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Sample records for records methodological challenges

  1. Methodological challenges and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik; Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Taking as point of departure three recently conducted empirical studies, the aim of this article is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges studying the interrelations between media and social reality and to critically reflect on the methodologies used in the studies....... By deconstructing the studies, the article draws attention to the fact that different methods are able to grasp different elements of social reality. Moreover, by analysing the power relations at play, the article demonstrated that the interplay between interviewer and interviewee, and how both parties fit...... into present power structures, greatly influence the narratives that are co-produced during interviews. The article thus concludes that in order to fully understand complex phenomena it is not just enough to use a mixture of methods, the makeup of the research team is also imperative, as a diverse team...

  2. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  3. App Studies : Platform Rules and Methodological Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlitz, C.; Helmond, A.; van der Vlist, F.; Weltevrede, E.; De Groote, S.; Majmundar, P.

    2016-01-01

    The panel engages with conceptual and methodological challenges within a specific area of ‘internet rules’, namely the space of mobile apps. Whereas the web was set out to function as a ‘generative’ and open technology facilitating the production of unanticipated services and applications, the

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  5. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  6. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  7. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Family Photography and Persecuted Communities: Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Kirsten Emiko

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines methodological challenges involved in conducting research on family photographs from persecuted communities, using Japanese Canadian photos as a case study. Approaching family photography as a social practice that instills dominant familial ideologies, the paper examines their "performative scripts" that arrange family members according to normative identities and roles. The paper argues that researchers are not immune to scripts that shape how and what we have been socialized to see (and not see) in family photos. The paper thus presents techniques to distance oneself from these performative scripts and one's involvement in their social and emotional dynamics. Once able to disentangle oneself from the genre's normative practices, the paper argues it is necessary to situate the photos in their social and political context of persecution and survival. Given the insular, inward looking character of family photographs, the paper concludes by calling for intersectional analyses, reflecting on how one might bring one's own family photos into engagement with the photos of Indigenous families and turns to those of the Skwxwú7mesh (Squamish) Nation. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Milani, Silvano; Spada, Elena; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID) Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms) for national da...

  10. Methodological Challenges of Research in Nudging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Complex societal issues, related to health and sustainability, provide major challenges to scientists, business managers, and policy makers alike. Despite their diversity, these issues have in common that effective solutions to public health (e.g., reducing prevalence of overweight and obesity) and

  11. Sex Work Research: Methodological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    The challenges involved in the design of ethical, nonexploitative research projects with sex workers or any other marginalized population are significant. First, the size and boundaries of the population are unknown, making it extremely difficult to get a representative sample. Second, because membership in hidden populations often involves…

  12. Modern climate challenges and the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Today's changing climate poses challenges about the influence of human activity, such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use changes, the natural variability of Earth's climate, and complex feedback processes. Ice core and instrumental records show that over the last century, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have risen to 390 parts per million volume (ppmv), about 40% above pre-Industrial Age concentrations of 280 ppmv and nearly twice those of the last glacial maximum about 22,000 years ago. Similar historical increases are recorded in atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). There is general agreement that human activity is largely responsible for these trends. Substantial evidence also suggests that elevated greenhouse gas concentrations are responsible for much of the recent atmospheric and oceanic warming, rising sea level, declining Arctic sea-ice cover, retreating glaciers and small ice caps, decreased mass balance of the Greenland and parts of the Antarctic ice sheets, and decreasing ocean pH (ocean "acidification"). Elevated CO2 concentrations raise concern not only from observations of the climate system, but because feedbacks associated with reduced reflectivity from in land and sea ice, sea level, and land vegetation relatively slowly (centuries or longer) to elevated 2 levels. This means that additional human-induced climate change is expected even if the rate of CO2 emissions is reduced or concentrations immediately stabilized.

  13. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pizzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms for national data collection on oral health in Europe. The second contribution regards the design and conduct of trials to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of toothbrushes and mouthrinses. Finally, a flexible and effective tool used to trace dental age reference charts tailored to Italian children is presented.

  14. Two Methodological Challenges for Teacher-Researchers: Reflexivity and Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Teacher research is lauded as a beneficial enterprise both for practitioners and for learners. However, teachers are sometimes accused of not possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct research effectively. This article focuses on the need for teacher-researchers to find means of addressing the methodological challenges of engaging…

  15. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight...

  16. Challenges and Prospects of Methodological Anarchism for Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examjnes Feyerabend's idea of Methodological Anarchism. Specifically, it looks at its challenges and prospects for the growth of science and epistemology in Africa. Feyerabend's point is that people develop best in pluralistic societies; that contain many ideas, traditions and forms of life. It is argued that ...

  17. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE: PRESENT AND FUTURE METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Benítez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of quality of life in diverse domains, such as health, school performance and social participation, has led to the development of new conceptualisations and assessments of the construct. This diversity of perspectives brings about many benefits, but it also creates an obstacle for the formulation of a single unifying definition of the construct and, therefore, an agreed instrument or assessment framework. The aim of this study is to discuss the current methodological challenges in the measurement of quality of life. Firstly, we provide a brief description of the construct as defined in various areas, then we examine the new methodological developments and different applications. We also present an overview of the different possibilities for future developments in defining and measuring quality of life in national and international studies.

  19. Methodologies for nuclear material accounting and control: challenges and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NUMAC) represents one of the most important and indispensable responsibilities of any nuclear installation. The emphasis is to ensure that the nuclear material being handled in the nuclear installation is properly accounted for with the expected accuracy and confidence levels. A number of analytical methods based on both destructive and non-destructive assay techniques are available at the disposal of the nuclear analytical scientists for this purpose and they have been enumerated extensively in literature. Instead of recounting the analytical methodologies available, an attempt has been made in this paper to highlight some of the challenges. (author)

  20. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    , leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  1. Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, Ulla H; Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Lundman, Berit

    2017-09-01

    This discussion paper is aimed to map content analysis in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges. We discuss phenomenological descriptions of manifest content and hermeneutical interpretations of latent content. We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approaches to qualitative content analysis, and elaborate on the level of abstraction and degree of interpretation used in constructing categories, descriptive themes, and themes of meaning. With increased abstraction and interpretation comes an increased challenge to demonstrate the credibility and authenticity of the analysis. A key issue is to show the logic in how categories and themes are abstracted, interpreted, and connected to the aim and to each other. Qualitative content analysis is an autonomous method and can be used at varying levels of abstraction and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  3. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779

  4. Integrating an Academic Electronic Health Record: Challenges and Success Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Valerie M; Connors, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Technology is increasing the complexity in the role of today's nurse. Healthcare organizations are integrating more health information technologies and relying on the electronic health record for data collection, communication, and decision making. Nursing faculty need to prepare graduates for this environment and incorporate an academic electronic health record into a nursing curriculum to meet student-program outcomes. Although the need exists for student preparation, some nursing programs are struggling with implementation, whereas others have been successful. To better understand these complexities, this project was intended to identify current challenges and success strategies of effective academic electronic health record integration into nursing curricula. Using Rogers' 1962 Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework for technology adoption, a descriptive survey design was used to gain insights from deans and program directors of nursing schools involved with the national Health Informatics & Technology Scholars faculty development program or Cerner's Academic Education Solution Consortium, working to integrate an academic electronic health record in their respective nursing schools. The participants' experiences highlighted approaches used by these schools to integrate these technologies. Data from this project provide nursing education with effective strategies and potential challenges that should be addressed for successful academic electronic health record integration.

  5. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  7. Electronic health records challenges in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the challenges in electronic health records (EHR) design and implementation along with an introduction to the best practices that have been identified over the past several years. The book examines concerns surrounding EHR use and proposes eight examples of proper EHR use. It discusses the complex strategic planning that accompanies the systemic organizational changes associated with EHR programs and highlights key lessons learned regarding health information-including technology errors and risk management concerns.

  8. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  9. Methodology Series Module 8: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    As researchers, we often collect data on a clinical record form or a questionnaire. It is an important part of study design. If the questionnaire is not well designed, the data collected will not be useful. In this section of the module, we have discussed some practical aspects of designing a questionnaire. It is useful to make a list of all the variables that will be assessed in the study before preparing the questionnaire. The researcher should review all the existing questionnaires. It may be efficient to use an existing standardized questionnaire or scale. Many of these scales are freely available and may be used with an appropriate reference. However, some may be under copyright protection and permissions may be required to use the same questionnaire. While designing their own questionnaire, researchers may use open- or close-ended questions. It is important to design the responses appropriately as the format of responses will influence the analysis. Sometimes, one can collect the same information in multiple ways - continuous or categorical response. Besides these, the researcher can also use visual analog scales or Likert's scale in the questionnaire. Some practical take-home points are: (1) Use specific language while framing the questions; (2) write detailed instructions in the questionnaire; (3) use mutually exclusive response categories; (4) use skip patterns; (5) avoid double-barreled questions; and (6) anchor the time period if required.

  10. Methodological Challenges in Examining the Impact of Healthcare Predictive Analytics on Nursing-Sensitive Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alvin D

    2015-06-01

    The expansion of real-time analytic abilities within current electronic health records has led to innovations in predictive modeling and clinical decision support systems. However, the ability of these systems to influence patient outcomes is currently unknown. Even though nurses are the largest profession within the healthcare workforce, little research has been performed to explore the impact of clinical decision support on their decisions and the patient outcomes associated with them. A scoping literature review explored the impact clinical decision support systems containing healthcare predictive analytics have on four nursing-sensitive patient outcomes (pressure ulcers, failure to rescue, falls, and infections). While many articles discussed variable selection and predictive model development/validation, only four articles examined the impact on patient outcomes. The novelty of predictive analytics and the inherent methodological challenges in studying clinical decision support impact are likely responsible for this paucity of literature. Major methodological challenges include (1) multilevel nature of intervention, (2) treatment fidelity, and (3) adequacy of clinicians' subsequent behavior. There is currently insufficient evidence to demonstrate efficacy of healthcare predictive analytics-enhanced clinical decision support systems on nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Innovative research methods and a greater emphasis on studying this phenomenon are needed.

  11. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  12. Sulfonylurea herbicides – methodological challenges in setting aquatic limit values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Baun, Anders; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    according to the EU Water Framework Directive, the resulting Water Quality Standards (WQSs) are below the analytical quantification limit, making it difficult to verify compliance with the limit values. However, several methodological concerns may be raised in relation to the very low effect concentrations...... and rimsulfuron. The following parameters were varied during testing: pH, exposure duration, temperature and light/dark cycle. Preliminary results show that a decrease in pH causes an increase in toxicity for all compounds. Exposure to a high concentration for 24 hours caused a reduction in growth rate, from...... for setting limit values for SUs or if more detailed information should be gained by taking methodological considerations into account....

  13. Local and regional low carbon scenarios methodology, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the emergence of local climate and energy policy in Europe, the implementation of nationally imposed but regionally anchored energy scenarios (i.e. in France, the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes or SRCAE). Then it addresses the methodological and political aspects of local and regional low emission scenarios: methodologies and typologies of energy scenarios, ways to define an appropriate emission reduction and energy consumption objective, ways to deal with emission or carbon gaps, ways to make local emission inventories, ways to gather local data, ways to deal with special emission sources, ways to assess and develop local energy efficiency and renewable energy potentials, ways to take energy sufficiency into account, and the evolution from energy autonomy to 100% renewable energy territories. The last part addresses the issues of stake holder and citizen participation in the definition of long term strategies

  14. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  15. The origin of life and its methodological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtershäuser, G

    1997-08-21

    The problem of the origin of life is discussed from a methodological point of view as an encounter between the teleological thinking of the historian and the mechanistic thinking of the chemist; and as the Kantian task of replacing teleology by mechanism. It is shown how the Popperian situational logic of historic understanding and the Popperian principle of explanatory power of scientific theories, when jointly applied to biochemistry, lead to a methodology of biochemical retrodiction, whereby common precursor functions are constructed for disparate successor functions. This methodology is exemplified by central tenets of the theory of the chemo-autotrophic origin of life: the proposal of a surface metabolism with a two-dimensional order; the basic polarity of life with negatively charged constituents on positively charged mineral surfaces; the surface-metabolic origin of phosphorylated sugar metabolism and nucleic acids; the origin of membrane lipids and of chemi-osmosis on pyrite surfaces; and the principles of the origin of the genetic machinery. The theory presents the early evolution of life as a process that begins with chemical necessity and winds up in genetic chance.

  16. Methodological challenges involved in compiling the Nahua pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2017-06-01

    Recent work in the history of science has questioned the Eurocentric nature of the field and sought to include a more global approach that would serve to displace center-periphery models in favor of approaches that take seriously local knowledge production. Historians of Iberian colonial science have taken up this approach, which involves reliance on indigenous knowledge traditions of the Americas. These traditions present a number of challenges to modern researchers, including availability and reliability of source material, issues of translation and identification, and lack of systematization. This essay explores the challenges that emerged in the author's attempt to compile a pre-contact Nahua pharmacopeia, the reasons for these challenges, and the ways they may - or may not - be overcome.

  17. Clinical Studies of Biofield Therapies: Summary, Methodological Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Mills, Paul; Cohen, Lorenzo; Krieger, Richard; Vieten, Cassandra; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Biofield therapies are noninvasive therapies in which the practitioner explicitly works with a client's biofield (interacting fields of energy and information that surround living systems) to stimulate healing responses in patients. While the practice of biofield therapies has existed in Eastern and Western cultures for thousands of years, empirical research on the effectiveness of biofield therapies is still relatively nascent. In this article, we provide a summary of the state of the evidence for biofield therapies for a number of different clinical conditions. We note specific methodological issues for research in biofield therapies that need to be addressed (including practitioner-based, outcomes-based, and research design considerations), as well as provide a list of suggested next steps for biofield researchers to consider. PMID:26665043

  18. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  19. Video ethnography during and after caesarean sections: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2017-07-01

    To describe the challenges of, and steps taken to successfully collect video ethnographic data during and after caesarean sections. Video ethnographic research uses real-time video footage to study a cultural group or phenomenon in the natural environment. It allows researchers to discover previously undocumented practices, which in-turn provides insight into strengths and weaknesses in practice. This knowledge can be used to translate evidence-based interventions into practice. Video ethnographic design. A video ethnographic approach was used to observe the contact between mothers and babies immediately after elective caesarean sections in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Women, their support people and staff participated in the study. Data were collected via video footage and field notes in the operating theatre, recovery and the postnatal ward. Challenges faced whilst conducting video ethnographic research included attaining ethics approval, recruiting vast numbers of staff members and 'vulnerable' pregnant women, and endeavouring to be a 'fly on the wall' and a 'complete observer'. There were disadvantages being an 'insider' whilst conducting the research because occasionally staff members requested help with clinical tasks whilst collecting data; however, it was an advantage as it enabled ease of access to the environment and staff members that were to be recruited. Despite the challenges, video ethnographic research enabled the provision of unique data that could not be attained by any other means. Video ethnographic data are beneficial as it provides exceptionally rich data for in-depth analysis of interactions between the environment, equipment and people in the hospital environment. The analysis of this type of data can then be used to inform improvements for future care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Organizational ethnography and methodological angst: Myths and challenges in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the myths and challenges in the field of organizational ethnography and methodological angst. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is initially written as an invited keynote address for the 3rd Annual Joint Symposium on “Current Developments in

  1. Conducting Research with LGB People of Color: Methodological Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlaere, Cirleen; Brewster, Melanie E.; Sarkees, Anthony; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Methodological barriers have been highlighted as a primary reason for the limited research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Thus, strategies for anticipating and addressing potential methodological barriers are needed. To address this need, this article discusses potential challenges associated with conducting research with…

  2. Learning challenges and sustainable development: A methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland. The method, based on Activity Theory, combines historical analysis with qualitative analysis of need expressions in discourse data. The method linking local and subjective need expressions with general historical analysis is a promising way to overcome the gap between the individual and society, so much needed in research for sustainable development. Dialectically informed historical frameworks have practical value as tools in collaborative negotiations and participatory designs for sustainable development. The simultaneous use of systemic and subjective perspectives allows researchers to manage the complexity of practical work activities and to avoid too simplistic presumptions about sustainable development.

  3. Socioeconomic value of orthopedic devices: evidence and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corinna Sorenson,1,2 Michael Drummond2,31LSE Health, London School of Economics, London, UK; 2European Health Technology Institute for Socioeconomic Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UKAbstract: With continued technological advances in orthopedic devices and increasingly limited health care resources, greater attention will be placed on substantiating the socioeconomic value of these devices. Therefore, this study focused on a systematic review of available economic evaluations of selected orthopedic devices (n = 33 studies to assess their impact on different clinical and economic outcomes. The existing evidence suggests that they have important benefits to patients, including reduced risk of fractures, increased mobility and functioning, and enhanced quality of life, and do so cost effectively or with cost savings. However, we have identified several methodological obstacles to sufficient ascertainment of value, such as a lack of robust information on health economic outcomes and long-term evidence. We also identify areas where additional research is needed to assess more fully the value of orthopedic devices.Keywords: medical devices, orthopedics, health economic evaluation

  4. Temperature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Koninck J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geneviève Forest,1,2 Cameron van den Heuvel,3 Kurt Lushington,4 Joseph De Koninck21Sleep Laboratory, Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Québec, Canada; 2Sleep and Dreams Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Branch University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 4School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Given the close link between body temperature and sleep, the perspective of manipulating core and peripheral temperature by self-regulation techniques is very appealing. We report here on a series of attempts conducted independently in two laboratories to use self-regulation (biofeedback of oral (central and hand (peripheral temperature, and measured the impact on sleep-onset latency, sleep architecture, and circadian phase. We found that hand temperature was more successful than oral temperature biofeedback. Moreover, an increase in hand temperature was associated with reduced sleep-onset latency. However, most participants found the procedure difficult to implement. The temperature response to biofeedback was reduced in the aged and weakest at the time of sleep onset, and there was not a systematic relationship between the change in temperature and change in sleep latency. Methodological limitations and individual differences may account for these results. Recommendations for future research are presented.Keywords: biofeedback, core body temperature, sleep, circadian rhythm, sleep onset

  5. Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavik Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining and measuring organizational culture (OC is of paramount importance to organizations because a strong culture could potentially increase service quality and yield sustainable competitive advantages. However, such process could be challenging to managers because the scope of OC has been defined differently across disciplines and industries, which has led to the development of various scales for measuring OC. In addition, previously developed OC scales may also not be fully applicable in the hospitality and tourism context. Therefore, by highlighting the key factors affecting the business environment and the unique characteristics of hospitality industry, this paper aims to align the scope of OC closely with the industry and to put forth the need for a new OC scale that accurately responds to the context of the hospitality industry.

  6. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Rudel, Thomas K; Verburg, Peter H; McConnell, William J; Mertz, Ole; Gerstner, Katharina; Heinimann, Andreas; Ellis, Erle C

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena and world regions most commonly studied are presented. Significant challenges to successful synthesis research in LCS are also identified, including issues of interpretability and comparability across case-studies and the limits of and biases in the geographic coverage of case studies. Nevertheless, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand for global and regional knowledge generation will continue to grow to support adaptation and mitigation policies consistent with both the local realities and regional and global environmental and economic contexts of land change.

  7. Heterogeneous Effects in Education: The Promise and Challenge of Incorporating Intersectionality into Quantitative Methodological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    To date, the theory of intersectionality has largely guided qualitative efforts in social science and education research. Translating the construct to new methodological approaches is inherently complex and challenging, but offers the possibility of breaking down silos that keep education researchers with similar interests--but different…

  8. Tough Teens: The Methodological Challenges of Interviewing Teenagers as Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Raewyn; Beagan, Brenda L.; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Chapman, Gwen E.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging a teenager to have a conversation in a semistructured research interview is fraught with difficulties. The authors discuss the methodological challenges encountered when interviewing adolescents of European Canadian, African Canadian, and Punjabi Canadian families who took part in the Family Food Decision-Making Study in two regions of…

  9. The Psychological Study of Video Game Players: Methodological Challenges and Practical Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Video game playing has received increased academic interest over the last few decades, particularly with regard to the psychological understanding of addiction. Based on the many studies carried out by the authors, this paper summarises some of the methodological challenges which may arise when studying video game players, including obstacles…

  10. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  11. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369 whereas weighted kappa (0.504 was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  12. THE CHALLENGE OF KEEPING-UP: CURRENT METHODOLOGIES IN ANALYZING THE STUDENTS RECRUITING AREA BY UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂLĂESCU SIMONA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of keeping-up: current methodologies in analyzing the students recruiting area by universities. Despite all progress made in the field and in some collateral areas extremely useful methodologically (e.g. the use of GIS, for some countries emerging from communist space methodologically upgrading to the latest advances in modelling and forecast of students recruitment by universities remains a difficult challenge. The analysis and modelling of the geographical area of recruiting students for a particular university represents even for the foreign literature a niche, not necessarily consciously neglected but only reached sidely due, most likely, to ignoring the benefits which the focus of concerns on this aspect would bring into focus and directing more efficiently university marketing efforts. This paper aims precisely to seek, through a meta-analysis of existing literature, disparate developments that led in some form or will allow improved modeling spatial areas of recruitment of students by universities and the challenges and limitations that apply methodological advances the area where universities belonging to the ex-communist involved. Beyond the theoretical benefit from a practical perspective, the meta-analysis aimed at synthesizing elements of good practice that can be applied to the local university system.

  13. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  14. Challenge accepted : Genessee Mine working to maintain clean record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2010-09-15

    The Genesee Mine produces 5.5 million tonnes of coal annually for the Genesee Power Plant run by Capital Power. The mine operators place much emphasis on safety and have achieved 22 consecutive years without a lost time accident, which is as long as the mine has been in operation. After recently accepting its tenth safety award, the company recognizes that it must avoid complacency. Employees were asked their opinions regarding the company's safety record. The employee response was that positive attitudes contribute to the safe work environment, together with competent trainers, employee interest in the condition of equipment, good communication, and good leadership. The on-site workforce now encompasses over 160 employees. The ISO 9000 and 14001 and other standards and policies have not only driven the safety program, but the safety performance to date has set the bar high. A hazard assessment program requires that crew be responsive to safety indicators every day. 1 fig.

  15. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takian Amirhossein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR systems now constitutes a core part of many governments’ healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Methods Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England’s National Health Service’s Care Records Service (NHS CRS. Results/discussion We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome. Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. Summary New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within

  16. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Petrakaki, Dimitra; Cornford, Tony; Sheikh, Aziz; Barber, Nicholas

    2012-04-30

    A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems now constitutes a core part of many governments' healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively) short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England's National Health Service's Care Records Service (NHS CRS). We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome). Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within multiple specific settings and reflecting a constantly changing milieu of policies

  17. Sociotechnical Challenges of Developing an Interoperable Personal Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, G.L.; Longhurst, C.A.; Slayton, R.; Das, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze sociotechnical issues involved in the process of developing an interoperable commercial Personal Health Record (PHR) in a hospital setting, and to create guidelines for future PHR implementations. Methods This qualitative study utilized observational research and semi-structured interviews with 8 members of the hospital team, as gathered over a 28 week period of developing and adapting a vendor-based PHR at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford University. A grounded theory approach was utilized to code and analyze over 100 pages of typewritten field notes and interview transcripts. This grounded analysis allowed themes to surface during the data collection process which were subsequently explored in greater detail in the observations and interviews. Results Four major themes emerged: (1) Multidisciplinary teamwork helped team members identify crucial features of the PHR; (2) Divergent goals for the PHR existed even within the hospital team; (3) Differing organizational conceptions of the end-user between the hospital and software company differentially shaped expectations for the final product; (4) Difficulties with coordination and accountability between the hospital and software company caused major delays and expenses and strained the relationship between hospital and software vendor. Conclusions Though commercial interoperable PHRs have great potential to improve healthcare, the process of designing and developing such systems is an inherently sociotechnical process with many complex issues and barriers. This paper offers recommendations based on the lessons learned to guide future development of such PHRs. PMID:22003373

  18. The Challenges of Participant Photography: A Critical Reflection on Methodology and Ethics in Two Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Nash, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    Photovoice and photo-elicitation are two common methods of participant photography used in health research. Although participatory photography has many benefits, this critical reflection provides fellow researchers with insights into the methodological and ethical challenges faced when using such methods. In this article, we critically reflect on two studies that used participatory photography in different cultural contexts. The first study used photo-elicitation to investigate mothers' experiences of infant settling in central Vietnam. The second study used photovoice to explore pregnant embodiment in Australia. Following a discussion of the literature and a detailed overview of the two studies, we examine the methodological challenges in using participant photography before, during and after each study. This is followed by a discussion of ethical concerns that arose in relation to the burden of participation, confidentiality, consent, and the photographing of families and children. To conclude, we highlight implications for using participatory photography in other settings.

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Methodological Challenges in Estimating Trends and Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob K. Kariuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although 80% of the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is in developing countries, the 2010 global burden of disease (GBD estimates have been cited to support a premise that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is exempt from the CVD epidemic sweeping across developing countries. The widely publicized perspective influences research priorities and resource allocation at a time when secular trends indicate a rapid increase in prevalence of CVD in SSA by 2030. Purpose. To explore methodological challenges in estimating trends and burden of CVD in SSA via appraisal of the current CVD statistics and literature. Methods. This review was guided by the Critical review methodology described by Grant and Booth. The review traces the origins and evolution of GBD metrics and then explores the methodological limitations inherent in the current GBD statistics. Articles were included based on their conceptual contribution to the existing body of knowledge on the burden of CVD in SSA. Results/Conclusion. Cognizant of the methodological challenges discussed, we caution against extrapolation of the global burden of CVD statistics in a way that underrates the actual but uncertain impact of CVD in SSA. We conclude by making a case for optimal but cost-effective surveillance and prevention of CVD in SSA.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology: Raw Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Brønd, Jan C; Bonomi, Alberto; Schulze, Mareike; Vigl, Matthäus; Morseth, Bente; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Schulz, Holger; Brage, Søren; Horsch, Alexander

    2016-12-07

    Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Key stakeholders were identified as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step of algorithms for processing raw accelerometer data should be documented, and ideally also motivated, to facilitate interpretation and discussion, iii) Algorithm developers and method users should be open about uncertainties in the description of data and the uncertainty of the inference itself, iv) All new algorithms which are pitched as "ready for implementation" should be shared with the community to facilitate replication and ongoing evaluation by independent groups, and v) A dynamic interaction between method stakeholders should be encouraged to facilitate a well-informed harmonization process. The workshop led to the identification of a number of opportunities for harmonizing methodological practice. The discussion as well as the practical checklists proposed in this review should provide guidance for stakeholders on how to contribute to increased harmonization.

  2. Challenges in implementing a Planetary Boundaries based Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Richardson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    of resolving the challenges and developing such methodology is discussed. The challenges are related to technical issues, i.e., modelling and including the Earth System processes and their control variables as impact categories in Life-Cycle Impact Assessment and to theoretical considerations with respect...... to the interpretation and use of Life-Cycle Assessment results in accordance with the Planetary Boundary framework. The identified challenges require additional research before a Planetary Boundaries based Life-Cycle Impact Assessment method can be developed. Research on modelling the impacts on Earth System processes......Impacts on the environment from human activities are now threatening to exceed thresholds for central Earth System processes, potentially moving the Earth System out of the Holocene state. To avoid such consequences, the concept of Planetary Boundaries was defined in 2009, and updated in 2015...

  3. Methodological Challenges in Studies Comparing Prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Timmy; Jones, Courtney M C; Shah, Manish N; Cushman, Jeremy T; Jusko, Todd A

    2017-08-01

    Determining the most appropriate level of care for patients in the prehospital setting during medical emergencies is essential. A large body of literature suggests that, compared with Basic Life Support (BLS) care, Advanced Life Support (ALS) care is not associated with increased patient survival or decreased mortality. The purpose of this special report is to synthesize the literature to identify common study design and analytic challenges in research studies that examine the effect of ALS, compared to BLS, on patient outcomes. The challenges discussed in this report include: (1) choice of outcome measure; (2) logistic regression modeling of common outcomes; (3) baseline differences between study groups (confounding); (4) inappropriate statistical adjustment; and (5) inclusion of patients who are no longer at risk for the outcome. These challenges may affect the results of studies, and thus, conclusions of studies regarding the effect of level of prehospital care on patient outcomes should require cautious interpretation. Specific alternatives for avoiding these challenges are presented. Li T , Jones CMC , Shah MN , Cushman JT , Jusko TA . Methodological challenges in studies comparing prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):444-450.

  4. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  5. Risk assessment of cryogenic installations – implementation, applicability of methodologies and challenges at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    For the safe design of a cryogenic installation, it is essential to carry out a comprehensive hazard identification and risk estimate in order to put in place the necessary control measures for an adequate risk mitigation. According to CERN Safety Rules, it is mandatory that the organic unit owning a cryogenic facility conducts and documents a risk assessment. This requirement is also given by the European Directive 2014/68/EU to manufacturers of pressure equipment. During the talk, some of the challenges CERN faces in the development of risk assessments across the broad array of activities involving cryogenic equipment in the organization will be discussed. Challenges such as the choice of the best-suited risk assessment methodology based on the features and complexity of the installation/activities, the efforts to develop tools to facilitate hazard identification, risk analysis and definition of related measures to protect the health and safety of workers, such as streamlined guidelines, forms and check...

  6. New methodology for preventing pressure ulcers using actimetry and autonomous nervous system recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffre, R; Gehin, C; Schmitt, P M; De Oliveira, F; Dittmar, A

    2006-01-01

    Pressure ulcers constitute an important health problem. They affect lots of people with mobility disorder and they are difficult to detect and prevent because the damage begins on the muscle. This paper proposes a new approach to study pressure ulcers. We aim at developing a methodology to analyse the probability for a patient to develop a pressure ulcer, and that can detect risky situation. The idea is to relate the mobility disorder to autonomic nervous system (ANS) trouble. More precisely, the evaluation of the consequence of the discomfort on the ANS (stress induced by discomfort) can be relevant for the early detection of the pressure ulcer. Mobility is evaluated through movement measurement. This evaluation, at the interface between soft living tissues and any support has to consider the specificity of the human environment. Soft living tissues have non-linear mechanical properties making conventional rigid sensors non suitable for interface parameters measurement. A new actimeter system has been designed in order to study movements of the human body whatever its support while seating. The device is based on elementary active cells. The number of pressure cells can be easily adapted to the application. The spatial resolution is about 4 cm(2). In this paper, we compare activity measurement of a seated subject with his autonomic nervous system activity, recorded by E.motion device. It has been developed in order to record six parameters: skin potential, skin resistance, skin temperature, skin blood rate, instantaneous cardiac frequency and instantaneous respiratory frequency. The design, instrumentation, and first results are presented.

  7. Using the Electronic Health Record in Nursing Research: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joanne G; McGrath, Robert J; Fetzer, Susan J; Mittal, Prashant; Bourgoine, Derek

    2015-10-01

    Changes in the patient record from the paper to the electronic health record format present challenges and opportunities for the nurse researcher. Current use of data from the electronic health record is in a state of flux. Novel data analytic techniques and massive data sets provide new opportunities for nursing science. Realization of a strong electronic data output future relies on meeting challenges of system use and operability, data presentation, and privacy. Nurse researchers need to rethink aspects of proposal development. Joining ongoing national efforts aimed at creating usable data output is encouraged as a means to affect system design. Working to address challenges and embrace opportunities will help grow the science in a way that answers important patient care questions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Socio-Hydrology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in the Bidirectional Coupling of Human and Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation reviews conceptual advances in the emerging field of socio-hydrology that focuses on coupled human and water systems. An important current challenge is how to better couple the bidirectional influences between human and water systems, which lead to emergent dynamics. The interactions among (1) the structure and dynamics of systems with (2) human values and norms lead to (3) outcomes, which in turn influence subsequent interactions. Human influences on hydrological systems are relatively well understood, chiefly resulting from developments in the field of water resources. The ecosystem-service concept of cultural value has expanded understanding of decision-making beyond economic rationality criteria. Hydrological impacts on social processes are less well developed conceptually, but this is changing with growing attention to vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience, particularly in the face of climate change. Methodological limitations, especially in characterizing the range of human responses to hydrological events and drivers, still pose challenges to modeling bidirectional human-water influences. Evidence from multiple case studies, synthesized in more broadly generic syndromes, helps surmount these methodological limitations and offers the potential to improve characterization and quantification of socio-hydrological systems.

  9. Introduction to Visual Communication in the Age of Social Media: Conceptual, Theoretical and Methodological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue of Media and Communication focuses attention on the shift towards visual images on social media as well as the transformation of visual communication which has occurred within the online ecology of social media platforms. The sharing of images is becoming an integral part of the social media experience today, and given that social media platforms are the prime locus for sociability—at least among young people in the West—this shift towards visuals arguably transforms how we relate to each other and the world around us, as well as how we perceive and construct our sense of self. For researchers, this raises conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges. This thematic issue presents six articles as well as a book review on visual communication in social media focusing on developing a conceptual apparatus and precise definitions of objects and practices of study as well as contributions that address and discuss the methodological challenges as well as their potential solutions. The idea was to synergize research from a wide variety of communication-related disciplines on this rather new topic.

  10. Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal spike propagation: a novel methodology applied to pediatric intracranial EEG recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tomlinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning andmany neurological disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular patterns ofsynchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ is believed to provide the network substratethrough which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical fordetecting seizure networks in order to achieve post-surgical seizure control. However, automatedtechniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting.Recent advances in signal processing and spike detection have made it possible to examine thespatiotemporal propagation of interictal spike discharges across the epileptic cortex. In this study, wepresent a novel methodology for detecting, extracting, and visualizing spike propagation anddemonstrate its potential utility as a biomarker for the epileptogenic zone. Eighteen pre-surgicalintracranial EEG recordings were obtained from pediatric patients ultimately experiencing favorable(i.e., seizure-free, n = 9 or unfavorable (i.e., seizure-persistent, n = 9 surgical outcomes. Novelalgorithms were applied to extract multi-channel spike discharges and visualize their spatiotemporalpropagation. Quantitative analysis of spike propagation was performed using trajectory clusteringand spatial autocorrelation techniques. Comparison of interictal propagation patterns revealed anincrease in trajectory organization (i.e., spatial autocorrelation among Sz-Free patients compared toSz-Persist patients. The pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of these findings areconsidered.

  11. Unsolicited written narratives as a methodological genre in terminal illness: challenges and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary R; Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Stories about illness have proven invaluable in helping health professionals understand illness experiences. Such narratives have traditionally been solicited by researchers through interviews and the collection of personal writings, including diaries. These approaches are, however, researcher driven; the impetus for the creation of the story comes from the researcher and not the narrator. In recent years there has been exponential growth in illness narratives created by individuals, of their own volition, and made available for others to read in print or as Internet accounts. We sought to determine whether it was possible to identify such material for use as research data to explore the subject of living with the terminal illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease--the contention being that these accounts are narrator driven and therefore focus on issues of greatest importance to the affected person. We encountered and sought to overcome a number of methodological and ethical challenges, which is our focus here.

  12. Evaluating the effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on consumer behavior and health: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Smallwood, David M

    2003-12-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the official nutrition policy statement for the United States. Government involvement in providing information on private behavior, such as food choice, is justified by the high cost of poor diets, as measured in medical expenses and lost productivity. The Guidelines are intended to provide an up-to-date, consistent information base for federal nutrition education and information efforts and food assistance program regulations. Through these policy mechanisms, the Guidelines are assumed to improve dietary behavior, and, ultimately, health. By law, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans must be updated every five years; however, there is no mandate for evaluation. Evaluation could provide useful information to assess the extent to which the Guidelines positively influence health and provide insights into reasons for their successes and limitations. However, evaluation would also present considerable challenges. This paper discusses the critical data and methodological needs for improving evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  13. A review on human reinstatement studies: an overview and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaker, Jan; Golkar, Armita; Hermans, Dirk; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2014-09-01

    In human research, studies of return of fear (ROF) phenomena, and reinstatement in particular, began only a decade ago and recently are more widely used, e.g., as outcome measures for fear/extinction memory manipulations (e.g., reconsolidation). As reinstatement research in humans is still in its infancy, providing an overview of its stability and boundary conditions and summarizing methodological challenges is timely to foster fruitful future research. As a translational endeavor, clarifying the circumstances under which (experimental) reinstatement occurs may offer a first step toward understanding relapse as a clinical phenomenon and pave the way for the development of new pharmacological or behavioral ways to prevent ROF. The current state of research does not yet allow pinpointing these circumstances in detail and we hope this review will aid the research field to advance in this direction. As an introduction, we begin with a synopsis of rodent work on reinstatement and theories that have been proposed to explain the findings. The review however mainly focuses on reinstatement in humans. We first describe details and variations of the experimental setup in reinstatement studies in humans and give a general overview of results. We continue with a compilation of possible experimental boundary conditions and end with the role of individual differences and behavioral and/or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we compile important methodological and design details on the published studies in humans and end with open research questions and some important methodological and design recommendations as a guide for future research. © 2014 Haaker et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Metabolic consequences of obesity and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: diagnostic and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanes, Yvonne M; Reeves, Sue

    2017-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a considerable risk of metabolic dysfunction. This review aims to present contemporary knowledge on obesity, insulin resistance and PCOS with emphasis on the diagnostic and methodological challenges encountered in research and clinical practice. Variable diagnostic criteria for PCOS and associated phenotypes are frequently published. Targeted searches were conducted to identify all available data concerning the association of obesity and insulin resistance with PCOS up to September 2016. Articles were considered if they were peer reviewed, in English and included women with PCOS. Obesity is more prevalent in women with PCOS, but studies rarely reported accurate assessments of adiposity, nor split the study population by PCOS phenotypes. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, though there is considerable variation reported in part due to not distinguishing subgroups known to have an impact on insulin resistance as well as limited methodology to measure insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers are positively correlated with androgen levels, but detailed interactions need to be identified. Weight management is the primary therapy; specific advice to reduce the glycaemic load of the diet and reduce the intake of pro-inflammatory SFA and advanced glycation endproducts have provided promising results. It is important that women with PCOS are educated about their increased risk of metabolic complications in order to make timely and appropriate lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, well-designed robust studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms behind the improvements observed with dietary interventions.

  15. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  16. Methodological challenges in a study on falls in an older population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, Sebastiana Z; Ferreira, Monica; Swingler, George H; Badri, Motasim; Sayer, Avan A

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in older persons, but have been under researched in developing countries. To describe challenges encountered in a community-based study on falls in a multi-ethnic population aged ≥65 years in a low-income setting. The study was conducted in four stages: A pilot study (n=105) to establish a sample size for the survey. An equipment validation study (n=118) to use for fall risk determination. A cross-sectional baseline (n=837) and a 12-month follow-up survey (n=632) to establish prevalence and risk factors for falls. Prevalence rate of 26.4% (95% CI 23.5-29.5%) and risk factors for recurrent falls: previous falls, self-reported poor mobility and dizziness were established. Adaptations to the gold standard prospective fall research study design were employed: 1) to gain access to the study population in three selected suburbs, 2) to perform assessments in a non-standardised setting, 3) to address subjects' poverty and low literacy levels, and high attrition of subjects and field workers. Studies on falls in the older population of low- to middle-income countries have methodological challenges. Adaptive strategies used in the Cape Town study and the research experience reported may be instructive for investigators planning similar studies in such settings.

  17. Identifying the determinants of premature mortality in Russia: overcoming a methodological challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that excessive alcohol consumption is related to the high mortality among working age men in Russia. Moreover it has been suggested that alcohol is a key proximate driver of the very sharp fluctuations in mortality seen in this group since the mid-1980s. Designing an individual-level study suitable to address the potential acute effects of alcohol consumption on mortality in Russia has posed a challenge to epidemiologists, especially because of the need to identify factors that could underlie the rapid changes up and down in mortality rates that have been such a distinctive feature of the Russian mortality crisis. In order to address this study question which focuses on exposures acting shortly before sudden death, a cohort would be unfeasibly large and would suffer from recruitment bias. Methods Although the situation in Russia is unusual, with a very high death rate characterised by many sudden and apparently unexpected deaths in young men, the methodological problem is common to research on any cause of death where many deaths are sudden. Results We describe the development of an innovative approach that has overcome some of these challenges: a case-control study employing proxy informants and external data sources to collect information about proximate determinants of mortality. Conclusion This offers a set of principles that can be adopted by epidemiologists studying sudden and unexpected deaths in other settings.

  18. Using Linked Electronic Health Records to Estimate Healthcare Costs: Key Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Grasic, Katja; Walker, Simon

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses key challenges and opportunities that arise when using linked electronic health records (EHR) in health economics and outcomes research (HEOR), with a particular focus on estimating healthcare costs. These challenges and opportunities are framed in the context of a case study modelling the costs of stable coronary artery disease in England. The challenges and opportunities discussed fall broadly into the categories of (1) handling and organising data of this size and sensitivity; (2) extracting clinical endpoints from datasets that have not been designed and collected with such endpoints in mind; and (3) the principles and practice of costing resource use from routinely collected data. We find that there are a number of new challenges and opportunities that arise when working with EHR compared with more traditional sources of data for HEOR. These call for greater clinician involvement and intelligent use of sensitivity analysis.

  19. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Public health research sometimes uses members of communities as researchers. These are called Community Researchers. The advantage of using Community Researchers is that it enables people who live in communities to participate in research by designing the research, gathering data and being involved in analysis. This 'participatory' approach also has the potential to reach communities that might otherwise not be included in research. There are few studies that report the experiences of Community Researchers who take part in such research. This study helps fill this gap by exploring the issues and challenges faced by Community Researchers involved in a study of health and poverty in ethnically mixed areas of east London, UK. Through the accounts of 12 researchers, the study reveals that being a community 'insider' had advantages: many felt they had been able to gain the trust of respondents and access people for the research that would have otherwise been missed. The role of Community Researcher was, however, difficult to manage with some researchers feeling burdened by their role and the increased knowledge they had about the lives of those in their community. In addition to the personal challenges for the Community Researchers, the findings raise various ethical and methodological issues that need consideration in participatory research. Background Inclusive research approaches are increasingly employed by public health researchers. Recent methodological development includes the engagement of Community Researchers (CRs), who use their knowledge and networks to facilitate research with the community with which they identify. Few studies have explored the experiences of CRs in the research process, an important element of any comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of such research endeavours. We report here on the experiences of CRs engaged in a study of health inequalities and poverty in ethnically diverse and disadvantaged areas of London, UK. Methods We

  20. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptual and methodological challenges that complicate the interpretation of findings from neuroimaging studies in ASDs, and that future imaging studies should address through improved designs. These include: (1 identification and implementation of tasks that more specifically target the neural processes of interest, while avoiding the confusion that the symptoms of ASD may impose on both the performance of the task and the detection of brain activations; (2 the inconsistency that disease heterogeneity in persons with ASD can generate on research findings, particularly heterogeneity of symptoms, symptom severity, differences in IQ, total brain volume, and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3 the problems with interpretation of findings from cross-sectional studies of persons with ASD across differing age groups. Failure to address these challenges will continue to hinder our ability to distinguish findings that outline the causes of ASDs from brain processes that represent downstream or compensatory responses to the presence of the disease. Here we propose strategies to address these issues: 1 the use of simple and elementary tasks, that are easier to understand for autistic subjects; 2 the scanning of a more homogenous group of persons with ASDs, preferably at younger age; 3 the performance of longitudinal studies, that may provide more straight forward and reliable results. We believe that this would allow for a better understanding of both the central pathogenic

  1. Connectivity inference from neural recording data: Challenges, mathematical bases and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Doya, Kenji

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a review of computational methods for connectivity inference from neural activity data derived from multi-electrode recordings or fluorescence imaging. We first identify biophysical and technical challenges in connectivity inference along the data processing pipeline. We then review connectivity inference methods based on two major mathematical foundations, namely, descriptive model-free approaches and generative model-based approaches. We investigate representative studies in both categories and clarify which challenges have been addressed by which method. We further identify critical open issues and possible research directions. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  3. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  4. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C

    2017-12-01

    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further

  5. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  6. Methodological challenges to bridge the gap between regional climate and hydrology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, Denica; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph; Felder, Guido

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and severity of floods worldwide, together with their impacts, are expected to increase under climate change scenarios. It is therefore very important to gain insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for such events in order to constrain the associated uncertainties. Model simulations of the climate and hydrological processes are important tools that can provide insight in the underlying physical processes and thus enable an accurate assessment of the risks. Coupled together, they can provide a physically consistent picture that allows to assess the phenomenon in a comprehensive way. However, climate and hydrological models work at different temporal and spatial scales, so there are a number of methodological challenges that need to be carefully addressed. An important issue pertains the presence of biases in the simulation of precipitation. Climate models in general, and Regional Climate models (RCMs) in particular, are affected by a number of systematic biases that limit their reliability. In many studies, prominently the assessment of changes due to climate change, such biases are minimised by applying the so-called delta approach, which focuses on changes disregarding absolute values that are more affected by biases. However, this approach is not suitable in this scenario, as the absolute value of precipitation, rather than the change, is fed into the hydrological model. Therefore, bias has to be previously removed, being this a complex matter where various methodologies have been proposed. In this study, we apply and discuss the advantages and caveats of two different methodologies that correct the simulated precipitation to minimise differences with respect an observational dataset: a linear fit (FIT) of the accumulated distributions and Quantile Mapping (QM). The target region is Switzerland, and therefore the observational dataset is provided by MeteoSwiss. The RCM is the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), driven at the

  7. Antiepileptic drug use in seven electronic health record databases in Europe: a methodological comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.C.H. de; Schuerch, M.; Vries, F. de; Hesse, U.; Oliva, B.; Huerta Alvarez, C.; Gil, M.; Requena, G.; Abajo, F.; Afonso, A.; Souverein, P.C.; Alvarez, Y.; Slattery, J.; Rottenkolber, M.; Schmiedl, S.; Dijk, L. van; Schlienger, R.; Reynolds, R.; Klungel, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The annual prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing reported in the literature differs considerably among European countries; this may be due to differences in type of data sources, time periods, population distributions, and methodology. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of

  8. Antiepileptic drug use in seven electronic health record databases in europe: A methodological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Mark C.H.; Schuerch, Markus; De Vries, Frank; Hesse, Ulrik; Oliva, Belén; Alvarez, Consuelo Huerta; Gil, Miguel; Requena, Gema; Abajo, Francisco; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Slattery, Jim; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Van Dijk, Liset; Schlienger, Raymond G.; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Background: The annual prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing reported in the literature differs considerably among European countries; this may be due to differences in type of data sources, time periods, population distributions, and methodology. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of

  9. The appropriation of new media and the interrelation with social change in Uasin Gishu, Kenya - methodological and epistemological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges related to studying the interrelations between the appropriations of new media and socio-cultural changes in the Global South. Empirically the paper takes its point of departure in three sub-projects within...

  10. Recording injuries among World Cup skiers and snowboarders: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flørenes, T W; Nordsletten, L; Heir, S; Bahr, R

    2011-04-01

    No long-term injury surveillance programs exist for competitive skiing or snowboarding. The objective of this study was, therefore, to compare different methods to record injuries among World Cup athletes in alpine, freestyle, and cross-country skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping and Nordic combined. Information regarding injuries sustained during the 2006-2007 winter season was recorded through three separate and independent systems: prospective injury reports by technical delegates (TD) from the International Ski Federation, prospective medical team registration by selected teams, and retrospective athlete interviews at the end of the season. A total of 100 unique injuries to 602 World Cup athletes were identified from any of the three recording methods. Of these, 91% were registered through the athlete interviews, 47% by the medical team registration and 27% by the TD reports. Only 20 injuries (20%) were captured by all three methods. A total of 64 time-loss injuries were registered. The interviews captured 60 (94%), the medical team registration 39 (61%), and the TD reports 23 (36%) time-loss injuries, while 18 (28%) were registered by all three systems. Retrospective interviews with athletes/coaches regarding injuries during the last 6 months gave the most complete picture of injuries to World Cup skiers and snowboarders. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Practice Facilitator Strategies for Addressing Electronic Health Record Data Challenges for Quality Improvement: EvidenceNOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Cholan, Raja A; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Damschroder, Laura J; Solberg, Leif I; Ono, Sarah S; Cohen, Deborah J

    2018-01-01

    Practice facilitators ("facilitators") can play an important role in supporting primary care practices in performing quality improvement (QI), but they need complete and accurate clinical performance data from practices' electronic health records (EHR) to help them set improvement priorities, guide clinical change, and monitor progress. Here, we describe the strategies facilitators use to help practices perform QI when complete or accurate performance data are not available. Seven regional cooperatives enrolled approximately 1500 small-to-medium-sized primary care practices and 136 facilitators in EvidenceNOW, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's initiative to improve cardiovascular preventive services. The national evaluation team analyzed qualitative data from online diaries, site visit field notes, and interviews to discover how facilitators worked with practices on EHR data challenges to obtain and use data for QI. We found facilitators faced practice-level EHR data challenges, such as a lack of clinical performance data, partial or incomplete clinical performance data, and inaccurate clinical performance data. We found that facilitators responded to these challenges, respectively, by using other data sources or tools to fill in for missing data, approximating performance reports and generating patient lists, and teaching practices how to document care and confirm performance measures. In addition, facilitators helped practices communicate with EHR vendors or health systems in requesting data they needed. Overall, facilitators tailored strategies to fit the individual practice and helped build data skills and trust. Facilitators can use a range of strategies to help practices perform data-driven QI when performance data are inaccurate, incomplete, or missing. Support is necessary to help practices, particularly those with EHR data challenges, build their capacity for conducting data-driven QI that is required of them for participating in practice

  12. Economic evaluation of health promotion interventions for older people: do applied economic studies meet the methodological challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huter, Kai; Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Rothgang, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    In the light of demographic developments health promotion interventions for older people are gaining importance. In addition to methodological challenges arising from the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general, there are specific methodological problems for the particular target group of older people. There are especially four main methodological challenges that are discussed in the literature. They concern measurement and valuation of informal caregiving, accounting for productivity costs, effects of unrelated cost in added life years and the inclusion of 'beyond-health' benefits. This paper focuses on the question whether and to what extent specific methodological requirements are actually met in applied health economic evaluations. Following a systematic review of pertinent health economic evaluations, the included studies are analysed on the basis of four assessment criteria that are derived from methodological debates on the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general and economic evaluations targeting older people in particular. Of the 37 studies included in the systematic review, only very few include cost and outcome categories discussed as being of specific relevance to the assessment of health promotion interventions for older people. The few studies that consider these aspects use very heterogeneous methods, thus there is no common methodological standard. There is a strong need for the development of guidelines to achieve better comparability and to include cost categories and outcomes that are relevant for older people. Disregarding these methodological obstacles could implicitly lead to discrimination against the elderly in terms of health promotion and disease prevention and, hence, an age-based rationing of public health care.

  13. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    potential to address more realistic surveillance scenarios through, for example, the inclusion of times series specific parameters, or of covariates known to have an impact on syndrome counts. Nevertheless, many methodological challenges to multivariate surveillance of animal SyS data still remain. Deciding on the amount of corroboration among data streams that is required to escalate into an alert is not a trivial task given the sparse data on the events under consideration (e.g. disease outbreaks).

  14. Methodology Series Module 9: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the previous module on designing questionnaires and clinical record form in which we have discussed some basic points about designing the questionnaire and clinical record forms. In this section, we will discuss the reliability and validity of questionnaires. The different types of validity are face validity, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. The different types of reliability are test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability. Some of these parameters are assessed by subject area experts. However, statistical tests should be used for evaluation of other parameters. Once the questionnaire has been designed, the researcher should pilot test the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire should be changed based on the feedback from the pilot study participants and the researcher's experience. After the basic structure of the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher should assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire or the scale. If an existing standard questionnaire is translated in the local language, the researcher should assess the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire, and these values should be presented in the manuscript. The decision to use a self- or interviewer-administered, paper- or computer-based questionnaire depends on the nature of the questions, literacy levels of the target population, and resources.

  15. Methodology Series Module 9: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the previous module on designing questionnaires and clinical record form in which we have discussed some basic points about designing the questionnaire and clinical record forms. In this section, we will discuss the reliability and validity of questionnaires. The different types of validity are face validity, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. The different types of reliability are test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability. Some of these parameters are assessed by subject area experts. However, statistical tests should be used for evaluation of other parameters. Once the questionnaire has been designed, the researcher should pilot test the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire should be changed based on the feedback from the pilot study participants and the researcher's experience. After the basic structure of the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher should assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire or the scale. If an existing standard questionnaire is translated in the local language, the researcher should assess the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire, and these values should be presented in the manuscript. The decision to use a self- or interviewer-administered, paper- or computer-based questionnaire depends on the nature of the questions, literacy levels of the target population, and resources. PMID:28584367

  16. Applied nursing informatics research - state-of-the-art methodologies using electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung In; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Westra, Bonnie L; Delaney, Connie W

    2014-01-01

    With the pervasive implementation of electronic health records (EHR), new opportunities arise for nursing research through use of EHR data. Increasingly, comparative effectiveness research within and across health systems is conducted to identify the impact of nursing for improving health, health care, and lowering costs of care. Use of EHR data for this type of research requires use of national and internationally recognized nursing terminologies to normalize data. Research methods are evolving as large data sets become available through EHRs. Little is known about the types of research and analytic methods for applied to nursing research using EHR data normalized with nursing terminologies. The purpose of this paper is to report on a subset of a systematic review of peer reviewed studies related to applied nursing informatics research involving EHR data using standardized nursing terminologies.

  17. Thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media: New methodology for estimation of activation moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamiya, H; Oba, Y; Ohnuma, M; Hagiya, H; Oku, T; Suzuki, J; Yokoyama, M; Nishihara, Y; Katayama, T; Awano, H; Koda, T

    2011-01-01

    In nanoparticulate films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a large demagnetizing field almost compensates for the experimentally designed change in the magnetic field applied parallel to the film normal. We propose a new method based on field-cycling to eliminate the uncertainty in the demagnetizing response from the analysis of the activation volume of the reversal or magnetic activation moment in such films. In this method, the applied field induced variation in the magnetic relaxation rate is measured before the effect of the demagnetizing field becomes dominant. We also discuss an analogical thermal-cycling method to clarify the temperature dependence of the barrier height for magnetization reversal in a magnetic field. We apply these methods to a Co 74 Pt 16 Cr 10 -SiO 2 nanoparticulate film as an example. The results demonstrate that these methods are useful for studying thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media.

  18. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S.; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. C...

  19. Technologies, Methodologies and Challenges in Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STANCIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the technologies and the methodologies used in Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPS. Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS technologies are differentiated by types of events that IDPSs can recognize, by types of devices that IDPSs monitor and by activity. NIDPSs monitor and analyze the streams of network packets in order to detect security incidents. The main methodology used by NIDPSs is protocol analysis. Protocol analysis requires good knowledge of the theory of the main protocols, their definition, how each protocol works.

  20. Approaches and challenges to optimising primary care teams’ electronic health record usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Pandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Although the presence of an electronic health record (EHR alone does not ensure high quality, efficient care, few studies have focused on the work of those charged with optimising use of existing EHR functionality.Objective To examine the approaches used and challenges perceived by analysts supporting the optimisation of primary care teams’ EHR use at a large U.S. academic health care system.Methods A qualitative study was conducted. Optimisation analysts and their supervisor were interviewed and data were analysed for themes.Results Analysts needed to reconcile the tension created by organisational mandates focused on the standardisation of EHR processes with the primary care teams’ demand for EHR customisation. They gained an understanding of health information technology (HIT leadership’s and primary care team’s goals through attending meetings, reading meeting minutes and visiting with clinical teams. Within what was organisationally possible, EHR education could then be tailored to fit team needs. Major challenges were related to organisational attempts to standardise EHR use despite varied clinic contexts, personnel readiness and technical issues with the EHR platform. Forcing standardisation upon clinical needs that current EHR functionality could not satisfy was difficult.Conclusions Dedicated optimisation analysts can add value to health systems through playing a mediating role between HIT leadership and care teams. Our findings imply that EHR optimisation should be performed with an in-depth understanding of the workflow, cognitive and interactional activities in primary care.

  1. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  2. Characteristic interviews, different strategies: Methodological challenges in qualitative interviewing among respondents with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-06-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened. This article focuses on voluntary informed consent and the specific challenges with the greatest effects on such interviews. The discussion shows that complementary and meaningful descriptions from informants imply the need to employ alternative strategies and methods that may, in other contexts, challenge the traditional understanding of what is acceptable in research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. In vitro cumulative gas production techniques: history, methodological considerations and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Huntington, J.A.; Williams, B.A.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Methodology used to measure in vitro gas production is reviewed to determine impacts of sources of variation on resultant gas production profiles (GPP). Current methods include measurement of gas production at constant pressure (e.g., use of gas tight syringes), a system that is inexpensive, but may

  4. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2017-01-01

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method

  5. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.

  6. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  7. Methodological Challenges of Identifying Ultimate Land Use Changes Caused by Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Kløverpris, Jesper; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2007-01-01

    that is only poorly dealt with by LCA methods. Even though the use of land, or change of land cover and its eco-systems, is acknowledged to be a very important impact of human activities, a methodology for assessing this impact category has not yet  been properly developed within LCA. Some LCA scientists have...... looked into methods for assessing the impacts of given changes of land use, i.e. the impact assessment component of the LCA, but very few have looked into how to actually do the inventory modelling, i.e. how to identify which land is ultimately affected by the decision and system under study. State...... in the systems being studied. The aims of this paper is to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope. The outset of the paper is the principles of consequential...

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Katulskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence at the enterprise znanievyh resources determines its capacity for sustainable and competitive development. The set of knowledge, skills and abilities (which has operational and management personnel, including transformed in intangible and other assets are considered to be the intellectual capital of the enterprise. Empirically, the presence of the intellectual capital of the enterprise can be identified by its success in the market and the ability to generate a high value added product. However, scientific and methodological point of view, approaches to assessing intellectual capital are currently not standardized and do not provide an objective valuation of the capital.This paper presents an overview of the methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of companies and shows the problems of using these approaches in analytical procedures. Based on the materials conclusion about the necessity of further development of the intellectual capital evaluation methods enterprises it was made.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of basic methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of enterprises. Moreover, among the main tasks is to provide: an analysis of the most frequently used techniques in the Russian and international practice, assessment of intellectual capital.Methodology. The article is a content analysis of the theoretical and scientific-methodical positions, describing the key and the most frequently used Russian and international approaches to the evaluation of the intellectual capital of enterprises.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of this paper is to identify the main issues that arise in the evaluation of the intellectual capital of the enterprises, which determines the need for further scientific development and complement the currently used evaluation methods.

  9. Engaging Australian Aboriginal narratives to challenge attitudes and create empathy in health care: a methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Toni; Sim, Moira; Bessarab, Dawn; Mak, Donna; Hayward, Colleen; Rudd, Cobie

    2016-06-02

    Unconscious bias and negative attitudes towards minority groups have detrimental effects on the way health care is, or is not, provided to these groups. Recognition of racist attitudes and behaviours as well as understanding clients' experiences of health and health care are pivotal to developing better health care strategies to positively impact on the quality and safety of care provided to Indigenous people. Indigenous research demands inclusive research processes and the use of culturally appropriate methodologies. This paper presents a methodological account of collecting narratives which accurately and respectfully reflect Aboriginal Australians' experiences with health care in Western Australia. The purpose of these narratives is to provide health students and professionals with an opportunity to 'walk-in the shoes' of Aboriginal people where face-to-face interaction is not feasible. With the incorporation of Indigenous peoples' voices being an important link in cultural safety, the project was led by an Indigenous Reference group, who encouraged active participation of Aboriginal people in all areas of the project. Using a phenomenological approach and guided by the Indigenous Reference group, yarning data collection was implemented to collect stories focusing on Aboriginal people's experiences with health care services. An open-access, on-line website was established to host education resources developed from these "yarns". Yarning provided a rich source of information on personal experiences and encouraged the story provider to recognise their facilitative role in the research process. While the methodology used in this project was lengthy and labour-intensive it afforded a respectful manner for story collection and highlighted several innate flaws when Western methods are applied to an Indigenous context. Engagement of an Indigenous Reference Group was pivotal to designing an appropriate methodology that incorporated the voices of Aboriginal people in a

  10. Assessing climate risks across different business sectors and industries: an investigation of methodological challenges at national scale for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Di Mauro, Manuela; Baglee, J. Alastair R.; Connell, Richenda K.; Hankinson, Joel; Haworth, Anna R.; Ingirige, Bingunath; Proverbs, David

    2018-06-01

    Climate change poses severe risks for businesses, which companies as well as governments need to understand in order to take appropriate steps to manage those. This, however, represents a significant challenge as climate change risk assessment is itself a complex, dynamic and geographically diverse process. A wide range of factors including the nature of production processes and value chains, the location of business sites as well as relationships and interdependencies with customers and suppliers play a role in determining if and how companies are impacted by climate risks. This research explores the methodological challenges for a national-scale assessment of climate risks through the lens of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (UKCCRA) process and compares the approaches adopted in the first and second UKCCRA (2011, 2016), while also reflecting on international experiences elsewhere. A review of these issues is presented, drawing on a wide body of contemporary evidence from a range of sources including the research disciplines, grey literature and government policy. The study reveals the methodological challenges and highlights six broad themes, namely scale, evidence base, adaptation responses, scope, interdependencies and public policy. The paper concludes by identifying suitable lessons for future national climate risk assessments, which should guide the next phase of research in preparation for UKCCRA3 and those of national-level risk assessments elsewhere. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  11. Methodological challenges of optical tweezers-based X-ray fluorescence imaging of biological model organisms at synchrotron facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; Bauters, Stephen; De Rijcke, Maarten; Deruytter, David; Janssen, Colin; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a radically new synchrotron radiation-based elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural in vivo state was introduced. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time at ESRF-ID13. The optical manipulation possibilities and limitations of biological model organisms, the OT setup developments for XRF imaging and the confocal XRF-related challenges are reported. In general, the applicability of the OT-based setup is extended with the aim of introducing the OT XRF methodology in all research fields where highly sensitive in vivo multi-elemental analysis is of relevance at the (sub)micrometre spatial resolution level.

  12. Methodological challenges in measurements of functional ability in gerontological research. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses two important challenges in the measurement of functional ability in gerontological research: the first challenge is to connect measurements to a theoretical frame of reference which enhances our understanding and interpretation of the collected data; the second relates...... procedure, validity, discriminatory power, and responsiveness. In measures of functional ability it is recommended: 1) always to consider the theoretical frame of reference as part of the validation process (e.g., the theory of "The Disablement Process"; 2) always to assess whether the included activities...

  13. Design challenges for electronic medication administration record systems in residential aged care facilities: a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, A; Lehnbom, E; Oliver, K; Georgiou, A; Rowe, C; Osmond, T; Westbrook, J

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medication administration record (eMAR) systems are promoted as a potential intervention to enhance medication safety in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-practice evaluation of an eMAR being piloted in one Australian RACF before its roll out, and to provide recommendations for system improvements. A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow (n=34 hours) in the RACF site and the community pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews (n=5) with RACF staff and the community pharmacist were conducted to investigate their views of the eMAR system. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify challenges associated with the design of the eMAR system. The current eMAR system does not offer an end-to-end solution for medication management. Many steps, including prescribing by doctors and communication with the community pharmacist, are still performed manually using paper charts and fax machines. Five major challenges associated with the design of eMAR system were identified: limited interactivity; inadequate flexibility; problems related to information layout and semantics; the lack of relevant decision support; and system maintenance issues. We suggest recommendations to improve the design of the eMAR system and to optimize existing workflows. Immediate value can be achieved by improving the system interactivity, reducing inconsistencies in data entry design and offering dedicated organisational support to minimise connectivity issues. Longer-term benefits can be achieved by adding decision support features and establishing system interoperability requirements with stakeholder groups (e.g. community pharmacies) prior to system roll out. In-practice evaluations of technologies like eMAR system have great value in identifying design weaknesses which inhibit optimal system use.

  14. Characteristic Interviews, Different Strategies: Methodological Challenges in Qualitative Interviewing among Respondents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened.…

  15. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  16. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  17. Electronic Health Records Data and Metadata: Challenges for Big Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lauren E; Moulaison, Heather Lea

    2013-12-01

    This article, written by researchers studying metadata and standards, represents a fresh perspective on the challenges of electronic health records (EHRs) and serves as a primer for big data researchers new to health-related issues. Primarily, we argue for the importance of the systematic adoption of standards in EHR data and metadata as a way of promoting big data research and benefiting patients. EHRs have the potential to include a vast amount of longitudinal health data, and metadata provides the formal structures to govern that data. In the United States, electronic medical records (EMRs) are part of the larger EHR. EHR data is submitted by a variety of clinical data providers and potentially by the patients themselves. Because data input practices are not necessarily standardized, and because of the multiplicity of current standards, basic interoperability in EHRs is hindered. Some of the issues with EHR interoperability stem from the complexities of the data they include, which can be both structured and unstructured. A number of controlled vocabularies are available to data providers. The continuity of care document standard will provide interoperability in the United States between the EMR and the larger EHR, potentially making data input by providers directly available to other providers. The data involved is nonetheless messy. In particular, the use of competing vocabularies such as the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms, MEDCIN, and locally created vocabularies inhibits large-scale interoperability for structured portions of the records, and unstructured portions, although potentially not machine readable, remain essential. Once EMRs for patients are brought together as EHRs, the EHRs must be managed and stored. Adequate documentation should be created and maintained to assure the secure and accurate use of EHR data. There are currently a few notable international standards initiatives for EHRs. Organizations such as Health Level Seven

  18. Primary Care Practices’ Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Dorr, David A.; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C. Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Hall, Jennifer D.; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I.; McConnell, K. John; Nichols, Len M.; Nease, Donald E.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Wu, Winfred Y.; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N.; Phillips, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Duffy, F. Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.

    2018-01-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports—but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures. PMID:29608365

  19. Primary Care Practices' Abilities And Challenges In Using Electronic Health Record Data For Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J; Dorr, David A; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I; McConnell, K John; Nichols, Len M; Nease, Donald E; Edwards, Samuel T; Wu, Winfred Y; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N; Phillips, Robert L; Rasmussen, Luke V; Duffy, F Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2018-04-01

    Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports-but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures.

  20. Investigating DMOs through the Lens of Social Network Analysis: Theoretical Gaps, Methodological Challenges and Practitioner Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean HRISTOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature on networks in tourism management research has traditionally acknowledged destinations as the primary unit of analysis. This paper takes an alternative perspective and positions Destination Management Organisations (DMOs at the forefront of today’s tourism management research agenda. Whilst providing a relatively structured approach to generating enquiry, network research vis-à-vis Social Network Analysis (SNA in DMOs is often surrounded by serious impediments. Embedded in the network literature, this conceptual article aims to provide a practitioner perspective on addressing the obstacles to undertaking network studies in DMO organisations. A simple, three-step methodological framework for investigating DMOs as interorganisational networks of member organisations is proposed in response to complexities in network research. The rationale behind introducing such framework lies in the opportunity to trigger discussions and encourage further academic contributions embedded in both theory and practice. Academic and practitioner contributions are likely to yield insights into the importance of network methodologies applied to DMO organisations.

  1. Measurement and verification of low income energy efficiency programs in Brazil: Methodological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto De; Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Lucia; Melo, Conrado Augustus de; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Dourado Maia Gomes, Rodolfo (State Univ. of Campinas, International Energy Initiative (Brazil))

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities in Brazil are investing about 80 million dollars annually in low-income energy efficiency programs, about half of their total compulsory investments in end-use efficiency programs under current regulation. Since 2007 the regulator has enforced the need to provide evaluation plans for the programs delivered. This paper presents the measurement and verification (MandV) methodology that has been developed to accommodate the characteristics of lighting and refrigerator programs that have been introduced in the Brazilian urban and peri-urban slums. A combination of household surveys, end-use measurements and metering at the transformers and grid levels were performed before and after the program implementation. The methodology has to accommodate the dynamics, housing, electrical wiring and connections of the population as well as their ability to pay for the electricity and program participation. Results obtained in slums in Rio de Janeiro are presented. Impacts of the programs were evaluated in energy terms to households and utilities. Feedback from the evaluations performed also permitted the improvement in the design of new programs for low-income households.

  2. Challenges of characterization of radioactive waste with High composition variability and their consequences measurement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lexa, D.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste characterization is a key step in every nuclear decommissioning project. It normally relies on a combination of facility operational history with results of destructive and non-destructive analysis. A particularly challenging situation arises when historical waste from a nuclear research facility is to be characterized, meaning little or no radiological information is available and the composition of the waste is highly variable. The nuclide vector concept is of limited utility, resulting in increased requirements placed on both the extent and performance of destructive and non-destructive analysis. Specific challenges are illustrated on an example of the decommissioning project underway at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission in Ispra. (author)

  3. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  4. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzone, Luigi; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptua...

  5. Transnationality or Globality? The Korean Wave and Methodological Challenges in Media and Cultural studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jaeho

    2017-01-01

    Making the case for a new media/cultural studies that takes a transregional, transcultural and transdisciplinary approach, this contribution notes how the global popularity of Korean Wave has highlighted the limitations of methods rooted in notions of national identities. Studies have challenged western hegemony of knowledge production and are suggestive of new academic communities beyond Eurocentric nation states that may be both multinational and multicultural.This contribution however warn...

  6. New challenges and opportunities in the eddy-covariance methodology for long-term monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Dario; Fratini, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Eddy-covariance is the most direct and most commonly applied methodology for measuring exchange fluxes of mass and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere. In recent years, the number of environmental monitoring stations deploying eddy-covariance systems increased dramatically at the global level, exceeding 500 sites worldwide and covering most climatic and ecological regions. Several long-term environmental research infrastructures such as ICOS, NEON and AmeriFlux selected the eddy-covariance as a method to monitor GHG fluxes and are currently collaboratively working towards defining common measurements standards, data processing approaches, QA/QC procedures and uncertainty estimation strategies, to the aim of increasing defensibility of resulting fluxes and intra and inter-comparability of flux databases. In the meanwhile, the eddy-covariance research community keeps identifying technical and methodological flaws that, in some cases, can introduce - and can have introduced to date - significant biases in measured fluxes or increase their uncertainty. Among those, we identify three issues of presumably greater concern, namely: (1) strong underestimation of water vapour fluxes in closed-path systems, and its dependency on relative humidity; (2) flux biases induced by erroneous measurement of absolute gas concentrations; (3) and systematic errors due to underestimation of vertical wind variance in non-orthogonal anemometers. If not properly addressed, these issues can reduce the quality and reliability of the method, especially as a standard methodology in long-term monitoring networks. In this work, we review the status of the art regarding such problems, and propose new evidences based on field experiments as well as numerical simulations. Our analyses confirm the potential relevance of these issues but also hint at possible coping approaches, to minimize problems during setup design, data collection and post-field flux correction. Corrections are under

  7. Cognitive models of executive functions development: methodological limitations and theoretical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Stelzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF have been defined as a series of higher-order cognitive processes which allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal. Such processes present a lengthy postnatal development which matures completely by the end of adolescence. In this article we make a review of some of the main models of EF development during childhood. The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art related to the topic, identifying the main theoretical difficulties and methodological limitations associated with the different proposed paradigms. Finally, some suggestions are given to cope with such difficulties, emphasizing that the development of an ontology of EF could be a viable alternative to counter them. We believe that futture researches should guide their efforts toward the development of that ontology.

  8. Challenges in developing a methodology for reviewing Nordic research on media and technology in MTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    important as there exist several alternatives to ‘technology’ and ‘media’ – e.g. ‘the expanded text’, ‘digital media’, ‘multimodal media’ etc. Thus, M&T within MTE can be seen as didactic border objects. Analyzing the Danish studies, we find a clear predominance of interventionist approaches that try...... to push forward the use of new, typically digital M&T. Overall, the studies suggest that such interventions are interpreted in both integrating and disintegrating ways by participating teachers and students. Discussion No systematic reviews of research on M&T in MTE have been made transnationally......The paper presents a methodological framework for a research project, which aims at reviewing Nordic research of mother tongue education with a particular focus on media and technology (M&T). Relevant national context During the last decade, several research projects have had an explicit focus...

  9. Inernational research in health care management: its need in the 21st century, methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Rathert, Cheryl; D'Aunno, Thomas A; Savage, Grant T

    2015-01-01

    This commentary argues in favor of international research in the 21st century. Advances in technology, science, communication, transport, and infrastructure have transformed the world into a global village. Industries have increasingly adopted globalization strategies. Likewise, the health sector is more internationalized whereby comparisons between diverse health systems, international best practices, international benchmarking, cross-border health care, and cross-cultural issues have become important subjects in the health care literature. The focus has now turned to international, collaborative, cross-national, and cross-cultural research, which is by far more demanding than domestic studies. In this commentary, we explore the methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities within international research and offer possible solutions to address them. The commentary synthesizes contributions from four scholars in the field of health care management, who came together during the annual meeting of the Academy of Management to discuss with members of the Health Care Management Division the challenges of international research. International research is worth pursuing; however, it calls for scholarly attention to key methodological and ethical issues for its success. This commentary addresses salient issues pertaining to international research in one comprehensive account.

  10. Methodological challenges in assessing the environmental status of a marine ecosystem: case study of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity, less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances. The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure.

  11. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control - usual care), Group B (Intervention), or Group C (Short Intervention). Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01), and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index) scores (P=0.91). There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention), and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care). Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  12. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajorek B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control – usual care, Group B (Intervention, or Group C (Short Intervention. Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Results: Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively, improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01, and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index scores (P=0.91. There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention, and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care. Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. Conclusion: A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  13. Methodological challenges and analytic opportunities for modeling and interpreting Big Healthcare Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D

    2016-01-01

    Managing, processing and understanding big healthcare data is challenging, costly and demanding. Without a robust fundamental theory for representation, analysis and inference, a roadmap for uniform handling and analyzing of such complex data remains elusive. In this article, we outline various big data challenges, opportunities, modeling methods and software techniques for blending complex healthcare data, advanced analytic tools, and distributed scientific computing. Using imaging, genetic and healthcare data we provide examples of processing heterogeneous datasets using distributed cloud services, automated and semi-automated classification techniques, and open-science protocols. Despite substantial advances, new innovative technologies need to be developed that enhance, scale and optimize the management and processing of large, complex and heterogeneous data. Stakeholder investments in data acquisition, research and development, computational infrastructure and education will be critical to realize the huge potential of big data, to reap the expected information benefits and to build lasting knowledge assets. Multi-faceted proprietary, open-source, and community developments will be essential to enable broad, reliable, sustainable and efficient data-driven discovery and analytics. Big data will affect every sector of the economy and their hallmark will be 'team science'.

  14. Qualitative systematic reviews of treatment burden in stroke, heart failure and diabetes - Methodological challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment burden can be defined as the self-care practices that patients with chronic illness must perform to respond to the requirements of their healthcare providers, as well as the impact that these practices have on patient functioning and well being. Increasing levels of treatment burden may lead to suboptimal adherence and negative outcomes. Systematic review of the qualitative literature is a useful method for exploring the patient experience of care, in this case the experience of treatment burden. There is no consensus on methods for qualitative systematic review. This paper describes the methodology used for qualitative systematic reviews of the treatment burdens identified in three different common chronic conditions, using stroke as our exemplar. Methods Qualitative studies in peer reviewed journals seeking to understand the patient experience of stroke management were sought. Limitations of English language and year of publication 2000 onwards were set. An exhaustive search strategy was employed, consisting of a scoping search, database searches (Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline & PsycINFO) and reference, footnote and citation searching. Papers were screened, data extracted, quality appraised and analysed by two individuals, with a third party for disagreements. Data analysis was carried out using a coding framework underpinned by Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Results A total of 4364 papers were identified, 54 were included in the review. Of these, 51 (94%) were retrieved from our database search. Methodological issues included: creating an appropriate search strategy; investigating a topic not previously conceptualised; sorting through irrelevant data within papers; the quality appraisal of qualitative research; and the use of NPT as a novel method of data analysis, shown to be a useful method for the purposes of this review. Conclusion The creation of our search strategy may be of particular interest to other researchers carrying out

  15. Qualitative systematic reviews of treatment burden in stroke, heart failure and diabetes - methodological challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Katie; Jani, Bhautesh; Morrison, Deborah; Macdonald, Sara; Blane, David; Erwin, Patricia; May, Carl R; Montori, Victor M; Eton, David T; Smith, Fiona; Batty, G David; Batty, David G; Mair, Frances S

    2013-01-28

    Treatment burden can be defined as the self-care practices that patients with chronic illness must perform to respond to the requirements of their healthcare providers, as well as the impact that these practices have on patient functioning and well being. Increasing levels of treatment burden may lead to suboptimal adherence and negative outcomes. Systematic review of the qualitative literature is a useful method for exploring the patient experience of care, in this case the experience of treatment burden. There is no consensus on methods for qualitative systematic review. This paper describes the methodology used for qualitative systematic reviews of the treatment burdens identified in three different common chronic conditions, using stroke as our exemplar. Qualitative studies in peer reviewed journals seeking to understand the patient experience of stroke management were sought. Limitations of English language and year of publication 2000 onwards were set. An exhaustive search strategy was employed, consisting of a scoping search, database searches (Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline & PsycINFO) and reference, footnote and citation searching. Papers were screened, data extracted, quality appraised and analysed by two individuals, with a third party for disagreements. Data analysis was carried out using a coding framework underpinned by Normalization Process Theory (NPT). A total of 4364 papers were identified, 54 were included in the review. Of these, 51 (94%) were retrieved from our database search. Methodological issues included: creating an appropriate search strategy; investigating a topic not previously conceptualised; sorting through irrelevant data within papers; the quality appraisal of qualitative research; and the use of NPT as a novel method of data analysis, shown to be a useful method for the purposes of this review. The creation of our search strategy may be of particular interest to other researchers carrying out synthesis of qualitative studies

  16. After the crisis? Big Data and the methodological challenges of empirical sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Burrows

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Google Trends reveals that at the time we were writing our article on ‘The Coming Crisis of Empirical Sociology’ in 2007 almost nobody was searching the internet for ‘Big Data’. It was only towards the very end of 2010 that the term began to register, just ahead of an explosion of interest from 2011 onwards. In this commentary we take the opportunity to reflect back on the claims we made in that original paper in light of more recent discussions about the social scientific implications of the inundation of digital data. Did our paper, with its emphasis on the emergence of, what we termed, ‘social transactional data’ and ‘digital byproduct data’ prefigure contemporary debates that now form the basis and rationale for this excellent new journal? Or was the paper more concerned with broader methodological, theoretical and political debates that have somehow been lost in all of the loud babble that has come to surround Big Data. Using recent work on the BBC Great British Class Survey as an example this brief paper offers a reflexive and critical reflection on what has become – much to the surprise of its authors – one of the most cited papers in the discipline of sociology in the last decade.

  17. PASSCAL Instrument Center Support for Cryoseismology: Methodologies, Challenges, Development and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Bilek, S. L.; Carpenter, P.; Childs, D.; Chung, P.; Huerta, A. D.; Lingutla, N.; Nikolaus, K.; Winberry, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. At roughly the same time, PASSCAL began supporting experiments specifically targeting glacier dynamics such as the mechanisms of subglacial hydrology, basal shear stress, ice stream stick slip mechanisms, and glacier seismicity. Although much of the development for high-latitude deployments was directly applicable to cryoseismology, these new experiments introduced a unique series of challenges including high ablation, standing water, and moving stations. Our polar development objectives have focused on: Reducing station power requirements, size and weight; Extending the operational temperature of a station; Simplifying logistics; Engineering solutions that are cost effective, manufacturable, serviceable and reusable; And, developing high-latitude communications for both state-of-health and data transmission. To these ends, PASSCAL continues testing new power storage technology, refining established power systems for lighter and smaller power banks, and exploring telemetry solutions to increase high-bandwidth communication options and abilities for remote seismic stations. Further enhancing PASSCAL's ability to support cryoseismology is a recent NSF funded collaborative effort lead by Central Washing University joined by IRIS and New Mexico Tech to build a Geophysical Earth Observatory for Ice Covered Environments (GEOICE). The GEOICE instrument, power system and other integrated ancillary components are designed to require minimal installation time and logistical load (i.e., size and weight), while maximizing ease-of-use in the field and optimizing costs of instrumentation and

  18. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  19. Modelling marine sediment biogeochemistry: Current knowledge gaps, challenges, and some methodological advice for advancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2018-01-01

    The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improveme......The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological...... improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic...... environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three...

  20. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-12-22

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method with synthetic seismograms and field data. The benefits of WD are that 1) there is no layered medium assumption, as there is in conventional inversion of dispersion curves, so that the 2D or 3D S-velocity model can be reliably obtained with seismic surveys over rugged topography, and 2) WD mostly avoids getting stuck in local minima. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic media and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love wave. The liability is that is almost as expensive as FWI and only recovers the Vs distribution to a depth no deeper than about 1/2~1/3 wavelength.

  1. Defining the methodological challenges and opportunities for an effective science of sociotechnical systems and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick; Robertson, Michelle M.; Cooke, Nancy J.; Militello, Laura; Roth, Emilie; Stanton, Neville A.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of the application of sociotechnical systems theory (STS) is the development of methods, tools and techniques to assess human factors and ergonomics workplace requirements. We focus in this paper on describing and evaluating current STS methods for workplace safety, as well as outlining a set of six case studies covering the application of these methods to a range of safety contexts. We also describe an evaluation of the methods in terms of ratings of their ability to address a set of theoretical and practical questions (e.g. the degree to which methods capture static/dynamic aspects of tasks and interactions between system levels). The outcomes from the evaluation highlight a set of gaps relating to the coverage and applicability of current methods for STS and safety (e.g. coverage of external influences on system functioning; method usability). The final sections of the paper describe a set of future challenges, as well as some practical suggestions for tackling these. Practitioner Summary: We provide an up-to-date review of STS methods, a set of case studies illustrating their use and an evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes with a ‘roadmap’ for future work. PMID:25832121

  2. Methodological challenges surrounding direct-to-consumer advertising research--the measurement conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Droege, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising on consumer behavior and health outcomes. These studies have used various approaches to assess exposure to prescription drug advertising and to measure the subsequent effects of such advertisements. The objectives of this article are to (1) discuss measurement challenges involved in DTC advertising research, (2) summarize measurement approaches commonly identified in the literature, and (3) discuss contamination, time to action, and endogeneity as specific problems in measurement design and application. We conducted a review of the professional literature to identify illustrative approaches to advertising measurement. Specifically, our review of the literature focused on measurement of DTC advertising exposure and effect. We used the hierarchy-of-effects model to guide our discussion of processing and communication effects. Other effects were characterized as target audience action, sales, market share, and profit. Overall, existing studies have used a variety of approaches to measure advertising exposure and effect, yet the ability of measures to produce a valid and reliable understanding of the effects of DTC advertising can be improved. Our review provides a framework for conceptualizing DTC measurement, and can be used to identify gaps in the literature not sufficiently addressed by existing measures. Researchers should continue to explore correlations between exposure and effect of DTC advertising, but are obliged to improve and validate measurement in this area.

  3. Modelling Marine Sediment Biogeochemistry: Current Knowledge Gaps, Challenges, and Some Methodological Advice for Advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi Lessin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three-pronged approach for the advancement of benthic and benthic-pelagic modelling, essential for improved understanding, management and prediction of the marine environment. This includes: (A development of a traceable and hierarchical framework for benthic-pelagic models, which will facilitate integration among models, reduce risk of bias, and clarify model limitations; (B extended cross-disciplinary approach to promote effective collaboration between modelling and empirical scientists of various backgrounds and better involvement of stakeholders and end-users; (C a common vocabulary for terminology used in benthic modelling, to promote model development and integration, and also to enhance mutual understanding.

  4. Jog Your Mind: methodology and challenges of conducting evaluative research in partnership with community organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Nathalie; Lorthios-Guilledroit, Agathe; Nour, Kareen; Parisien, Manon; Ellemberg, Dave; Laforest, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Jog Your Mind is a community-based program aiming at empowering elderly people to maintain their cognitive abilities using a multi-strategic approach including cognitively stimulating activities, mnemonic strategies, and strategies to promote healthy behaviors. It is offered to elderly individuals without known or diagnosed cognitive impairment by volunteers or community practitioners over ten weekly sessions. This paper describes the protocol of a quasi-experimental study designed to evaluate Jog Your Mind. Community responsible to recruit participants were either assigned to the experimental group (participating in the Jog Your Mind program) or to the control group (one-year waiting list). All participants were interviewed at baseline (T1), after the program (T2), and 12 months after the baseline (T3). Primary outcomes were the use of everyday memory strategies and aids and subjective memory functioning in daily life. Secondary outcomes included attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related to cognitive vitality and cognitive abilities (memory and executive functions). Program delivery, organizational and environmental variables were recorded to document the implementation process. Twenty-three community organizations recruited 294 community-dwelling elderly individuals in total at T1. Between T1 and T3, an attrition rate of 15.2% was obtained. Jog Your Mind is one of the only programs targeting cognition among older adults being offered in community settings by community practitioners. The protocol described was designed with a focus on maximizing broad generalizations of the results while achieving scientific rigor. It can serve as an example to guide future research aiming to evaluate health interventions under natural conditions.

  5. Challenging the reported disadvantages of e-questionnaires and addressing methodological issues of online data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louise

    2012-01-01

    To review the advantages and disadvantages of e-questionnaires, and question whether or not reported disadvantages remain valid or can be limited or circumvented. The internet is likely to become the dominant medium for survey distribution, yet nurses and midwives have been slow to use online technology for research involving questionnaires. Relatively little is known about optimal methods of harnessing the internet's potential in health studies. A small e-questionnaire of health workers. The Medline and Maternity and Infant Care databases were searched for articles containing the words 'web', 'online', or 'internet' and 'survey' or 'questionnaire'. The search was restricted to articles in English published since 2000. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. Reported disadvantages of online data collection, such as sample bias, psychometric distortions, 'technophobia' and lower response rates are discussed and challenged. The author reports her experience of conducting a survey with an e-questionnaire to contribute to the limited body of knowledge in this area, and suggests how to maximise the quantity and quality of responses to e-questionnaires. E-questionnaires offer the researcher an inexpensive, quick and convenient way to collect data. Many of the reported disadvantages of the medium are no longer valid. The science of conducting the perfect e-survey is emerging. However, the lessons learned in the author's study, together with other research, seem to suggest that satisfactory response rates and data quality can be achieved in a relatively short time if certain tactics are used. To get the best results from e-questionnaires, it is suggested that the questionnaire recipients should be targeted carefully and that the value of their potential contribution to the project should be emphasised. E-questionnaires should be convenient, quick and easy to access, and be set out in a way that encourages full and complete responses.

  6. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices......In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...

  7. [Would you mind a little bit less? Methodological and ethical challenges posed by the reduction of overtreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines two central challenges that should be taken into account when making a concerted effort to reduce excessive medical care (overdiagnosis and overtreatment): first, the inevitability of value judgements in the risk-benefit assessment of medical treatment measures in conjunction with the need to go beyond the individual doctor-patient relationship and make these value judgements while, at least in part, assuming the role of acting deputy; and second, the need for a sufficient level of competence and trust in evidence-based medicine on the part of both physicians and patients. The paper will explain how one can say in a methodologically reasonable and ethically acceptable manner that a certain medical measure - in the context of the regular care setting - will objectively cause a "net harm" to the patient. Relevant institutions in the German healthcare system will be described that are currently conducting risk-benefit assessments (by different means and with different purposes). Taking the known entity of clinical guidelines as an example, the paper will demonstrate that the subjects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment as well as shortage of medical care can be more explicitly communicated by employing certain additional methodological tools. Finally, some central implementation barriers to a successful application of "Less is more!" will be presented and critically discussed. (As supplied by publisher). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. A stale challenge to the philosophy of science: commentary on "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" by Michael Schwarz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora; Slunecko, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In his article "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" and based on a quite convincing empirical basis, Michael Schwarz offers a methodological critique of one of mainstream psychology's key test theoretical axioms, i.e., that of the in principle normal distribution of personality variables. It is characteristic of this paper--and at first seems to be a strength of it--that the author positions his critique within a frame of philosophy of science, particularly positioning himself in the tradition of Karl Popper's critical rationalism. When scrutinizing Schwarz's arguments, however, we find Schwarz's critique profound only as an immanent critique of test theoretical axioms. We raise doubts, however, as to Schwarz's alleged 'challenge' to the philosophy of science because the author not at all seems to be in touch with the state of the art of contemporary philosophy of science. Above all, we question the universalist undercurrent that Schwarz's 'bio-psycho-social model' of human judgment boils down to. In contrast to such position, we close our commentary with a plea for a context- and culture sensitive philosophy of science.

  9. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  10. The fossil record of turtles in Colombia; a review of the discoveries, research and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Edwin A

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article on the fossil record of turtles in colombia that includes: the early cretaceous turtles from Zapatoca and Villa de Leyva localities; the giant turtles from the Paleocene Cerrejon and Calenturitas Coal Mines; the early Miocene, earliest record of Chelus from Pubenza, Cundinamarca; the early to late Miocene large podocnemids, chelids and testudinids from Castilletes, Alta Guajira and La Venta; and the small late Pleistocene kinosternids from Pubenza, Cundinamarca. I also discuss here the current gaps in the fossil record of tropical South American turtles, as well as the ongoing research and future projects to be developed in order to understand better the evolutionary history of Colombian turtles.

  11. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  12. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  13. The fossil record of turtles in colombia; a review of the discoveries research and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena Rueda, Edwin Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article on the fossil record of turtles in Colombia that includes: the early Cretaceous turtles from Zapatocaand Villa de Leyva localities; the giant turtles from the Paleocene Cerrejón and Calenturitas Coal Mines; the early Miocene,earliest record of Chelus from Pubenza, Cundinamarca; the early to late Miocene large podocnemids, chelids and testudinidsfrom Castilletes, Alta Guajira and La Venta; and the small late Pleistocene kinosternids from Pubenza, Cundinamarca. I alsodi...

  14. Challenge of Near-Field Recording beyond 50.4 Gbit/in2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Koichiro; Ichimura, Isao; Saito, Kimihiro; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kuroda, Yuji; Iida, Atsushi; Masuhara, Shin; Osato, Kiyoshi

    2002-03-01

    The possibility of an areal density over 50 Gbit/in2 was examined in near-field phase-change recording. The disk structure was optimized to maximize readout signals under the land-and-groove recording condition at a tracking pitch of 160 nm. We also evaluated the signal crosstalk from adjacent tracks. Eye diagrams of 50.4 Gbit/in2 areal density were demonstrated using 1.5 \\mathit{NA} optics and a GaN laser diode. The track pitch and linear bit density are 160 nm and 80 nm/bit, respectively. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrograph of recorded amorphous marks at an areal density of 50.4 Gbit/in2 is also presented.

  15. Connecting Medical Records: An Evaluation of Benefits and Challenges for Primary Care Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ruth Compeau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementation of systems to support health information sharing has lagged other areas of healthcare IT, yet offers a strong possibility for benefit.  Clinical acceptance is a key limiting factor in health IT adoption. Objectives:  To assess the benefits and challenges experienced by clinicians using a custom-developed health information exchange system, and to show how perceptions of benefits and challenges influence perceptions of productivity and care-related outcomes. Methods: We used a mixed methods design with two phases. First, we conducted interviews with stakeholders who were familiar with the health information exchange system to inform the development of a measure of benefits and challenges of the use of this system. Second, using this measure we conducted a survey of current and former users of the health information exchange system using a modified Dillman method. Results: 105 current and former users completed the survey. The results showed information quality, ease of completing tasks and clinical process improvement as key benefits that reduced workload and improved patient care.  Challenges related to system reliability, quality of reports and service quality increased workload and decreased impact on care, though the effect of the challenges was smaller than that of the benefits. Conclusions:  Even very limited health information exchange capabilities can improve outcomes for primary care users.  Improving perceptions of benefits may be even more important the removing challenges to use, though it is likely that a threshold of quality must be achieved for this to be true.

  16. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms "HIV", "AIDS", "human immunodeficiency virus", "acquired immune deficiency syndrome", "Central Asia", "Kazakhstan", "Kyrgyzstan", "Uzbekistan", "Tajikistan", "Turkmenistan", "Russia", "Ukraine", "Armenia", "Azerbaijan", and "Georgia". Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as "risk" and "barriers". Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users. Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential. Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations that span the existing studies. Small sample size, cross-sectional design, and non-probabilistic sampling methods were frequently

  17. A review of multi-risk methodologies for natural hazards: Consequences and challenges for a climate change impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Sperotto, Anna; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a review of existing multi-risk assessment concepts and tools applied by organisations and projects providing the basis for the development of a multi-risk methodology in a climate change perspective. Relevant initiatives were developed for the assessment of multiple natural hazards (e.g. floods, storm surges, droughts) affecting the same area in a defined timeframe (e.g. year, season, decade). Major research efforts were focused on the identification and aggregation of multiple hazard types (e.g. independent, correlated, cascading hazards) by means of quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches. Moreover, several methodologies aim to assess the vulnerability of multiple targets to specific natural hazards by means of vulnerability functions and indicators at the regional and local scale. The overall results of the review show that multi-risk approaches do not consider the effects of climate change and mostly rely on the analysis of static vulnerability (i.e. no time-dependent vulnerabilities, no changes among exposed elements). A relevant challenge is therefore to develop comprehensive formal approaches for the assessment of different climate-induced hazards and risks, including dynamic exposure and vulnerability. This requires the selection and aggregation of suitable hazard and vulnerability metrics to make a synthesis of information about multiple climate impacts, the spatial analysis and ranking of risks, including their visualization and communication to end-users. To face these issues, climate impact assessors should develop cross-sectorial collaborations among different expertise (e.g. modellers, natural scientists, economists) integrating information on climate change scenarios with sectorial climate impact assessment, towards the development of a comprehensive multi-risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 40619 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for What's In Your Health Record Video Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... benefit of being able to view what was in your record? iv. What did you, or your provider learn from... Information Technology, HHS. Award Approving Official: Lygeia Ricciardi, Director, Office of Consumer eHealth. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC...

  19. Preserving the Digital Record of Science and Engineering: The Challenge of New Forms of Grey Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research communications today are largely conducted by digital means. At this time, however, only a small percentage of these digital communiques are archived and preserved for future use. This article provides an overview of the challenge of this digital grey literature, a brief overview of digital archiving, and the role librarians and…

  20. Methodology of teaching and new challenges in the training of professionals in the area of industrial radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M. Araujo; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Lima, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge in radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in radiology techniques in training in industrial radiology and radiological protection, the Training Course in Industrial Radiology was created in 2009 by MAXIM, in partnership with the Casa Branca Faculty. The objective is to present the structure and methodology of teaching used in this course to reach the objectives of training professionals with solid knowledge in industrial radiology, as well as to mention the challenges of this training. For the elaboration of the study, a statistical data base and theoretical analysis of the teaching structure of the course was used. Professional training in industrial radiology is subdivided into basic, specific, practical and complementary modules, totaling a workload of 360 hours. It is noted that most of the professionals trained come from the great urban centers of the country, favoring employability in the port terminals and industries that are located in these regions. It is concluded, therefore, that it is necessary and of great importance for the growing industrial market, the formation of new professionals, mainly in cities of the interior

  1. A pragmatic trial in the Rio de Janeiro subway to capture smokers for a quitline: methodological challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; da Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, smoking is an important cause of death worldwide. To encourage smoking cessation, persuasive messages can be used to raise smokers' risk perception. This article discusses challenges and solutions in designing a study to evaluate the effect of two different communication strategies ("gains from quitting" vs. "losses from continuing smoking") in encouraging calls to a quitline. The authors conducted an intervention study in two subway stations for 4 weeks, considering only 1 strategy per station. Large posters containing non-age-specific images and texts, on the basis of the theme"shortness of breath," were displayed on central dividing columns on the boarding platforms. Call rates from the selected stations, and respective rate ratios, overall and per study week, were calculated. Passengers who were smokers, exposed to the positive-content message, called on average 1.7 times more often than did those exposed to the negative-content message (p = .01). Moreover, call rate ratios did not decline over the 4 weeks of the study (p = .40). The effectiveness findings suggest that antismoking campaigns could use positive-content messages in order to recruit a larger smoker population. The proposed methodology can also be used to evaluate effectiveness of messages for "capturing" individuals with other health problems (e.g., alcohol abuse), thereby increasing its potential impact.

  2. Methodological challenges for the evaluation of clinical effectiveness in the context of accelerated regulatory approval: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolacott, Nerys; Corbett, Mark; Jones-Diette, Julie; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory authorities are approving innovative therapies with limited evidence. Although this level of data is sufficient for the regulator to establish an acceptable risk-benefit balance, it is problematic for downstream health technology assessment, where assessment of cost-effectiveness requires reliable estimates of effectiveness relative to existing clinical practice. Some key issues associated with a limited evidence base include using data, from nonrandomized studies, from small single-arm trials, or from single-center trials; and using surrogate end points. We examined these methodological challenges through a pragmatic review of the available literature. Methods to adjust nonrandomized studies for confounding are imperfect. The relative treatment effect generated from single-arm trials is uncertain and may be optimistic. Single-center trial results may not be generalizable. Surrogate end points, on average, overestimate treatment effects. Current methods for analyzing such data are limited, and effectiveness claims based on these suboptimal forms of evidence are likely to be subject to significant uncertainty. Assessments of cost-effectiveness, based on the modeling of such data, are likely to be subject to considerable uncertainty. This uncertainty must not be underestimated by decision makers: methods for its quantification are required and schemes to protect payers from the cost of uncertainty should be implemented. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insights from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Gurney, Kevin; Hammer, Stephen A.; Mendoza, Daniel; Zhou, Yuyu; Geethakumar, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    Local policy makers could benefit from a national, high-resolution inventory of energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions based on the Vulcan data product, which plots emissions on a 100 km 2 grid. We evaluate the ability of Vulcan to measure energy consumption in urban areas, a scale of analysis required to support goals established as part of local energy, climate or sustainability initiatives. We highlight the methodological challenges of this type of analytical exercise and review alternative approaches. We find that between 37% and 86% of direct fuel consumption in buildings and industry and between 37% and 77% of on-road gasoline and diesel consumption occurs in urban areas, depending on how these areas are defined. We suggest that a county-based definition of urban is preferable to other common definitions since counties are the smallest political unit for which energy data are collected. Urban counties, account for 37% of direct energy consumption, or 50% if mixed urban counties are included. A county-based definition can also improve estimates of per-capita consumption.

  4. Advance Care Planning Documentation in Electronic Health Records: Current Challenges and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela; Panariello, Natalie; Henrich, Natalie; Hammes, Bernard; Hanson, Laura C; Meier, Diane E; Guinn, Nancy; Corrigan, Janet; Hubber, Sean; Luetke-Stahlman, Hannah; Block, Susan

    2018-04-01

    To develop a set of clinically relevant recommendations to improve the state of advance care planning (ACP) documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Advance care planning (ACP) is a key process that supports goal-concordant care. For preferences to be honored, clinicians must be able to reliably record, find, and use ACP documentation. However, there are no standards to guide ACP documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). We interviewed 21 key informants to understand the strengths and weaknesses of EHR documentation systems for ACP and identify best practices. We analyzed these interviews using a qualitative content analysis approach and subsequently developed a preliminary set of recommendations. These recommendations were vetted and refined in a second round of input from a national panel of content experts. Informants identified six themes regarding current inadequacies in documentation and accessibility of ACP information and opportunities for improvement. We offer a set of concise, clinically relevant recommendations, informed by expert opinion, to improve the state of ACP documentation in the EHR.

  5. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies.Methods. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms “HIV”, “AIDS”, “human immunodeficiency virus”, “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”, “Central Asia”, “Kazakhstan”, “Kyrgyzstan”, “Uzbekistan”, “Tajikistan”, “Turkmenistan”, “Russia”, “Ukraine”, “Armenia”, “Azerbaijan”, and “Georgia”. Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion.Results. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as “risk” and “barriers”. Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users.  Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential.  Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. Conclusion. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations

  6. Investigating the association between medication adherence and health-related quality of life in COPD : Methodological challenges when using a proxy measure of adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boland, Melinde R. S.; van Boven, Job F. M.; Kruis, Annemarije L.; Chavannes, Niels H.; van der Molen, Thys; Goossens, Lucas M. A.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.

    Background: The association between non-adherence to medication and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Different ways to deal with methodological challenges to estimate this association have probably contributed to

  7. Biology in the Anthropocene: Challenges and insights from young fossil records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    With overwhelming evidence of change in habitats, biologists today must assume that few, if any, study areas are natural and that biological variability is superimposed on trends rather than stationary means. Paleobiological data from the youngest sedimentary record, including death assemblages actively accumulating on modern land surfaces and seabeds, provide unique information on the status of present-day species, communities, and biomes over the last few decades to millennia and on their responses to natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Key advances have established the accuracy and resolving power of paleobiological information derived from naturally preserved remains and of proxy evidence for environmental conditions and sample age so that fossil data can both implicate and exonerate human stressors as the drivers of biotic change and permit the effects of multiple stressors to be disentangled. Legacy effects from Industrial and even pre-Industrial anthropogenic extirpations, introductions, (de)nutrification, and habitat conversion commonly emerge as the primary factors underlying the present-day status of populations and communities; within the last 2 million years, climate change has rarely been sufficient to drive major extinction pulses absent other human pressures, which are now manifold. Young fossil records also provide rigorous access to the baseline composition and dynamics of modern-day biota under pre-Industrial conditions, where insights include the millennial-scale persistence of community structures, the dominant role of physical environmental conditions rather than biotic interactions in determining community composition and disassembly, and the existence of naturally alternating states. PMID:25901315

  8. Challenges in using electronic health record data for CER: experience of 4 learning organizations and solutions applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, K Bruce; Belnap, Tom; Savitz, Lucy; Masica, Andrew L; Shah, Nilay; Fleming, Neil S

    2013-08-01

    To document the strengths and challenges of using electronic health records (EHRs) for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A replicated case study of comparative effectiveness in hypertension treatment was conducted across 4 health systems, with instructions to extract data and document problems encountered using a specified list of required data elements. Researchers at each health system documented successes and challenges, and suggested solutions for addressing challenges. Data challenges fell into 5 categories: missing data, erroneous data, uninterpretable data, inconsistencies among providers and over time, and data stored in noncoded text notes. Suggested strategies to address these issues include data validation steps, use of surrogate markers, natural language processing, and statistical techniques. A number of EHR issues can hamper the extraction of valid data for cross-health system comparative effectiveness studies. Our case example cautions against a blind reliance on EHR data as a single definitive data source. Nevertheless, EHR data are superior to administrative or claims data alone, and are cheaper and timelier than clinical trials or manual chart reviews. All 4 participating health systems are pursuing pathways to more effectively use EHR data for CER.A partnership between clinicians, researchers, and information technology specialists is encouraged as a way to capitalize on the wealth of information contained in the EHR. Future developments in both technology and care delivery hold promise for improvement in the ability to use EHR data for CER.

  9. Methodological challenges in following up patients of a hospital child protection team: is there a recruitment bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lips Ulrich

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study are to describe the methodological challenges in recruiting a follow-up sample of children referred to an interdisciplinary hospital child protection team (CPT and to compare participating versus non-participating groups on several demographic variables and maltreatment characteristics. Methods Of the 319 in- and outpatients referred to the CPT at University Children's Hospital Zurich from 2005–2006 a sample of 180 children was drawn to contact for a follow-up. The children and their parents were asked to participate in a face-to-face interview at the hospital; in 42 cases the children and parents consented to do so. Alternatively, the parents could take part in a telephone interview (n = 39. Non-participation resulted because no contact or adequate communication in German, French, or English could be established (n = 49 or because the parents or children refused to participate (n = 50. Results Participants and non-participants did not differ significantly in mean child age at follow-up, gender, family status, place of residence, certainty and type of maltreatment, and type of perpetrator. However, the child's nationality had a significant impact: Percentages of foreign nationals were higher in the fully participating group (45%; n = 19 and the non-contactable group (53%; n = 26 and significantly lower in the refusal (26%; n = 10 and the telephone interview group (18%; n = 9. Although a high percentage of families had moved in the few years since the CPT intervention (32%; n = 57, the percentage of moves was not significantly higher in non-participants compared to participants. Conclusions Further research is needed to support these results in different national backgrounds and to test for biases in variables not included – especially socioeconomic status. This includes gathering more detailed information on non-participants, while respecting ethical boundaries. Overall, the fact that only child

  10. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  11. The challenge associated with the robust computation of meteor velocities from video and photographic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egal, A.; Gural, P. S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Thuillot, W.

    2017-09-01

    The CABERNET project was designed to push the limits for obtaining accurate measurements of meteoroids orbits from photographic and video meteor camera recordings. The discrepancy between the measured and theoretic orbits of these objects heavily depends on the semi-major axis determination, and thus on the reliability of the pre-atmospheric velocity computation. With a spatial resolution of 0.01° per pixel and a temporal resolution of up to 10 ms, CABERNET should be able to provide accurate measurements of velocities and trajectories of meteors. To achieve this, it is necessary to improve the precision of the data reduction processes, and especially the determination of the meteor's velocity. In this work, most of the steps of the velocity computation are thoroughly investigated in order to reduce the uncertainties and error contributions at each stage of the reduction process. The accuracy of the measurement of meteor centroids is established and results in a precision of 0.09 pixels for CABERNET, which corresponds to 3.24‧‧. Several methods to compute the velocity were investigated based on the trajectory determination algorithms described in Ceplecha (1987) and Borovicka (1990), as well as the multi-parameter fitting (MPF) method proposed by Gural (2012). In the case of the MPF, many optimization methods were implemented in order to find the most efficient and robust technique to solve the minimization problem. The entire data reduction process is assessed using simulated meteors, with different geometrical configurations and deceleration behaviors. It is shown that the multi-parameter fitting method proposed by Gural(2012)is the most accurate method to compute the pre-atmospheric velocity in all circumstances. Many techniques that assume constant velocity at the beginning of the path as derived from the trajectory determination using Ceplecha (1987) or Borovicka (1990) can lead to large errors for decelerating meteors. The MPF technique also allows one to

  12. First record of Anopheles stephensi in Sri Lanka: a potential challenge for prevention of malaria reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayan Dharmasiri, A G; Perera, A Yashan; Harishchandra, Jeevanie; Herath, Hemantha; Aravindan, Kandasamy; Jayasooriya, H T R; Ranawaka, Gaya R; Hewavitharane, Mihirini

    2017-08-10

    The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country. Adult mosquito collections were done through indoor and outdoor resting collections, animal and human biting collections and emergence traps. Potential mosquito breeding sites were investigated through larval surveys. The larvae and adults of An. stephensi were initially identified using morphological keys, and subsequently confirmed by sequencing the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. This is the first report of the presence of An. stephensi in the island of Mannar in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Anopheles stephensi (36.65%) was the most abundant anopheline species in the larval habitats in Mannar. It was found breeding together with An. culicifacies (20.7%), An. subpictus (13.5%) and An. varuna (28.13%). Anopheles stephensi was found to be abundantly breeding in built wells used for domestic purposes. Adult females of An. stephensi were observed in emergence trap collections (93.9%), human landing catches all night (79.2%), pyrethrum spray sheet collections (38.6%), outdoor collections (8.3%), donkey-baited trap collections (14.3), and cattle-baited net trap collections (0.7%). Sri Lanka was certified as malaria-free by the WHO in September 2016, however, this new finding may pose a serious challenge to the efforts of the Ministry of Health to prevent the re-introduction of malaria transmission in the country, considering the role that An. stephensi could play in urban and high

  13. Mind the Gap. A systematic review to identify usability and safety challenges and practices during electronic health record implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-11-16

    Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.

  14. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  15. The Challenges of Electronic Health Records and Diabetes Electronic Prescribing: Implications for Safety Net Care for Diverse Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ratanawongsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread electronic health record (EHR implementation creates new challenges in the diabetes care of complex and diverse populations, including safe medication prescribing for patients with limited health literacy and limited English proficiency. This review highlights how the EHR electronic prescribing transformation has affected diabetes care for vulnerable patients and offers recommendations for improving patient safety through EHR electronic prescribing design, implementation, policy, and research. Specifically, we present evidence for (1 the adoption of RxNorm; (2 standardized naming and picklist options for high alert medications such as insulin; (3 the widespread implementation of universal medication schedule and language-concordant labels, with the expansion of electronic prescription 140-character limit; (4 enhanced bidirectional communication with pharmacy partners; and (5 informatics and implementation research in safety net healthcare systems to examine how EHR tools and practices affect diverse vulnerable populations.

  16. Creation of a long-term data record of total O3 - issues and challenges in prescribing the uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Li, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    With the launch of the BUV instrument on NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in April 1970, ozone became one of the first atmospheric variables to be measured from space with high accuracy. By 1980, the quality of total column ozone measured from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite had improved to the point that it started to be used to identify poorly calibrated instruments in the venerable Dobson ground-based network. Now we have a total ozone record spanning 42 years created by more than a dozen instruments. We will discuss the issues and challenges that we have faced in creating a consistent long-term record and in providing uncertainty estimates. This work is not yet finished. We are currently developing a new algorithm (Version 9) that will be used to reprocess the entire record. The main motivation for developing this algorithm is not so much to improve the quality of the data, which is quite high already, but to provide better estimates of uncertainties when errors are spatially and temporally correlated, and to develop better techniques to catch "Black Swan" events (BSE). These are events that occur infrequently but cause errors larger than expected by Gaussian probability distribution. For example, the eruption of El Chichón revealed that our ozone algorithm had unexpected sensitivity to volcanic SO2, and evidence of the ozone hole was initially interpreted as a problem with the TOMS instrument. We also provide mathematical operators that can be applied by sophisticated users to compute their own uncertainties for their particular applications. This is necessary because uncertainties change in complex ways when the data are smoothed or averaged. The modern data archival system should be designed to accommodate such operators and provide software for using them.

  17. Electronic health records and disease registries to support integrated care in a health neighbourhood: an ontology-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Taggart, Jane; Yu, Hairong; Rahimi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Disease registries derived from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are widely used for chronic disease management (CDM). However, unlike national registries which are specialised data collections, they are usually specific to an EHR or organization such as a medical home. We approached registries from the perspective of integrated care in a health neighbourhood, considering data quality issues such as semantic interoperability (consistency), accuracy, completeness and duplication. Our proposition is that a realist ontological approach is required to systematically and accurately identify patients in an EHR or data repository of EHRs, assess intrinsic data quality and fitness for use by members of the multidisciplinary integrated care team. We report on this approach as applied to routinely collected data in an electronic practice based research network in Australia.

  18. Designing a system for patients controlling providers' access to their electronic health records: organizational and technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jeremy C; Cummins, Jonathan A; Schwartz, Peter H; Martin, Douglas K; Tierney, William M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are proliferating, and financial incentives encourage their use. Applying Fair Information Practice principles to EHRs necessitates balancing patients' rights to control their personal information with providers' data needs to deliver safe, high-quality care. We describe the technical and organizational challenges faced in capturing patients' preferences for patient-controlled EHR access and applying those preferences to an existing EHR. We established an online system for capturing patients' preferences for who could view their EHRs (listing all participating clinic providers individually and categorically-physicians, nurses, other staff) and what data to redact (none, all, or by specific categories of sensitive data or patient age). We then modified existing data-viewing software serving a state-wide health information exchange and a large urban health system and its primary care clinics to allow patients' preferences to guide data displays to providers. Patients could allow or restrict data displays to all clinicians and staff in a demonstration primary care clinic, categories of providers (physicians, nurses, others), or individual providers. They could also restrict access to all EHR data or any or all of five categories of sensitive data (mental and reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse) and for specific patient ages. The EHR viewer displayed data via reports, data flowsheets, and coded and free text data displayed by Google-like searches. Unless patients recorded restrictions, by default all requested data were displayed to all providers. Data patients wanted restricted were not displayed, with no indication they were redacted. Technical barriers prevented redacting restricted information in free textnotes. The program allowed providers to hit a "Break the Glass" button to override patients' restrictions, recording the date, time, and next screen viewed. Establishing patient

  19. Is detection of adverse events affected by record review methodology? an evaluation of the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbeck, Maria; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Henriksson, Peter; Jürgensen, Urban; Muren, Olav; Nilsson, Lena; Pukk Härenstam, Karin

    2013-04-15

    There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the "Global Trigger Tool". Adverse events "causing harm without permanent disability" accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. More adverse events were identified using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study

  20. Proposal of methodology for calculating the degree of impact caused by perturbations recorded in a power transmission system; Proposicao de metodologia para calcular o grau de impacto causado pelas perturbacoes registradas em um sistema eletrico de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, E.A.L. [Centrais Eletricas do Norte (ELETRONORTE), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)], E-mail: elainelimavianna@yahoo.com.br; Lambert-Torres, G.; Silva, L.E.B. da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, leborges@unifei.edu.br; Rissino, S.; Silva, M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UFRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)], Emails: srissino@gmail.com, felipe@unir.br

    2009-07-01

    Disturbances recorded in a electric power system compromise the quality and continuity energy supply and are measured by means of performance indicators. This article defines the attributes that contribute to increased the severity of disturbances recorded in an Electrical Power Transmission and proposes a methodology for calculating the degree of impact caused each of them. The proposed methodology allows quantification of the impact caused by a disturbance, and its comparison with other disturbance, in one system or distinct systems.

  1. Scalable privacy-preserving data sharing methodology for genome-wide association studies: an application to iDASH healthcare privacy protection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Ji, Zhanglong

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in genome-wide association study (GWAS) data privacy, the Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring (iDASH) center organized the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge, with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of applying privacy-preserving methodologies to human genetic data. This paper is based on a submission to the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge. We apply privacy-preserving methods that are adapted from Uhler et al. 2013 and Yu et al. 2014 to the challenge's data and analyze the data utility after the data are perturbed by the privacy-preserving methods. Major contributions of this paper include new interpretation of the χ2 statistic in a GWAS setting and new results about the Hamming distance score, a key component for one of the privacy-preserving methods.

  2. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  3. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  4. Development of Geometry Optimization Methodology with In-house CFD code, and Challenge in Applying to Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. H.; Lee, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    The wire spacer has important roles to avoid collisions between adjacent rods, to mitigate a vortex induced vibration, and to enhance convective heat transfer by wire spacer induced secondary flow. Many experimental and numerical works has been conducted to understand the thermal-hydraulics of the wire-wrapped fuel bundles. There has been enormous growth in computing capability. Recently, a huge increase of computer power allows to three-dimensional simulation of thermal-hydraulics of wire-wrapped fuel bundles. In this study, the geometry optimization methodology with RANS based in-house CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code has been successfully developed in air condition. In order to apply the developed methodology to fuel assembly, GGI (General Grid Interface) function is developed for in-house CFD code. Furthermore, three-dimensional flow fields calculated with in-house CFD code are compared with those calculated with general purpose commercial CFD solver, CFX. The geometry optimization methodology with RANS based in-house CFD code has been successfully developed in air condition. In order to apply the developed methodology to fuel assembly, GGI function is developed for in-house CFD code as same as CFX. Even though both analyses are conducted with same computational meshes, numerical error due to GGI function locally occurred in only CFX solver around rod surface and boundary region between inner fluid region and outer fluid region.

  5. From Study to Work: Methodological Challenges of a Graduate Destination Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Jacques; Kraak, Andre; Favish, Judy; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2014-01-01

    Current literature proposes several strategies for improving response rates to student evaluation surveys. Graduate destination surveys pose the difficulty of tracing graduates years later when their contact details may have changed. This article discusses the methodology of one such a survey to maximise response rates. Compiling a sample frame…

  6. Trademarks in the Linguistic Landscape: Methodological and Theoretical Challenges in Qualifying Brand Names in the Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufi, Stefania; Blackwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In the last few decades, investigations into the linguistic landscape (LL) have sought to analyse written language practices as they are observable in public space. Whilst the LL analysis of language choice in given contexts has opened a host of possibilities for scientific enquiry in the field, the methodologies employed in the collection and…

  7. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C

    2014-01-01

    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  8. Measuring alterations in oscillatory brain networks in schizophrenia with resting-state MEG: State-of-the-art and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamian, Golnoush; Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Pascarella, Annalisa; Thiery, Thomas; Combrisson, Etienne; Saive, Anne-Lise; Martel, Véronique; Althukov, Dmitrii; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted. This literature is discussed in relation to findings from resting-state fMRI and EEG, as well as to task-based MEG research in SZ population. Importantly, methodological limitations are considered and recommendations to overcome current limitations are proposed. Resting-state MEG literature in SZ points towards altered local and long-range oscillatory network dynamics in various frequency bands. Critical methodological challenges with respect to experiment design, and data collection and analysis need to be taken into consideration. Spontaneous MEG data show that local and global neural organization is altered in SZ patients. MEG is a highly promising tool to fill in knowledge gaps about the neurophysiology of SZ. However, to reach its fullest potential, basic methodological challenges need to be overcome. MEG-based resting-state power and connectivity findings could be great assets to clinical and translational research in psychiatry, and SZ in particular. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The complexity and challenges of determining GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from grid electricity consumption and conservation in LCA (life cycle assessment) – A methodological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Kiviluoma, Juha; Saikku, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The way in which GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions associated with grid electricity consumption is handled in different LCA (life cycle assessment) studies, varies significantly. Apart from differences in actual research questions, methodological choices and data set selection have a significant impact on the outcomes. These inconsistencies result in difficulties to compare the findings of various LCA studies. This review paper explores the issue from a methodological point of view. The perspectives of ALCA (attributional life cycle assessment) and CLCA (consequential life cycle assessment) are reflected. Finally, the paper summarizes the key issues and provides suggestions on the way forward. The major challenge related to both of the LCA categories is to determine the GHG emissions of the power production technologies under consideration. Furthermore, the specific challenge in ALCA is to determine the appropriate electricity production mix, and in CLCA, to identify the marginal technologies affected and related consequences. Significant uncertainties are involved, particularly in future-related LCAs, and these should not be ignored. Harmonization of the methods and data sets for various purposes is suggested, acknowledging that selections might be subjective. -- Highlights: ► Methods to assess GHG emissions from grid electricity consumption in LCA vary. ► We explored the major challenges related to various methods. ► Significant uncertainties are involved particularly in future-related GHG emissions. ► The most appropriate method depends on the equity viewpoints.

  10. Paper-Based Medical Records: the Challenges and Lessons Learned from Studying Obstetrics and Gynaecological Post-Operation Records in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Yisau Abdulkadir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: With the background knowledge that auditing of Medical Records (MR for adequacy and completeness is necessary if it is to be useful and reliable in continuing patient care; protection of the legal interest of the patient, physicians, and the Hospital; and meeting requirements for researches, we scrutinized theatre records of our hospital to identify routine omissions or deficiencies, and correctable errors in our MR system. METHOD: Obstetrics and Gynaecological post operation theatre records between January 2006 and December 2008 were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for details that included: hospital number; Patients age; diagnosis; surgery performed; types and modes of anesthesia; date of surgery; patients’ ward; Anesthetists names; surgeons and attending nurses names, and abbreviations used with SPSS 15.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Hardly were any of the 1270 surgeries during the study period documented without an omission or an abbreviation. Hospital numbers and patients’ age were not documented in 21.8% (n=277 and 59.1% (n=750 respectively. Diagnoses and surgeries were recorded with varying abbreviations in about 96% of instances. Surgical team names were mostly abbreviated or initials only given. CONCLUSION: To improve the quality of Paper-based Medical Record, regular auditing, training and good orientation of medical personnel for good record practices, and discouraging large volume record book to reduce paper damages and sheet loss from handling are necessary else what we record toady may neither be useful nor available tomorrow. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 427-432

  11. Thermal Protection for Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle: A Grand Challenge for Design Methodology and Reliability Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Wright, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Mars Sample Return is our Grand Challenge for the coming decade. TPS (Thermal Protection System) nominal performance is not the key challenge. The main difficulty for designers is the need to verify unprecedented reliability for the entry system: current guidelines for prevention of backward contamination require that the probability of spores larger than 1 micron diameter escaping into the Earth environment be lower than 1 million for the entire system, and the allocation to TPS would be more stringent than that. For reference, the reliability allocation for Orion TPS is closer to 11000, and the demonstrated reliability for previous human Earth return systems was closer to 1100. Improving reliability by more than 3 orders of magnitude is a grand challenge indeed. The TPS community must embrace the possibility of new architectures that are focused on reliability above thermal performance and mass efficiency. MSR (Mars Sample Return) EEV (Earth Entry Vehicle) will be hit with MMOD (Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris) prior to reentry. A chute-less aero-shell design which allows for self-righting shape was baselined in prior MSR studies, with the assumption that a passive system will maximize EEV robustness. Hence the aero-shell along with the TPS has to take ground impact and not break apart. System verification will require testing to establish ablative performance and thermal failure but also testing of damage from MMOD, and structural performance at ground impact. Mission requirements will demand analysis, testing and verification that are focused on establishing reliability of the design. In this proposed talk, we will focus on the grand challenge of MSR EEV TPS and the need for innovative approaches to address challenges in modeling, testing, manufacturing and verification.

  12. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  13. Challenges and Possibilities of Implementation of the Inverted Classroom Methodology: Case Study in a Private Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigues Milhorato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Change is a word which characterizes the transition of the industrial society to the knowledge one. In this sense it is necessary to reevaluate the educational processes as well as the needing of nowadays society. In such scenery, it appears as a possibility the model proposed by Eric Mazur, during the 90ties, called inverted classroom. This model uses technology as a support to teaching. This article aims to describe the effects of the inverted classroom methodology in a Private IES. The methodology was based on a qualitative and quantitative research and used questionnaires available in google docs and/or printed matter, applied to the students of the Faculdade Pitágoras located in the Metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, and also in interviews with teachers and a participating observation. Results show that the students’ profile is favorable to the use of inverted classroom model: they are young and in permanent contact with technology. Nevertheless, their daily routine, a deficient formation basis and the necessity to work in order to bear the cost of a private IES make quite complex the application of this model.

  14. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with frequent project start-ups. In highly complex and uncertain environments, rigorous management of risk remains indispensable for avoiding threats to the success of projects. Many businesses seek continually to create and improve integrated approaches to risk management. This article puts into perspective the complexity of the challenge of integrating OHS into industrial project risk management. A conceptual and methodological approach is proposed to guide future research focused on meeting this challenge. The approach is based on applying multi-disciplinary research modes to a complex industrial context in order to identify all scenarios likely to contain threats to humans or the environment. A case study is used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for application and its contribution to meeting the challenge of taking OHS into consideration. On-site researchers were able to develop a new approach that helped two mining companies in Quebec (Canada to achieve successful integration of OHS into expansion projects.

  15. Methodological developments in qualitative longitudinal research: the advantages and challenges of regular telephone contact with participants in a qualitative longitudinal interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carduff, Emma; Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn

    2015-04-11

    Qualitative longitudinal research is an evolving methodology, particularly within health care research. It facilitates a nuanced understanding of how phenomena change over time and is ripe for innovative approaches. However, methodological reflections which are tailored to health care research are scarce. This article provides a synthesised and practical account of the advantages and challenges of maintaining regular telephone contact between interviews with participants in a qualitative longitudinal study. Participants with metastatic colorectal cancer were interviewed at 3 time points over the course of a year. Half the group also received monthly telephone calls to explore the added value and the feasibility of capturing change as close to when it was occurring as possible. The data gathered from the telephone calls added context to the participants' overall narrative and informed subsequent interviews. The telephone calls meant we were able to capture change close to when it happened and there was a more evolved, and involved, relationship between the researcher and the participants who were called on a monthly basis. However, ethical challenges were amplified, boundaries of the participant/researcher relationship questioned, and there was the added analytical burden. The telephone calls facilitated a more nuanced understanding of the illness experience to emerge, when compared with the interview only group. The findings suggest that intensive telephone contact may be justified if retention is an issue, when the phenomena being studied is unpredictable and when participants feel disempowered or lack control. These are potential issues for research involving participants with long-term illness.

  16. School-to-Work-Transition—Career Development and Family Planning: Methodological Guidelines and Challenges of a Qualitative Longitudinal Panel-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kühn

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the basic features of our qualitative German panel study concerning the job entry of young adults, dealing also with methodological issues. The selection of the respondents in qualified jobs (commercial-technical, crafts/trade, services took into account gender-specific aspects, different labor-market prospects and regions. From the quantitative panel, a theoretical sample of respondents was selected who were interviewed three times in three-years intervals (3 waves. These interviews, focusing on individual biographies (i.e. orientations and action strategies form the basis for constructing a typology. Methodological innovations concern the modeling of the sequence of occupational actions and orientations as life-course sequences and the case-specific and case-comparing analysis of interview transcripts. This was done—based on a data bank containing the interview material—by means of a detailed scheme of categories. The integration of quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data presents a theoretical and methodological challenge. Our focus is on biography and life-course research which suggests an interdisciplinary approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002178

  17. Solving a methodological challenge in work stress evaluation with the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit (StART): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Vignoli, Michela; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2013-06-22

    Stress evaluation is a field of strong interest and challenging due to several methodological aspects in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to propose a study protocol to test a new method (i.e., the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit) to assess psychosocial risk factors at work. This method addresses several methodological issues (e.g., subjective vs. objective, qualitative vs quantitative data) by assessing work-related stressors using different kinds of data: i) organisational archival data (organisational indicators sheet); ii) qualitative data (focus group); iii) worker perception (questionnaire); and iv) observational data (observational checklist) using mixed methods research. In addition, it allows positive and negative aspects of work to be considered conjointly, using an approach that considers at the same time job demands and job resources. The integration of these sources of data can reduce the theoretical and methodological bias related to stress research in the work setting, allows researchers and professionals to obtain a reliable description of workers' stress, providing a more articulate vision of psychosocial risks, and allows a large amount of data to be collected. Finally, the implementation of the method ensures in the long term a primary prevention for psychosocial risk management in that it aims to reduce or modify the intensity, frequency or duration of organisational demands.

  18. Adaptation and development of software simulation methodologies for cardiovascular engineering: present and future challenges from an end-user perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuccarini, V; Narracott, A J; Burriesci, G; Zervides, C; Rafiroiu, D; Jones, D; Hose, D R; Lawford, P V

    2009-07-13

    This paper describes the use of diverse software tools in cardiovascular applications. These tools were primarily developed in the field of engineering and the applications presented push the boundaries of the software to address events related to venous and arterial valve closure, exploration of dynamic boundary conditions or the inclusion of multi-scale boundary conditions from protein to organ levels. The future of cardiovascular research and the challenges that modellers and clinicians face from validation to clinical uptake are discussed from an end-user perspective.

  19. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 2: a review of methodological and practical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Brozek, Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X; Lelgemann, Monika; Büehler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    In this first of a series of five articles, we provide an overview of how and why healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies are currently applied. We also describe how our findings can be integrated with existing frameworks for making decisions that guide the use of healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies. We searched MEDLINE, references of identified articles, chapters in relevant textbooks, and identified articles citing classic literature on this topic. We provide updated frameworks for the potential roles and applications of tests with suggested definitions and practical examples. We also discuss study designs that are commonly used to assess tests' performance and the effects of tests on people's health. These designs include diagnostic randomized controlled trials and retrospective validation. We describe the utility of these and other currently suggested designs, which questions they can answer and which ones they cannot. In addition, we summarize the challenges unique to decision-making resulting from the use of tests. This overview highlights current challenges in the application of tests in decision-making in healthcare, provides clarifications, and informs the proposed solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Dubljević, Veljko; Jox, Ralf J; Baertschi, Bernard; Christensen, Julia F; Farisco, Michele; Jotterand, Fabrice; Kahane, Guy; Müller, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Designing a Self-Management App for Young People With Type 1 Diabetes: Methodological Challenges, Experiences, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Reventlov Husted, Gitte; Teilmann, Grete; Hommel, Eva; Olsen, Birthe Susanne; Kensing, Finn

    2017-10-23

    Young people with type 1 diabetes often struggle to self-manage their disease. Mobile health (mHealth) apps show promise in supporting self-management of chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes. Many health care providers become involved in app development. Unfortunately, limited information is available to guide their selection of appropriate methods, techniques, and tools for a participatory design (PD) project in health care. The aim of our study was to develop an mHealth app to support young people in self-managing type 1 diabetes. This paper presents our methodological recommendations based on experiences and reflections from a 2-year research study. A mixed methods design was used to identify user needs before designing the app and testing it in a randomized controlled trial. App design was based on qualitative, explorative, interventional, and experimental activities within an overall iterative PD approach. Several techniques and tools were used, including workshops, a mail panel, think-aloud tests, and a feasibility study. The final mHealth solution was "Young with Diabetes" (YWD). The iterative PD approach supported researchers and designers in understanding the needs of end users (ie, young people, parents, and health care providers) and their assessment of YWD, as well as how to improve app usability and feasibility. It is critical to include all end user groups during all phases of a PD project and to establish a multidisciplinary team to provide the wide range of expertise required to build a usable and useful mHealth app. Future research is needed to develop and evaluate more efficient PD techniques. Health care providers need guidance on what tools and techniques to choose for which subgroups of users and guidance on how to introduce an app to colleagues to successfully implement an mHealth app in health care organizations. These steps are important for anyone who wants to design an mHealth app for any illness. ©Pernille Castens

  2. Methodological challenges in evaluating health care financing equity in data-poor contexts: lessons from Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Ataguba, John; Mtei, Gemini; Akazili, James; Meheus, Filip; Rehnberg, Clas; Di, McIntyre

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the incidence of health financing contributions across socio-economic groups has proven valuable in informing health care financing reforms. However, there is little evidence as to how to carry out financing incidence analysis (FIA) in lower income settings. We outline some of the challenges faced when carrying out a FIA in Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa and illustrate how innovative techniques were used to overcome data weaknesses in these settings. FIA was carried out for tax, insurance and out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. The primary data sources were Living Standards Measurement Surveys (LSMS) and household surveys conducted in each of the countries; tax authorities and insurance funds also provided information. Consumption expenditure and a composite index of socioeconomic status (SES) were used to assess financing equity. Where possible conventional methods of FIA were applied. Numerous challenges were documented and solution strategies devised. LSMS are likely to underestimate financial contributions to health care by individuals. For tax incidence analysis, reported income tax payments from secondary sources were severely under-reported. Income tax payers and shareholders could not be reliably identified. The use of income or consumption expenditure to estimate income tax contributions was found to be a more reliable method of estimating income tax incidence. Assumptions regarding corporate tax incidence had a huge effect on the progressivity of corporate tax and on overall tax progressivity. LSMS consumption categories did not always coincide with tax categories for goods subject to excise tax (e.g., wine and spirits were combined, despite differing tax rates). Tobacco companies, alcohol distributors and advertising agencies were used to provide more detailed information on consumption patterns for goods subject to excise tax by income category. There was little guidance on how to allocate fuel levies associated with 'public transport' use

  3. Accessing Synthetically-Challenging Isoindole-Based Materials for Assessment in Organic Photovoltaics via Chemical and Engineering Methodologies =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jeremy

    Isoindoles are a broad class of compounds that comprise a very small space within the domain of established photoactive materials for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Given this scarcity, combined with the performance appeal of presently and well known isoindole-based compounds such as the phthalocyanines, it is a worthy undertaking to develop new materials in this domain. This thesis aims to bring to light the suitability of five novel, or underexplored, classes of isoindole-based materials for OPVs. These classes are the boron subphthalocyanine (BsubPc) polymers, oxygen-bridged dimers of BsubPcs (mu-oxo-(BsubPc) 2), boron subnaphthalocyanines (BsubNcs), group XIII metal complexes of 1,3-bis(2-pyridylimino)isodinoline (BPI), and the boron tribenzosubporphyrins (BsubPys). The synthesis of these materials was proven to be challenging as evident in their low isolated yields, lengthy synthetic and purification processes, and/or batch-to-batch variations. This outcome was not surprising given their undeveloped chemical nature. The photo- and electro-physical properties were characterized and shown to be desirable for all classes other than the group XIII metal complexes of BPI for OPVs. mu-Oxo-(BsubPc)2 and BsubNcs show promise in this application while BsubPc polymers and BsubPys will be subjects of future exploration. The results from the work herein aid to develop and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationships of isoindole derivatives. On a broader scale, the work demonstrates their versatility as functional materials for OPVs and their possible expansion to other organic electronic technologies like organic light emitting diodes and organic field effect transistors.

  4. Life history theory and breast cancer risk: methodological and theoretical challenges: Response to "Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analysis published by myself and co-authors, we report differences in the life history risk factors for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Our meta-analysis did not find the association of ER- breast cancer risk with fast life history characteristics that Hidaka and Boddy suggest in their response to our article. There are a number of possible explanations for the differences between their conclusions and the conclusions we drew from our meta-analysis, including limitations of our meta-analysis and methodological challenges in measuring and categorizing estrogen receptor status. These challenges, along with the association of ER+ breast cancer with slow life history characteristics, may make it challenging to find a clear signal of ER- breast cancer with fast life history characteristics, even if that relationship does exist. The contradictory results regarding breast cancer risk and life history characteristics illustrate a more general challenge in evolutionary medicine: often different sub-theories in evolutionary biology make contradictory predictions about disease risk. In this case, life history models predict that breast cancer risk should increase with faster life history characteristics, while the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis predicts that breast cancer risk should increase with delayed reproduction. Whether life history tradeoffs contribute to ER- breast cancer is still an open question, but current models and several lines of evidence suggest that it is a possibility. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  5. Methodological challenges in indirect treatment comparisons: spotlight on a recent comparison of long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Gopal, Srihari; Kim, Edward; Mathews, Maju; Kern-Sliwa, Jennifer; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Wooller, Annette; Berlin, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study, an indirect treatment comparison was performed to examine the relative efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly and paliperidone palmitate once monthly. The authors concluded that the results may suggest relative advantages for aripiprazole once monthly over paliperidone palmitate once monthly in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia. However, the validity of the study is compromised as an indirect treatment comparison using extant data may violate important assumptions. Other methodological issues identified further highlight the challenges of performing indirect treatment comparisons.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  6. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-06

    health challenge and an opportunity for further analytical work identifying potential causes of these disparities. Future analyses of urban sprawl and health outcomes should consider exploring regional and international variation in associations between sprawl and health.

  7. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of user requests regarding the fully electronic health record system at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital: challenges for future electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Lee, Seungja; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Baek, Rong-Min; Hwang, Hee

    2013-05-01

    Although the adoption rates for Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are growing, significant opportunities for further advances in EHR system design remain. The goal of this study was to identify issues that should be considered in the design process for the successful development of future systems by analyzing end users' service requests gathered during a recent three-year period after a comprehensive EHR system was implemented at Seoul National University's Bundang Hospital in South Korea. Data on 11,400 service requests from end users of the EHR system made from 2008 through 2010 were used in this study. The requests were categorized as program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, or other. The authors further subcategorized the requests for program modification/development into the following nine areas of concern: (1) indicators and statistics, (2) patient safety and quality of care, (3) special task-oriented functionalities, (4) ease of use and user interface, (5) system speed, (6) interoperability and integration, (7) privacy and security, (8) customer service, and (9) miscellaneous. The system users were divided into four groups--direct care, care support, administrative/insurance, and general management--to identify each group's needs and concerns. The service requests for program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, and other issues constituted approximately 49.2%, 33.9%, 11.4%, 4.0%, and 1.5% of the total data set, respectively. The number of data-request service requests grew over the three years studied. Different groups of users were found to have different concerns according to their activities and tasks. Within the program-modification/development category, end users were most frequently concerned with ease of use and user interface (38.1% of the total) and special task-oriented functionalities (29.3% of the total) in

  9. Lean Six Sigma in health care and the challenge of implementation of Six Sigma methodologies at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean Thinking are quality initiatives initially deployed in industry to improve operational efficiency leading to better quality and subsequent cost savings. The financial rationale for embarking on this quality journey is clear; applying it to today's health care remains challenging. The cost of medical care is increasing at an alarming rate; most of these cost increases are attributed to an aging population and technological advances; therefore, largely beyond control. Furthermore, health care cost increases are caused by unnecessary operational inefficiency associated with the direct medical service delivery process. This article describes the challenging journey of implementing Six Sigma methodology at a tertiary care medical center. Many lessons were learned; however, of utmost importance were team approach, "buy in" of the stakeholders, and the willingness of team members to change daily practice and to adapt new and innovative ways how health care can be delivered. Six Sigma incorporated as part of the "company's or hospital's culture" would be most desirable but the learning curve will be steep.

  10. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: design and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Annelies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered methodological challenges of a nationwide study in the Netherlands investigating the effects of treatment on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, premature menopause and pregnancy outcomes in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS, the DCOG LATER-VEVO study. Methods The study is a retrospective cohort study consisting of two parts: a questionnaire assessing medical, menstrual, and obstetric history, and a clinical assessment evaluating ovarian and uterine function by hormonal analyses and transvaginal ultrasound measurements. The eligible study population consists of adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the Netherlands, whereas the control group consists of age-matched sisters of the participating CCS. To date, study invitations have been sent to 1611 CCS and 429 sister controls, of which 1215 (75% and 333 (78% have responded so far. Of these responders, the majority consented to participate in both parts of the study (53% vs. 65% for CCS and sister controls respectively. Several challenges were encountered involving the study population: dealing with bias due to the differences in characteristics of several types of (non- participants and finding an adequately sized and well-matched control group. Moreover, the challenges related to the data collection process included: differences in response rates between web-based and paper-based questionnaires, validity of self-reported outcomes, interpretation of clinical measurements of women using hormonal contraceptives, and inter- and intra-observer variation of the ultrasound measurements. Discussion The DCOG LATER-VEVO study will provide valuable information about the

  11. The tip of the iceberg : challenges of accessing hospital electronic health record data for biological data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Modern cohort studies include self-reported measures on disease, behavior and lifestyle, sensor-based observations from mobile phones and wearables, and rich -omics data. Follow-up is often achieved through electronic health record (EHR) linkages across primary and secondary healthcare providers.

  12. Written records of historical tsunamis in the northeastern South China Sea – challenges associated with developing a new integrated database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. A. Lau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive analysis of 15 previously published regional databases incorporating more than 100 sources leads to a newly revised historical tsunami database for the northeastern (NE region of the South China Sea (SCS including Taiwan. The validity of each reported historical tsunami event listed in our database is assessed by comparing and contrasting the information and descriptions provided in the other databases. All earlier databases suffer from errors associated with inaccuracies in translation between different languages, calendars and location names. The new database contains 205 records of "events" reported to have occurred between AD 1076 and 2009. We identify and investigate 58 recorded tsunami events in the region. The validity of each event is based on the consistency and accuracy of the reports along with the relative number of individual records for that event. Of the 58 events, 23 are regarded as "valid" (confirmed events, three are "probable" events and six are "possible". Eighteen events are considered "doubtful" and eight events "invalid". The most destructive tsunami of the 23 valid events occurred in 1867 and affected Keelung, northern Taiwan, killing at least 100 people. Inaccuracies in the historical record aside, this new database highlights the occurrence and geographical extent of several large tsunamis in the NE SCS region and allows an elementary statistical analysis of annual recurrence intervals. Based on historical records from 1951–2009 the probability of a tsunami (from any source affecting the region in any given year is relatively high (33.4%. However, the likelihood of a tsunami that has a wave height >1 m, and/or causes fatalities and damage to infrastructure occurring in the region in any given year is low (1–2%. This work indicates the need for further research using coastal stratigraphy and inundation modeling to help validate some of the historical accounts of tsunamis as well as adequately evaluate

  13. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna B Zablotska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. METHODS: Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR or casual partners (UAIC. The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. CONCLUSION: Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates

  14. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Frankland, Andrew; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding

  15. An investigation into the use of recorded music as a surgical intervention: A systematic, critical review of methodologies used in recent adult controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Courtney; Hine, Trevor

    2018-04-01

    While music is being increasingly used as a surgical intervention, the types of music used and the reasons underlying their selection remain inconsistent. Empirical research into the efficacy of such musical interventions is therefore problematic. To provide clear guidelines for musical selection and employment in surgical interventions, created through a synthesis of the literature. The aim is to examine how music is implemented in surgical situations, and to provide guidance for the selection and composition of music for future interventions. English language quantitative surgical intervention studies from Science Direct, ProQuest, and Sage Journals Online, all published within the last 10 years and featuring recorded music, were systematically reviewed. Variables investigated included: the time the intervention was performed, the intervention length, the outcomes targeted, music description (general and specific), theoretical frameworks underlying the selection of the music, whether or not a musical expert was involved, participant music history, and the participants' feedback on the chosen music. Several aspects contribute to the lack of scientific rigour regarding music selection in this field, including the lack of a theoretical framework or frameworks, no involvement of musical experts, failure to list the music tracks used, and the use of vague and subjective terms in general music descriptions. Patients are frequently allowed to select music (risking both choosing music that has an adverse effect and making study replication difficult), and patient music history and listening habits are rarely considered. Crucially, five primary theoretical frameworks underlying the effectiveness of music arose in the literature (distraction, relaxation, emotional shift, entrainment, and endogenous analgesia), however music was rarely selected to enhance any of these mechanisms. Further research needs to be conducted to ensure that music is selected according to a

  16. A case for understanding user experience challenges confronting indigenous knowledge recorders in rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khalala, G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available . The South African government adopted a policy in 2004; to develop the Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS). The policy provided a platform for the recognition, affirmation, development, promotion and protection of IKS in South Africa. The NRS initiative... that have attempted to implement IKS are highlighted below: 3.1 Biozulua database The Biozulua database initiative from Venezuela was established to record IK in order to encourage innovation using traditional knowledge and to facilitate the sharing...

  17. Quantifying Averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years as a Performance Indicator for Water Quality Interventions: A Review of Current Methodologies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Anderson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable access to safe drinking water protects against infectious disease and promotes overall health. Despite considerable progress toward increasing water access, safe water quality and reliable service delivery remain a challenge. Traditional financing strategies pay implementers based on inputs and activities, with minimal incentives for water quality monitoring and sustained service operation. Pay-for-performance offers an alternative financing strategy that delivers all or a portion of payment based on performance indicators of desired outputs or outcomes. A pay-for-performance approach in the water sector could quantify and incentivize health impact. Averted disability-adjusted life years (ADALYs have been used as a performance indicator to measure the burden of disease averted due to environmental health interventions. Water-related disease burden can be measured for application as an ADALYs performance indicator following either comparative risk assessment or quantitative microbial risk assessment. Comparative risk assessment models disease burden using water source type as a proxy indicator of microbial water quality, while quantitative microbial risk assessment models disease burden using concentrations of indicator pathogens. This paper compares these risk assessment methodologies, and summarizes the limitations of applying these approaches toward quantifying ADALYs as a performance indicator for water quality interventions.

  18. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  19. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: records, markers and people. An integration challenge to be met over millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Mays, C.

    2008-01-01

    An issue that has long been on the radioactive waste management agenda is the means of marking a waste repository site, such that future generations will be able to comprehend its purpose and risks even if written records have been lost. For years the main reason cited for needing such comprehension was to preclude unintentional future human intrusion into the repository and the ensuing exposure of the intruder to radiation. Such a future intruder could also cause damage to the repository system and endanger his own and subsequent generations. More recently, other reasons have included the wish to maintain a certain degree of flexibility for future generations, in case the latter decide to retrieve the waste for motives that may go beyond safety, e.g., the economic exploitation of the energy potential that may remain in the waste. The conceptualisation and design of markers of records by technologists has typically focused on durability and has assumed that the repository is - and will be - something totally separate from its cultural environment. A new vision is emerging, however, that it may be worthwhile to consider the repository as part of a societal fabric. The task of maintaining memory would thus be facilitated by measures that would foster community involvement and would go as far as foreseeing that these communities will in time build their own new markers to replace old ones that have become obsolete or are fading away. It must be understood that the timescales over which the hazard exists are much longer than just a few thousands of years, and it must be accepted that the current generation's capacity to assure continued integrity cannot be projected indefinitely into the future, but rather diminishes with time. Hence, there is perhaps the need to conceptualize a 'rolling future' in which each generation takes responsibility to ensure continuity and safety for the succeeding several generations, including a need for flexibility and adaptability to

  20. Psychosocial determinants of parental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making for sons: Methodological challenges and initial results of a pan-Canadian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Samara; Tatar, Ovidiu; Shapiro, Gilla K; Dubé, Eve; Ogilvie, Gina; Guichon, Juliet; Gilca, Vladimir; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-05

    interventions to increase HPV knowledge and increase HPV vaccine uptake. Intentions to vaccinate or planning to speak to one's HCP did not translate into action for most parents over the 9-month follow up; this finding is critical to consider to inform implementation strategies. Methodological challenges are described and suggestions for future research are offered.

  1. Psychosocial determinants of parental human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine decision-making for sons: Methodological challenges and initial results of a pan-Canadian longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Perez

    2016-12-01

    preferences were identified and can be used in interventions to increase HPV knowledge and increase HPV vaccine uptake. Intentions to vaccinate or planning to speak to one’s HCP did not translate into action for most parents over the 9-month follow up; this finding is critical to consider to inform implementation strategies. Methodological challenges are described and suggestions for future research are offered.

  2. Exploring the challenge of health research priority setting in partnership: reflections on the methodology used by the James Lind Alliance Pressure Ulcer Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Morley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    treatment. There is no formal evaluation yet to examine the different approaches used by individual PSPs and the impact these methods have on the quality of the partnership and subsequent outputs. There is no gold standard method for health research topic identification and priority setting and reporting on public involvement in this area is predominantly descriptive rather than evaluative. The JLA Pressure Ulcer PSP (JLAPUP) was developed and worked between 2009 and 2013 to identify and prioritise the top 10 'uncertainties' , or 'unanswered questions', about the effects of pressure ulcer interventions. JLAPUP identified a mismatch between the nature and quality of RCTs in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment and the kind of research evidence desired by patients or service users, carers and health professionals. Results and methods have been reported fully elsewhere. The consultative and deliberative methods used to establish health research priorities in PSPs are fundamentally interpretive. PSPs are therefore an arena in which 'hard' evidence-informed ideals meet 'soft' participatory practices. This article provides an account of the challenges faced in one particular PSP. We explain the rationale for the approaches taken, difficulties faced and the limitations at each stage, because these aspects are particularly under-reported. The JLAPUP case is used to identify possible areas for evaluation and reporting across PSPs. Engaging people with very different health and life experiences in the complexities of health science based discussions of uncertainty is challenging. This is particularly the case when engaging groups routinely excluded from participating in health research, for example, older people with multiple comorbidities. The JLA principles of transparency, inclusivity and avoiding waste in research require paying close critical attention to PSP methodology, including full evaluation and reporting of PSP processes and outcomes. Assessing the impact of PSPs is

  3. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  4. Recording the Personal: The Benefits in Maintaining Research Diaries for Documenting the Emotional and Practical Challenges of Fieldwork in Unfamiliar Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Ciaran Browne PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of personal research diaries maintained during a prolonged period spent working in Palestine, this article analyses the importance of maintaining research diaries when on fieldwork. The evidence produced stems from a content analysis of fieldwork diaries kept while researching commemorative events in the West Bank, Palestine, during a period of global uncertainty and at a time of much change in the region. In espousing the benefits of the fieldwork diary it is shown that diaries assume a more important role than acting as a mere logging device; they have the capacity to allow for personal reflection and to help with the development of strategic responses to the inevitable challenges one would expect to face when working far from the relative comfort of home. The research diary as a cathartic tool for researchers to record fears and shortcomings in their work is discussed and personal insights into some of the challenges this researcher faced when engaged in ethnographic work in Ramallah, Palestine are provided. In summarising the benefits of maintaining research diaries, the author, lamenting the lack of transparency in the literature to date on the practicalities of fieldwork, calls for more open and honest reflection on the challenges associated with conducting fieldwork, particularly that which takes place in volatile or unstable regions.

  5. Methodological update in Medicina Intensiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Garmendia, J L

    2018-04-01

    Research in the critically ill is complex by the heterogeneity of patients, the difficulties to achieve representative sample sizes and the number of variables simultaneously involved. However, the quantity and quality of records is high as well as the relevance of the variables used, such as survival. The methodological tools have evolved to offering new perspectives and analysis models that allow extracting relevant information from the data that accompanies the critically ill patient. The need for training in methodology and interpretation of results is an important challenge for the intensivists who wish to be updated on the research developments and clinical advances in Intensive Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Redescription of the deep-sea colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886: first record since its original finding during the Challenger Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Maggioni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886 was recorded for the first time after its original description. The slope area where S. molle was discovered during the Challenger Expedition (1872-1876, located at the mouth off Río de La Plata (Argentine Sea, still remains highly underexplored. During a series of deep-sea prospections along the SW Atlantic (A.R.A. Puerto Deseado, August 2012, 7 colonies of S. molle were collected few km from the type locality. The finding permitted to perform, for the first time, a complete morphological description of this species. The proper identification of marine species, especially deep-sea organisms, has implications for the general knowledge of biodiversity, a necessary tool for the conservation and study of ecosystem benefits that marine environments provide.

  7. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of life...

  8. Analytical methodology for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to briefly describe the analytical methodologies available and also highlight some of the challenges, expectations from nuclear material accounting and control (NUMAC) point of view

  9. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linmans, Joris J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Spigt, Mark; Knottnerus, J André

    2012-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may require specific methodology and statistics. We investigated the effects of real-world primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used medical records of patients (n=2,549) with T2DM from 10 primary health care centers. A mixed-effects regression model for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the changes in weight and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. There was no statistically significant change in weight (+0.07 kg, P=0.832) and HbA1c (+0.03%, P=0.657) during the observation period of 972 days. Most patients maintained their physical activity level (70%), and 54 % had an insufficient activity level. The variability in the course of weight and HbA1c was because of differences between patients and not between health care providers. Despite effective lifestyle interventions in controlled trial settings, we found that real-world primary care is only able to stabilize weight and HbA1c in patients with T2DM over time. Medical registration can be used to monitor the actual effectiveness of interventions in primary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  11. Scenario aggregation and analysis via Mean-Shift Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelli, D.; Yilmaz, A.; Metzroth, K.; Aldemir, T.; Denning, R.

    2010-01-01

    A new generation of dynamic methodologies is being developed for nuclear reactor probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) which explicitly account for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and use numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The dynamic event tree (DET) approach is one of these methodologies. One challenge with dynamic PRA methodologies is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to analyze without appropriate software tools. The concept of 'data mining' is well known in the computer science community and several methodologies have been developed in order to extract useful information from a dataset with a large number of records. Using the dataset generated by the DET analysis of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) of an ABR-1000 for an aircraft crash recovery scenario and the Mean-Shift Methodology for data mining, it is shown how clusters of transients with common characteristics can be identified and classified. (authors)

  12. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  13. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodology Investigation Automatic Magnetic Recording Borescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    or other brushless signal coupling devices to the extent possible and feasible to reduce or eliminate the need for slip ring and brush type signal...the inspection head, is used to magnetically couple the necessary energy across the rotary interface. Because there is (1) an appreciable air gap in...were written. (2) As required by the contract, the signal conditioners in the MB employ automatic gain control to compensate for the changes in

  15. Review Essay: No More Separation between Paid Work and Leisure? Methodological and Empirical Challenges in the Debate about Post-Fordism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Huber

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This anthology reflects the spheres of working and living in a neo-liberal society from the viewpoint of cultural studies in European ethnology. Concentrating on daily life, it questions prognoses about regimes of production, new types of manpower and the rediscovery of new structures of society and economy as well as new types of societies. The book is not only about micro-studies—concentrating on micro-studies has often been criticized by both the science of history and cultural studies, which work empirically. The authors of this book work on the basis of ambitious methodological approaches such as "multi-sited-ethnography," which transgresses static fieldwork and is able to grasp the differential between paid work and leisure. These case studies are fully convincing, but reflections about the end of a society in which everyone has a job or about the culture of the "new economy" remain too speculative. The review attempts to place the articles within discussions about changing regimes of production. These discussions began mostly in the field of regulation theory, then in industrial sociology and finally in the sociology of work. Especially innovative methods are considered, which allow the reader to simultaneously analyze the spheres of living and working. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs050324

  16. Towards an optimal adaptation of exposure to NOAA assessment methodology in Multi-Source Industrial Scenarios (MSIS): the challenges and the decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, JM; Vaquero, C.; Gutierrez-Cañas, C.

    2017-06-01

    It is expected a progressive increase of the industrial processes that manufacture of intermediate (iNEPs) and end products incorporating ENMs (eNEPs) to bring about improved properties. Therefore, the assessment of occupational exposure to airborne NOAA will migrate, from the simple and well-controlled exposure scenarios in research laboratories and ENMs production plants using innovative production technologies, to much more complex exposure scenarios located around processes of manufacture of eNEPs that, in many cases, will be modified conventional production processes. Here will be discussed some of the typical challenging situations in the process of risk assessment of inhalation exposure to NOAA in Multi-Source Industrial Scenarios (MSIS), from the basis of the lessons learned when confronted to those scenarios in the frame of some European and Spanish research projects.

  17. Methodological challenges in assessment of current use of warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation using dispensation data from administrative health care databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyavskaya, Liliya; Matteau, Alexis; Johnson, Sarasa; Durand, Madeleine

    2018-06-05

    Algorithms to define current exposure to warfarin using administrative data may be imprecise. Study objectives were to characterize dispensation patterns, to measure gaps between expected and observed refill dates for warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Retrospective cohort study using administrative health care databases of the Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec. We identified every dispensation of warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban for patients with AF initiating oral anticoagulants between 2010 and 2015. For each dispensation, we extracted date and duration. Refill gaps were calculated as difference between expected and observed dates of successive dispensation. Refill gaps were summarized using descriptive statistics. To account for repeated observations nested within patients and to assess the components of variance of refill gaps, we used unconditional multilevel linear models. We identified 61 516 new users. Majority were prescribed warfarin (60.3%), followed by rivaroxaban (16.4%), dabigatran (14.5%), apixaban (8.8%). Most frequent recorded duration of dispensation was 7 days, suggesting use of pharmacist-prepared weekly pillboxes. The average refill gap from multilevel model was higher for warfarin (9.28 days, 95%CI:8.97-9.59) compared with DOACs (apixaban 3.08 days, 95%CI: 2.96-3.20, dabigatran 3.70, 95%CI: 3.56-3.84, rivaroxaban 3.15, 95%CI: 3.03-3.27). The variance of refill gaps was greater among warfarin users than among DOAC users. Greater refill gaps for warfarin may reflect inadequate capture of the period covered by the number of dispensed pills recorded in administrative data. A time-dependent definition of exposure using dispensation data would lead to greater misclassification of warfarin than DOACs use. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparing the Use of Books with Enhanced Records versus Those Without Enhancements: Methodology Leads to Questionable Conclusions. A review of: Madarash‐Hill, Cherie and J.B. Hill. “Electronically Enriched Enhancements in Catalog Records: A Use Study of Books Described on Records With URL Enhancements Versus Those Without.” Technical Services Quarterly 23.2 (2005: 19‐31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Haigh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare the use of books described by catalogue records that are enhanced with URL links to such information as dust jackets, tables of contents, sample text, and publishers’ descriptions, with the use of books described by records that are not enhanced with such links.Design – Use study.Setting – Academic library (Southeastern Louisiana University, Sims Memorial Library.Subjects – 180 records with enhancements and 180 records (different titles without enhancements.Methods – The study identified the sample of unenhanced records by conducting searches of the broad subject terms “History”, “United States”, “Education”,and “Social” and limiting the searches to books. The enhanced sample was derived in the same manner, but with additional search limiters to identify only those records that had URL enhancements. An equal sample of enhanced and unenhanced records (50 or 30 of each was tracked for each of four search terms. Only records for books that could be checked out were included, as use statistics were based on whether or not a book was borrowed. While half of the enhanced records had full‐text elements (such as descriptions that were indexed and thus searchable, the rate of use for these records was not tracked separately from the enhanced records that only had URL enhancements.Main results – Books described on records with URL enhancements for publisher descriptions, tables of contents, book reviews, or sample text had higher use than those without URL enhancements. Only 7% of titles with URLs, compared with 21% of those without, had not been borrowed. 74.67% of titles with URLs had been checked out one or two times, compared with 69.5% of those without URLs. The number of titles with enhanced records that had 3 or more checkouts was almost double the rate of unenhanced titles (18% to 9.5%.Conclusion – The authors conclude that catalogue records that have electronic links to book reviews, cover

  19. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  20. The opportunities and challenges of pragmatic point-of-care randomised trials using routinely collected electronic records : evaluations of two exemplar trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Dyson, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Padmanabhan, Shivani; Belatri, Rabah; Goldacre, Ben; Cassell, Jackie; Pirmohamed, Munir; Torgerson, David; Ronaldson, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan; Mahmood, Samhar; Baracaia, Simona; Round, Thomas; Fox, Robin; Hunter, Tommy; Gulliford, Martin; Smeeth, Liam

    BACKGROUND: Pragmatic trials compare the effects of different decisions in usual clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate methods to implement simple pragmatic trials using routinely collected electronic health records (EHRs) and recruiting patients at the point of care; to identify

  1. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  2. Translating 10 lessons from lean six sigma project in paper-based training site to electronic health record-based primary care practice: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma is a well-proven methodology to enhance the performance of any business, including health care. The strategy focuses on cutting out waste and variation from the processes to improve the value and efficiency of work. This article walks through the journey of "green belt" training using a Lean Six Sigma approach and the implementation of a process improvement project that focused on wait time for patients to be examined in an urban academic primary care clinic without requiring added resources. Experiences of the training and the project at an urban paper-based satellite clinic have informed the planning efforts of a data and performance team, including implementing a 15-minute nurse "pre-visit" at primary care sites of an accountable care organization.

  3. Surface design methodologychallenge the steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, M; Rosen, B-G; Eriksson, L; Anderberg, C

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or ''feeling'' for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA

  4. Documentary Linguistics: Methodological Challenges and Innovatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieberger, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Seeing the present situation, I think that, at the very least, it behooves us as scientists and as human beings to work responsibly both for the future of our science and for the future of our languages, not so much for reward according to the fashion of the day, but for the sake of posterity. What we need to do now stares us in the face. If we do…

  5. Methodological Challenges for Collaborative Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Fischer, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Research on collaborative learning, both face-to-face and computer-supported, has thrived in the past 10 years. The studies range from outcome-oriented (individual and group learning) to process-oriented (impact of interaction on learning processes, motivation and organisation of collaboration) to mixed studies. Collaborative learning research is…

  6. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  7. Methodological Challenges in Measuring Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; Fluke, John; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil; Yuan, Ying-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviewed the different surveillance systems used to monitor the extent of reported child maltreatment in North America. Methods: Key measurement and definitional differences between the surveillance systems are detailed and their potential impact on the measurement of the rate of victimization. The infrastructure…

  8. Challenges of cold chain quality for routine EPI in south-west Burkina-Faso: An assessment using automated temperature recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, C; Sanou, C; Medah, C; Schlumberger, M; Mireux, F; Ouédraogo, I; Ouédraogo, S M; Betsem, E

    2018-06-18

    Abnormal temperatures are a major issue for vaccines within the Expanded Program of Immunization in tropical climates. Prolonged exposure to temperatures outside the standard +2 °C/+8 °C range can impact vaccine potency. The current study used automatic temperature recording devices (Testostore 171-1©) to monitor cold chain in remote areas of Western Burkina Faso. A series of 25 randomly selected health centers representing 33% of the existing 176 EPI facilities in Western Burkina Faso were prospectively assessed for eight months in 2015. Automatic measurements were compared to routine temperature loggers and vaccine vial monitors (VVM). The median age for all refrigerators was 9 years with 10/25 (42%) older than 10 years. Adverse temperatures were recorded in 20/24 (83%) refrigerators and ranged from -18.5 °C to +34.2 °C with 12,958/128,905 (10%) abnormal hourly records below +2 °C and 7357/128,905 (5.7%) above +8 °C. Time of day significantly affected the rate of temperature excursions, with higher rates from 00 am to 06 am (p cold chain reliability issues reported in the current study in Western Burkina Faso raise concern about vaccine potency. In the absence of systematic renewal of the cold chain infrastructure or improved staff training and monitoring, antibody response assessment is recommended to study levels of effective immunization coverage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solving the interoperability challenge of a distributed complex patient guidance system: a data integrator based on HL7's Virtual Medical Record standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Carlos; González-Ferrer, Arturo; Peleg, Mor; Cavero, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    We show how the HL7 Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standard can be used to design and implement a data integrator (DI) component that collects patient information from heterogeneous sources and stores it into a personal health record, from which it can then retrieve data. Our working hypothesis is that the HL7 vMR standard in its release 1 version can properly capture the semantics needed to drive evidence-based clinical decision support systems. To achieve seamless communication between the personal health record and heterogeneous data consumers, we used a three-pronged approach. First, the choice of the HL7 vMR as a message model for all components accompanied by the use of medical vocabularies eases their semantic interoperability. Second, the DI follows a service-oriented approach to provide access to system components. Third, an XML database provides the data layer.Results The DI supports requirements of a guideline-based clinical decision support system implemented in two clinical domains and settings, ensuring reliable and secure access, high performance, and simplicity of integration, while complying with standards for the storage and processing of patient information needed for decision support and analytics. This was tested within the framework of a multinational project (www.mobiguide-project.eu) aimed at developing a ubiquitous patient guidance system (PGS). The vMR model with its extension mechanism is demonstrated to be effective for data integration and communication within a distributed PGS implemented for two clinical domains across different healthcare settings in two nations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  11. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  12. Visual patient records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luu, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Patient information is often complex and fragmented; visualization can help to obtain and communicate insights. To move from paper medical records to interactive and visual patient records is a big challenge. This project aims to move towards this ultimate goal by providing an interactive prototype

  13. Methodology of teaching and new challenges in the training of professionals in the area of industrial radiology; Metodologia de ensino e novos desafios na formação de profissionais na área de radiologia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M. Araujo, E-mail: c.araujo@maximindustrial.com.br [MAXIM Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, S.Q. [Faculdade Casa Branca (FACAB), SP (Brazil); Lima, A.R. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    One of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge in radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in radiology techniques in training in industrial radiology and radiological protection, the Training Course in Industrial Radiology was created in 2009 by MAXIM, in partnership with the Casa Branca Faculty. The objective is to present the structure and methodology of teaching used in this course to reach the objectives of training professionals with solid knowledge in industrial radiology, as well as to mention the challenges of this training. For the elaboration of the study, a statistical data base and theoretical analysis of the teaching structure of the course was used. Professional training in industrial radiology is subdivided into basic, specific, practical and complementary modules, totaling a workload of 360 hours. It is noted that most of the professionals trained come from the great urban centers of the country, favoring employability in the port terminals and industries that are located in these regions. It is concluded, therefore, that it is necessary and of great importance for the growing industrial market, the formation of new professionals, mainly in cities of the interior.

  14. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  15. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  16. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  17. Aplicação da metodologia de relacionamento probabilístico de base de dados para a identificação de óbitos em estudos epidemiológicos The use of a probabilistic record linkage methodology in databases to identify death records in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pires Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A crescente disponibilidade de dados de abrangência nacional, organizados em distintos sistemas de informação, requer o desenvolvimento de metodologias para o relacionamento de variáveis constantes em diferentes bases de dados. Este artigo descreve e analisa a metodologia utilizada no relacionamento das bases de dados nacionais do Sistema de Informação de Beneficiários (planos privados de assistência à saúde e do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade. Foram analisados os registros de óbitos e os registros de beneficiários no ano de 2004, identificando-se 92.566 óbitos em beneficiários de planos privados de saúde. O rigor na especificidade, em detrimento da sensibilidade do método empregado, não gerou vieses de seleção que pudessem comprometer as análises resultantes. A razão de mortalidade padronizada aponta a subestimação do número de óbitos, além de evidenciar diferenças no risco de morte entre as populações analisadas; no entanto, as diferentes situações de vida e saúde a que estão expostas podem ter interferido nos resultados.The increasing availability of nationwide data organized in distinct information systems requires the development of linkage methodologies to identify the relationships between the same variables in different databases. This article describes and analyzes the linkage methodology between two countrywide databases: the Brazilian Mortality System and the database of the population covered by private health insurance. Death registrations and the records of individuals covered by private health insurance in 2004 were analyzed. 92,566 deaths were identified in those covered by private health insurance. The strictness in specificity instead of sensitivity in the method employed did not lead to selection biases that could have compromised the resulting analyses. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR indicates underestimation of the number of deaths, in addition to showing differences in the

  18. Challenges in risk estimation using routinely collected clinical data: The example of estimating cervical cancer risks from electronic health-records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Cheung, Li C; Schiffman, Mark; Gage, Julia C; Hyun, Noorie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Sasieni, Peter D; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2018-06-01

    Electronic health-records (EHR) are increasingly used by epidemiologists studying disease following surveillance testing to provide evidence for screening intervals and referral guidelines. Although cost-effective, undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval censoring (in which asymptomatic disease is only observed at the time of testing) raise substantial analytic issues when estimating risk that cannot be addressed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Based on our experience analysing EHR from cervical cancer screening, we previously proposed the logistic-Weibull model to address these issues. Here we demonstrate how the choice of statistical method can impact risk estimates. We use observed data on 41,067 women in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2003-2013, as well as simulations to evaluate the ability of different methods (Kaplan-Meier, Turnbull, Weibull and logistic-Weibull) to accurately estimate risk within a screening program. Cumulative risk estimates from the statistical methods varied considerably, with the largest differences occurring for prevalent disease risk when baseline disease ascertainment was random but incomplete. Kaplan-Meier underestimated risk at earlier times and overestimated risk at later times in the presence of interval censoring or undiagnosed prevalent disease. Turnbull performed well, though was inefficient and not smooth. The logistic-Weibull model performed well, except when event times didn't follow a Weibull distribution. We have demonstrated that methods for right-censored data, such as Kaplan-Meier, result in biased estimates of disease risks when applied to interval-censored data, such as screening programs using EHR data. The logistic-Weibull model is attractive, but the model fit must be checked against Turnbull non-parametric risk estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The challenge of non-invasive cognitive physiology of the human brain: how to negotiate the irrelevant background noise without spoiling the recorded data through electronic averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, C; Desmedt, J E

    1999-07-29

    Brain mechanisms involved in selective attention in humans can be studied by measures of regional blood flow and metabolism (by positron emission tomography) which help identify the various locations with enhanced activities over a period of time of seconds. The physiological measures provided by scalp-recorded brain electrical potentials have a better resolution (milliseconds) and can reveal the actual sequences of distinct neural events and their precise timing. We studied selective attention to sensory inputs from fingers because the brain somatic representations are deployed over the brain convexity under the scalp thereby making it possible to assess distinct stages of cortical processing and representation through their characteristic scalp topographies. In the electrical response to a finger input attended by the subject, the well-known P300 manifests a widespread inhibitory mechanism which is released after a target stimulus has been identified. P300 is preceded by distinct cognitive electrogeneses such as P40, P100 and N140 which can be differentiated from the control (obligatory) profile by superimposition or electronic subtraction. The first cortical response N20 is stable across conditions, suggesting that the first afferent thalamocortical volley is not affected by selective attention. At the next stage of modality-specific cortex in which the sensory features are processed and represented, responses were enhanced (cognitive P40) only a very few milliseconds after arrival of the afferent volley at the cortex, thus documenting a remarkable precocity of attention gain control in the somatic modality. The physiology of selective attention also provides useful cues in relation to non-target inputs which the subject must differentiate in order to perform the task. When having to tell fingers apart, the brain strategy for non-target fingers is not to inhibit or filter them out, but rather to submit their input to several processing operations that are

  20. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  1. Testing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical ''signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs

  2. Digital Communication and Records in Service Provision and Supervision: Regulation and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalari, Rachel N S; Gillis, Jennifer M; Kruser, Nathan; Romanczyk, Raymond G

    2015-10-01

    While the use of computer-based communication, video recordings, and other "electronic" records is commonplace in clinical service settings and research, management of digital records can become a great burden from both practical and regulatory perspectives. Three types of challenges commonly present themselves: regulatory requirements; storage, transmission, and access; and analysis for clinical and research decision-making. Unfortunately, few practitioners and organizations are well enough informed to set necessary policies and procedures in an effective, comprehensive manner. The three challenges are addressed using a demonstrative example of policies and procedural guidelines from an applied perspective, maintaining the unique emphasis behavior analysts place upon quantitative analysis. Specifically, we provide a brief review of federal requirements relevant to the use of video and electronic records in the USA; non-jargon pragmatic solutions to managing and storing video and electronic records; and last, specific methodologies to facilitate extraction of quantitative information in a cost-effective manner.

  3. Challenges in service mining : record, check, discover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Daniel, F.; Dolog, P.; Li, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Process mining aims to discover, monitor and improve real processes by extracting knowledge from event logs abundantly available in today’s information systems. Although process mining has been applied in hundreds of organizations and process mining techniques have been embedded in a variety of

  4. Automating occupational protection records systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.

    1991-10-01

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs

  5. A methodology for string resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonis, N.T.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, not a tool. We present this methodology with the intent that it be adopted, on a case by case basis, by each of the existing tools in EPICS. In presenting this methodology, we describe each of its two components in detail and conclude with an example depicting how the methodology can be used across a pair of tools. The task of any control system is to provide access to the various components of the machine being controlled, for example, the Advanced Photon Source (APS). By access, we mean the ability to monitor the machine's status (reading) as well as the ability to explicitly change its status (writing). The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of tools, designed to act in concert, that allows one to construct a control system. EPICS provides the ability to construct a control system that allows reading and writing access to the machine. It does this through the notion of databases. Each of the components of the APS that is accessed by the control system is represented in EPICS by a set of named database records. Once this abstraction is made, from physical device to named database records, the process of monitoring and changing the state of that device becomes the simple process of reading and writing information from and to its associated named records

  6. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  7. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    ... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...

  8. End-Pleistocene to Holocene paleoenvironmental record from piston corer samples and the challenge of stratigraphic correlation of playa sediment data with a connected alluvial apron from Damghan Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Wennrich, Volker; Majid Padashi, Sajed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2015-04-01

    three meters are made up by homogenous partly laminated deposits, rich auf clay and silt and with a decreased content of sulphur and halite. Regular Peaks of sulfate and calcium within this unit presumably indicate post-sedimentary precipitation of gypsum. The homogenous sediment unit is followed by layers clearly set up in three major phases of up-fining sediments. Higher Al and Mg contents following this sedimentation phases suggest a considerable amount of syn-sedimentary clay mineral enrichment. The alignment of alluvial fan phases and phases recorded in the playa is challenging. As figured out before, the focused signals in the study are linked to non-local factors affecting supra-regional land surface alteration. But 0 to less than 1 % organic carbon contents decrease the chance of deriving a valid sediment dating and the possibility of chrono-stratigraphic correlation. Anyway, the clear transitional zone from halite dominated to more or less halite-free sediments can serve as a guideline to the development of further correlations.

  9. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...

  10. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  11. Identifying FRBR Work-Level Data in MARC Bibliographic Records for Manifestations of Moving Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Bisko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The library metadata community is dealing with the challenge of implementing the conceptual model, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR. In response, the Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC created a task force to study the issues related to creating and using FRBR-based work-level records for moving images. This article presents one part of the task force's work: it looks at the feasibility of creating provisional FRBR work-level records for moving images by extracting data from existing manifestation-level bibliographic records. Using a sample of 941 MARC records, a subgroup of the task force conducted a pilot project to look at five characteristics of moving image works. Here they discuss their methodology; analysis; selected results for two elements, original date (year and director name; and conclude with some suggested changes to MARC coding and current cataloging policy.

  12. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  13. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  14. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  15. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EDMS implementation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Marta

    2002-08-01

    The challenges faced by facilities wishing to implement an electronic medical record system are complex and overwhelming. Issues such as customer acceptance, basic computer skills, and a thorough understanding of how the new system will impact work processes must be considered and acted upon. Acceptance and active support are necessary from Senior Administration and key departments to enable this project to achieve measurable success. This article details one hospital's "journey" through design and successful implementation of an electronic medical record system.

  17. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  18. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  19. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  20. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  1. Record club

    CERN Document Server

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  2. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  3. Ocean Color and Earth Science Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritorena, S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color

  4. Summary Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Dupont, E.; ); Dyrda, J.; Hursin, M.; Pelloni, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Ivanov, E.; Ivanova, T.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, Y.O.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, L.; Leichtle, D.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Pronyaev, V.; Simakov, S.

    2013-11-01

    This document is the proceedings of the first formal SG39 Subgroup meeting about methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files. First part of the meeting was devoted to recent data adjustments performances and trends for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 56 Fe and 23 Na. The second part of the meeting delt with the strategy for selection of devoted experiments for these radionuclides. In addition to the bulk of integral experiments already used the issue is to select and calculate additional integral parameters that would focus more specifically on the above radionuclides nuclear data. A list of integral experiments already mentioned during the previous discussions was made and a list of benchmarks for future experiments was discussed. A third part of the meeting concerned the methodology issues and the nuclear data parameters adjustment. This document brings together the presentations (slides) given during the first and third part of the meeting as well as the issues and actions to be discussed at the next meeting

  5. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  6. CAGE IIIA Distributed Simulation Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    2 VHF Very High Frequency VLC Video LAN Codec – an Open-source cross-platform multimedia player and framework VM Virtual Machine VOIP Voice Over...Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx). The key challenges for this methodology are with understanding how to: • design it o define the...operation and to be available in the other nation’s simulations. The challenge for the CAGE campaign of experiments is to continue to build upon this

  7. Hopes and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tops the medal tally again at the Asian Games but still faces challenges in some events The curtain of the 16th Asian Games has fallen, but the 15 days of exciting competitions will be recorded in the history of the Games.

  8. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  9. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  10. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  11. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  12. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  13. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  14. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  15. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  16. Record Club

    CERN Document Server

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  17. Software engineering methodologies and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lawrence M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the years many engineering disciplines have developed, including chemical, electronic, etc. Common to all engineering disciplines is the use of rigor, models, metrics, and predefined methodologies. Recently, a new engineering discipline has appeared on the scene, called software engineering. For over thirty years computer software has been developed and the track record has not been good. Software development projects often miss schedules, are over budget, do not give the user what is wanted, and produce defects. One estimate is there are one to three defects per 1000 lines of deployed code. More and more systems are requiring larger and more complex software for support. As this requirement grows, the software development problems grow exponentially. It is believed that software quality can be improved by applying engineering principles. Another compelling reason to bring the engineering disciplines to software development is productivity. It has been estimated that productivity of producing software has only increased one to two percent a year in the last thirty years. Ironically, the computer and its software have contributed significantly to the industry-wide productivity, but computer professionals have done a poor job of using the computer to do their job. Engineering disciplines and methodologies are now emerging supported by software tools that address the problems of software development. This paper addresses some of the current software engineering methodologies as a backdrop for the general evaluation of computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tools from actual installation of and experimentation with some specific tools.

  18. Records management audit: The case of Gaborone city council ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    records, the existence or non-existence of records management policies and procedures, as well as records security measures at GCC. A case study methodology was used and questionnaires were distributed to 35 officers selected from senior members of staff and records/ administrative personnel. Personal observations ...

  19. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  20. Methodologies, languages and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, Katsuya

    1994-01-01

    This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment

  1. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  2. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  3. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  4. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  5. The challenge of electronic health records (EHRs) design and implementation: responses of health workers to drawing a 'big and rich picture' of a future EHR programme using animated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkings, K Neil; Wilson, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the use of animation tools to aid visualisation of problems for discussion within focus groups, in the context of healthcare workers discussing electronic health records (EHRs). Ten healthcare staff focus groups, held in a range of organisational contexts. Each focus group was in four stages: baseline discussion, animator presentation, post-animator discussion and questionnaire. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed and coded and the emergent analytic themes analysed for issues relating to EHR design and implementation. The data allowed a comparison of baseline and post-animator discussion. The animator facilitated discussion about EHR issues and these were thematically coded as: Workload; Sharing Information; Access to Information; Record Content; Confidentiality; Patient Consent; and Implementation. We illustrate that use of the animator in focus groups is one means to raise understanding about a proposed EHR development. The animator provided a visual 'probe' to support a more proactive and discursive localised approach to end-user concerns, which could be part of an effective stakeholder engagement and communication strategy crucial in any EHR or health informatics implementation programme. The results of the focus groups were to raise salient issues and concerns, many of which anticipated those that have emerged in the current NHS Connecting for Health Care Records programme in England. Potentially, animator-type technologies may facilitate the user ownership which other forms of dissemination appear to be failing to achieve.

  6. Information Management: The Challenges of Managing Electronic Records. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census and National Archives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-10-838T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Valerie C.

    2010-01-01

    Federal agencies are increasingly using electronic means to create, exchange, and store information, and in doing so, they frequently create federal records: that is, information, in whatever form, that documents government functions, activities, decisions, and other important transactions. As the volume of electronic information grows, so does…

  7. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  8. Study of neural plasticity in braille reading visually challenged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhat Yasmeen, Mohammed Muslaiuddin Khalid, Abdul Raoof Omer siddique, Madhuri Taranikanti, Sanghamitra Panda, D.Usha Rani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neural plasticity includes a wide range of adaptive changes due to loss or absence of a particular sense. Cortical mapping or reorganization is evolutionary conserved mechanism which involves either an unmasking of previously silent connections and/or sprouting of new neural elements. Aims & Objectives -To compare the Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs wave form in normal and visually challenged individuals. Materials & Methods: 20 visually challenged males in the age group of 21 -31 yrs were included in the study along with 20 age & sex matched individuals. Subjects were screened for general physical health to rule out any medical disorder, tactile sensibility i.e., sensation of light touch, pressure, tactile localization & discrimination to rule out any delay in the peripheral conduction disorder. Somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded on Nicolet Viking select neuro diagnostic system version 10.0.The placement of electrodes & recording of potentials were done based on methodology in chiappa. Data was subjected to various statistical analyses using SPSS version 17.0 software. N20 & P25 latencies were shorter and amplitudes were larger in visually challenged individuals compared to age & sex matched individuals. Conclusions: In visually challenged individuals, decrease in latencies indicate greatly improved of information in the nervous system & increase in amplitudes indicate the extent and synchronization of neural network involved in processing of vision.

  9. METHODOLOGY OF TECHNIQUE PREPARATION FOR LOW VISION JAVELIN THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Matić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Javelin throwing discipline for disabled people has been expanding couple of years back. In addition, world’s records have been improving year after year. The esential part in preparation of low vision javelin throwers is mastering the technique elements, crucial for acquiring better results. Method of theoretical analysis, decriptive and comparative methods of survey were applied. Relevant knowledge in the area of low vision javelin throwers was analyzed and systematized, and then interpretated theoretically and applied on the top javelin thrower, which served as a base for the inovative apporoach in methodology and praxis with disabled people. Due to visual impairment, the coordination and balance are challenged. This limitation practically makes the difference in methodology, explained in this article. Apart from the goals focused on improving the condition and results on competitions, more specialized goals should be considered, e.g. improving of orientation, balance and socialization process for the people who have low vision. Special approach used in the technique preparation brought the significant improvement in techique of our famous Paralympian Grlica Miloš. In addition to the technique improvement he acquired better results on the big competitions and a few worldwide valuable prizes were won. The area of ’sport for disabled people’ is not enough present in the praxis of sport’s workers. More articles and scientific surveys on this topic are needed for further work and results improvement with these kind of sportsmen.

  10. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  11. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  12. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  13. Nonlinear Image Denoising Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yufang, Bao

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose a theoretical as well as practical framework to combine geometric prior information to a statistical/probabilistic methodology in the investigation of a denoising problem...

  14. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    "Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...

  15. Methodology for eliciting, encoding and simulating human decision making behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Conrad Edgar Scott

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are an increasingly important research tool for describing and predicting interactions among humans and their environment. A key challenge for such models is the ability to faithfully represent human decision making with respect to observed behaviour. This thesis aims to address this challenge by developing a methodology for empirical measurement and simulation of decision making in humanenvironment systems. The methodology employs the Beliefs-Desires-I...

  16. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  17. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  18. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: "What...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Informing the Historical Record of Experimental Nonhuman Primate Infections with Ebola Virus: Genomic Characterization of USAMRIID Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1995/Kikwit-9510621 Challenge Stock "R4368" and Its Replacement "R4415".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available The creation of licensed medical countermeasures against Select Agents such as Ebola virus (EBOV is critically dependent on the use of standardized reagents, assays, and animal models. We performed full genome reconstruction, population genomics, contaminant analysis, and characterization of the glycoprotein gene editing site of historical United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID nonhuman-primate challenge stock Ebola virus Kikwit "R4368" and its 2014 replacement "R4415." We also provide characterization of the master stock used to create "R4415." The obtained data are essential to understanding the quality of the seed stock reagents used in pivotal animal studies that have been used to inform medical countermeasure development. Furthermore, these data might add to the understanding of the influence of EBOV variant populations on pathogenesis and disease outcome and inform attempts to avoid the evolution of EBOV escape mutants in response to current therapeutics. Finally, as the primary challenge stocks have changed over time, these data will provide a baseline for understanding and correlating past and future animal study results.

  20. Managing records in networked environment using EDRMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent Mello

    ways of managing its records and archives. The impetus ... sector challenges and opportunities that organisations such as this are faced with in consideration of the ever-improving .... the operations of Rand Water as a state owned entity.

  1. Journaling: identification of challenges and reflection on strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Brenda; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    To identify the challenges associated with using journaling as a method of data collection and to offer strategies for effectively managing those challenges. While journaling can be used for a variety of reasons, in the context of this paper, journaling refers to the process of participants sharing thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences through writing and/or other media. Journaling is used in phenomenological research studies to record participant experiences in their natural contexts. The findings are based on the experiences of the researchers during a qualitative study that explored the experiences of lesbian mothers and used journaling as one method of data collection. This is a methodological paper. Three main challenges affect journaling as a method of data collection: poor participation, feeling exposed and staying on track. Six strategies to promote participation in journaling are: coaching participants, limiting the journaling period, providing follow-up contact, promoting comfort, ensuring safety and providing clear content expectations. Each strategy is discussed and methods of implementing the strategies are offered. Journaling as a method of data collection has long been accepted as a valid method of accessing rich qualitative data. By acknowledging the common challenges associated with the process of journaling that are experienced by the participants, researchers employing this data collection method can promote constructive and valuable participation. Further research examining participants' experiences of journaling as a method of qualitative data collection would be useful in determining challenges, barriers and benefits of the method.

  2. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  4. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  5. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  6. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

  7. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  8. Transformations of work and theoretical-methodological challenges of ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahão, Júlia Issy; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura

    2002-01-01

    O artigo enfoca a evolução do trabalho identificando as mudanças ocorridas e como elas transformaram a sua natureza. Ele apresenta o desenvolvimento teórico das abordagens utilizadas na relação do homem com o trabalho conseqüente à introdução de inovações tecnológicas. O enfoque adotado neste texto privilegia a análise das situações de trabalho informatizadas e como elas impactam nas condições de trabalho. O referencial norteador é a Ergonomia, seus modelos de intervenção e seus limites, nest...

  9. On the Methodological and Philosophical Challenges of Sociomaterial Theorizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Benjamin; Raeth, Philip; Faraj, Samer

    2012-01-01

    This panel discusses how to take the ontological paradigm of Sociomateriality to the field using alternative theoretical lenses that embody sociomaterial ideas. Based on exemplary papers, Samer Faraj, Karlheinz Kautz, Daniel Robey, and Ulrike Schultze present the advantages of the lens they have ...... to contribute to sociomaterial theorizing, thus supporting the recent trend towards Sociomateriality in the IS research community....

  10. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance: methodological challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Yuri Gasparyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Armen Yuri GasparyanClinical Research Unit, Russell’s Hall Hospital, Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, West Midlands, UKAbstract: Antiplatelet drug resistance is one of the urgent issues in current cardiovascular medicine. Many platelet function tests have been used to define responsiveness of patients with cardiovascular disease to aspirin and clopidogrel. In most studies, cut-off values of platelet function tests for defining responsiveness to antiplatelets were chosen arbitrarily. Different tests provided wide-ranging figures of the prevalence of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance, suggesting poor correlation between currently available platelet function tests. Measurement of platelet size seems to be a promising approach for monitoring antiplatelet drug therapy. This commentary highlights some limitations of studies on aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing coronary interventions.Keywords: aspirin, clopidogrel, resistance, cardiovascular disease, platelet function tests

  11. Beyond discipline? Methodological challenges in contemporary child culture studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Borgen, Jorunn Spord; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    of different ontological and epistemological presuppositions, and how they affect concepts and research designs, is pending. In the proposed roundtable, we invite participants to reflect upon ”discipline” in an extended sense, referring to the principles of research conducted in new settings, drawing...

  12. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, N.; Rudel, T.; Verburg, P.H.; McConnell, W.; Mertz, O.; Gerstner, K.; Heinimann, A.; Ellis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of

  13. Studying boat-based bear viewing: Methodological challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Elmeligi

    2007-01-01

    Wildlife viewing, a growing industry throughout North America, holds much potential for increased revenue and public awareness regarding species conservation. In Alaska and British Columbia, grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) viewing is becoming more popular, attracting tourists from around the world. Viewing is typically done from a land-based observation...

  14. Non-inferiority trials: methodological and regulatory challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangge, G.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial (RCT) is the gold standard to evaluate the intended effects of drugs. In such trials a drug can be compared with a placebo or with another active compound for the same indication. RCTs can be used to demonstrate that a drug is superior to placebo or an active comparator

  15. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  16. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  17. The challenge of electronic health records (EHRs design and implementation: responses of health workers to drawing a 'big and rich picture' of a future EHR programme using animated tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Jenkings

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion We illustrate that use of the animator in focus groups is one means to raise understanding about a proposed EHR development. The animator provided a visual 'probe' to support a more proactive and discursive localised approach to end-user concerns, which could be part of an effective stakeholder engagement and communication strategy crucial in any EHR or health informatics implementation programme. The results of the focus groups were to raise salient issues and concerns, many of which anticipated those that have emerged in the current NHS Connecting for Health Care Records programme in England. Potentially, animator- type technologies may facilitate the user ownership which other forms of dissemination appear to be failing to achieve.

  18. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  19. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  20. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss......Nursing research is often concerned with lived experiences in human life using phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. These empirical studies may use different creative expressions and art-forms to describe and enhance an embodied and personalised understanding of lived experiences. Drawing...... may support a respectful renewal of phenomenological research traditions in nursing research....

  1. Open Government Data Publication Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Public sector bodies hold a significant amount of data that might be of potential interest to citizens and businesses. However the re-use potential of this data is still largely untapped because the data is not always published in a way that would allow its easy discovery, understanding and re-use. Open Government Data (OGD initiatives aim at increasing availability of machine-readable data provided under an open license and therefore these initiatives might facilitate re-use of the government data which in turn might lead to increased transparency and economic growth. However the recent studies show that still only a portion of data provided by the public sector bodies is truly open. Public sector bodies face a number of challenges when publishing OGD and they need to address the relevant risks. Therefore there is a need for best practices and methodologies for publication of OGD that would provide the responsible persons with a clear guidance on how the OGD initiatives should be implemented and how the known challenges and risks should be addressed.

  2. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  3. Methodological approach to strategic performance optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hell, Marko; Vidačić, Stjepan; Garača, Željko

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a matrix approach to the measuring and optimization of organizational strategic performance. The proposed model is based on the matrix presentation of strategic performance, which follows the theoretical notions of the balanced scorecard (BSC) and strategy map methodologies, initially developed by Kaplan and Norton. Development of a quantitative record of strategic objectives provides an arena for the application of linear programming (LP), which is a mathematical tech...

  4. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  5. Computer Network Operations Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    means of their computer information systems. Disrupt - This type of attack focuses on disrupting as “attackers might surreptitiously reprogram enemy...by reprogramming the computers that control distribution within the power grid. A disruption attack introduces disorder and inhibits the effective...between commanders. The use of methodologies is widespread and done subconsciously to assist individuals in decision making. The processes that

  6. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  7. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly...

  8. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  9. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools

  10. NUSAM Methodology for Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Snell, Mark K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This document provides a methodology for the performance-based assessment of security systems designed for the protection of nuclear and radiological materials and the processes that produce and/or involve them. It is intended for use with both relatively simple installations and with highly regulated complex sites with demanding security requirements.

  11. MIRD methodology. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this first part, the basic concepts and the main equations are presented. The ICRP Dosimetric System is also explained. (author)

  12. Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  13. MIRD methodology. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this second part, different methods for the calculation of the accumulated activity are presented, together with the effective half life definition. Different forms of Retention Activity curves are also shown. (author)

  14. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...

  15. The Methodological Imperatives of Feminist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle D. Schrock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist ethnography does not have a single, coherent definition and is caught between struggles over the definition and goals of feminism and the multiple practices known collectively as ethnography. Towards the end of the 1980s, debates emerged that problematized feminist ethnography as a productive methodology and these debates still haunt feminist ethnographers today. In this article, I provide a concise historiography of feminist ethnography that summarizes both its promises and its vulnerabilities. I address the three major challenges I argue feminist ethnographers currently face, which include responding productively to feminist critiques of representing "others," accounting for feminisms' commitment to social change while grappling with poststructuralist critiques of knowledge production, and confronting the historical and ongoing lack of recognition for significant contributions by feminist ethnographers. Despite these challenges, I argue that feminist ethnography is a productive methodology and I conclude by delineating its methodological imperatives. These imperatives include producing knowledge about women's lives in specific cultural contexts, recognizing the potential detriments and benefits of representation, exploring women's experiences of oppression along with the agency they exercise in their own lives, and feeling an ethical responsibility towards the communities in which the researchers work. I argue that this set of imperatives enables feminist ethnographers to successfully navigate the challenges they face.

  16. The Dust Storm Index (DSI): A method for monitoring broadscale wind erosion using meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loingsigh, T.; McTainsh, G. H.; Tews, E. K.; Strong, C. L.; Leys, J. F.; Shinkfield, P.; Tapper, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    Wind erosion of soils is a natural process that has shaped the semi-arid and arid landscapes for millennia. This paper describes the Dust Storm Index (DSI); a methodology for monitoring wind erosion using Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) meteorological observational data since the mid-1960s (long-term), at continental scale. While the 46 year length of the DSI record is its greatest strength from a wind erosion monitoring perspective, there are a number of technical challenges to its use because when the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recording protocols were established the use of the data for wind erosion monitoring was never intended. Data recording and storage protocols are examined, including the effects of changes to the definition of how observers should interpret and record dust events. A method is described for selecting the 180 long-term ABM stations used in this study and the limitations of variable observation frequencies between stations are in part resolved. The rationale behind the DSI equation is explained and the examples of temporal and spatial data visualisation products presented include; a long term national wind erosion record (1965-2011), continental DSI maps, and maps of the erosion event types that are factored into the DSI equation. The DSI is tested against dust concentration data and found to provide an accurate representation of wind erosion activity. As the ABM observational records used here were collected according to WMO protocols, the DSI methodology could be used in all countries with WMO-compatible meteorological observation and recording systems.

  17. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  18. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  19. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  20. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  1. Quality assurance records and records' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Martinek, J.

    1980-01-01

    For nuclear power plants extensive proof of quality is required which has to be documented reliably by quality records. With respect to the paper volume it is the most comprehensive 'curriculum vitae' of the technique. Traditional methods of information and recording are unsatisfactory for meeting regulatory requirements for maintaining the QA-aspects of status reporting, completeness, traceability and retrieval. Therefore KWU has established a record (documentation) subsystem within the overall component qualification system. Examples of the general documentation requirements, the procedure and handling in accordance with this subsystem for mechanical equipment are to be described examplarily. Topics are: - National and international requirements - Definition of QA records - Modular and product orientated KWU-record subsystem - Criteria for developing records - Record control, distribution, collection, storage - New documentation techniques (microfilm, data processing) - Education and training of personnel. (orig./RW)

  2. Methodology for developing new test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology for developing new test methods and forming solutions for the development of new test methods. The basis of the methodology for developing new test methods is the individual elements of the system and process approaches. They contribute to the development of an effective research strategy for the object, the study of interrelations, the synthesis of an adequate model of the test method. The effectiveness of the developed test method is determined by the correct choice of the set of concepts, their interrelations and mutual influence. This allows you to solve the tasks assigned to achieve the goal. The methodology is based on the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. The question of the choice of the method on the basis of which the model for the formation of solutions is based is considered. The methodology provides for recording a model for a new test method in the form of a finite set of objects. These objects are significant for the test method characteristics. Then a causal relationship is established between the objects. Further, the values of fitness indicators and the observability of the method and metrological tolerance for the indicator are established. The work is aimed at the overall goal of ensuring the quality of tests by improving the methodology for developing the test method.

  3. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  4. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  5. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  6. Steganography: LSB Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images . In J. Dittmann, K. Nahrstedt, and P. Wohlmacher, editors, Proceedings of the ACM, Special...Fridrich, M. Gojan and R. Du paper titled “Reliable detection of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images ”. From a general perspective Figure 2...REPORT Steganography : LSB Methodology (Progress Report) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In computer science, steganography is the science

  7. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attiogbe, Julien; Aubonnet, Emilie; De Maquille, Laurence; De Moura, Patrick; Desnoyers, Yvon; Dubot, Didier; Feret, Bruno; Fichet, Pascal; Granier, Guy; Iooss, Bertrand; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Savary, Alain

    2014-12-01

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors) [fr

  8. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  9. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  10. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  11. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  12. Characterizing challenged Minnesota ballots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Lopresti, Daniel; Barney Smith, Elisa H.; Wu, Ziyan

    2011-01-01

    Photocopies of the ballots challenged in the 2008 Minnesota elections, which constitute a public record, were scanned on a high-speed scanner and made available on a public radio website. The PDF files were downloaded, converted to TIF images, and posted on the PERFECT website. Based on a review of relevant image-processing aspects of paper-based election machinery and on additional statistics and observations on the posted sample data, robust tools were developed for determining the underlying grid of the targets on these ballots regardless of skew, clipping, and other degradations caused by high-speed copying and digitization. The accuracy and robustness of a method based on both index-marks and oval targets are demonstrated on 13,435 challenged ballot page images.

  13. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  14. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  15. Pricing methodologies and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, K.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Role of regulatory control in the electric power market; Price regulation; Market monitoring; Quality of supply regulation; Regulatory challenges in Central and Eastern Europe. The findings of these questions are summarized in the Summary. (R.P.)

  16. Going beyond methodological presentism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2017-01-01

    Denmark is an example of a country where the idea of historical ethnic homogeneity stands strong. This article challenges this historical presentism: the scholarly and societal tendency to understand social phenomena within a limited contemporary framework, neglecting possible effects and similar...

  17. Comparing records with related chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  18. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  19. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  20. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  1. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    The reports comprising this volume concern the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in granites in Cornwall, with particular reference to the effect of structures imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses. The topics covered are: in-situ stress measurements using (a) the hydraulic fracturing method, or (b) the US Bureau of Mines deformation probe; scanline discontinuity survey - coding form and instructions, and data; applicability of geostatistical estimation methods to scalar rock properties; comments on in-situ stress at the Carwynnen test mine and the state of stress in the British Isles. (U.K.)

  2. Microphysics evolution and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A few general features of microscopics evolution and their relationship with microscopics methodology are briefly surveyed. Several pluri-disciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects of microscopics research are also discussed in the present scientific context. The need for an equilibrium between individual tendencies and collective constraints required by team work, already formulated thirty years ago by Frederic Joliot, is particularly stressed in the present conjuncture of Nuclear Research favouring very large team projects and discouraging individual initiatives. The increasing importance of the science of science (due to their multiple social, economical, ecological aspects) and the stronger competition between national and international tendencies of scientific (and technical) cooperation are also discussed. (author)

  3. MIRD methodology; Metodologia MIRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Ana M [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez Parada, Ines [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained.

  4. Beam optimization: improving methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteiro, Guillermo F.

    2004-01-01

    Different optimization techniques commonly used in biology and food technology allow a systematic and complete analysis of response functions. In spite of the great interest in medical and nuclear physics in the problem of optimizing mixed beams, little attention has been given to sophisticate mathematical tools. Indeed, many techniques are perfectly suited to the typical problem of beam optimization. This article is intended as a guide to the use of two methods, namely Response Surface Methodology and Simplex, that are expected to fasten the optimization process and, meanwhile give more insight into the relationships among the dependent variables controlling the response

  5. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  6. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  7. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  8. Using the FAIMS Mobile App for field data recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballsun-Stanton, Brian; Klump, Jens; Ross, Shawn

    2016-04-01

    Multiple people creating data in the field poses a hard technical problem: our ``web 2.0'' environment presumes constant connectivity, data ``authority'' held by centralised servers, and sees mobile devices as tools for presentation rather than origination. A particular design challenge is the remoteness of the sampling locations, hundreds of kilometres away from network access. The alternative, however, is hand collection with a lengthy, error prone, and expensive digitisation process. This poster will present a field-tested open-source solution to field data recording. This solution, originally created by a community of archaeologists, needed to accommodate diverse recording methodologies. The community could not agree on standard vocabularies, workflows, attributes, or methodologies, but most agreed that at app to ``record data in the field'' was desirable. As a result, the app is generalised for field data collection; not only can it record a range of data types, but it is deeply customisable. The NeCTAR / ARC funded FAIMS Project, therefore, created an app which allows for arbitrary data collection in the field. In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, FAIMS relied heavily on OSS projects including: spatialite and gdal (for GIS support), sqlite (for a lightweight key-attribute-value datastore), Javarosa and Beanshell (for UI and scripting), Ruby, and Linux. Only by standing on the shoulders of giants, FAIMS was able to make a flexible and highly generalisable field data collection system that CSIRO geoscientists were able to customise to suit most of their completely unanticipated needs. While single-task apps (i.e. those commissioned by structural geologists to take strikes and dips) will excel in their domains, other geoscientists (palaeoecologists, palaeontologists, anyone taking samples) likely cannot afford to commission domain- and methodology-specific recording tools for their custom recording needs. FAIMS shows the utility of OSS software

  9. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  10. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  11. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear-reactor-safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  12. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear reactor safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  13. RHIC Data Correlation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hoff, L.; MacKay, W.; Satogata, T.

    1999-01-01

    A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper

  14. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  15. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  16. Insights into PRA methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Lofgren, E.; Atefi, B.; Liner, R.; Blond, R.; Amico, P.

    1984-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for six nuclear power plants were examined to gain insight into how the choice of analytical methods can affect the results of PRAs. The PRA sreflectope considered was limited to internally initiated accidents sequences through core melt. For twenty methodological topic areas, a baseline or minimal methodology was specified. The choice of methods for each topic in the six PRAs was characterized in terms of the incremental level of effort above the baseline. A higher level of effort generally reflects a higher level of detail or a higher degree of sophistication in the analytical approach to a particular topic area. The impact on results was measured in terms of how additional effort beyond the baseline level changed the relative importance and ordering of dominant accident sequences compared to what would have been observed had methods corresponding to the baseline level of effort been employed. This measure of impact is a more useful indicator of how methods affect perceptions of plant vulnerabilities than changes in core melt frequency would be. However, the change in core melt frequency was used as a secondary measure of impact for nine topics where availability of information permitted. Results are presented primarily in the form of effort-impact matrices for each of the twenty topic areas. A suggested effort-impact profile for future PRAs is presented

  17. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  18. Experimental Economics: Some Methodological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is presenting in a self-contained paper some methodological aspects as they are received in the current experimental literature. The purpose has been to make a critical review of some very influential papers dealing with methodological issues. In other words, the idea is to have a single paper where people first approaching experimental economics can find summarised (some) of the most important methodological issues. In particular, the focus is on some methodological prac...

  19. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  20. Methodology for the hybrid solution of systems of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga, E.F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows a general methodology of solution to systems of differential equations in hybrid computers. Taking into account this methodology, a mathematical model was elaborated. It offers wide possibilities of recording and handling the results on the basis of using the hybrid system IBM-VIDAC 1224 which the ISCTN has. It also presents the results gained when simulating a simple model of a nuclear reactor, which was used in the validation of the results of the computational model

  1. Research Methodology in Business: A Starter’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, Mohamed AF; Arisha, Amr

    2018-01-01

    A cardinal requisite of successful research lies in the proper selection of the research methodology applied to achieve research objectives using the available resources. In addition to acquiring sufficient knowledge of their specific research topic, researchers are urged to develop good understanding of alternative research methodologies at their disposal to be able to identify the best-suited methods to address the research question. This, however, often poses a challenge for novice researc...

  2. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  3. Challenging makerspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Thestrup, Klaus

    This paper takes its departure in the EU-project MakEY - Makerspaces in the early years – enhancing digital literacy and creativity that is part of a H2020 RISE-program and is running January 2017 - June 2019. Here digital literacy and creative skills of young children between the age of 3......-8 will be developed through participation in creative activities in specially-designed spaces termed ‘makerspaces’. This paper discusses, develops and challenges this term in relation to Danish pedagogical traditions, to expanding makerspaces onto the internet and on how to combine narratives and construction....... The Danish part of the project will be undertaken by a small network of partners: DOKK1, a public library and open urban space in Aarhus, that is experimenting with different kind of makerspaces, spaces and encounters between people, The LEGO-LAB situated at Computer Science, Aarhus University, that has...

  4. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  5. [Challenges of Digital Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Jürg

    2018-06-01

    Challenges of Digital Medicine Abstract. Digitization is increasingly covering more and more sectors, including medicine. To ensure medical operation 365 × 24 hours, progressively more human and financial resources are necessary. The transformation of patient histories from paper into electronic patient records focused initially on documentation. Today, hospital information systems are increasingly used as a platform for the communication of all professionals involved in the patient process - in Switzerland, however, so far without providing patients direct access to their data. Digititizing processes intend to increase efficiency, but also to enhance clinical and administrative decision support and quality assurance. The introduction of the electronic patient record in Switzerland in 2020 is expected to provide cross-company, more complete documentation of patient care. Multimorbid patients, often treated in different institutions and by different specialists, should benefit from this in particular. Advances in artificial intelligence offer new opportunities in medicine. Challenges include ensuring reliable data protection, and better interoperability of the systems involved. Semantically structured, machine-readable data exchange is a necessity for both networked services and internationally competitive research.

  6. Challenges of Combining Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Maria; Titelman, David; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2018-02-23

    Asylum seekers have increased risk of suicide and suicidal behavior, with differences related to origin, gender, and age. There are barriers to communication in clinical encounters between asylum seekers and clinicians. There is insufficient knowledge about how communication in the clinical encounter affects the suicide risk in female asylum seekers. To explore the documented communication between female asylum-seeking suicide attempters and clinicians and how it affects treatment. The medical records of 18 asylum-seeking women who had attempted suicide were analyzed with content analysis. Communication between patients and clinicians was affected by: the unbearable realities of the women; difficulties for clinicians in decoding languages of distress, and understanding trauma and subjective meanings of suicide; challenges of combining patients' and clinicians' perspectives; and a sense of shared powerlessness. The medical records did not give direct access to the patient's experience, only to the patient as documented by the clinician. The results suggest that clinicians working with asylum seekers who have attempted suicide need to develop an understanding of social and cultural factors and of trauma issues. A question for further study is how an enhanced integration of context and subjectivity in psychiatric practice would equip clinicians for the specific challenges encountered.

  7. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  8. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  9. Record Recommendations for the CERN Document Server

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2096025; Marian, Ludmila

    CERN Document Server (CDS) is the institutional repository of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It hosts all the research material produced at CERN, as well as multi- media and administrative documents. It currently has more than 1.5 million records grouped in more than 1000 collections. It’s underlying platform is Invenio, an open source digital library system created at CERN. As the size of CDS increases, discovering useful and interesting records becomes more challenging. Therefore, the goal of this work is to create a system that supports the user in the discovery of related interesting records. To achieve this, a set of recommended records are displayed on the record page. These recommended records are based on the analyzed behavior (page views and downloads) of other users. This work will describe the methods and algorithms used for creating, implementing, and the integration with the underlying software platform, Invenio. A very important decision factor when designing a recomme...

  10. Perpendicular recording: the promise and the problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Roger; Sonobe, Yoshiaki; Jin Zhen; Wilson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Perpendicular recording has long been advocated as a means of achieving the highest areal densities. In particular, in the context of the 'superparamagnetic limit', perpendicular recording with a soft underlayer promises several key advantages. These advantages include a higher coercivity, thicker media that should permit smaller diameter grains and higher signal-to-noise ratio. Also, the sharper edge-writing will facilitate recording at very high track densities (lower bit aspect ratio). Recent demonstrations of the technology have shown densities comparable with the highest densities reported for longitudinal recording. This paper further examines the promise that perpendicular recording will deliver an increase in areal density two to eight times higher than that achievable with longitudinal recording. There are a number of outstanding issues but the key challenge is to create a low-noise medium with a coercivity that is high and is much larger than the remanent magnetization

  11. The Challenges of Managing Electronic Records in the ESARBICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , outline goals and programmes, identify rights and privileges and communicate information. The great advances made in the use of information technology (IT) in recent years has revolutionised communication both within and outside the ...

  12. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The applicability of some methods of statistical analysis for discontinuity data is reviewed. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Methods of determining the in-situ stresses are described and the final results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring and hydrofracture methods are reported. (author)

  13. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  14. Agile methodology selection criteria: IT start-up case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micic, Lj

    2017-05-01

    Project management in modern IT companies is often based on agile methodologies which have several advantages compared to traditional methodologies such is waterfall. Having in mind that clients sometimes change project during development it is crucial for an IT company to choose carefully which methodology is going to implement and is it going to be mostly based on one or is it going got be combination of several. There are several modern and often used methodologies but among those Scrum, Kanban and XP programming are usually the most common. Sometimes companies use mostly tools and procedures from one but quite often they use some of the combination of those methodologies. Having in mind that those methodologies are just a framework they allow companies to adapt it for their specific projects as well as for other limitations. These methodologies are in limited usage Bosnia but more and more IT companies are starting to use agile methodologies because it is practice and common not just for their clients abroad but also starting to be the only option in order to deliver quality product on time. However it is always challenging which methodology or combination of several companies should implement and how to connect it to its own project, organizational framework and HR management. This paper presents one case study based on local IT start up and delivers solution based on theoretical framework and practical limitations that case company has.

  15. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  16. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  17. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  18. Establishment of Requirements and Methodology for the Development and Implementation of GreyMatters, a Memory Clinic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapuria, Archana; Evans, Matt; Curcin, Vasa; Austin, Tony; Lea, Nathan; Kalra, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. The methodology for development of the information system involved phases of requirements gathering, modeling and prototype creation, and 'bench testing' the prototype with experts. The standard Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommended approach for the specifications of software requirements was adopted. An electronic health record (EHR) standard, EN13606 was used, and clinical modelling was done through archetypes and the project complied with data protection and privacy legislation. The requirements for GreyMatters were established. Though the initial development was complex, the requirements, methodology and standards adopted made the construction, deployment, adoption and population of a memory clinic and research database feasible. The electronic patient data including the assessment scales provides a rich source of objective data for audits and research and to establish study feasibility and identify potential participants for the clinical trials. The establishment of requirements and methodology, addressing issues of data security and confidentiality, future data compatibility and interoperability and medico-legal aspects such as access controls and audit trails, led to a robust and useful system. The evaluation supports that the system is an acceptable tool for clinical, administrative, and research use and forms a useful part of the wider information architecture.

  19. Glomar challenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J P

    1969-01-01

    The Glomar Challenger has a length of 400 ft, a 65-ft beam, and a depth of 27 ft 6-in. She has a draft of 20 ft with a gross displacement of 10,500 long tons. The principal specifications of the vessel are tabulated. To achieve dynamic positioning, 4 fixed thrusters and the vessel's 2 propulsion screws are utilized. The ''fix'' is obtained by placing a sonar beacon, with self contained batteries, on the ocean floor at a selected site. The vessel is provided with 4 hydrophones installed in the hull at the 4 corners of a square. The sonar beacon radiates sound waves at a fixed pulse rate. If the vessel is directly over the beacon, the sound waves will arrive at all hydrophones simultaneously. A difference in time of arrival indicates the vessel is off location. The sound signals received by the hydrophones are fed into a computer. They are changed into coordinate information, which serves as the primary function of determining corrective action by the vessel's propulsion and thruster system. The computer feeds back information into a control system, which enables the propulsion and thrusters to automatically respond, in order to keep the vessel on the predetermined location. The major drilling components are listed. The deep-sea drilling project is described. A summary of the first leg is given in tabular form.

  20. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  1. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...

  2. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  3. Your Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for all your doctors ... doctor's office is trying to protect a patient's privacy or safety. For example, they may say no ...

  4. Climate Record Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Record Books contain daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910,...

  5. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  6. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  7. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    with independent random increments. The term record dynamics covers the rather new idea that records may, in special situations, have measurable dynamical consequences. The approach applies to the aging dynamics of glasses and other systems with multiple metastable states. The basic idea is that record sizes...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  8. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  9. Electronic records management in the public health sector of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngulup

    Document and Records Management System, medical records, service delivery, public ... standard operating procedures and formal methodologies for managing .... cords is the “information which is generated electronically and stored by means of a computer ..... This is because the disadvantages of one instrument are the.

  10. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  11. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  12. Evolution of aging assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, L.; Dam, R.; Gold, R.

    2011-01-01

    Under the influence of organizations like the IAEA and INPO the expectations of the regulator and plant operators alike are driving the evolution of aging assessment methodologies. The key result is that these assessments need to be executed more efficiently while supporting risk informed thinking within a living process. Some recent trends impacting aging assessments include new standards from the regulator requiring more frequent updates of aging assessments (RD-334), and broader component coverage driven by equipment reliability program demands (INPO AP-913). These trends point to the need to be able to do aging assessment more efficiently, and to manage the configuration. Some of the challenges include increasing efficiency while maintaining completeness and minimizing error, employing a systematic, well defined approach while maintaining the flexibility to apply the right level of effort to achieve desired results, and in particular, assuring that Aging Related Degradation Mechanisms (ARDMs) are sufficiently addressed. Meeting these needs creates a natural synergy with the Preventive Maintenance living program and therefore lends itself to a more integrated approach. To support this program, the SYSTMSTM software has been enhanced to accommodate for the various facets of an integrated program while meeting the needs described above. The systematic processes in SYSTMS are built with the vision of supporting risk-informed decision making as part of a larger risk-based functional tools suite. This paper intends to show how the utilities can benefit from the cost savings associated with increased assessment efficiency, and utilizing Candu Energy Inc.'s CANDU-specific knowledge-base and experience in aging assessment to get it right the first time. (author)

  13. Evolution of aging assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, L.; Dam, R.; Gold, R. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Under the influence of organizations like the IAEA and INPO the expectations of the regulator and plant operators alike are driving the evolution of aging assessment methodologies. The key result is that these assessments need to be executed more efficiently while supporting risk informed thinking within a living process. Some recent trends impacting aging assessments include new standards from the regulator requiring more frequent updates of aging assessments (RD-334), and broader component coverage driven by equipment reliability program demands (INPO AP-913). These trends point to the need to be able to do aging assessment more efficiently, and to manage the configuration. Some of the challenges include increasing efficiency while maintaining completeness and minimizing error, employing a systematic, well defined approach while maintaining the flexibility to apply the right level of effort to achieve desired results, and in particular, assuring that Aging Related Degradation Mechanisms (ARDMs) are sufficiently addressed. Meeting these needs creates a natural synergy with the Preventive Maintenance living program and therefore lends itself to a more integrated approach. To support this program, the SYSTMSTM software has been enhanced to accommodate for the various facets of an integrated program while meeting the needs described above. The systematic processes in SYSTMS are built with the vision of supporting risk-informed decision making as part of a larger risk-based functional tools suite. This paper intends to show how the utilities can benefit from the cost savings associated with increased assessment efficiency, and utilizing Candu Energy Inc.'s CANDU-specific knowledge-base and experience in aging assessment to get it right the first time. (author)

  14. Methodological Problems of Nanotechnoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhov, V. G.

    Recently, we have reported on the definitions of nanotechnology as a new type of NanoTechnoScience and on the nanotheory as a cluster of the different natural and engineering theories. Nanotechnology is not only a new type of scientific-engineering discipline, but it evolves also in a “nonclassical” way. Nanoontology or nano scientific world view has a function of the methodological orientation for the choice the theoretical means and methods toward a solution to the scientific and engineering problems. This allows to change from one explanation and scientific world view to another without any problems. Thus, nanotechnology is both a field of scientific knowledge and a sphere of engineering activity, in other words, NanoTechnoScience is similar to Systems Engineering as the analysis and design of large-scale, complex, man/machine systems but micro- and nanosystems. Nano systems engineering as well as Macro systems engineering includes not only systems design but also complex research. Design orientation has influence on the change of the priorities in the complex research and of the relation to the knowledge, not only to “the knowledge about something”, but also to the knowledge as the means of activity: from the beginning control and restructuring of matter at the nano-scale is a necessary element of nanoscience.

  15. Methodological themes and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetlock, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the tangible progress that has been made in clarifying the underlying processes that affect both the likelihood of war in general and of nuclear war in particular. It also illustrates how difficult it is to make progress in this area. Nonetheless, what has been achieved should not be minimized. We have learned a good deal on both the theoretical and the methodological fronts and, perhaps, most important, we have learned a good deal about the limits of our knowledge. Knowledge of our ignorance---especially in a policy domain where confident, even glib, causal assertions are so common---can be a major contribution in itself. The most important service the behavioral and social sciences can currently provide to the policy making community may well be to make thoughtful skepticism respectable: to sensitize those who make key decisions to the uncertainty surrounding our understanding of international conflict and to the numerous qualifications that now need to be attached to simple causal theories concerning the origins of war

  16. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The term ''radioecology'' has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ''engineering radioecology'', seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology

  17. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples

  18. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Country report: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which could be applicable to establish a country report. In the framework of nuclear non proliferation appraisal and IAEA safeguards implementation, it is important to be able to assess the potential existence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities as undeclared facilities in the country under review. In our views a country report should aim at providing detailed information on nuclear related activities for each country examined taken 'as a whole' such as nuclear development, scientific and technical capabilities, etc. In order to study a specific country, we need to know if there is already an operating nuclear civil programme or not. In the first case, we have to check carefully if it could divert nuclear material, if there are misused declared facilities or if they operate undeclared facilities and conduct undeclared activities aiming at manufacturing nuclear weapon. In the second case, we should pay attention to the development of a nuclear civil project. A country report is based on a wide span of information (most of the time coming from open sources but sometimes coming also from confidential or private ones). Therefore, it is important to carefully check the nature and the credibility (reliability?) of these sources through cross-check examination. Eventually, it is necessary to merge information from different sources and apply an expertise filter. We have at our disposal a lot of performing tools to help us to assess, understand and evaluate the situation (cartography, imagery, bibliometry, etc.). These tools allow us to offer the best conclusions as far as possible. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  20. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  1. Kaupapa Maori Methodology: Trusting the Methodology through Thick and Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiha, Anne Aroha

    2016-01-01

    Kaupapa Maori is thoroughly theorised in academia in Aotearoa and those wishing to use it as their research methodology can find support through the writing of a number of Maori academics. What is not so well articulated, is the experiential voice of those who have used Kaupapa Maori as research methodology. My identity as a Maori woman…

  2. Fast digital recorders of signal shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshko, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology of fast digital registration and pulse signals through fast-action analog-to-digital converters is considered. Systems of digital recorders: sampling and storage devices and operational memory units are described. Main attention is paid to developing parallel analog-to-digital converters, making it possible to bring the conversion frequencies up to several gigahertzes are described. Parallel-sequential analog-to-digital converters, combining high action with increased accuracy are also considered. Concrete examples of designing universal and specialized digital signal recorders, applied in experimental physics, are presented. 44 refs., 12 figs

  3. Methodological considerations for observational coding of eating and feeding behaviors in children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-12-15

    Behavioral coding of videotaped eating and feeding interactions can provide researchers with rich observational data and unique insights into eating behaviors, food intake, food selection as well as interpersonal and mealtime dynamics of children and their families. Unlike self-report measures of eating and feeding practices, the coding of videotaped eating and feeding behaviors can allow for the quantitative and qualitative examinations of behaviors and practices that participants may not self-report. While this methodology is increasingly more common, behavioral coding protocols and methodology are not widely shared in the literature. This has important implications for validity and reliability of coding schemes across settings. Additional guidance on how to design, implement, code and analyze videotaped eating and feeding behaviors could contribute to advancing the science of behavioral nutrition. The objectives of this narrative review are to review methodology for the design, operationalization, and coding of videotaped behavioral eating and feeding data in children and their families, and to highlight best practices. When capturing eating and feeding behaviors through analysis of videotapes, it is important for the study and coding to be hypothesis driven. Study design considerations include how to best capture the target behaviors through selection of a controlled experimental laboratory environment versus home mealtime, duration of video recording, number of observations to achieve reliability across eating episodes, as well as technical issues in video recording and sound quality. Study design must also take into account plans for coding the target behaviors, which may include behavior frequency, duration, categorization or qualitative descriptors. Coding scheme creation and refinement occur through an iterative process. Reliability between coders can be challenging to achieve but is paramount to the scientific rigor of the methodology. Analysis approach

  4. Loyalty programs challenges in retail banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskienė, Neringa; Auruškevičienė, Viltė

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges of loyalty programs in retail banks in Lithuania. Case study methodology was chosen to analyze the loyalty programs launched by various banks to show how banks are building the loyalty of individual customers and what challenges these banks face. The findings suggest that the majority of analyzed loyalty programs reward a repeat purchasing. Lithuanian retail banks launching loyalty programs for two customer segments - the potentially prof...

  5. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the West there is a happy congruence between policy supportive of CLT or Task-Based Language Teaching, teacher education and supervision, and curriculum design with teachers’ cognitions and their practices. Our case study of three EFL teachers at a UK adult education college is motivated by a wish to question this assumption. Findings from observational and interview data suggest the practices of two teachers were largely consistent with their methodological principles, relating to stronger and weaker forms of CLT respectively, as well as to more general educational principles, such as a concern for learners; the supportive environment seemed to help. The third teacher appeared to put “difficult” contextual factors, for example, tests, ahead of methodological principles without, however, obviously benefiting. Implications highlight the important role of teacher cognition research in challenging cultural assumptions.

  6. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  7. Assessment of methodologies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoos, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    No quantitative methodology is adequate to encompass and assess all the risks, no risk/benefit calculation is fine-tuned enough to supply decision-makers with the full range and all of the dimensions. Quality assurance cannot be conceived in terms of systems design alone, but must be maintained vigilantly and with integrity throughout the process. The responsibility of the NRC is fairly well established with respect to overall reactor safety. With respect to the management of radioactive wastes, its mission is not yet so clearly delineated. Herein lies a challenge and an opportunity. Where the known quantitative methodologies are restrictive and likely to have negative feedback effect on authority and public support, the broader lens and the bolder thrust are called for. The cozy cocoon of figures ultimately protects no one. The Commission, having acknowledged that the management of radioactive wastes is not merely a technological matter can now take the socially responsible position of exploring as fully and confronting as candidly as possible the total range of dimensions involved. Paradoxically, it is Charles J. Hitch, intellectual progenitor of the methodology, who observes that we may be missing the meaning of his message by relying too heavily on quantitative analysis and thus defining our task too narrowly. We live in a closed system, in which science and technology, politics and economics, and, above all, social and human elements interact, sometimes to create the problems, sometimes to articulate the questions, and sometimes to find viable solutions

  8. Scanner image methodology (SIM) to measure dimensions of leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A scanner image methodology was used to determine plant dimensions, such as leaf area, length and width. The values obtained using SIM were compared with those recorded by the LI-COR leaf area meter. Bias, linearity, reproducibility and repeatability (R&R) were evaluated for SIM. Different groups of leaves were ...

  9. Perception-oriented methodology for robust motion estimation design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, A.; Vleuten, van der R.J.; Haan, de G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing a motion estimator (ME) for picture rate conversion is challenging. This is because there are many types of MEs and, within each type, many parameters, which makes subjective assessment of all the alternatives impractical. To solve this problem, we propose an automatic design methodology

  10. Using Six Sigma and Lean methodologies to improve OR throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Catharine B

    2007-07-01

    Improving patient flow in the perioperative environment is challenging, but it has positive implications for both staff members and for the facility. One facility in vermont improved patient throughput by incorporating Six Sigma and Lean methodologies for patients undergoing elective procedures. The results of the project were significantly improved patient flow and increased teamwork and pride among perioperative staff members. (c) AORN, Inc, 2007.

  11. Identification of Nigerian English idioms: A methodological perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The task becomes more challenging when the feature of interest involves figurative meaning such as idioms and idiomatic expressions. In a recently completed project that sought to examine idioms in Nigerian English, questions and issues about methodology were raised. Among these were the questions of how idioms in ...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Ewald; Stadlbauer, Andreas; Windischberger, Christian; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) methods are non-invasive techniques to provide detailed, multi-parametric information on human anatomy, function and metabolism. Sensitivity, specificity, spatial and temporal resolution may, however, vary depending on hardware (e.g., field strength, gradient strength and speed) and software (optimised measurement protocols and parameters for the various techniques). Furthermore, multi-modality imaging may enhance specificity to better characterise complex disease patterns. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an interesting, largely complementary modality, which might be combined with MR. Despite obvious advantages, combining these rather different physical methods may also pose challenging problems. At this early stage, it seems that PET quality may be preserved in the magnetic field and, if an adequate detector material is used for the PET, MR sensitivity should not be significantly degraded. Again, this may vary for the different MR techniques, whereby functional and metabolic MR is more susceptible than standard anatomical imaging. Here we provide a short introduction to MR basics and MR techniques, also discussing advantages, artefacts and problems when MR hardware and PET detectors are combined. In addition to references for more detailed descriptions of MR fundamentals and applications, we provide an early outlook on this novel and exciting multi-modality approach to PET/MR. (orig.)

  13. How to emerge from the conservatism in clinical research methodology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Nuria; Penel, Nicolas; Awada, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigators are facing major challenges in drug development methodology. We propose to individualize clinical research using innovative approaches to significantly improve patient outcomes and targeting what is considered unmet need. Integrating high level of translational research and performing well designed biomarker studies with great potential for clinical practice are of utmost importance. This could be performed within new models of clinical research networks and by building a strong collaboration between academic, cooperative groups, on-site investigators, and pharma.

  14. Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…

  15. A methodology for social experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    A methodology is outlined whereby one may improve the performance of a social system to the satisfaction of its stakeholders, that is, facilitate desirable social and organizational transformations......A methodology is outlined whereby one may improve the performance of a social system to the satisfaction of its stakeholders, that is, facilitate desirable social and organizational transformations...

  16. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…

  17. Methodological Pluralism and Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…

  18. Building ASIPS the Mescal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Gries, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A number of system designers use ASIP's rather than ASIC's to implement their system solutions. This book gives a comprehensive methodology for the design of these application-specific instruction processors (ASIPs). It includes demonstrations of applications of the methodologies using the Tipi research framework.

  19. A methodology for software documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Júnior, Roberto Dias; Ahlert, Hubert

    2000-01-01

    With the growing complexity of window based software and the use of object-oriented, the development of software is getting more complex than ever. Based on that, this article intends to present a methodology for software documentation and to analyze our experience and how this methodology can aid the software maintenance

  20. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  1. Recognizing and overcoming challenges of couple interview research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Ruth M; Slaymaker, Emma; Cleland, John

    2013-10-01

    In this article we discuss some methodological and ethical challenges we faced when conducting a couple-based study on men's role in contraceptive switching, and how we overcame them. The challenges we discuss include recruiting couples with a range of experiences, ensuring informed consent of participants, maintaining confidentiality within interviews, and participants discussing interview content between interviews. As appropriate, we have drawn on study participants' views of these challenges. We conclude that although couple research poses challenges, they can be overcome or minimized, and that for certain research questions this methodology is well worth using.

  2. AEGIS methodology and a perspective from AEGIS methodology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1981-03-01

    Objectives of AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) are to develop the capabilities needed to assess the post-closure safety of waste isolation in geologic formation; demonstrate these capabilities on reference sites; apply the assessment methodology to assist the NWTS program in site selection, waste package and repository design; and perform repository site analyses for the licensing needs of NWTS. This paper summarizes the AEGIS methodology, the experience gained from methodology demonstrations, and provides an overview in the following areas: estimation of the response of a repository to perturbing geologic and hydrologic events; estimation of the transport of radionuclides from a repository to man; and assessment of uncertainties

  3. Intelligent systems/software engineering methodology - A process to manage cost and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Carl; Lehrer, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    A systems development methodology is discussed that has been successfully applied to the construction of a number of intelligent systems. This methodology is a refinement of both evolutionary and spiral development methodologies. It is appropriate for development of intelligent systems. The application of advanced engineering methodology to the development of software products and intelligent systems is an important step toward supporting the transition of AI technology into aerospace applications. A description of the methodology and the process model from which it derives is given. Associated documents and tools are described which are used to manage the development process and record and report the emerging design.

  4. The development and deployment of electronic personal health records records: a strategic positioning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Baxter, Ryan; Pouder, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of strategic position on the ability of an entrepreneurial firm to successfully develop and deploy electronic personal health records technology within the US healthcare industry. This study uses an in-depth longitudinal case study methodology. The study contributes by juxtaposing a longitudinal view of how the focal firm proposed and acted on different strategic positions in an attempt to achieve development and deployment success. In doing so, the study also elaborates on Porter's recognition that firms need to make trade-offs when choosing a strategic position, as the purposeful limitation of service offerings can protect against the degradation of existing value creating activities. The authors' study highlights the enormous challenge of facilitating the adoption and diffusion of technology enabled interventions in the US healthcare ecosystem. Future research that combines both interdisciplinary and multi-level investigation and analysis is sorely needed to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the phenomenon and to encourage the development and deployment of useful technology enabled interventions within the US healthcare industry. While the fragmented nature of the healthcare industry provides opportunities for entrepreneurial firms, such complexity within the ecosystem should not be underestimated as a reason for concern for small firms. Total economic burden due to chronic diseases and other healthcare-related expenses is massive for the USA. Consequently, prevention and early detection of future disease states has become a core component of the current healthcare reform debate. EPHRs are considered one core component of a broader healthcare strategy to improve health outcomes and lower costs. By deepening our understanding of how best to develop and deploy such interventions, society will surely benefit. The longitudinal nature of the authors' study provides a unique opportunity to understand the

  5. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  6. Business coaching: challenges for an emerging industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Rhodes, C.G.; Kornberger, M.; Stilin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose — To identify the distinguishing characteristics and future challenges for the business coaching industry in Australia. Design/methodology/approach — A telephone survey of business coaching firms was used to identify the main structural characteristics of the industry. Structured interviews

  7. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  8. Disturbance recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Deshpande, S.V.; Mayya, A.; Vaidya, U.W.; Premraj, M.K.; Patil, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized system for disturbance monitoring, recording and display has been developed for use in nuclear power plants and is versatile enough to be used where ever a large number of parameters need to be recorded, e.g. conventional power plants, chemical industry etc. The Disturbance Recording System (DRS) has been designed to continuously monitor a process plant and record crucial parameters. The DRS provides a centralized facility to monitor and continuously record 64 process parameters scanned every 1 sec for 5 days. The system also provides facility for storage of 64 parameters scanned every 200 msec during 2 minutes prior to and 3 minutes after a disturbance. In addition the system can initiate, on demand, the recording of 8 parameters at a fast rate of every 5 msec for a period of 5 sec. and thus act as a visicorder. All this data is recorded in non-volatile memory and can be displayed, printed/plotted and used for subsequent analysis. Since data can be stored densely on floppy disks, the volume of space required for archival storage is also low. As a disturbance recorder, the DRS allows the operator to view the state of the plant prior to occurrence of the disturbance and helps in identifying the root cause. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs

  9. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  10. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  11. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  12. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  13. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 1: simulation methodology, design applications, and TORMIS computer code. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and risk has been assessed for a hypothetical nuclear power plant design case study

  14. Challenges of local water governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Bustamante, Rocio; Cissé, Abdoulaye

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of comprehensive inventories made of water-related conflict and cooperation occurring in five districts in Africa, Asia and Latin America between 1997 and 2007. Following a description of the conceptual and methodological framework developed for undertaking...... these inventories, the article documents the extent, nature and intensity of water-related conflict and cooperation in the five districts. The article concludes by identifying three challenges relating to the magnitude, complexity and invisibility of local-level conflict and cooperation about water, which efforts...... to improve local water governance would have to address....

  15. University education: Demands and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pinos Vélez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the current situation prevailing in the Universities from the point of view of a teacher whose academic since its inception has been Salesian, which allows for a “best approach” to young students and where the passion for teaching is clearly influenced by the teachings of one of the greatest teachers, Don Bosco. Also, these teachings are still of great relevance in our time, seek to adopt these methodologies in our workspaces teaching is challenging, where you can suggest new strategies for communication and integration with students and in this way to service the needy, such as programs aid Persons with Disabilities.

  16. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  17. Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A

    2010-01-01

    This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and

  18. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  19. Discovering the Effects-Endstate Linkage: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Perform EBO Mission Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Jr, William E

    2005-01-01

    .... EBO mission analysis is shown to be more problem structuring than problem solving. A new mission analysis process is proposed using a modified version of Soft Systems Methodology to meet these challenges...

  20. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick

    2011-01-01

    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  1. Challenged assumptions and invisible effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Vitus, Kathrine; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    for the implementation—different from the assumed conditions—not only challenge the implementation of the intervention but also potentially produce unanticipated yet valuable effects. Research implications – Newly arrived immigrants represent a hugely diverse and heterogeneous group of people with differing values......Purpose – The objective of this study was to examine any unanticipated effects of an educational intervention among newly arrived adult immigrants attending a language school in Denmark. Methodology – A qualitative case study was conducted including interviews with nine informants, observations....... In particular, the assumed (power) relations inherent in immigrant-oriented educational health interventions, in which immigrants are in a novice position, are challenged, as the immigrants are experienced adults (and parents) in regard to healthcare. The paper proposes that such unexpected conditions...

  2. Physicists set new record for network data transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "An international team of physicists, computer scientists, and network engineers joined forces to set new records for sustained data transfer between storage systems durint the SuperComputing 2006 (SC06) Bandwidth Challenge (BWC). (3 pages)

  3. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    generalization. Theoretically, the argumentation in the article is based on practice theory. The main part of the article describes three different examples of ways of generalizing on the basis of the same qualitative data material. There is a particular focus on describing the methodological strategies......In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  4. Nanotoxicology materials, methodologies, and assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Nelson; Alves, Oswaldo L; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    This book begins with a detailed introduction to engineered nanostructures, followed by a section on methodologies used in research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and concluding with evidence for the cyto- and genotoxicity of specific nanoparticles.

  5. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  6. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...... of the personal data concerning health, from different sources, and throughout a lifetime....

  7. Methodologies used in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    UNGUREANU, Adrian; UNGUREANU, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Undoubtedly, a methodology properly defined and strictly followed for project management provides a firm guarantee that the work will be done on time, in budget and according to specifications. A project management methodology in simple terms is a “must-have” to avoid failure and reduce risks, because is one of the critical success factors, such basic skills of the management team. This is the simple way to guide the team through the design and execution phases, processes and tasks throughout...

  8. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  9. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  10. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  11. Personal health records as portal to the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer E; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2014-03-01

    This topic review discusses the evolving clinical challenges associated with the implementation of electronic personal health records (PHR) that are fully integrated with electronic medical records (EMR). The benefits of facilitating patient access to the EMR through web-based, PHR-portals may be substantial; foremost is the potential to enhance the flow of information between patient and healthcare practitioner. The benefits of improved communication and transparency of care are presumed to be a reduction in clinical errors, increased quality of care, better patient-management of disease, and better disease and symptom comprehension. Yet PHR databases allow patients open access to newly-acquired clinical data without the benefit of concurrent expert clinical interpretation, and therefore may create the potential for greater patient distress and uncertainty. With specific attention to neuro-oncology patients, this review focuses on the developing conflicts and consequences associated with the use of a PHR that parallels data acquisition of the EMR in real-time. We conclude with a discussion of recommendations for implementing fully-integrated PHR for neuro-oncology patients.

  12. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  13. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Deploying Electronic Health Record

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOFTLINKS DIGITAL

    [11] Verisign Whitepaper (2005) Managing Application Security in Business ... health record (EHR) and Information Technology and the subsequent impact of ... advancements, said that IT must play a ... and history of medical status and other.

  15. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  16. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  17. Pervasive Electronic Medical Record

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    independent web service connected to database of medical records or Worldwide. Interoperability ... allows wireless monitoring and tracking of patients and first responders using sensor nodes .... All these network security threats arise mainly ...

  18. Records Management Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Records Management Database is tool created in Microsoft Access specifically for USAID use. It contains metadata in order to access and retrieve the information...

  19. Environmental Review Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD’s Environmental Review Records page houses environmental reviews made publicly available through the HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). This...

  20. Vaccination Records for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Information System (IIS). An IIS is a computer system your doctor or public health clinic may use ... preventable diseases. Immunization Records for Adoption and Foster Care You should ask your adoption coordinator for your ...