in detail.

  12. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  13. Sea otter foraging behavior and hydrocarbon levels in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroff, Angela M.; Bodkin, James L.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    or net caloric availability due to heavy oiling in portions of southwestern PWS may have led to reduced carrying capacity and delayed recovery for the sea otter population in this region.Recovery of the PWS sea otter population may be influenced by several factors. Decreased food availability caused by oil-related prey mortality or consumption of contaminated prey may be detrimental. Prey availability in western PWS may have declined due to increased mortality of invertebrates at the time of shoreline oiling. of by oil-removal activities. In addition. relative prey availability may have been decreased by sea otters avoiding invertebrate prey contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. However, we lack the baseline data on abundance and distribution of near shore invertebrates necessary to estimate a reduction in prey availability. In addition. the effects of ingesting prey contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons on sea otters are unknown.Our objectives were to determine if sea otter foraging success and prey composition differed between oiled and nonoiled areas and to assess hydrocarbon levels in sea otter prey between oiled and nonoiled areas.

  14. Using heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons to determine QCD parameters and test heavy quark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.

  15. Heavy Quarks and Heavy Quarkonia as Tests of Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, J L

    2006-01-01

    We present here a brief summary of new results on heavy quarks and heavy quarkonia from the PHENIX experiment as presented at the "Quark Gluon Plasma Thermalization" Workshop in Vienna, Austria in August 2005, directly following the International Quark Matter Conference in Hungary.

  16. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santosh K.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Tolos, Laura; Minissale, Vincenzo; Scardina, Francesco; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy baryons (Λc and Λb ) in the hadronic phase created in the latter stage of the heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies have been evaluated recently. In this work we compute some experimental observables, such as the nuclear suppression factor RA A and the elliptic flow v2 of heavy baryons at RHIC and LHC energies, highlighting the role of the hadronic phase contribution to these observables, which are going to be measured at Run 3 of LHC. For the time evolution of the heavy quarks in the quark and gluon plasma (QGP) and heavy baryons in the hadronic phase, we use the Langevin dynamics. For the hadronization of the heavy quarks to heavy baryons we employ Peterson fragmentation functions. We observe a strong suppression of both the Λc and Λb . We find that the hadronic medium has a sizable impact on the heavy-baryon elliptic flow whereas the impact of hadronic medium rescattering is almost unnoticeable on the nuclear suppression factor. We evaluate the Λc/D ratio at RHIC and LHC. We find that the Λc/D ratio remains unaffected due to the hadronic phase rescattering which enables it as a nobel probe of QGP phase dynamics along with its hadronization.

  17. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  18. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayansina Segun Ayangbenro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal.

  19. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayangbenro, Ayansina Segun; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-01-01

    Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal. PMID:28106848

  20. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  1. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  2. Using variances in hydrocarbon concentration and carbon stable isotope to determine the important influence of irrigated water on petroleum accumulation in surface soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Yang, Juncheng; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiaoming; Dai, Jiulan

    2013-05-01

    Hunpu is a wastewater-irrigated area southwest of Shenyang. To evaluate petroleum contamination and identify its sources at the area, the aliphatic hydrocarbons and compound-specific carbon stable isotopes of n-alkanes in the soil, irrigation water, and atmospheric deposition were analyzed. The analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that the water is moderately contaminated by degraded heavy oil. According to the isotope analysis, inputs of modern C3 plants and degraded petroleum are present in the water, air, and soil. The similarities and dissimilarities among the water, air, and soil samples were determined by concentration, isotope, and multivariate statistical analyses. Hydrocarbons from various sources, as well as the water/atmospheric deposition samples, are more effectively differentiated through principal component analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) relative to hydrocarbon concentrations. Redundancy analysis indicates that 57.1 % of the variance in the δ(13)C of the soil can be explained by the δ(13)C of both the water and air, and 35.5 % of the variance in the hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil can be explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of both the water and the air. The δ(13)C in the atmospheric deposition accounts for 28.2 % of the δ(13)C variance in the soil, which is considerably higher than the variance in hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of the atmospheric deposition (7.7 %). In contrast to δ(13)C analysis, the analysis of hydrocarbon concentrations underestimates the effect of petroleum contamination in the irrigated water and air on the surface soil. Overall, the irrigated water exerts a larger effect on the surface soil than does the atmospheric deposition.

  3. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  4. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  5. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion

  6. Optimising the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons within a risk management framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R.; Brassington, K.; Sinke, A.; Crossley, J.; Paton, G.; Semple, K.; Risdon, G.; Jacobson, Ch.; Daly, P.; Jackman, S.; Lethbridge, G.; Pollard, S. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years of research into petroleum microbiology and bio-remediation have bypassed an important observation - that many hydrocarbon contaminated sites posing potential risks to human health harbour weathered, 'mid-distillate' or heavy oils rather than 'fresh product'. Ex-situ bio-piling is an important technology for treating soils contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons. However, its performance continues to be represented by reference to reductions in the hydrocarbon 'load' in the soils being treated, rather than reductions in the risks posed by the hydrocarbon contamination. The absence of 'risk' from the vocabulary of many operators and remediation projects reduces stakeholder (regulatory, investor, landowner, and public) confidence in remediation technologies, and subsequently limits the market potential of these technologies. Stakeholder confidence in the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons may be improved by demonstrating process optimisation within a validated risk management framework. To address these issues, a consortium led by Cranfield University's Integrated Waste Management Centre has secured funding from the UK Government's Bio-remediation LINK programme. Project PROMISE (involving BP, SecondSite Regeneration Ltd., Dew Remediation Ltd., TES Bretby (Mowlem Group), technology translators PERA, and academics from Aberdeen, Cranfield and Lancaster Universities) aims to improve market confidence in bio-piling by demonstrating how this treatment may be applied within a risk management context. For weathered hydrocarbons in particular, the underpinning scientific components of process control, waste diagnostics, environmental fate modelling, and risk assessment have yet to be fully integrated to allow bio-piling projects to be verified with improved confidence. The Joint Research Council Review of Bio-remediation recognised this in calling explicitly for the positioning of bio-remediation within a

  7. Characterization of petroleum heavy distillates using HPLC and spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowha, S.L.S.; Sharma, B.K.; Sharma, C.D.; Bhagat, S.D. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1997-05-01

    Petroleum heavy distillates find wide application as feedstocks for upgrading through secondary conversion processes. Compositional data on such feedstocks provide useful information to the refiners for selecting processing parameters to achieve product selectivity, quality, and yield. A HPLC method has been optimized to estimate hydrocarbon group types in five lubricating oil base stocks using refractive index (RI) and UV detectors. Data generated at two wavelengths (210 and 254 nm) indicated best results for monoaromatics at 210 nm due to enhanced response and compared well with mass spectrometry data. RI data revealed that saturate content decreases from spindel oil (56%) to heavy oil (42%) which is corroborated by MS data measured for three samples. NMR data exhibited that light oil is more paraffinic (63%) in nature as indicated by branchiness index (0.478). UV data revealed an increasing trend of monoaromatics from spindle (16%) to deasphalted oil (DAO) (20%) and this is supported by MS data, while DAO and heavy oil indicated higher values of diaromatics. 17 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. New hydrocarbon degradation pathways in the microbial metagenome from Brazilian petroleum reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Natalia Sierra-García

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs.

  9. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  10. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  12. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  13. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...

  14. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  15. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  16. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  17. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  18. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  19. Heavy flavours: working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role