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Sample records for record easter island

  1. New records of coral-associated crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura: Carpilioidea, Trapezoidea) from Easter Island.

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    Boyko, Christopher B; Mendoza, Jose C E; Castro, Peter

    2017-01-10

    A review is made of those brachyurans that are symbiotic or otherwise associated with scleractinian corals on Easter Island, southeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven species is reported, including three species from two families not previously known from the island. Earlier records of Trapezia are analyzed and, although as many as six species have been previously reported, we conclude that only three species are known to occur on the island with certainty.

  2. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

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    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  3. Marine mammals of Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva, Chile: a review and new records

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    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean oceanic islands Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva have received little attention with regards to basic marine mammal investigations. Here we review and update available information on the status of marine mammals in this area from different sources, including published accounts, local interviews and two recent expeditions. We also provide detailed accounts for each confirmed family or species, including historical data from published archaeological studies and whalers' logbooks from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Results indicate that a total of five marine mammal families (Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae, Delphinidae and Phocidae have been confirmed within the study area, representing two mammalian orders (Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora. Within these, twelve species are known to occur: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, unidentified minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis or B. acutorostrata, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris, false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, unidentified pilot whale (Globicephala sp., bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin (Delphinus sp., southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx. We discuss the implications of some of most noteworthy records and make a plea for further studies to improve our knowledge of these top predators in one of the most isolated places in the world.

  4. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

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    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  5. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

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    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.

  6. From Easter Island to coated coronary stents: a remarkable saga.

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    Cantwell, John D

    2008-01-01

    Easter Island, even though it's in the middle of nowhere, is indeed a piece of the continent, as John Donne alluded to. In addition to contributing rapamycin to the medical field, the island is an example to the whole world of the consequences of affluent lifestyles, tribal wars, and ignorance of ecology. Jared Diamond expressed these thoughts best in his book, "Collapse:" The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern world are chillingly obvious... All countries on earth today share resources and affect each other just as did Easter's dozen clans. Polynesian Easter Island was as isolated in the Pacific Ocean as the Earth is today in space. People see the collapse of Easter Island 's society as a metaphor; a worst-case scenario, for what may lie ahead for us in our own future. Some veteran Easter Island archaeologists like Claudio Cristina feel that Diamond's views are overly simplistic, commenting that he only spent a week on the island (versus 30 years for Cristina). Predatory Polynesian rats, earthquakes, tsunamis, variations in rainfall, diseases introduced by European sailing ships, could all have contributed to the near-demise of Easter Island. Tribal wars certainly didn't help, nor did slave-raiding parties from Peru. Only the eyes of the moai (Fig. 5) have seen it all, but the statues remain silent, as they have for over 1,000 years.

  7. [Epidemiological dynamics of Dengue on Easter Island].

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    Canals, Mauricio; González, Christian; Canals, Andrea; Figueroa, Daniela

    2012-08-01

    Dengue is considered an emerging disease with an increasing prevalence especially in South America. In 2002, an epidemic of classic Dengue (DENV-1) occurred unexpectedly on Easter Island, where it had never been detected before. It reappeared in 2006-2007 and 2008, 2009 and 2011. The aim of this study was to estimate the most relevant parameters of the epidemiological dynamics of transmission of Dengue on Easter Island and to model the dynamics since 2002, comparing the predictions with the actual situation observed. Of the total cases, 52.27% were females and 47.73% men. The average age of infection was 31.38 ± 18.37 years, similar in men and women. We estimated the reproductive number R0 = 3.005 with an IC0,95 = [1.92, 4.61]. The inter-epidemic period reached an estimated T = 5.20 to 6.8 years. The case simulation showed recurrent epidemics with decreasing magnitude (damped oscillations), which is a known phenomenon in models of dengue and malaria. There was good qualitative fit to the epidemiological dynamics from 2002 onwards. It accurately predicted the rise in cases between 2006 and 2011. The predicted number of cases during the 2002 epidemic is greater than the confirmed cases and the predicted epidemic was faster than notified cases. Interepidemic period in the simulation was 6.72 years between 2002 and 2008 and 4.68 years between 2008 and 2013. From the theoretical perspective, the first epidemic had affected 94% of the population (approximately 3500 cases), but 639 were reported suggesting underreporting and a lot of sub-clinical cases occurred. Future epidemic of decreasing size are expected, although the main danger are epidemics of hemorrhagic dengue fever resulting from the introduction of different dengue virus serotypes.

  8. A Lesson in Complexity: Seabed Minerals and Easter Island.

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    Druker, Kristen

    1984-01-01

    This high school-level classroom activity presents a hypothetical situation based on scientific fact concerning the likelihood that seabed mineral deposits lie off Easter Island. Activity goals, instructional strategies, and instructions for students are included. (JN)

  9. The Crustacea Decapoda Macrura (the Alpheidae excepted) of Easter Island

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    Holthuis, L.B.

    1972-01-01

    So far the Crustacean fauna of Easter Island has received but very little attention. In most early narratives of expeditions visiting the island no mention is made of any Crustacean. Behrens (1908: 135) who accompanied Jacob Roggeveen on the voyage during which, in 1722, the island was discovered,

  10. Easter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娜

    2016-01-01

    教学内容Look at these children's hats,There are toy chicks,bunnies and flowers on the hats,Do you know why?They are Easter hats.Easter is in spring.On that day,children make Easter eggs with their parents and give eggs to each other.Some Easter eggs are big and some are small.Sometimes there are small eggs in the big eggs,Children also play egg-rolling and egg-hunting for fun.

  11. On the magnetic anomaly at Easter Island during the 2010 Chile tsunami

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    Benlong Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic anomaly was recorded at Easter Island on 27 February 2010 during the Chile tsunami event. The physics of the magnetic anomaly is analyzed using kinematic dynamo theory. Using a single wave model, the space and time behavior of the magnetic field is given. By joint analysis of the magnetic observations, tide gauge data and numerical results of the global tsunami propagation, we show the close resemblance between the predicted spatial and temporal magnetic distributions and the field data, indicating the magnetic anomaly at Easter Island was actually induced by the motion of seawater under tsunami waves. Similarity between the field magnetic data at Easter Island during 2010 Chile tsunami and sea surface level is verified with realistic tsunami propagating model.

  12. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

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    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  13. HLA in anthropology: the enigma of Easter Island.

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    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thorsby, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we first present four significant cases where human leukocyte antigen (HLA) studies have been useful for the reconstruction of human peopling history on the worldwide scale; i.e., the spread of modern humans from East Africa, the colonization of East Asia along two geographic routes, the co-evolution of genes and languages in Africa, and the peopling of Europe through a main northward migration. These examples show that natural selection did not erase the genetic signatures of our past migrations in the HLA genetic diversity patterns observed today. In the second part, we summarize our studies on Easter Island. Using genomic HLA typing, we could trace an introduction of HLA alleles of native American (Amerindian) origin to Easter Island before the Peruvian slave trades; i.e., before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they may have already been introduced in prehistoric time. Our results give further support to an initial Polynesian population of the island, but also reveal an early contribution by Amerindians. Together, our data illustrate the usefulness of typing for HLA alleles to complement genetic analyses in anthropological investigations.

  14. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

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    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  15. Ecological release and venom evolution of a predatory marine snail at Easter Island.

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    Duda, Thomas F; Lee, Taehwan

    2009-05-20

    Ecological release is coupled with adaptive radiation and ecological diversification yet little is known about the molecular basis of phenotypic changes associated with this phenomenon. The venomous, predatory marine gastropod Conus miliaris has undergone ecological release and exhibits increased dietary breadth at Easter Island. We examined the extent of genetic differentiation of two genes expressed in the venom of C. miliaris among samples from Easter Island, American Samoa and Guam. The population from Easter Island exhibits unique frequencies of alleles that encode distinct peptides at both loci. Levels of divergence at these loci exceed observed levels of divergence observed at a mitochondrial gene region at Easter Island. Patterns of genetic variation at two genes expressed in the venom of this C. miliaris suggest that selection has operated at these genes and contributed to the divergence of venom composition at Easter Island. These results show that ecological release is associated with strong selection pressures that promote the evolution of new phenotypes.

  16. Morphology and distribution of seamounts surrounding Easter Island

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    Rappaport, Y.; Naar, D.F.; Barton, C.C.; Liu, Z.-J.; Hey, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the morphology and distribution of a seamount population on a section of seafloor influenced by both superfast seafloor spreading and hotspot volcanism. The population under investigation is part of a broad chain of seamounts extending eastward from the East Pacific Rise, near Easter Island. In order to define the morphological variability of the seamounts, basal shape, cross-sectional area, volume, flatness, and flank slope are plotted against height for 383 seamounts with heights greater than 200 m, based on bathymetry data collected by GLORI-B and SeaBeam 2000, during three cruises onboard the R/V Melville in the spring of 1993. Nearly complete swath mapping coverage of the seamounts is available for the analysis of size and shape distribution. We quantitatively describe the seamount population of this active region, in which seamounts cover ???27% of the seafloor, and account for ???4.2% of the total crustal volume. Over 50% of the total volume (61,000 km3) of seamounts used in this study is made up by the 14 largest seamounts, and the remaining volume is made up by the 369 smaller seamounts (>200 m in height). Our analysis indicates there are at least two seamount populations in the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez Island (25??-29??S, 113??-104??W) study area. One population of seamounts is composed of short seamounts (1200 m), shield-like, pointy cones (flatness ???1200 m) originate exclusively from a hotspot source, but only a portion of the smaller volcanoes (

  17. Manta rays in the Marquesas Islands: first records of Manta birostris in French Polynesia and most easterly location of Manta alfredi in the Pacific Ocean, with notes on their distribution.

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    Mourier, J

    2012-11-01

    Based on direct observations of free-ranging specimens, the giant manta ray Manta birostris is reported from the Marquesas Islands, the first sighting in French Polynesia. Sightings of its sister species, the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, are also reported at the most easterly location in the Pacific Ocean. Preliminary individual identification as well as notes on their distribution are also reported. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island.

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    Thorsby, E; Flåm, S T; Woldseth, B; Dupuy, B M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Fernandez-Vina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Available evidence suggests a Polynesian origin of the Easter Island population. We recently found that some native Easter Islanders also carried some common American Indian (Amerindian) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which probably were introduced before Europeans discovered the island in 1722. In this study, we report molecular genetic investigations of 21 other selected native Easter Islanders. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers showed no traces of an Amerindian contribution. However, high-resolution genomic HLA typing showed that two individuals carried some other common Amerindian HLA alleles, different from those found in our previous investigations. The new data support our previous evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island.

  19. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

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    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  20. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

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    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  1. A simple mathematical model of society collapse applied to Easter Island

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    Bologna, M.; Flores, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model for the evolution and collapse of the Easter Island society. Based on historical reports, the available primary resources consisted almost exclusively in the trees, then we describe the inhabitants and the resources as an isolated dynamical system. A mathematical, and numerical, analysis about the Easter Island community collapse is performed. In particular, we analyze the critical values of the fundamental parameters and a demographic curve is presented. The technological parameter, quantifying the exploitation of the resources, is calculated and applied to the case of another extinguished civilization (Copán Maya) confirming the consistency of the adopted model.

  2. Sustainability in a Differential Equations Course: A Case Study of Easter Island

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    Koss, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island is a fascinating example of resource depletion and population collapse, and its relatively short period of human habitation combined with its isolation lends itself well to investigation by students in a first-semester ordinary differential equations course. This article describes curricular materials for a semester-long case study…

  3. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.

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    Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J

    2014-10-14

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.

  4. Tourism as the development driver of Easter Island: the key role of resident perceptions

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    Eugenio Figueroa B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Residents’ attitudes concerning tourism evolution and impacts in tourism host localities are a crucial determinant of the ability of the tourism sector to develop. Easter Island has recently experienced a tremendous tourism growth, which has nurtured expectations that the tourist sector could become the economic driver of the island. Using fieldwork, interviews and surveys, we investigate residents’ perceptions towards tourism and analyse their implications for the sector’s future development. The survey results show that 96% of residents believe that tourism is important or very important for the island’s economy. We conclude that while residents of Easter Island are aware of tourism’s negative impacts, they support the tourism sector, because they recognize it as the main future driver of the island’s economy. However, due to the current environmental threats and the serious governance problems of the island, it is not clear if further expansion of the tourism sector will be sustainable.

  5. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

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    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  6. Molecular characterization of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae of Easter Island based on analysis of the mitochondrial ND4 gene

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    Claudia Andrea Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector of viruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Shortly after the first report of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti in Easter Island (Rapa Nui in late 2000, the first disease outbreak dengue occurred. Viral serotyping during the 2002 outbreak revealed a close relationship with Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses, supporting the idea that the virus most likely originated in Tahiti. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 DNA sequences generated from 68 specimens of Ae. aegypti from Easter Island reporting a unique finding of a single maternal lineage of Ae. aegypti on Easter Island.

  7. Models of Easter Island Human-Resource Dynamics: Advances and Gaps

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    Agostino Merico

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to the entangled problems of human population growth, resource exploitation, ecosystem degradation, and biodiversity loss is considered humanity's grand challenge. Small and isolated societies of the past, such as the Rapanui of Easter Island, constitute ideal laboratories for understanding the consequences of human-driven environmental degradation and associated crises. By integrating different processes into a coherent and quantitative framework, mathematical models can be effective tools for investigating the ecological and socioeconomic history of these ancient civilizations. Most models of Easter Island are grounded around the Malthusian theory of population growth and designed as Lotka-Volterra predator-prey systems. Within ranges of plausible parameter values, these dynamic systems models predict a population overshoot and collapse sequence, in line with the ecocidal view about the Rapanui. With new archaeological evidence coming to light, casting doubts on the classical narrative of a human-induced collapse, models have begun to incorporate the new pieces of evidence and started to describe a more complex historical ecology, in line with the view of a resilient society that suffered genocide after the contact with Europeans. Uncertainties affecting the archaeological evidence contribute to the formulation of contradictory narratives. Surprisingly, no agent-based models have been applied to Easter Island. I argue that these tools offer appealing possibilities for overcoming the limits of dynamic systems models and the uncertainties in the available archaeological data.

  8. The Polynesian gene pool: an early contribution by Amerindians to Easter Island.

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    Thorsby, Erik

    2012-03-19

    It is now generally accepted that Polynesia was first settled by peoples from southeast Asia. An alternative that eastern parts of Polynesia were first inhabited by Amerindians has found little support. There are, however, many indications of a 'prehistoric' (i.e. before Polynesia was discovered by Europeans) contact between Polynesia and the Americas, but genetic evidence of a prehistoric Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool has been lacking. We recently carried out genomic HLA (human leucocyte antigen) typing as well as typing for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome markers of blood samples collected in 1971 and 2008 from reputedly non-admixed Easter Islanders. All individuals carried HLA alleles and mtDNA types previously found in Polynesia, and most of the males carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin (a few had European Y chromosome markers), further supporting an initial Polynesian population on Easter Island. The HLA investigations revealed, however, that some individuals also carried HLA alleles which have previously almost only been found in Amerindians. We could trace the introduction of these Amerindian alleles to before the Peruvian slave trades, i.e. before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they were introduced already in prehistoric time. Our results demonstrate an early Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island, and illustrate the usefulness of typing for immunogenetic markers such as HLA to complement mtDNA and Y chromosome analyses in anthropological investigations.

  9. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

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    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  10. Sustainable Development or Eco-Collapse: Lessons for Tourism and Development from Easter Island

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    Eugenio Figueroa B.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While tourism brings many benefits to islands, it can also cause negative effects, especially when tourism development is a disorganised process, with significant environmental impacts. This has been the case of Easter Island: the recent, uncontrolled growth in tourist numbers together with social and political tensions, are signs of a socioeconomic process pursuing development that has neglected the institutional, environmental, social, and economic imperatives of sustainability for tourism management. The study initially presents the environmental impacts of tourism growth, including waste disposal and management issues, problems with sewage system, threats to water quality, and biodiversity loss. Next, using data from in situ fieldwork, interviews and surveys, it focuses on residents’ perceptions regarding environmental consequences of the vast tourism growth, as well as on the serious governance issues that Easter Island is currently facing and that complicate even further its sustainable development. Overall, our results indicate that—while acknowledging the negative impacts that uncontrolled tourism development has brought to the island and the need for it to become more sustainable—residents are in favour of tourism since it is the island’s main source of income and employment. The paper draws lessons for islands involved in the “development-through-tourism” model regarding the difficulties these islands will face in attaining their goals if they are not able to build and implement cooperative agreements among stakeholders to properly manage the common-pool resources involved. This is a warning sign for islands that enthusiastically promote tourism without implementing sound sustainability criteria to guide the management of their tourism sector.

  11. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers, government workers and expert scientists participation, ii analysis of a structural matrix consisting of a direct causality study of the symmetric, structural and binary matrix based on socio-ecological issues allowing the calculation of the level of influence and dependence of each issue, iii identification of key issues with an influence/dependency diagram, and iv proposal of research and development programs according to the needs and opportunities identified in the previous stages. The Easter Island artisanal fishing system is used as a case study for this methodological approach. Thus, the fishers identified 108 issues, which were then grouped by similarity, reducing the number to 27 global issues, of which seven were identified as key. Surveyed local and central government workers and expert scientists identified 7, 2 and 5 issues, respectively. Finally, research and development programs are proposed that will encourage a series of changes to the fisheries situation on the island, in order to resolve issues and promote their sustainable development.

  12. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  13. A review and analysis of Easter Island's traditional and artisan fisheries

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    Juan Carlos Castilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of published and unpublished reports we analyzed Rapa Nui's (Easter Island traditional and artisan fisheries. We include information from 2000-2009 on landings, species, fishing grounds, fleet and number of fisherfolks according to the Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA and personal communication with SERNAPESCA officials. Presently, 29 species of fishes and two invertebrates are fished (along with a group of species reported as "non-identified", primarily from the 10 main fishing grounds within 5 nm from the shore. Sporadic fishing trips reach areas up to 25 nm offshore. Statistics about the artisan fleet and number of operative fishers is spotty and unreliable. In 2011 SERNAPESCA reported 123 artisan fishers and 31 boats for the island. Landings occur in five coves, of which Hanga Piko and Hanga Roa are the most important. Between 2000-2009 the mean annual landing ranged between 109-171 ton. The main exploited resources during this period were yellowfin tuna, snoek, Pacific rudderfin, rainbow runner, glasseye, oilfish, deep-water jack and swordfish. We highlight the urgent need to improve fisheries statistics (catch, effort, fishing grounds in order to develop a science-fishery management and conservation plan, particularly linked with artisan fishery activities. Globally, we identify the need to integrate across fields (i.e., ecology, conservation, fisheries, education, outreach more broadly in the national research system, to improve the management and conservation of Easter Island's unique marine environment. Within this framework, we identify an urgent need to create a research marine station on the island with permanent personnel, which can focus on this fragile oligotrophic ecosystem.

  14. Vegetation changes and human settlement of Easter Island during the last millennia: a multiproxy study of the Lake Raraku sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Rull, Valentí; Sáez, Alberto; Margalef, Olga; Bao, Roberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Blaauw, Maarten; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-07-01

    Earlier palynological studies of lake sediments from Easter Island suggest that the island underwent a recent and abrupt replacement of palm-dominated forests by grasslands, interpreted as a deforestation by indigenous people. However, the available evidence is inconclusive due to the existence of extended hiatuses and ambiguous chronological frameworks in most of the sedimentary sequences studied. This has given rise to an ongoing debate about the timing and causes of the assumed ecological degradation and cultural breakdown. Our multiproxy study of a core recovered from Lake Raraku highlights the vegetation dynamics and environmental shifts in the catchment and its surroundings during the late Holocene. The sequence contains shorter hiatuses than in previously recovered cores and provides a more continuous history of environmental changes. The results show a long, gradual and stepped landscape shift from palm-dominated forests to grasslands. This change started c. 450 BC and lasted about two thousand years. The presence of Verbena litoralis, a common weed, which is associated with human activities in the pollen record, the significant correlation between shifts in charcoal influx, and the dominant pollen types suggest human disturbance of the vegetation. Therefore, human settlement on the island occurred c. 450 BC, some 1500 years earlier than is assumed. Climate variability also exerted a major influence on environmental changes. Two sedimentary gaps in the record are interpreted as periods of droughts that could have prevented peat growth and favoured its erosion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, respectively. At c. AD 1200, the water table rose and the former Raraku mire turned into a shallow lake, suggesting higher precipitation/evaporation rates coeval with a cooler and wetter Pan-Pacific AD 1300 event. Pollen and diatom records show large vegetation changes due to human activities c. AD 1200. Other recent vegetation changes also

  15. Observations of Munitions Mobility During a Nor'easter at Wallops Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Hagg, R. K.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnance (or munitions) may migrate, bury, or become exposed over time, and may pose a hazard to both humans and environment. Understanding the behavior of munitions under various wave and current conditions is central to management and remediation of contaminated underwater sites. We embedded Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) into inert replicas of large caliber munitions (81 mm - 155 mm), herein referred to as `smart munitions'. Several smart munitions were deployed in the field with IMUs logging at 16 Hz continuously. Simultaneously the local hydrodynamic conditions were monitored to correlate any resulting munitions mobility. Here, we present the response of the smart munitions to wave and current conditions observed during a nor'easter off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia USA in about 10 m water depth. During the nor'easter, peak significant wave heights of 2.8 m were observed in 10 m water depth. Over a roughly 10-hour period, an 81 mm smart munition migrated approximately 206 ft in a net onshore direction. Displacement and heading of the migrated smart munition were estimated by divers during the recovery. Integration of the trajectory of motion for the smart munition using a custom signal processing algorithm was in good agreement with the diver measurements. Discussion will focus on the relationship of the local sediment type and the potential for munitions mobility.

  16. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

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    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  17. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  18. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  19. [Reasons to recommend vaccination against dengue in Easter Island: Immunization Advisory Committee of Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Alberto; Potin, Marcela; Moreno, Gabriela; Véliz, Liliana; Cerda, Jaime; Escobar, Carola; Wilhelm, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.

  20. The slow demise of Easter Island: insights from a modelling investigation

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    Gunnar eBrandt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of Easter Island and its supposed social-ecological collapse is often taken as a grim warning for the modern world. However, while the loss of a once lush palm forest is largely uncontested, causes and timing of the collapse remain controversial, because many paleoeological and archaeological data are afflicted with considerable uncertainties. According to a scenario named ecocide, the overharvesting of palm trees triggered a dramatic population decline, whereas a contrasting view termed genocide deems diseases and enslavement introduced by Europeans as the main reasons for the collapse. We propose here a third possibility, a slow demise, in which aspects of both ecocide and genocide concur to produce a long and slow decline of the society. We use a dynamic model to illustrate the consequences of the three alternatives with respect to the fate of the paleoecological system of the island.While none of the three model scenarios can be safely ruled out given the uncertainties of the available data, the slow demise appears to be the most plausible model scenario, in particular when considering the temporal pattern of deforestation as inferred from radiocarbon dates of charcoal remains.

  1. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    OpenAIRE

    Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...

  2. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  3. Diversity of deep-sea fishes of the Easter Island Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Erin E.; Sellanes, Javier; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Morales, Naiti; Gorny, Matthias; Berkenpas, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The Easter Island Ecoregion is in the center of the South Pacific gyre and experiences ultra-oligotrophic conditions that could make it highly susceptible to global change and anthropogenic activities, so it is imperative that these regions are characterized and studied so that conservation and sustainable management strategies can be developed. From the few studies from the region, we know that the coastal areas are relatively depauperate and have relatively high rates of endemism. Here, we present a brief report from the first video observations from this region of the deep-dwelling fishes from ROV exploration of benthic communities from 157 to 281 m and baited drop-camera videos from 150 to 1850 m. We observed a total of 55 fish species from the ROV and Drop-Cam surveys; nine could not be assigned family level or lower, 26 were observed in the ROV surveys, 29 were observed in the Drop-Cam surveys, nine were observed with both survey methods, at least six species are potentially new to science, and nine species were observed at deeper depths than previously reported. These new reports may be indicative of the unique oceanographic conditions in the area and the relative isolation of the communities that have provided opportunity for the evolution of new species and favorable conditions for range expansion. In contrast, these new reports may be indicative of the severe undersampling in the south Pacific at mesopelagic depths. The prevalence of potentially new species suggests that the region likely harbors a wealth of undiscovered biodiversity.

  4. Frequency of Cholelithiasis and Biliary Pathology in the Easter Island Rapanui and Non-Rapanui Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Contardo, Jorge; Cea, Jerson

    2016-01-01

    Chile is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of cholelithiasis worldwide, considering the Mapuche ethnicity as a risk factor for developing this pathology. Moreover, cholelithiasis is the main risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer, being the fifth cause of cancer death in Chile. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology among the population belonging to Rapanui ethnicity and non-Rapanui population living on Easter Island. In this retrospective case-control study, a total of 609 abdominal ultrasonographs performed consecutively in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period August 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology, adjusting for age, gender and referral diagnostic hypothesis. In the Rapanui population the frequency for cholelithiasis and biliary pathology was 6.4% and 13%, meanwhile for the non-Rapanui population it was 13% and 22% respectively. Compared to the non-Rapanui Chilean population, the Rapanui ethnicity presented an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.95) for cholelithiasis and OR of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.82) for biliary pathology. We found statistically significant ethnic differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary disease among the population of Rapanui and non-Rapanui ethnicity, so that this could be a protective factor for the development of biliary pathology, given the Chilean population context. Other studies including community population to determine the real prevalence of cholelithiasis and analyze the protective role of Rapanui ethnicity on this disease are necessary.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of cultural change on Easter Island: Review and new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí

    2016-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is a remote Pacific island known for its megalithic statues, the moai, built by an ancient culture which disappearance is still debated. Theories claiming for either self-destruction (ecocide) of this ancient culture or an eventual genocide after the European contact have been the most popular. Anthropogenic drivers have been traditionally preferred as causes of this major cultural shift, whereas climatic changes have been dismissed or underrated. However, the latest findings suggest that the topic is more complex than formerly thought and demand a more holistic perspective. This paper reviews the main paleoclimatic, paleoecological, archaeological and historical evidence of the major Rapanui cultural shift leading to the end of the moai-building civilization and uses an integrated approach to analyze its timing and potential causes. The disappearance of the ancient Eastern Island culture that erected the moai was a dramatic cultural shift with significant changes in lifestyle, socio-political organization, religious performance, art and also in the geographical settlement of the cultural core of the Rapanui society. The ancient society, represented by the so called Ancient Cult (or moai cult) was centered on the Rano Raraku crater, to the east of the island, whose soft volcanic rocks (tuff) where suitable for moai carving. This society was replaced by the Birdman-Cult society, based on Rano Kao, to the westernmost end of the island. The assumed date for such shift is uncertain ranging between mid-16th and late-18th centuries. It is suggested that such geographical change, as well as the associated societal transformations, may have been the result of a combination of climatic, ecological and cultural drivers and events. The latest paleoecological reconstructions show that the Rano Raraku catchment was deforested by AD 1450 and the lake inside dried out by AD 1550 owing to an intense climatic drought. This would have caused a landscape

  6. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  7. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

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    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  8. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  9. Diet and body shape changes of pāroko Kelloggella disalvoi (Gobiidae) from intertidal pools of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Duarte, J; Bustos, C A; Landaeta, M F

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses seasonal variation in the morphology and diet of juveniles and adults of the Easter Island endemic goby Kelloggella disalvoi from intertidal pools during September-October 2015 (spring) and June-July 2016 (winter), utilizing geometric morphometric and gut-content analyses. A set of 16 landmarks was digitized in 128 individuals. Shape changes related to size changes (i.e. allometry) were low (18·6%) and were seasonally similar. Body shape changes were mainly dorsoventral (44·2% of variance) and comprised posteroventral displacement of the premaxilla and bending of the body. The latter included vertical displacement of the anterior portion of the first and second dorsal fins and the entire base of the caudal fin. Diets mainly comprised developmental stages of harpacticoid copepods (from eggs to adults), ostracods, isopods, gastropods and bivalves. Also, trophic niche breadth remained constant throughout development and did not vary between seasons. Nonetheless, significant dietary differences were detected in specimens collected during spring (main prey items: harpacticoid copepods and copepod eggs) and winter (harpacticoid copepods and copepod nauplii). Finally, there was weak but significant covariation between diet and morphology: molluscivores were characterized by having an inferior mouth gape, whereas planktivores had an anteriorly directed premaxilla. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RAPA NUI, ISLA DE PASCUA OR EASTER ISLAND: TRADITION, MODERNITY AND ALTERGLOBALIZATION IN INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research are described, analyze and compare the manifestations of the intercultural education in a difficult situation as it is Rapa Nui Island, traditionally isolated, in the “navel of the world” (Te pito o Te Henua, but “discovered” and assimilated by the western people and recovered for the intercultural idea that it surpasses this assimilation and/or global homogenization, in a alterglobalization context. We have analyzed four depth interviews and two biographical stories (life histories, dividing of the hypothesis of the necessity of a clear link between interculturality and education, to rethink the identity and the cultural continuity of their citizens. The obtained results suggest them programs of immersion in the school are not sufficient if they do not go accompanied of a holistic institutional work in the diverse scopes: cultural, educative, economic, environmental politician, leisure, etc. The construction of the identity sends again to individual and collective scopes, with the participation of the subject and the community. In this sense, intergenerational solidarity plays a fundamental role.

  12. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  13. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The basic reproduction number R0 and effectiveness of reactive interventions during dengue epidemics: the 2002 dengue outbreak in Easter Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Fuentes, R; Olea, A; Aguilera, X; Nesse, H; Hyman, J M

    2013-01-01

    We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number R0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated R0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics.

  15. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  16. Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island before European Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric O. Puleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incongruity between the small and apparently impoverished Rapa Nui population that early European travelers encountered and the magnificence of its numerous and massive stone statues has fed a deep fascination with the island. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence suggest that the indigenous population was previously greater than the estimated 1,500–3,000 individuals observed by visitors in the eighteenth century. Our goal was to determine the maximum population that might have lived on the island by estimating its agricultural productivity in the time before European contact. To determine the agricultural potential of the island we sampled soils and established six weather stations in diverse contexts and recorded data over a 2-year period. We find that the island is wetter on average than previously believed. We also find that rainfall and temperature respond linearly to elevation, but a spatial model of precipitation requires correction for a rain shadow effect. We adapted to Rapa Nui an island-wide spatial model designed to identify agriculturally viable zones elsewhere in Polynesia. Based on functions relating climate and substrate age to measurements of soil base saturation, we identified 3,134 ha that were suitable for traditional dryland sweet potato cultivation, or about 19% of the 164 km2 island. We used a nutrient-cycling model to estimate yields. Modeled yields are highly sensitive to nitrogen (N inputs and reliable estimates of these rates are unavailable, requiring us to bracket the rate of N inputs. In the case of low N availability, yields under continuous cultivation were very small, averaging 1.5 t/ha of wet sweet potato tuber. When the N fixation rate was quadrupled sustainable yields increased to 5.1 t/ha. In each N scenario we used a model of food-limited demography to examine the consequences of altering agricultural practices, the labor supply, the ability of the population to control its fertility, and the

  17. Archaeological excavations and reconstruction of Ahu Tongariki - Easter Island - Chile. / Excavaciones arquelógicas y reconstrucción del Ahu Tongariki - Isla de Pascua (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief summary of the presentation at one of the sessions and a field visit to Ahu Tongariki during the Second International Congress on "Easter Island and Eastern Polynesian Archaeology" held at Hanga Roa, Easter Island in October 1996. Final results of this on-going research project and full presentation of the archaeological data, chronology and conservation and reconstruction procedures of the site await completion. Most of the preliminary conclusions presented, regarding the character and archaeological evolution of the monument, should be considered with reservation, although we think that they will not significantly change after the data analysis of this profoundly disturbed site are completed./Este artículo es un breve resumen de la presentación en una de las sesiones y visita a terreno a Ahu Tongariki, durante el Segundo Congreso Internacional de Arqueología de Isla de Pascua y Polinesia Oriental, realizado en Hanga Roa, Isla de Pascua en octubre de 1996. Los resultados finales de este proyecto aún en desarrollo y una exposición completa de la data arqueológica, cronología y procedimientos de reconstrucción (restauración y conservación, están en proceso de ser completados. La mayor parte de las conclusiones preliminares acerca del carácter y evolución arqueológica del monumento, deben ser consideradas con reserva, aun cuando pensamos que ellas no cambiarán significativamente una vez completados los análisis de este sitio profundamente alterado.

  18. Synthesis of the state of knowledge about species richness of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes in coastal and oceanic waters of Easter and Salas y Gómez islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Fernández

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 19th century on, several small sampling trips as well as large national and international scientific expeditions have been carried out to Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI. The objective of this study is to compile, synthesize and analyze published information about the biodiversity of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fishes associated with EI-SGI, updating the state of knowledge and making it available for the development of conservation plans. We searched all the available sources of information, such as scientific publications, scientific expeditions, fisheries data, technical reports, books, databases and online sources. We found 964 species reported within EI-SGI (143 species of macroalgae, 605 macroinvertebrates and 216 fishes, the majority for EI (923; for SGI 171 species have been reported. Species richness has increased over time, without leveling off, as sampling effort increases. However, seamounts and hydrothermal vents have been poorly studied in Chile's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. A high percentage of endemism has been determined for the majority of the taxonomic groups, with mollusks and poriferans exhibiting the highest levels of endemism (33 -34%. Thus, the Rapanuian biogeographic province can be clearly identified, but information to differentiate between EI and SGI, and direct island-specific conservation efforts, is lacking. Nevertheless, the most vulnerable yet unprotected habitats (hydrothermal vents, higher diversity of seamounts size are located towards the western limit of the EEZ.

  19. Analysing the floral elements of the lost tree of Easter Island: a morphometric comparison between the remaining ex-situ lines of the endemic extinct species Sophora toromiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, Thomas A; Espejo, Jaime; Sanzana, María-José; Benítez, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Sophora toromiro (Phil) Skottsb. is a species that has been extinct in its natural habitat Easter Island (Rapa Nui) for over 50 years. However, seed collections carried out before its extinction have allowed its persistence ex-situ in different botanical gardens and private collections around the world. The progenies of these diverse collections have been classified in different lines, most of them exhibiting high similarity as corroborated by molecular markers. In spite of this resemblance observed between the different lines, one of them (Titze) has dissimilar floral elements, thus generating doubts regarding its species classification. The floral elements (wing, standard and keel) belonging to three different S. toromiro lines and two related species were analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This method was applied in order to quantify the floral shape variation of the standard, wing, and keel between the different lines and control species. Geometric morphometrics analyses were able to distinguish the floral elements at both intra (lines) and inter-specific levels. The present results are on line with the cumulative evidence that supports the Titze line as not being a proper member of the S. toromiro species, but probably a hybridization product or even another species of the Edwardsia section. The reintroduction programs of S. toromiro should consider this information when assessing the authenticity and origin of the lines that will be used to repopulate the island.

  20. Analysing the floral elements of the lost tree of Easter Island: a morphometric comparison between the remaining ex-situ lines of the endemic extinct species Sophora toromiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Püschel

    Full Text Available Sophora toromiro (Phil Skottsb. is a species that has been extinct in its natural habitat Easter Island (Rapa Nui for over 50 years. However, seed collections carried out before its extinction have allowed its persistence ex-situ in different botanical gardens and private collections around the world. The progenies of these diverse collections have been classified in different lines, most of them exhibiting high similarity as corroborated by molecular markers. In spite of this resemblance observed between the different lines, one of them (Titze has dissimilar floral elements, thus generating doubts regarding its species classification. The floral elements (wing, standard and keel belonging to three different S. toromiro lines and two related species were analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This method was applied in order to quantify the floral shape variation of the standard, wing, and keel between the different lines and control species. Geometric morphometrics analyses were able to distinguish the floral elements at both intra (lines and inter-specific levels. The present results are on line with the cumulative evidence that supports the Titze line as not being a proper member of the S. toromiro species, but probably a hybridization product or even another species of the Edwardsia section. The reintroduction programs of S. toromiro should consider this information when assessing the authenticity and origin of the lines that will be used to repopulate the island.

  1. Sugar cane consumption on Rapanui (Easter Island) and the indicence of caries : evidence from stable isotope values of human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Seelenfreund, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-European people on Rapanui are known to have had a high rate of dental caries. One proposed explanation for this is that the people consumed a considerable amount of sugar cane, as a thirst quencher, since fresh water is scarce on the island. Human bone samples were analysed by isotope analysis to see if this explanation could be sustained. Results for three isotopes δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S were then used in a stochastic model to estimate the proportions of five main food types in the diet of these people. This indicated that daily consumption of dry raw sugar cane was only about 32 to 42 g per day. This is very low and sugar cane consumption is therefore unlikely to be the only cause of the high rate of dental caries. (author).

  2. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Christopher M; Puleston, Cedric O; Vitousek, Peter M; Chadwick, Oliver A; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N

    2015-01-27

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact.

  3. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  4. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  5. Aira (Poaceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod Chhotupuri Gosavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During plant exploration of Andaman and Nicobar in 2014, we were collected some interesting grass specimens from Kamorta Islands of Nicobar. After critical study and taxonomic analysis the unidentified grass species has identified as an Aira caryophyllea L.  Perusals of relevant literature were revealed that, the genus Aira L. has so far not reported from Andaman and Nicobar islands. Hence, it is reported in present communication for new record to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  6. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  7. Records of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands, 1996 - 2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues) since 1996 and review a further 15. These include nine records of southern elephant ...

  8. A 3000 yr paleostorm record from St. Catherines Island, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erick; Meyer, Brian; Deocampo, Daniel; Kiage, Lawrence M.

    2017-09-01

    Tropical cyclones (hurricanes in the northern hemisphere) are amongst the most devastating of the world's natural disasters and cause billions of dollars in damage every year. Data on the likelihood of a coastal site being struck by a major hurricane strike can potentially aid in planning and mitigation efforts that could save money and lives. However, forecasting requires data that are currently insufficient for the Georgia Bight. This study provides information to enhance the paleohurricane record by analysis of a 467 cm thick vibracore raised from St. Catherines Island, GA. Sediment geochemistry and foraminiferal assemblages indicate deposits attributable to seven paleohurricane events, five of which were likely major hurricanes when they made landfall on St. Catherines. Magnitudes were estimated by comparison to the overwash deposit left by ;The Sea Islands hurricane of 1893;, a major hurricane recorded by the recent sediment of St. Catherines Island. The St. Catherines record also shows a change in the activity levels on the Georgia coast with two distinct activity regimes over the past 3000 years.

  9. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  11. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  12. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  13. The aquatic Coleoptera of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records and faunal composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Elmidae, Dryopidae, Heteroceridae of Prince Edward Island, Canada is surveyed. Seventy-two species are now known to occur on Prince Edward Island, 26 of which are added to the island's faunal list. Three species, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte, Oulimnius latiusculus (LeConte, and Helichus striatus LeConte, are removed since there are no voucher specimens or published records to substantiate their presence. The name Dineutus horni is designated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Dineutus hornii Roberts, 1895. The composition of the fauna is briefly discussed, both from regional and zoogeographic perspectives. There is only one introduced species, Helophorus grandis Illiger. Only one third of the aquatic fauna recorded on the neighbouring mainland has been found on Prince Edward Island, perhaps reflecting an island-associated diminution, the paucity of collecting, an area effect, or a combination of all these factors. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are compared. Prince Edward Island's is 36% smaller than the others, in contrast with the island's carabid fauna which is almost identical in magnitude with that of Cape Breton. This might reflect dispersal obstacles, the relative paucity of aquatic habitats on the island, or an insufficient collecting effort. Further research would be desirable, both to better discern the composition of the province's fauna, as well as to monitor the health of aquatic ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic activities.

  14. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (Easter Island. ?? 1995

  15. First record of Ligia oceanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Isopoda: Ligiidae) in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Rubén; Riera, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first record of L. oceanica in the Canary Islands. Additionally, body features between L. oceanica and Ligia italica Fabricius, 1798, the other sea-slater inhabiting the Archipelago, were compared.

  16. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  17. Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugel, Sylvain

    2014-12-23

    The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.

  18. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  19. Perceptions of electronic health record implementation: a statewide survey of physicians in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Matthew C; Baier, Rosa R; Gardner, Rebekah L

    2014-10-01

    Although electronic health record use improves healthcare delivery, adoption into clinical practice is incomplete. We sought to identify the extent of adoption in Rhode Island and the characteristics of physicians and electronic health records associated with positive experience. We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health for the Health Information Technology Survey 2009 to 2013. Survey questions included provider and practice demographics, health record information, and Likert-type scaled questions regarding how electronic health record use affected clinical practice. The survey response rate ranged from 50% to 65%, with 62% in 2013. Increasing numbers of physicians in Rhode Island use an electronic health record. In 2013, 81% of physicians used one, and adoption varied by clinical subspecialty. Most providers think that electronic health record use improves billing and quality improvement but has not improved job satisfaction. Physicians with longer and more sophisticated electronic health record use report positive effects of introduction on all aspects of practice examined (P electronic health record introduction (P electronic health record vendors most frequently used in Rhode Island, 5 were associated with improved job satisfaction. We report the largest statewide study of electronic health record adoption to date. We found increasing physician use in Rhode Island, and the extent of adoption varies by subspecialty. Although older physicians are less likely to be positive about electronic health record adoption, longer and more sophisticated use are associated with more positive opinions, suggesting acceptance will grow over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical Tsunami Records on Russian Island, the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Ganzey, K. S.; Kharlamov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we provide data evidencing tsunamis on Russian Island over the last 700 years. Reconstructions are developed based on the analyses of peat bog sections on the coast of Spokoynaya Bay, including layers of tsunami sands. Ancient beach sands under peat were deposited during the final phase of transgression of the Medieval Warm Period. We used data on diatoms and benthic foraminifers to identify the marine origin of the sands. The grain size compositions of the tsunami deposits were used to determine the sources of material carried by the tsunamis. The chronology of historical tsunamis was determined based on the radiocarbon dating of the underlying organic deposits. There was a stated difference between the deposition environments during tsunamis and large storms during the Goni (2015) and Lionrock (2016) typhoons. Tsunami deposits from 1983 and 1993 were found in the upper part of the sections. The inundation of the 1993 tsunami did not exceed 20 m or a height of 0.5 m a.m.s.l. (0.3 above high tide). The more intensive tsunami of 1983 had a run-up of 0.65 m a.m.s.l. and penetrated inland from the shoreline up to 40 m. Sand layer of tsunami 1940 extend in land up to 50 m from the present shoreline. Evidence of six tsunamis was elicited from the peat bog sections, the deposits of which are located 60 m from the modern coastal line. The deposits of strong historic tsunamis in the Japan Sea region in 1833, 1741, 1614 (or 1644), 1448, the XIV-XV century and 1341 were also identified on Russian Island. Their run-ups and inundation distances were also determined. The strong historic tsunamis appeared to be more intensive than those of the XX century, and considering the sea level drop during the Little Ice Age, the inundation distances were as large as 250 m.

  1. Historical Tsunami Records on Russian Island, the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Ganzey, K. S.; Kharlamov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we provide data evidencing tsunamis on Russian Island over the last 700 years. Reconstructions are developed based on the analyses of peat bog sections on the coast of Spokoynaya Bay, including layers of tsunami sands. Ancient beach sands under peat were deposited during the final phase of transgression of the Medieval Warm Period. We used data on diatoms and benthic foraminifers to identify the marine origin of the sands. The grain size compositions of the tsunami deposits were used to determine the sources of material carried by the tsunamis. The chronology of historical tsunamis was determined based on the radiocarbon dating of the underlying organic deposits. There was a stated difference between the deposition environments during tsunamis and large storms during the Goni (2015) and Lionrock (2016) typhoons. Tsunami deposits from 1983 and 1993 were found in the upper part of the sections. The inundation of the 1993 tsunami did not exceed 20 m or a height of 0.5 m a.m.s.l. (0.3 above high tide). The more intensive tsunami of 1983 had a run-up of 0.65 m a.m.s.l. and penetrated inland from the shoreline up to 40 m. Sand layer of tsunami 1940 extend in land up to 50 m from the present shoreline. Evidence of six tsunamis was elicited from the peat bog sections, the deposits of which are located 60 m from the modern coastal line. The deposits of strong historic tsunamis in the Japan Sea region in 1833, 1741, 1614 (or 1644), 1448, the XIV-XV century and 1341 were also identified on Russian Island. Their run-ups and inundation distances were also determined. The strong historic tsunamis appeared to be more intensive than those of the XX century, and considering the sea level drop during the Little Ice Age, the inundation distances were as large as 250 m.

  2. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-03-03

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images.

  3. Genesis and sedimentary record of blind channel and islands of the anabranching river: An evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Isabel T.; Stevaux, José C.; Assine, Mário L.

    2018-02-01

    Blind channel (BC) is a fluvial feature formed by attachment of a lateral sand bar to an island or riverbank. It consists of a 10- to 20-m wide and hundreds to thousands meters long channel, parallel to the island or bank, closed at its upstream end by accretion to the island. It is an important feature in anabranching rivers that plays an important role in both the island formation and river ecology. This paper discusses the formation processes, functioning, evolution, and the sedimentary record of a blind channel, related landforms, and its context on island development in the Upper Paraná River. The evolution of this morphologic feature involves (1) formation of a lateral or attachment bar beside an island with the development of a channel in between; (2) vertical accretion of mud deposits during the flood and vegetal development on the bar; (3) the upstream channel closure that generates the blind channel; and (4) annexation of the blind channel to the island. A blind channel is semilotic to lentic, that is not totally integrated to the dynamics of the main active channel and that acts as a nursery for fingerlings and macrophytes. The sedimentary facies succession of BCs are relatively simple and characterized by cross-stratified sand covered by organic muddy sediments. Based on facies analysis of 12 cores, we identified a succession of environments that contribute to the formation of islands: channel bar, blind channel, pond, and swamp. Blind channel formation and its related bar-island attachment are relevant processes associated with the growing of large island evolution in some anabranching rivers.

  4. African Easterly Wave Climatology, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AEWC dataset was created using a new algorithm developed by researchers at Georgia Tech and represents the first attempt to produce a standard easterly wave...

  5. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, D.J.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Coetzee, L.; Oconnor, B.M.; Pugh, P.J.A.; Theron, P.D.; Ueckermann, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty species of Acari are recorded from the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands (the Prince Edward archipelago). Twenty of the 45 species collected on recent expeditions are new and currently undescribed. Other new taxa include a family of Mesostigmata, four new genera, and the first

  6. 2015 Easter bolide over North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, T.; Csizmadia, S.; Zelkó, Z.; Kereszty, Z.; Bíró, Z.

    2015-01-01

    On Easter Monday, April 6, 2015, at UTC 17h31m (near sunset) there was a bright (peak magnitude -12 ~ -14) bolide which also produced a sonic boom, over North Hungary, close to Miskolc, above the Bükk mountains. The event was witnessed by many people, and recorded by several car dashboard-, meteorological and all sky cameras from as far away as Farád (North-West Hungary) and Görbeháza (North-East Hungary). Unfortunately, with the event having occurred only a few minutes after sunset, the sky was still bright and therefore the Hungarian Video meteor network cameras were not yet operating. Our team has collected and re-calibrated as much video and photo material as possible. Since there were very few direct images of the bolide itself, but more photos and videos of the persistent train left behind, these latter images were also used, in certain circumstances, in our calculations. The deduced final atmospheric path and heliocentric orbit are presented, along with the estimation of the errors.

  7. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  8. Three New Records of Gastropoda (Mollusca) from the Nansha Islands, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Li

    2018-04-01

    The Nansha Islands, China, have extremely high marine biodiversity and hundreds of mollusks have been reported there. Benthos resources investigations of the intertidal and subtidal zone around the Nansha Islands have been continuously performed for decades, and recently, dozens of new species and new records of mollusks have been reported from this area. This paper dealt with three new record species of the Gastropoda from Chinese waters: Cerithium salebrosum Sowerby II, 1855, Vexillum militare (Reeve, 1845) and Vexillum bizonale (Dautzenberg et Bouge, 1923), respectively belonging to three families: Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and Costellariidae MacDonald, 1860. All specimens were collected from the Nansha Islands during the benthos resources investigations on the intertidal zone of islands and reefs in the South China Sea in recent years. Diagnosis and geographic descriptions of both genus and species, illustrations of each species were given in this contribution, and discussion of taxonomy, identification features and faunal characteristics were presented. All examined specimens were deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD SHARIF RANJBAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moradi M, Kamrani E, Shokri MR, Ranjbar MS, Hesni MA (2009 First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 34-37. Two species of hard corals including Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskal 1775 (Faviidae and Coscinaraea monile (Forskal 1775 (Siderastreidae were collected from the south of Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran in the late of 2008. These species were previously reported from southern Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Southeast Africa and Indo-Pacific. The literature review on the distribution of these two species revealed that these species were firstly recorded from the Persian Gulf. These findings further emphasize the high diversity of coral fauna in the Iranian waters of the northern Persian Gulf.

  10. Diatom records in the Quaternary marine sequences around the Japanese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Itaru; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the Quaternary is a key to estimating what the Earth's climate will be like in the future. Such studies demand high-resolution analyses based on paleoclimatic proxy records of changing Earth's orbital forcing and solar insolation that affect the climate system. Quaternary diatom biostratigraphy and paleoceanography have been well established based on the Quaternary marine sequences obtained by piston coring and deep-sea drilling around the Japanese Islands. This paper firstly re...

  11. Performance of an island seismic station for recording T-phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J. A., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    As part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) a worldwide hydroacoustic network consisting of 6 hydrophone and 5 island seismic stations has been planned which will monitor for underwater or low altitude atmospheric explosions. Data from this network is to be integrated with other IMS networks monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. The seismic (T-phase) stations are significantly less sensitive than hydrophones to ocean borne acoustic waves. T-phase signal strength at seismic stations depends on the amplitude of the signal in the water column, the hydroacoustic-seismic conversion efficiency, and loss on the seismic portion of the path through the island. In order to understand how these factors influence the performance of T-phase stations seismic and hydroacoustic data are examined from instruments currently deployed on or around Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. T-phase recordings for the last 3 years have been collected from the GSN seismic station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surrounding the island are 5 hydrophones which are part of the U.S. Air Force Missile Impact Locating System (MILS). Data from this system have been obtained for some of the events observed at ASCN. Four of the hydrophones are located within 30 km of the coast while the fifth instrument is 100 km to the south. Amplitude spectral estimates of the signal-to-noise levels (SNL) are computed and generally peak between 3 and 8 Hz for both the seismometer and hydrophone data. The seismic SNL generally decays to 1 between 10 and 15 Hz while the hydrophone SNL is still large well above 20 Hz. The ratios of the hydrophone-to-seismometer SNL, at their peak in energy, range between 10 and 100 (20-40 dB) unless a hydrophone is partially blocked by the Ascension Island landmass.

  12. First record of the Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis (Actinopterygii: Callionymiformes: Callionymidae), from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, R. (Ronald); Ordines, F. (Francesc)

    2017-01-01

    The Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis Fricke, Ordines, Farias et García-Ruiz, 2016, was originally described based on four specimens from Alboran Island, Spain, south-western Mediterranean, collected in 2014 and 2015. This species was previously considered to be endemic to Alboran Island. A surprising new record of this rare species from the Balearic Islands is reported here Versión del editor

  13. Tropical easterly jet located using TOMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhofer, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The formative stages of the onset of the 1979 southwest monsoon was marked by a WNW-ESE oriented band of marine convection over the South Arabian Sea. This convection was first observed on June 10, 1979 using satellite cloud imagery. The marine convection appeared during a major acceleration of the upper troposphere easterly wind field. A composite vertical meridional cross-section of upper level winds for June 11, revealed the core of the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) at 115 mb, 9.5 deg N. Time analysis of the upper level wind field over the Tropical Wind Observing Ship (TWOS) polygon show a lowering of both the pressure level of maximum wind and tropopause level with acceleration of the upper level easterlies. The tropopause was as much as 20 mb lower on the equatorial side of the TEJ. Streamline analysis of the maximum observed easterly winds over India did not reveal the horizontal position of the TEJ. Careful analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for June 11, 1979 showed relatively high values of ozone south of India. It was observed that the latitudinal position of the TEJ on June 11, at approximately 70 deg E coincided with the northern edge of relatively high ozone values. Using this as a reference, the TEJ core was identified as far as NE Bay of Bengal (the limits of the available TOMS data).

  14. A double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 12 and 19 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (no. 16-17/2004). Announcements for publication in the next issue (no. 18/2004) should be sent on Tuesday 20 April midday at the latest. Publication Section Tel. 79971

  15. An assessment of an environmental gradient using coral geochemical records, Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.E.; Brodie, J.E.; McCulloch, M.T.; Mallela, J.; Jupiter, S.D.; Stuart Williams, H.; Lough, J.M.; Matson, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Coral cores were collected along an environmental and water quality gradient through the Whitsunday Island group, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), for trace element and stable isotope analysis. The primary aim of the study was to examine if this gradient could be detected in coral records and, if so, whether the gradient has changed over time with changing land use in the adjacent river catchments. Y/Ca was the trace element ratio which varied spatially across the gradient, with concentrations progressively decreasing away from the river mouths. The Ba/Ca and Y/Ca ratios were the only indicators of change in the gradient through time, increasing shortly after European settlement. The Mn/Ca ratio responded to local disturbance related to the construction of tourism infrastructure. Nitrogen isotope ratios showed no apparent trend over time. This study highlights the importance of site selection when using coral records to record regional environmental signals.

  16. New Records and Name Changes for the Orchids in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One genus (Anoectochilus and 12 species (Agrostophyllum neoguineense, Anoectochilus papuanus, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum aemulum, B. bisepalum, B. nubigenum, B. ochroleucum, B. phreatiopse, Corybas solomonensis, Crepidium laevis, Didymoplexis striata, Epipogium roseum of orchids (Orchidaceae are first recorded to the flora of the Solomon Islands during the 2012–2015 field expeditions. Geographic data, ecological and taxonomic notes and illustrations of those species are provided. A new combination (Pinalia oligotricha and a new name (Dendrobium bougainvilleanum are also proposed for fitting recent systematic alterations within Orchidaceae.

  17. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Climate and Oceanographic Change From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Gilmer, G.; Nichols, J. E.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L.; Vandergoes, M.; Aebig, C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid-latitude climate and CO2 exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere along seasonal to glaicial-interglacial timescales. Despite their importance, our understanding of past SHWW change is limited by the small number of paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum, which are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S), a key latitude where ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and mid-latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have multiple protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate studies suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. During the Late Glacial and early Holocene (15 to 9 ka), elevated long-chain n-alkane δD values from ombrotrophic peatlands and an increase in the concentration of redox-sensitive elements in fjord sediment cores, signal weakening of the SHWW that appears to be coincident with periods of rapid deglacial warming of West Antarctica. Since 5.5 ka, we interpret declining n-alkane δD values to indicate enhanced westerly flow. These interpretations are in broad agreement with terrestrial paleoclimate records developed from southern South America and argue for a symmetrical response of the SHWW during

  18. A double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 12 and 19 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (no. 16-17/2004). Items for publication in this double issue should reach the Publication section or Staff Association, as appropriate, before midday on Tuesday 6 April. Announcements for publication in the next issue (no. 18/2004) should be sent on Tuesday 20 April midday at the latest. Publication Section Tel. 79971

  19. Record of the genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae from India, description of a new species from the Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is recorded for the first time from India and the Oriental region, and a new species, A. andamanica sp. Nov. is described from material collected in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. As the genus is newly recorded from the Oriental region, a brief diagnosis is also given.

  20. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  1. First Record of the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, (Bleeker, 1856 (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Lakshadweep Sea, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V.A. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos is a moderately sized and fairly stocky species widely distributed in the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Easter Island and as far west as South Africa. In this paper, the first record of Grey reef shark (single specimen female 126cm in Total Length (TL, caught from the Lakshadweep Sea (10o47 N and 72o09 E by drift long line operation at 40m depth is reported.

  2. The Significance of New Records of Benthic Red Algae (Rhodophyta for Hainan Island (and China between 1990 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Titlyanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list of new finds of red algae from Hainan Island, Southern China, including those found in 1990 and 1992 during the German-Chinese expeditions to Hainan Island and in 2008–2016 by Titlyanova, Titlyanov, and Li. Between 1990 and 1992, a total of 64 taxa of red algae were newly recorded for Hainan Island. Of these 15 species were new records for China. During the period 2008–2016, a further 54 taxa were newly recorded for Hainan Island, of which 20 were new records for China. The full list of new taxa includes taxonomic forms, dates, and locales, together with known biogeographical distributions. During both periods, the apparent enrichment of red algal marine flora has occurred in a similar way—mainly at the expense of epiphytes with filamentous, thin-filamentous, and finely branched forms. We believe that the changes in the flora of Hainan Island have been influenced by both anthropogenic and natural factors including in particular exploitation of herbivores, nutrient pollution, and coral bleaching.

  3. Administrative Computing Services closed over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    As part of the planned upgrade of the computer centre infrastructure to meet the LHC computing needs, the AIS servers will need to be physically relocated to another part of the computing hall. To minimise the disruption to the users this is planned to happen over the Easter break. All AIS services (BAAN, CET, CFU, CTA, COURRIER, EDH, ERT, EVM, FOUNDATION, HR, HRT, PAD, PIE, PPT, STORES, QUALIAC, etc) will therefore be unavailable: From Thursday 08.04.2004 18:00 to Monday 12.04.2004 18:00. IT Department

  4. Mid- to late Holocene Indian Ocean Monsoon variability recorded in four speleothems from Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rampelbergh, Maïté; Fleitmann, Dominik; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; De Geest, Peter; De Vleeschouwer, David; Burns, Stephen J.; Matter, Albert; Claeys, Philippe; Keppens, Eddy

    2013-04-01

    Four stalagmites covering the last 7.0 ka were sampled on Socotra, an island in the northern Indian Ocean to investigate the evolution of the northeast Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) since the mid Holocene. On Socotra, rain is delivered at the start of the southwest IOM in May-June and at the start of the northeast IOM from September to December. The Haggeher Mountains act as a barrier forcing precipitation brought by the northeast winds to fall preferentially on the eastern side of the island, where the studied caves are located. δ18O and δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca signals in the stalagmites reflect precipitation amounts brought by the northeast winds. For stalagmite STM6, this amount effect is amplified by kinetic effects during calcite deposition. Combined interpretation of the stalagmites' signals suggest a weakening of the northeast precipitation between 6.0 and 3.8 ka. After 3.8 ka precipitation intensities remain constant with two superimposed drier periods, between 0 and 0.6 ka and from 2.2 to 3.8 ka. No link can be established with Greenland ice cores and with the summer IOM variability. In contrast to the stable northeast rainy season suggested by the records in this study, speleothem records from western Socotra indicate a wettening of the southwest rainy season on Socotra after 4.4 ka. The local wettening of western Socotra could relate to a more southerly path (more over the Indian Ocean) taken by the southwest winds. Stalagmite STM5, sampled at the fringe between both rain areas displays intermediate δ18O values. After 6.2 ka, similar precipitation changes are seen between eastern Socotra and northern Oman indicating that both regions are affected similarly by the monsoon. Different palaeoclimatologic records from the Arabian Peninsula currently located outside the ITCZ migration pathway display an abrupt drying around 6 ka due to their disconnection from the southwest rain influence. Records that are nowadays still receiving rain by the southwest winds

  5. Easter Island, Chile Digital Elevation Model 3 arc-second

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Liqiang; Liu Xiaodong; Sun Liguang; Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: → Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. → This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. → The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. → Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  7. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Liqiang [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Center, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liu Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: > Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. > This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. > The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. > Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  8. Easter School Guidance. The National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This booklet explains the goals of Easter Schools, part of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. Easter Schools should be planned to cover four half-days and include four literacy and four mathematics lessons each covering the equivalent of at least an hour. The booklet addresses the following issues: why funding has been made…

  9. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional events/processes in the historical (past ∼100 years) record; and, (3) project back into the recent geologic past (past ∼1400 years) to investigate the natural variability of depositional events/processes. High-resolution, short-lived radioisotope geochronology ("2"1"0Pb, "1"3"7Cs, "7Be) combined with high-resolution elemental scanning techniques (scanning XRF and scanning LA-ICP-MS) allows for the direct comparison of well-preserved salt pond deposits to historical records of depositional events (e.g., runoff/rainfall, tropical cyclones, tsunamis) to identify the sedimentary signature of each type of event. There is a robust sedimentary record of terrigenous sediment runoff linked to the frequency of rainfall events that exceed a threshold of ∼12 mm/day (minimum to mobilize and transport sediment) for study sites. This is manifested in the sedimentary record as increases in terrigenous indicator elements (%Al, %Fe, %Ti, %Si), which agree well with rainfall records over the past ∼50 years. Variability in the sedimentary record over the past ∼100 years reflects decadal-scale fluctuations between periods of increased frequency of rainfall events, and decreased frequency of rainfall events. Dm-scale variability in terrigenous indicator elements over the past ∼1400 years represents the natural system variability on a decadal–centennial scale, and provides a high-resolution, long-term baseline of natural variability of rainfall/runoff events. A period of increased terrigenous sediment delivery during the 1700s and 1800s likely indicates increased erosion in response to anthropogenic activities associated with the island’s plantation era, and perhaps increased

  10. Aves, Charadriiformes, Scolopacidae, Limosa haemastica, (Linnaeus, 1758: First record from South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the southernmost record of the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica, at two localities inthe Antarctic: Esperanza/Hope Bay (January 2005 and 25 de Mayo/King George Island (October 2008. On both occasionsa pair of specimens with winter plumage was observed.

  11. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield,Kerry; Sikkel,Paul; Smit,Nico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for a...

  12. Four newly recorded species with a note on insect fauna from the Dokdo Islands, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Un Hwang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dokdo is a group of Korean oceanic islands located in the East Sea along with the island of Ulleungdo. It is of geological and biological interest due to oceanic islands that were formed earlier than other volcanic islands in the region, such as Jejudo and Ulleungdo. To date, the 156 species found on Dokdo have been classified into 75 families within 10 orders (with the exception of Entomobryomorpha and unidentified species. In this study, we report the discovery of four insect species unrecorded in the Dokdo Islands, thereby taking the total insect fauna of these islands to 160 species in 76 families within 10 orders. Keywords: Dokdo, insect fauna, unrecorded species of Dokdo

  13. Rhabditid species (Nematoda, Rhabditida recorded in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolafia, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.

    Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.

  14. A multiproxy fjord sediment record of Holocene climate change from the subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, I. M.; Moy, C. M.; Wilson, G. S.; Neil, H.; Riesselman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SHWW) and the associated oceanic fronts have a major influence on atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Sediment cores recovered from fjords along the eastern margin of the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands (51°S, 166°E) are ideally located to sensitively record changes in the strength and position of the SHWW throughout the Holocene. A 5.75m core from Hanfield Inlet preserves both marine and terrestrial environmental components, which we use to develop a multiproxy record of past climatic conditions. This core, composed entirely of brown marine mud and silt, was recovered from a depth of 44m. Based on the entrance sill depth of the fjord (10mbsl) and our knowledge of regional sea level rise, we infer that the base of the core will be early Holocene in age, which will be confirmed using radiocarbon age dating. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages (125-500μm fraction) in surface and downcore samples are dominated by three taxa, Nonionellina flemingi, Cassidulina carinata and Quinqueloculina seminula. These species are either shallow infaunal or infaunal. We will use stable carbon (δ¹³C) and oxygen (δ¹⁸O) isotope geochemistry of the benthic foraminifera Nonionellina flemingi, Bolivina cf. earlandi, Trifarina angulosa, Bulimina marginata f. marginata and Cibicides species (all identified from Rose Bengal stained box-core samples) to reconstruct water column fluctuations associated with frontal migration. These results will compliment bulk sediment C and N concentration and isotope reconstructions of terrestrial organic matter delivery to fjord sub-basins over the past 12,000 years.

  15. First Palaearctic Record of the Bird Parasite Passeromyia heterochaeta (Diptera: Muscidae from the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzywacz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Passeromyia is a muscid genus previously known from the Old World Afrotropical and Oriental regions and eastwards from Australia and the West Pacific. The genus is known from nest-dwelling larvae which may be parasites of the nestlings. This study was aimed to identify of the Passeromyia species in the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands.The flies were collected during April 2010 to March 2011 on the 4 Iranian Persian Gulf islands, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm with fly bottle trap and entomological net.During this sampling, 18 representatives of P. heterochaeta, a species with free-living haematophagous larvae, have been collected. The species is reported herein from Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb, Abu-Mousa and Qeshm islands.This is the first Palaearctic record of the species as well as the first report of the genus Passeromyia from the Palaearctic Region.

  16. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species composition, size distribution, and gonadal index (GI of swordfish (Xiphias gladius are reported from catches obtained by longliners in the zone of Easter Island in the southeastern Pacific. Five cruises were made during the summer season between 2001 and 2006 completing a total of 150 fishing sets. A total of 3,781 fish belonging to 24 species were registered, of which 17 were commercial and 6 were bycatch. Of the total, 44.1% were swordfish, 28.3%> sharks, 12.1% marlins, 8.4%> tunas and 7.1%o other teleosts. Amongst the sharks the most important species was the blue shark (Prionace glauca, 16.5%> followed by the brown shark (Carcharhinus spp., 6.9%>. Amongst the tunas and istiophorids, striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax, 8.0% and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, 4.9% were also important (≥ 4% in number. The number of units by species, the nominal yield in number and weight and the gutted average weight are reported in addition to size statistics. The population structure of swordfish was dominated by males and differences in the average length between sexes were not found. Individuals with high values of GI were observed during every survey, mainly during December-February which suggests a reproductive area for this species. The blue shark showed a predominance of males, and differences in the average length between sexes were observed, possibly due to a spatial and temporal segregation.Se reportan la composición de especies, estructura de talla, y el índice gonádico (IG de pez espada (Xiphias gladius, desde capturas obtenidas por embarcaciones palangreras en la zona de isla de Pascua en el Pacífico suroriental. En el periodo estival entre 2001 y 2006, se realizaron cinco cruceros completando un total de 150 lances de pesca. Se registró un total de 3.781 peces pertenecientes a 24 especies, de las cuales 17 fueron comerciales y seis incidentales. Del total, 44,1% fue pez espada, 28,3%> tiburones, 12,1% marlines, 8,4%o atunes

  17. New records of alien vascular plants from Marion and Prince Edward Islands, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    1999-01-01

    A survey was made of the distribution of introduced vascular plants on Marion and Prince Edward Islands. The results of this survey were compared to results of previous surveys (1965/66, 1975, 1981, 1989). Four new introductions to Marion Island have taken place, three of which involved species that

  18. First record of Pteridium caudatum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Old Providence Island, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobar Vargas, Alexandra; Gavio, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time the presence of the invasive fern Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon Old Providence Island, Colombia. The species was found as an ornamental plant in house backyard, as well as in the wild in the locality the peak, the best preserved area of the island. We discuss the ecological implications associated to the presence of this species.

  19. First Record Of The Order Mecoptera (Insecta) For The Gorgona Island (Colombia), With The Description Of A New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascuntar-Osnas, Oscar; Domínguez, Diana Torres; Ulloa, Patricia Chacón De; Machado, Renato Jose Pires

    2016-03-30

    During a review of material from the project "Assessment of the current status of the faunistic conservation objects from the Gorgona Island: a holistic approach to the ecological evaluation of the Gorgona Natural National Park", conducted 2010‒2011, a male specimen of Pazius Navás, 1913 (Mecoptera: Bittacidae) was found. The genus had been previously recorded in Colombia in the Amazonas and Cundinamarca departments. The specimen described here differs from other species of Pazius by the absence of the aedeagus ventral process, the presence of seven short dorsal spines at the epandrium and shape of the ventral process. This finding represents the first record of the order Mecoptera for Gorgona Island, a new species of Pazius, and the expansion of the genus distribution in Colombia. A detailed morphological description of Pazius gorgonensis n. sp. and an identification key for species of the genus are presented.

  20. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line on the easterly side of Mason Island at latitude 41°20′06″; thence due east about 600 feet to latitude 41...′37″; thence due west about 1,000 feet to the shore line on the easterly side of Mason Island at...

  1. Late Miocene marine tephra beds : recorders of rhyolitic volcanism in North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, P.; Black, T.; Eggins, S.; Westgate, J.

    1998-01-01

    A deep-sea sequence of 72 rhyolitic tephra beds, now exposed at Mahia Peninsula in the Hawke's Bay region of the east coast, North Island, New Zealand, provides a record of Late Miocene volcanism of the Coromandel Volcanic Zone (CVZ): the precursor to large-scale explosive volcanism of the Quaternary Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). The geochemical signature of the glasses in the Miocene tephra has been protected from hydrothermal alteration and prolonged subaerial exposure that have affected proximal CVZ deposits. The tephra beds are primarily eruption-driven sediment gravity flows that have been emplaced into a trench-slope basin, some 300 km from active volcanoes. Their occurrence is consistent with long-distance fluvial transport followed by a point-source discharge into the deep-sea environment, and has no implications for the paleogeographic location of the basins relative to the volcanic arc. The tephra beds are calc-alkaline rhyolites with SiO 2 contents in the range 72-78 wt% (recalculated on a volatile-free basis), and are broadly similar to glassy rocks of the CVZ. Their major oxide, trace element, and REE compositions are indistinguishable from glasses of TVZ rhyolites. The trace element and REE compositional variability in the Late Miocene tephra beds, which were erupted over an estimated duration of c. 0.5-2.4 m.y. is no greater than that of large silicic eruptives of the last 350 ka, and is suggestive of a long-lived source and/or similar magmatic processes. However, the individual tephra beds are products of discrete homogeneous magma batches. New fission track ages of the Miocene tephra beds suggest the main period of volcaniclastic deposition occurred in the interval c. 9-7 Ma. This corresponds well with the initiation of rhyolitic volcanism in the CVZ at c. 10 Ma, and a major period of caldera formation that took place to c. 7 Ma. The ages suggest a sediment accumulation rate of between 0.23 and 1.2 m/ka (av. 0.4 m/ka), and a frequency of eruption of

  2. A critical review of records of alien marine species from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SCIBERRAS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated list of alien marine species recorded from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters, compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ literature and from authenticated unpublished reports to the authors, is presented. The listed species are classified in one of four categories as regards establishment status: established, casual, invasive and questionable. Doubtful records are listed as ‘?’. A total of 48 species, including nine dubious ones, are included in the list. Of the accepted records, 64% are established, of which 15.4% are invasive, 18% are casual and 18% are questionable. The most represented groups are molluscs (14 species, fish (13 species and macrophytes (10 species. Six species are classified as invasive in Maltese waters: Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii and Sphoeroides pachygaster; impacts of some of these species on local ecosystems are discussed. Since the early 1900s, there has been an increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands. Transportation via shipping and in connection with aquaculture, as well as the range expansion of Lessepsian immigrants, appear to be the most common vectors for entry, accounting for 20%, 11% and 32% respectively of the alien species included in this review. The general warming trend of Mediterranean waters and increasing marine traffic may be facilitating the spread of warm-water Atlantic and Indo-Pacific species to the central Mediterranean, including the Maltese Islands.

  3. Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. EVANS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands is presented on account of new records and amendments to a previous review in 2007. Species were classified according to their establishment status (‘Questionable’, ‘Casual’, ‘Established’, ‘Invasive’ and origin (‘Alien’, ‘Range expansion’, ‘Cryptogenic’. A total of 31 species were added to the inventory, while 6 species have been removed, bringing the total number of species to 73. Of these, 66 are considered to be aliens (or putative aliens but with uncertain origin with the remaining 7 resulting from range expansion. Six records are considered to be questionable and hence unverified. For verified records, the dominant taxonomic groups are Mollusca (represented by 21 species and Actinopterygii (15 species, followed by Crustacea (8 species and Rhodophyta (7 species. Eight of these species (aliens: Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandi, Womersleyella setacea, Brachidontes pharaonis, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus; range extender: Sphoeroides pachygaster are considered to be invasive. The introduction pathway for 30 species is unknown. Amongst the alien species, ‘Shipping’ is the most common introduction pathway, followed by ‘Secondary dispersal’ from elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands is evident, with a peak of 22 species recorded during the last decade (2001–2010. A discussion on the rationale for including range-expanding species in national inventories of recent arrivals, and in the analysis of trends in records from the Maltese Islands, is included. In particular, the general warming trend of Mediterranean surface waters appears to be facilitating the westward spread of thermophilic alien species from the Eastern to the Central Mediterranean, and the eastward range expansion of

  4. 76 FR 59159 - Record of Decision; Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... also can be picked-up in person at the park's headquarters at 415 Washington Avenue, Bayfield... current levels. If feasible, part of the Long Island light station will be rehabilitated for park staff...

  5. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  6. An update of the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the Galápagos Islands, and first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2013-12-19

    Seven species of Calliphoridae are reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Lucilia pionia (Walker), L. setosa (James), L. deceptor (Curran), L. eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. Lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of Española. The distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their identification is provided. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is reported for the first time from mainland Ecuador and the identification of this species is outlined.

  7. Initial colonization of Long Island, New York by the eastern coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora, Canidae), including first record of breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy,Christopher; Weckel,Mark; Monzón,Javier; Duncan,Neil; Rosenthal,Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) have increased their range dramatically over the past century. Formerly restricted to western North America, they now roam across the continent, in many habitats including large cities. One of the last areas in North America without coyotes has been Long Island, NY, a 3629 km2 island in the New York metropolitan area. Here we summarize all verified accounts of coyotes on Long Island, including the first record of breeding. There are few coyotes on Long Islan...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99118, Lat: -00.36291 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00816, Lat: -00.36887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.60m; Data Date Range: 20100405-20100708.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.62134, Lat: 00.80661 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.30m; Data Date Range: 20100203-20120312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. First record of Cephenniitae in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, with description of new species of Cephennodes and Cephennomicrus of Mussau and Manus Islands (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2017-05-17

    The supertribe Cephenniitae and the tribe Cephenniini are for the first time recorded from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Cephennodes (s. str.) mussauinsularis sp. n. and Cephennomicrus manusianus sp. n. are described, based on specimens collected respectively on Mussau Island (New Ireland Province) and Manus Island (Manus Province).

  15. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  16. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  17. African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C.; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Koster, Randy D.; Pegion, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), its structure and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work which attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical Africa. A state-of-the-art global model in a high-end computer framework is used to produce a 3-member 73-year ensemble run forced by observed SST to represent the Control run. The AEJ as produced by the Control is compared with the representation of the AEJ in the European Center for Medium Range Forecast Reanalyses (ERA-40) and other observational data sets and found very realistic. Five Experiments are then performed, each represented by sets of 3-member 22 year long (1980-2001) ensemble runs. The goal of the Experiments is to investigate the role of meridional soil moisture gradients, different land surface properties and orography. Unlike previous studies, which have suppressed soil moisture gradients within a highly idealized framework (i.e., the so-called bucket model), terrestrial evaporation control is here achieved with a highly sophisticated landsurface treatment and with an extensively tested and complex methodology. The results show that the AEJ is suppressed by a combination of absence of meridional evaporation gradients over Africa and constant vegetation, even if the individual forcings taken separately do not lead to the AEJ disappearance, but only its modification. Moreover, the suppression of orography also leads to a different circulation in which there is no AEJ. This work suggests that it is not just soil moisture gradients, but a unique combination of geographical features present only in northern tropical Africa, which causes and maintains the jet.

  18. New Record of a Sea Urchin Echinometra mathaei (Echinoidea: Camarodonta: Echinometridae from Jeju Island, Korea and Its Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekjun Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Echinoids were collected at depths of 5-10 m in Munseom, Jeju Island by SCUBA diving on November 23, 2008 and September 15, 2009. Two specimens were identified as Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825 based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial sequences. Echinometra mathaei collected from Korea was redescribed with photographs and was compared with other species from GenBank based on molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that no significant differences were between base sequences of E. mathaei from Korea and that from GenBank. To date, 13 echinoids including this species have been reported from Jeju Island, and 32 echinoids have been recorded in Korea.

  19. Systematic account of new Porifera (Demospongiae) records from the oceanic Island of Madeira (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Rosa; Ribeiro, ClÁudia; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Biscoito, Manuel

    2018-03-28

    Few surveys on benthic fauna have been performed on the island of Madeira (Alves et al. 2003 and references therein), and the first sponge specimens were collected opportunistically (Johnson 1863, 1899; Topsent 1904, 1928). Porifera can be considered one of the least studied phyla in the Madeira archipelago, within the Lusitanian province. This is not the case for other regions as the Mediterranean (Boury-Esnault 1971 and references therein), Alboran Sea (Carballo 1994), Canary Islands (Cruz 2002), and the Azores (Topsent 1904; Boury-Esnault Lopes 1985; Xavier 2009), where sponges have been more thoroughly studied.

  20. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  1. Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae - a new record for India from the Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Immanuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halgerda dalanghita Fahey & Gosliner, 1999, a discodoridid nudibranch was reported from Havelock Island of Ritchie’s Archipelago representing a new addition to the Opisthobranch fauna of India. This species is characterized by a firm, bright orange coloured mantle with a network of angular ridges on the dorsum that is ornate with white lines and dots; rhinophores with 17 brown lamellae on a translucent white stalk; highly pinnate gills with eight branchial leaves. The present record extends the known geographical distribution of H. dalanghita and this is the sixth species representing the genus in India. 

  2. First record of Bruchidius raddianae in Italy: infested seeds of Vachellia karroo from Lampedusa island (Coleoptera: Bruchidae; Fabales: Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Toma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruchidius raddianae (Anton & Delobel 2003, a species of seed beetle spread in Northern Africa, was detected for the first time in Europe in some localities of the Southern Iberian Peninsula in 2007. In Spain this coleopteran lives on the shrubs of the South African acacia tree, Vachellia karroo (Hayne Banfi & Galasso, currently present in the Southern Iberian Peninsula. From seeds of V. karroo collected in October 2015, in Lampedusa island, Italy, where this plant is widely spread, 45 specimens of this coleopteran emerged. This observation represents the first record of B. raddianae in Italy and the second one for Europe.

  3. Three new records of Desmodorids (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) from sandy seabeds of the Canary islands

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Núñez, Jorge; Brito, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In an ecological study of meiofaunal assemblages in two locations (Los Abrigos and Los Cristianos) of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), several desmodorid species were found throughout the study period. Three species belonging to the family Desmodoridae were collected in intertidal and shallow subtidal sandy seabeds. These species were Desmodorella aff. tenuispiculum Allgen, 1928, Metachromadora sp. and Spirinia parasitifera Bastian, 1865. Descriptions, figures and tables with mer...

  4. Occurrence of Somma-Vesuvio fine ashes in the tephrostratigraphic record of Panarea, Aeolian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatella, De Rita; Daniela, Dolfi; Corrado, Cimarelli

    2008-10-01

    Ash-rich tephra layers interbedded in the pyroclastic successions of Panarea island (Aeolian archipelago, Southern Italy) have been analyzed and related to their original volcanic sources. One of these tephra layers is particularly important as it can be correlated by its chemical and morphoscopic characteristics to the explosive activity of Somma-Vesuvio. Correlation with the Pomici di Base eruption, that is considered one of the largest explosive events causing the demolition of the Somma stratovolcano, seems the most probable. The occurrence on Panarea island of fine ashes related to this eruption is of great importance for several reasons: 1) it allows to better constrain the time stratigraphy of the Panarea volcano; 2) it provides a useful tool for tephrochronological studies in southern Italy and finally 3) it allows to improve our knowledge on the distribution of the products of the Pomici di Base eruption giving new insights on the dispersion trajectories of fine ashes from plinian plumes. Other exotic tephra layers interbedded in the Panarea pyroclastic successions have also been found. Chemical and sedimentological characteristics of these layers allow their correlation with local vents from the Aeolian Islands thus constraining the late explosive activity of Panarea dome.

  5. Acoustic occurrence detection of a newly recorded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Jianchen; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29.1% were during the day. A diurnal rhythm with a nighttime peak in acoustic detections was found. Passive acoustic detections indicated that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins frequently occurred in this area and were detected mainly at night. This information may be relevant to conservation efforts for these dolphins in the near future.

  6. Dust records in the Pleistocene sediments of Fraser Island: palaeoclimatic reconstruction of wind erosion over the last 600 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, M.E.; McTainsh, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pleistocene lake sediments from a relic perched freshwater lake on Fraser Island have been found to date back to ca.600 ka using U/Th analysis of the organics. This sequence is one of the three longest terrestrial records of environmental change in Australia and the contained evidence of vegetation, fire and lake level changes (Longmore and Heijnis, 1996) and is an invaluable contribution to palaeoclimatic reconstruction. A younger sequence, dated by conventional radiocarbon analysis, has 6.5 m of continuous organic sedimentation from ca. 30 ka to the present. The last 8.5 ka has been analysed in detail, showing a mid-Holocene 'dry' period (Longmore, 1996). Continental aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events has been measured in modern atmospheres (McTainsh, 1989; Knight et al., 1995) and deep sea cores (Hesse, 1994), but the terrestrial record of wind erosion during the Pleistocene is sparse. We will report on a pilot project to determine the presence of aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events in the past in the sediments of Fraser Island lakes. Due to the highly weathered, well-sorted, siliceous nature of the dune sands forming the Island and the highly organic nature of the lake sediments (80-95% LOI), these are some of the few terrestrial sequences that permit separation of aeolian dust from local catchment materials. In the future, oxygen isotope and XRD analysis of the extracted dust will allow the most likely source of the entrained material to be determined and thus provide further evidence as to the wind regime during the last 600ka and 30ka respectively. The separation of dust from these terrestrial sequences is a major achievement and potentially may make a significant contribution to global palaeoclimatic models

  7. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-07-01

    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  8. Records of Auger shells (Negastropoda: Terebridae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.; Haridevi, C.K.

    . Andaman Sea is one of the least investigated regions of the Indian Ocean. The physico- chemical and biological property of the Andaman Sea was described by Ansari and Abidi (1989). Good account on some molluscan resources of Andaman and Nicobar islands...) is represented by the auger and pencil shells. Through the present communication an account of six species of genus Terebra from Andaman and Nicobar is reported for the first time. Collection of specimens of Terebra was made from the rocky intertidal zones around...

  9. CACTUS (Calculator and Computer Technology User Service): Some Easter Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    In the Western Gregorian Calendar, the date of Easter Sunday is defined as the Sunday following the ecclesiastical Full Moon that falls on or next after March 21. While the pattern of dates so defined usually repeats each 19 years, there is a 0.08 day difference between the cycles. More accurately, the system has a period of 70 499 183 lunations…

  10. Christmas and Easter Art Programs in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes art programs that were given at several elementary Australian schools focusing on Christmas and Easter. Explains that the programs are based on the accounts of the birth and death of Jesus given in the Bible. States that the programs integrate studio art, art criticism, and art history. (CMK)

  11. Cleaning ex-uranium sites in Easter Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattsvajler, R.; Khagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to problems, related with recovery and cleaning of ground and water, damaged during intensive uranium mining in the Easter Germany. Design and reclamation works, conducted in the framework of the unique project of Vismut company, are described. The consultation department of environment recovery for experience and technology propagation was organized in this company. 2 tabs

  12. Further contributions to the Hydradephaga (Coleoptera, Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae) fauna of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records, distributions and faunal composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Prince Edward Island, Canada were surveyed during the years 2004-2005. A total of 2450 individuals from 79 species were collected from 98 different localities, among which 30 species are newly recorded from that region. Among these, Acilius sylvanus Hilsenhoff, Rhantus consimilis Motschulsky and Neoporus sulcipennis (Fall) stand out as representing the easternmost reports of these species in Canada. Once removed, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte (Gyrinidae) is reinstated in the faunal list of Prince Edward Island. According to this study and literature 84 species of Hydradephaga are currently known from Prince Edward Island. The Nearctic component of the fauna is made up of 68 species (80.9%) and the Holarctic component of 16 species (19.1%). Most species are characteristic of the Boreal and Atlantic Maritime Ecozones and have a transcontinental distribution. In an examination of the Hydradephaga of insular portions of Atlantic Canada, we found that despite significantly different land areas and different distances to the neighbouring continental mainland the island faunas of Prince Edward Island and insular Newfoundland are very similar in the number of species (84 and 94 species respectively) despite differences in composition. With a land area significantly larger than that of Prince Edward Island, however, the fauna of Cape Breton Island was 39% smaller consisting of 53 species. This difference could be due to the comparative lack of collecting efforts on Cape Breton Island.

  13. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Andersen, T J; Shortt, M; Gaffney, A M; Truffer, M; Stanton, T P; Bindschadler, R; Dutrieux, P; Jenkins, A; Hillenbrand, C-D; Ehrmann, W; Corr, H F J; Farley, N; Crowhurst, S; Vaughan, D G

    2017-01-05

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line-which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf-is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated. In particular, a history of grounding-line retreat is required to understand the relative roles of contemporaneous ocean-forced change and of ongoing glacier response to an earlier perturbation in driving ice-sheet loss. Here we show that the present thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is part of a climatically forced trend that was triggered in the 1940s. Our conclusions arise from analysis of sediment cores recovered beneath the floating Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, and constrain the date at which the grounding line retreated from a prominent seafloor ridge. We find that incursion of marine water beyond the crest of this ridge, forming an ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, occurred in 1945 (±12 years); final ungrounding of the ice shelf from the ridge occurred in 1970 (±4 years). The initial opening of this ocean cavity followed a period of strong warming of West Antarctica, associated with El Niño activity. Thus our results suggest that, even when climate forcing weakened, ice-sheet retreat continued.

  14. Revisiting recent history: records of occurrence and expansion of the European green crab across Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Poirier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late in the 1990s, the non-indigenous European green crab (Carcinus maenas colonized the shorelines of eastern Prince Edward Island, in Atlantic Canada. Due to concerns of further spread into productive shellfish habitats, an annual survey was conducted between 2000 and 2013 to detect a potential range expansion of this species. We compiled and analyzed that data and document green crab expansion using records of annual occurrence and relative density. Methods Surveys were conducted during the fall season of each year by deploying baited traps at 29 sites along the island’s two main shorelines (north and south shores. These sites were selected based on areas deemed more likely to be invaded by the green crab. Raw data per site and date was transformed to catch per unit effort (CPUE to estimate relative abundances. Results Populations of this species showed an uneven westward expansion along the north and south shores. Expansion rates changed among years but, overall, crab abundance was higher and changes in abundance were faster along the south shore than the north shore of the island. The westward expansion continues until this day. Conclusions Based on the information compiled we hypothesize that the dissimilarity in range expansion rate was related to the availability of suitable habitat to sustain large green crab populations along the south shore. We also discuss implications of this expansion for commercial shellfish and native coastal communities.

  15. Neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit 2 reactor cavity with solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Preston, C.C.; McElroy, W.N.; Rao, S.V.; Greenborg, J.; Fricke, V.R.

    1986-01-01

    Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry has been conducted in the Three-Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor cavity, for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence of a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that at least 2 tonnes of fuel, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, is lying at the bottom of the vessel. This existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity. (author)

  16. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  17. Millennial mercury records derived from ornithogenic sediment on Dongdao Island, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Wang, Yuhong; Cheng, Wenhan; Sun, Liguang

    2011-01-01

    Two ornithogenic sediment cores, which have a time span of 1000 years and are influenced by red-footed booby (Sula sula), were collected from Dongdao Islands, South China Sea. The determined mercury concentrations of the two cores show similar and substantial fluctuations during the past millennium, and the fluctuations are most likely caused by the changes in mercury level of the ocean environment and in anthropogenic Hg emission. For the past 500 years, the mercury concentration in the red-footed booby excrement has a striking association with global anthropogenic mercury emission. The mercury concentration increased rapidly after AD 1600 in corresponding to beginning of the unparalleled gold and silver mining in South Central America that left a large volume of anthropogenic mercury pollution. Since the Industrial Revolution, the mercury level has increased at a fast pace, very likely caused by modern coal combustion, chlor-alkali and oil refining industries. The comparison of mercury profiles from different places on earth suggested that anthropogenic mercury pollution after the Industrial Revolution is more severe in Northern Hemisphere than in Antarctica.

  18. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J.A.; Andersen, T.J.; Shortt, M.; Gaffney, A.M.; Truffer, M.; Stanton, T.P.; Bindschadler, R.; Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Ehrmann, W.; Corr, H.F.J.; Farley, N.; Crowhurst, S.; Vaughan, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature20136 The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line—which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf—is underway. Under...

  19. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Sikkel, Paul C; Smit, Nico J

    2014-01-01

    Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for any Mothocya. The distinguishing characters of Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. include its small size (< 9 mm) and eyes, the slender pleotelson with a narrowly rounded caudomedial point, extended uropod peduncle and uropods which do not extend past the pleotelson posterior margin, and the narrow pleon which is only slightly overlapped by pereonite 7.

  20. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Hadfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for any Mothocya. The distinguishing characters of Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. include its small size (< 9 mm and eyes, the slender pleotelson with a narrowly rounded caudomedial point, extended uropod peduncle and uropods which do not extend past the pleotelson posterior margin, and the narrow pleon which is only slightly overlapped by pereonite 7.

  1. Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to Christmas cacti has been reported as a cause of type I allergy. Therefore, the prevalence of immediate-type mucosal and skin reactions related to cactus exposure was studied in 103 employees in a cactus nursery. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire ...... and mucosal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Christmas and Easter cacti seemed to be able to induce contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis on both an immunologic and a nonimmunologic basis. Personal atopy was associated with positive reactions to cacti....

  2. Observed formation of easterly waves over northeast Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2018-06-01

    This study explores the thermodynamic and kinematic features of easterly waves over northeast Africa in July-September season 2005-2015. A daily African easterly wave (AEW) index is formulated from transient satellite rainfall and reanalysis vorticity, and the ten most intense cases are studied by composite analysis. Surface moisture is advected from central Africa towards the Red Sea during AEW formation. The anomalous 600 hPa wind circulation is comprized of a cyclonic-south anticyclonic-north rotor pair and accentuated easterly jet along 17N. Composite convection is initiated over Ethiopia and subsequently intensifies following interaction with a zonal circulation located downstream. Composite AEW temperature anomalies reveal a cool lower-warm upper layer heating profile. 2-8 day variance of satellite OLR reaches a maximum over the southern Arabian Peninsula, suggesting an upstream role for surface heating and the Somali Jet. The large scale environment is analyzed by regression of the AEW index onto daily fields of rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature in July-September season ( N = 1004). The rainfall regression reflects a westward propagating AEW wave-train of higher values on 13N and lower values on 7N with a longitude spacing of 25°. The air pressure and temperature regression features a N-S dipole indicating an anomalous northward ITCZ. A low pressure signal west of the Maritime Continent coupled with a warm zone across the South Indian Ocean coincides with AEW formation over the eastern Sahel.

  3. Comparison of the glacial chronology of Eastern Baffin Island, East Greenland and Camp century accumulation record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Funder, Svend Visby; Hjort, Chritian

    1974-01-01

    ) an interval about 40,000 to 11,000 yr ago of restricted ice extent; and (5) a late glacial sladial belween 11,000 and 8,000 B.P. This record shows basic agreement with a chronology of snow accumulation at the Camp Century ice core site based on a revised chronostratigraphic interpretation. Fluctuations in sea...... level between 120,000 and 70,000 B.P. may well be related to glacierization of high arctic land masses under conditions of heavy snowfall. The subsequent reduction of accumulation in these high arctic areas then leads to a reduction of ice volume with a dry, cold interstadial correlative in time...

  4. Seismic slip recorded in tourmaline fault mirrors from Elba Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, C.; Brogi, A.; Liotta, D.; Mugnaioli, E.; Spiess, R.; Dini, A.; Zucchi, M.; Vannuccini, G.

    2016-05-01

    -T conditions. Our results show that tourmaline fault mirrors recorded localized high-T processes triggered by frictional heating and can be therefore considered as reliable traces of ancient earthquakes.

  5. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  6. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations at the Sydney (Australia) Royal Easter Show from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Nathan; Mo, Shirley; Ong, Leon; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Wei, Daniel; Fahey, David; Liu, Jia Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Comprehensive studies on the relationship between patient demographics and subsequent treatment and disposition at a single mass-gathering event are lacking. The Sydney Royal Easter Show (SRES; Sydney Olympic Park, New South Wales, Australia) is an annual, 14-day, agricultural mass-gathering event occurring around the Easter weekend, attracting more than 800,000 patrons per year. In this study, patient records from the SRES were analyzed to examine relationships between weather, crowd size, day of week, and demographics on treatment and disposition. This information would help to predict factors affecting patient treatment and disposition to guide ongoing training of first responders and to evaluate the appropriateness of staffing skills mix at future events. Hypothesis Patient demographics, environmental factors, and attendance would influence the nature and severity of presentations at the SRES, which would influence staffing requirements. A retrospective analysis of 4,141 patient record forms was performed for patients who presented to St John Ambulance (Australian Capital Territory, Australia) at the SRES between 2012 and 2014 inclusive. Presentation type was classified using a previously published minimum data set. Data on weather and crowd size were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and the SRES, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v22 (IBM; Armonk, New York USA). Between 2012 to 2014, over 2.5 million people attended the SRES with 4,141 patients treated onsite. As expected, the majority of presentations were injuries (49%) and illnesses (46%). Although patient demographics and presentation types did not change over time, the duration of treatment increased. A higher proportion of patients were discharged to hospital or home compared to the proportion of patients discharged back to the event. Patients from rural/regional locations (accounting for 15% of all patients) were

  8. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Preston, C.C.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-04-01

    Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry has been conducted in the Three-Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence of a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that there are at least 2 tonnes of fuel, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity

  9. Neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit 2 reactor cavity with solid-state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Preston, C.C.; McElroy, W.N.; Rao, S.V.; Greenborg, J.; Fricke, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry has been conducted in the Three-Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence of a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that at least 2 tonnes of fuel, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, is lying at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity

  10. Absolute paleointensities during a mid Miocene reversal of the Earth's magnetic field recorded on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, R.; Soffel, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive paleointensity study was carried out on an approximately 14.1 Myr old reverse to normal transition of the geomagnetic field. One hundred eighty-eight samples from a mid Miocene volcanic sequence on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) were subjected to Thellier-type paleointensity determinations. Samples for paleointensity experiments were selected on the basis of high Curie temperatures, low viscosity indexes, and limited variations of the remanence-carrying magnetic content during thermal treatment. A modified Thellier technique, which facilitates the recognition of MD tails and the formation of new magnetic remanences with higher blocking temperatures than the actual heating step, was used on the majority of the samples. The application of this technique proved to be very successful and we obtained reliable paleointensity results for 35% of the 87 sampled lava flows. In general, the intensity of the reversed and normal magnetized parts of the sequence, before and after the transition, is lower than the field intensity expected for the mid Miocene. This observation is very likely related to a long term reduction of the field close to transitions. The mean field intensity after the reversal ( ~ 17 μ T) is about twice the value of that recorded in the rocks prior to the reversal. This observation points at a fast recovery of the dipolar structure of the field after this reversal. Very low paleointensities with values < 5 μ T were obtained during an excursion, preceding the actual transition, and also close to significant changes of the local field directions during the reversal. This is interpreted as non-dipolar components becoming dominant for short periods and provoking a rapid change of local field directions. During the transition 15 successive lava flows recorded similar local field directions corresponding to a cluster of virtual geomagnetic poles close to South America. Chronologically, within this cluster the paleointensity increases from about 9

  11. Record of the Indo-Pacific Slender Gecko Hemiphyllodactylus typus (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae from the Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Chandramouli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Hemiphyllodactylus typus in the Andaman archipelago is confirmed based on fresh collections from two different sites namely Mt. Harriet National Park and Long Island. The veracity of an earlier report of this species from the Andaman Islands is discussed and revalidated.

  12. Publication of a double issue of the Bulletin at Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    Publications Section

    2005-01-01

    During the Easter period, there will be a single issue of the Bulletin (No. 12-13/2005) covering the weeks of 21 and 28 March. The deadline for articles to appear in this double issue, both in the publications section and in the Staff Association's pages, will be midday on Tuesday, 15 March. No Bulletin will be distributed on 28 March. The deadline for articles to appear in the following issue of the Bulletin, No. 14/2005, will be midday on Tuesday 29 March. Publications Section DSU-CO Tel. 79971

  13. Publication of a double issue of the Bulletin at Easter

    CERN Document Server

    Publications Section

    2005-01-01

    During the Easter period, there will be a single issue of the Bulletin (No. 12-13/2005) covering the weeks of 21 and 28 March. The deadline for articles to appear in this double issue, both in the publications section and in the Staff Association's pages, will be midday on Tuesday, 15 March. No Bulletin will be distributed on 28 March. The deadline for articles to appear in the following issue of the Bulletin, No. 14/2005, will be midday on Tuesday 29 March. Publications Section SG/CO Tel. 79971

  14. Publication of a double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 21 and 28 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (n°17-18/2003). Items for publication in this double issue should reach the Publication section or the Staff Association, as appropriate, before midday on Tuesday 15 April. There will therefore be no Bulletin distribution on Friday 25 April. Announcements for publication in the next issue (n°19/2003) should be sent on Tuesday 29 April by noon. Publications Section/ETT Tel. 79971

  15. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey, and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased

  16. Obliquity-controlled soil moisture fluctuations recorded in Saharan dust deposits on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) during the last 180 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Oberhänsli, H.; Hambach, U.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.; Faust, D.

    2009-04-01

    On Lanzarote (Canary Islands), dust-borne sediments trapped in valleys dammed by volcanic material were investigated in order to reveal environmental changes during the Late Quaternary. Clay content and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility are used as proxies of pedogenesis and trace back changes of palaeo-soil moisture during the last 180 ka, showing a pattern of generally enhanced soil moisture during glacials and stadials and more arid conditions during warm periods. These results are compared with proxies from local palaeoclimate studies, showing that there is a positive correlation with proxies of trade wind strength off NW Africa and sea surface temperatures in the NE-Atlantic, and an inverse correlation with the extent of mediterranean vegetation. Possible causes for the observed pattern include a glacial enhancement of precipitation from westerly cyclones, an occasional influence of the African summer monsoon and a relative humidity change triggered by fluctuating air temperatures. Although no clear differentiation between the influences of these factors is possible yet, it is clear that the first and the last one must have dominated during most of the time. These results are the first quasi continuous terrestrial data testifying to environmental changes in the NW African coastal area for the last 180 ka, and complement the abundant data derived from marine cores of the region. The results from this study demonstrate a dominant influence of high latitude dynamics in this area intermediated by North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. This influence is supported by a negative correlation of our proxies with the orbital obliquity cycle, including a time lag of about 10 ka similar to that recorded from North Atlantic sea surface temperatures.

  17. Soil moisture fluctuations recorded in Saharan dust deposits on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) over the last 180 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Oberhänsli, H.; Hambach, U.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.; Faust, D.

    2010-08-01

    Aeolian sediments trapped in volcanically dammed valleys on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, were investigated in order to reveal environmental changes over the last 180 ka. Clay content and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility were used as proxies for pedogenesis and palaeo-soil moisture. During the last 180 ka, these proxies showed a general pattern of enhanced soil moisture during glacials and stadials and more arid conditions during interglacials and interstadials. Comparisons of these results with proxies from regional palaeoclimate studies identified a positive correlation with proxies of trade-wind strength off northwest Africa and inverse correlations with both sea surface temperatures in the northeast Atlantic and the extent of Mediterranean vegetation. Possible causes for the observed pattern include a glacial enhancement of precipitation from westerly cyclones, a change in relative humidity due to fluctuating air temperatures and an occasional influence of the African summer monsoon. Although it is not yet possible to clearly differentiate among these factors, it is clear that the first two factors must have been primarily dominant. These results represent the first quasi-continuous terrestrial data testifying to environmental changes in the northwest African coastal area for the last 180 ka and complement the abundant data derived from marine cores of the region. High latitude dynamics had a major influence in this area and were intermediated by North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. A possible negative correlation can also be observed with the orbital obliquity cycle with a 10 ka time lag, which is similar to the lag recorded from North Atlantic sea surface temperatures.

  18. Mepraia spinolai in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean Coast (Chile - First insular record and feeding pattern on the Pan de Azúcar Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagua Franco Hernán

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a field collection performed at Pan de Azúcar Island in Northern Chile, 95 specimens representing all instars of Mepraia spinolai were collected. The intestinal contents of 55 specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and were found to be negative. This is the first record of an insular habitat for M. spinolai, where the insects had fed mainly on seabirds (78%, some on marine mammals (5%, and some on reptiles (7%.

  19. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  20. Do geological field survey and remote sensing record the same fractures? The case of the corallian Loyalty Islands (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thovert, J.; Huaman, D.; Genthon, P.; Adler, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Loyalty Islands are a series of corallian islands uplifted on the elastic bulge of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction at the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) Trench. They are located on the non seismic Loyalty Ridge, which is starting colliding the Vanuatu Trench. The interiors of the islands are covered with dense forests and devoid of outcrops. Lineaments seen on remote sensing data (aerial photos, SPOT 3 and 4, Envisat) are compared with fractures and joints measured on a geological survey near the coasts, where corallian limestones outcrop. Lineaments observed by remote sensing in the inner Islands correspond to one main N110 direction with a large variance of nearly 15° in rms, two minor directions nearly 45° apart (N150 and N60) and no systematic evolution with distance to coasts. The three lineament families are seen near coasts as centimetric to decimetric aperture cracks without evidence of any displacement. However, an extensive geological survey of the fractures near the coast of the islands reveals a clear N135 direction and possibly an EW direction in the Lifou Island, while in the Maré island fractures present a large variance with a single N70 direction. The directions N 135, N110 and N60 are also observed regionally on the seafloor and are presumably present in the basement of the islands. It is shown that lineaments longer than 2000 m are close to the N110 direction and that the mean orientation shifts progressively to reach the N125 direction for L<400 m. Therefore, it is likely that the progressive shift in orientation continues up to the N135 direction observed in the field at the 10-50 m scale. The origin of this apparent difference between field data and remote sensing lineaments is discussed, considering (i) the intense karstification of these islands, where dissolution occurs during infiltration of rainwater, but also due to corrosion mixing at the top and the bottom of the freshwater lens and at its tips near coast. This

  1. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62847, Lat: 19.28011 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.65704, Lat: 19.27666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.33m; Data Date Range: 20090404-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Swains Island, American Samoa; Long: -171.09087, Lat: -11.05859 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.70m; Data Date Range: 20100316-20120321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Long: 145.81873, Lat: 17.58746 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.01m; Data Date Range: 20090504-20110423.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Ofu and Olosega Islands, American Samoa; Long: -169.65176, Lat: -14.18073 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.60m; Data Date Range: 20100311-20120425.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12653, Lat: 05.86666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100407-20110503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.59486, Lat: 19.30300 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091114.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62730, Lat: 19.31588 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.34221, Lat: 06.39242 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.00m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20120512.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03300, Lat: 05.88243 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20110816.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Swains Island, American Samoa; Long: -171.09113, Lat: -11.05870 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100316-20120321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.60979, Lat: 19.32583 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20100308.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.43914, Lat: 06.41887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.50m; Data Date Range: 20100417-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Long: 145.76970, Lat: 15.15611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Date Range: 20090420-20110408.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. African Easterly Jet: Barotropic Instability, Waves, and Cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Thorncroft, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of the African easterly jet, focusing on instability processes on a seasonal and subseasonal scale, with the goal of identifying features that could provide increased predictability of Atlantic tropical cyclogenesis. The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is used as the main investigating tool. MERRA is compared with other reanalyses datasets from major operational centers around the world and was found to describe very effectively the circulation over the African monsoon region. In particular, a comparison with precipitation datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project shows that MERRA realistically reproduces seasonal precipitation over that region. The verification of the generalized Kuo barotropic instability condition computed from seasonal means is found to have the interesting property of defining well the location where observed tropical storms are detected. This property does not appear to be an artifact of MERRA and is present also in the other adopted reanalysis datasets. Therefore, the fact that the areas where the mean flow is unstable seems to provide a more favorable environment for wave intensification, could be another factor to include-in addition to sea surface temperature, vertical shear, precipitation, the role of Saharan air, and others-among large-scale forcings affecting development and tropical cyclone frequency. In addition, two prominent modes of variability are found based on a spectral analysis that uses the Hilbert-Huang transform: a 2.5-6-day mode that corresponds well to the African easterly waves and also a 6-9-day mode that seems to be associated with tropical- extratropical interaction.

  16. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  17. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad

    2015-04-01

    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  18. New records of Chondrilla australiensis and Chondrilla grandistellata (Demospongiae: Chondrosida: Chondrillidae from Havelock Island, South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Immanuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chondrilla is reported from the Andaman group of Islands off Havelock Island for the first time, with two species, C. grandistellata and C. australiensis in this study.  This genus has previously been reported and represented by four species in Indian waters viz., Chondrilla mixta, C. sacciformis, C. kilakaria and C. australiensis. C. australiensis is light brown to reddish-brown in colour; encrusts primarily on live boulder corals; contains oxyasters measuring 14.8-(18.5-22.2 µm and spherasters measuring 17.3-(26-29.7 µm. C. grandistellata is tan or brown in colour with unevenly distributed white speckles; Contains large spherasters that measure 106.3-(143.3-175.6 µm.  In this study it is suggested that C. sacciformis specimens reported previously from India may be C. grandistellata; this probable conspecificity is also discussed.  

  19. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  20. The language and style of Latin rubrics in medieval liturgical Easter drama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vršecká-Kvízová, Kateřina

    -, č. 71 (2013), s. 267-280 ISSN 1376-7453 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Easter drama * Medieval Latin * Latin rubrics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  2. Statistical Analysis of the Links between Blocking and Nor'easters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J. F.; Pfahl, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nor'easters can be loosely defined as extratropical cyclones that develop as they progress northward along the eastern coast of North America. The path makes it possible for these storms to generate storm surge along the coastline and/or heavy precipitation or snow inland. In the present analysis, the path of the storms is investigated relative to the behavior of upstream blocking events over the North Atlantic Ocean. For this analysis, two separate Lagrangian tracking methods are used to identify the extratropical cyclone paths and the blocking events. Using the cyclone paths, Nor'easters are identified and blocking statistics are calculated for the days prior to, during and following the occurrence of the Nor'easters. The path, strength and intensification rates of the cyclones are compared with the strength and location of the blocks. In the event that a Nor'easter occurs, the likelihood of the presence of block at the southeast tip of Greenland is statistically significantly increased, i.e., the presence of a block concurrent with a Nor'easter happens more often than by random coincidence. However no significant link between the strength of the storms and the strength of the block is identified. These results suggest that the presence of the block mainly affects the path of the Nor'easters. On the other hand, in the event of blocking at the southeast tip of Greenland, the likelihood of a Nor'easter, as opposed to a different type of storm is no greater than what one might expect from randomly sampling cyclone tracks. The results confirm a long held understanding in forecast meteorology that upstream blocking is a necessary but not sufficient condition for generating a Nor'easter.

  3. A High-Resolution ENSO-Driven Rainfall Record Derived From an Exceptionally Fast Growing Stalagmite From Niue Island (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, S.; Aharon, P.; Lambert, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation's (ENSO) dominant control over the present global climate and its unpredictable response to a global warming makes the study of paleo-ENSO important. So far corals, spanning the Tropical Pacific Ocean, are the most commonly used geological archives of paleo-ENSO. This is because corals typically exhibit high growth rates (>1 cm/yr), and reproduce reliably surface water temperatures at sub-annual resolution. However there are limitations to coral archives because their time span is relatively brief (in the order of centuries), thus far making a long and continuous ENSO record difficult to achieve. On the other hand stalagmites from island settings can offer long and continuous records of ENSO-driven rainfall. Niue Island caves offer an unusual opportunity to investigate ENSO-driven paleo-rainfall because the island is isolated from other large land masses, making it untainted by continental climate artifacts, and its geographical location is within the Tropical Pacific "rain pool" (South Pacific Convergence Zone; SPCZ) that makes the rainfall variability particularly sensitive to the ENSO phase switches. We present here a δ18O and δ13C time series from a stalagmite sampled on Niue Island (19°00' S, 169°50' W) that exhibits exceptionally high growth rates (~1.2 mm/yr) thus affording a resolution comparable to corals but for much longer time spans. A precise chronology, dating back to several millennia, was achieved by U/Th dating of the stalagmite. The stalagmite was sampled using a Computer Automated Mill (CAM) at 300 μm increments in order to receive sub-annual resolution (every 3 months) and calcite powders of 50-100 μg weight were analyzed for δ18O and δ13C using a Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The isotope time series contains variable shifts at seasonal, inter-annual, and inter-decadal periodicities. The δ13C and δ18O yield ranges of -3.0 to -13.0 (‰ VPDB) and -3.2 to -6.2 (‰ VPDB

  4. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae, a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hastriter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter & Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males, the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed.

  5. The recruitment of patients to trials in head and neck cancer: a qualitative study of the EaStER trial of treatments for early laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D W; de Salis, I; Donovan, J L; Birchall, M

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the factors contributing to poor recruitment to the EaStER trial "Early Stage glottic cancer: Endoscopic excision or Radiotherapy" feasibility study. We performed a prospective qualitative assessment of the EaStER trial at three centres to investigate barriers to recruitment and implement changes. Methods used included semi-structured interviews, focus groups and audio-recordings of recruitment encounters. First, surgeons and recruiters did not all accept the primary outcome as the rationale for the trial. Surgeons did not always adhere to the trial eligibility criteria leading to variations between centres in the numbers of "eligible" patients. Second, as both treatments were considered equally successful, recruiters and patients focused on the pragmatics of the different trial arms, favouring surgery over radiotherapy. The lack of equipoise was reflected in the way recruiters presented trial information. Third, patient views, beliefs and preferences were not fully elicited or addressed by recruiters. Fourth, in some centres, logistical issues made trial participation difficult. This qualitative research identified several major issues that explained recruitment difficulties. While there was insufficient time to address these in the EaStER trial, several factors would need to be addressed to launch further RCTs in head and neck cancer. These include the need for clear ongoing agreement among recruiting clinicians regarding details in the study protocol; an understanding of the logistical issues hindering recruitment at individual centres; and training recruiters to enable them to explain the need for randomisation and the rationale for the RCT to patients.

  6. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  7. A new species of Rullierinereis and new records of Nereididae from sublittoral sandy bottoms off Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rullierinereis ancornunezi n. sp., collected from sandy and maërl bottoms from 19-55 m depth around Lanzarote island, is described. The new taxon is characterized by having a reduced or absent upper notopodial ligule in biramous parapodia of chaetigers 3-9 and in the middle region from chaetiger 26 onwards, and also by the shape of the homogomph notopodial falciger blade, which is short and serrated. A comparison with morphologically similar species is made. Other nereidid species collected were: Nereis lamellosa Ehlers, 1864, Nereis rava Ehlers, 1864, Neanthes caudata (Delle Chiaje, 1827 and Neanthes rubicunda (Ehlers, 1864. A map of the distribution of these species is presented.

  8. Rapamycin: An InhibiTOR of Aging Emerges From the Soil of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a macrolide immunosuppressant that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase and extends lifespan in model organisms including mice. Although rapamycin is an FDA-approved drug for select indications, a diverse set of negative side effects may preclude its wide-scale deployment as an antiaging therapy. mTOR forms two different protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2; the former is acutely sensitive to rapamycin whereas the latter is only chronically sensitive to rapamycin in vivo. Over the past decade, it has become clear that although genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 extends lifespan and delays aging, inhibition of mTORC2 has negative effects on mammalian health and longevity and is responsible for many of the negative side effects of rapamycin. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular and physiological effects of rapamycin treatment, and we discuss how the use of alternative rapamycin treatment regimens or rapamycin analogs has the potential to mitigate the deleterious side effects of rapamycin treatment by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Although the side effects of rapamycin are still of significant concern, rapid progress is being made in realizing the revolutionary potential of rapamycin-based therapies for the treatment of diseases of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Legacy of the Teaching American History Grants: Statues on Easter Island?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwell, Russell

    2007-01-01

    It is not too early to ask what legacy the Teaching American History grants will leave behind. Put another way, when all the money is spent, when all the seminars are done, when all the professional development has ended, what evidence will there be that the program ever existed? Will historians in the future look back at the evidence left behind…

  10. Mysteries and Discoveries of Archaeoastronomy From Pre-history to Easter Island

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Shows the limitations of orthodox archeology in the face of astronomically-based artifacts and tries to understand what led the ancients to construct buildings such as the city of Teotihuacan in the Mexico Valley, the Ceremonial Centre of Chaco Canyon in the USA, the Avebury stone circle in Great Britain or the Great Pyramids in Egypt

  11. A study on the diversity of gastropods in Hormuz Island with first record of two species from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiallah Kheirabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the diversity of gastropod species in the intertidal zone of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf. Seasonal sampling was conducted in 7 selected sites by throwing nine random quadrates (0.5×0.5 m in each site. Samples of each site were separately transferred to the laboratory and identified by the standard keys and verified by the Conchology Museum of Tokyo University of Science. Forty -nine gastropod species were identified, from which 2 species, Turicula nelliae and Linatella caudata were recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The highest number of gastropods in one site was 28 species in site 1 (East of Marine Research Center, Also highest number of gastropods in one season was 35 species in winter and lowest number was in 28 species in summer. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, Margalef richness index and evenness index were calculated in the different sites and results showed that site 1 contained the most amount of the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices and site 6 (West of Island contained the most amount of the Simpson index. Also, site 3 (Mangrove forest showed the lowest amount of the Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices, while maximum amount of evenness index occurred in this site.

  12. Multifractal investigation of continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 pre- and eruptive phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Martì Molist, Joan; López Moreno, Carmen; Abella Meléndez, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    The Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is an effective method that allows detecting multifractality in non-stationary signals. We applied the MF-DFA to the continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands), which was affected by a submarine monogenetic eruption in October 2011. We investigated the multifractal properties of the continuous seismic signal before the onset of the eruption and after. We analysed three frames of the signal, one measured before the onset of eruption that occurred on October 10, 2011; and two after, but corresponding to two distinct eruptive episodes, the second one started on November 22, 2011 and lasting until late February 2012. The results obtained show a striking difference in the width of the multifractal spectrum, which is generally used to quantify the multifractal degree of a signal: the multifractal spectra of the signal frames recorded during the eruptive episodes are almost identical and much narrower than that of the signal frame measured before the onset of the eruption. Such difference indicates that the seismic signal recorded during the unrest reflects mostly the fracturing of the host rock under the overpressure exerted by the intruding magma, while that corresponding to the eruptive phases was mostly influenced by the flow of magma through the plumbing system, even some fracturing remains, not being possible to distinguish among the two eruptive episodes in terms of rock fracture mechanics.

  13. A Late Quaternary palynological and sedimentological record from two coastal swamps at southern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from southern Kaitoke (Forsythes' Paddock and Blackwells' Bush), Great Barrier Island, show that at c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the area was an estuary with tidal flats and Avicennia. By c. 3000 cal. yr BP, a Restionaceae (Leptocarpus) salt marsh had developed in the estuary as marine influences lessened. By c. cal. 2550 yr BP, fresh water swamp (Cyperacceae-Gleichenia-Leptspermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Conifer-hardwood forest surrounding the southern Kaitoke sites from c. 7500-c. 2800 cal. yr BP was dominated by Daceydium, Metrosideros and Libocedrus. After c. 2800 cal. yr BP Metrosideros was replaced by Agathis, Phyllocladus and Prumnopitys taxifolia, suggesting climatic change to more variable conditions. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at southern Kaitoke began c. 600 cal. yr BP Minor pre-Kaharoa fire disturbance is evident c. 1750 cal. yr BP and c. 1290-970 cal. yr BP (author). 52 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. A 242-year seasonal-resolved speleothem record from Hainan Island: A window into variability of the precipitation δ18O in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; An, Z.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Fung, I. Y.; Zhang, H.; Tan, L.; Bi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Hainan Island is located at the gateway of East Asian summer monsoon to the continent. The typical tropical monsoon climate at Hainan island is characterized by wet season during the summer and autumn and dry season during the winter and spring. Here, we present a seasonal resolved speleothem record spanning 242 years ( 50-292 AD) from Xianren Cave (E109°25`, N18°34`), which is situated in the Baoting County, Hainan Province. The monitoring inside the cave shows that the relative humidity kept saturated during the observed periods (one and half years) while the temperature varied seasonally following the temperature changes outside the cave, but with much smaller amplitude. Monthly observation of drip water inside the cave indicates that the isotope composition of drip water mainly responds to the changes in the precipitation isotope composition with less than two months' resident time. The visible annual lamination and distinct fluctuations of calcite Mg, Sr and Ba concentrations corroborate that the high-frequency oscillations of calcite δ18O largely capture the seasonal variation of the isotope composition of precipitation, although the temperature effect cannot be excluded. By setting the heaviest value of annual variation of calcite δ18O as the beginning of each annual cycle, we transferred the δ18O record of 11.2 cm in depth to a δ18O record of 242-year in age. The δ18O record of stalagmite XR-3 demonstrate clearly the annual, decadal and multi-decadal variations of amplitude from 2 to 4‰, in addition to the seasonal oscillation of amplitude varied from 1.5 to 2.5‰. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition results show that the dominant variability (54.6% of the total variance) is captured by the components at the timescale of 3-7 year, while the components on timescales of 22-24 -year, 80-year and 120-year capture 35.0%, 7.0% and 3.4% of the variance, respectively. We contribute the variability of speleothem δ18O at the timescale of 3-7 -year to

  15. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  16. CHRISTMAS AND EASTER THEMES IN THE LITERARY HERITAGE OF YURIY MIROLYUBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Dmitrenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A  Russian emigrant writer Yuri Mirolyubov (1892—1970 wrote a  lot about Slavic antiquities. His name is associated with the origin of a  legendary “The book of Veles”  (Velesova kniga. This article studies his literary works in a historical and literary context, thematically associated with Christmas and Easter. The son of a priest, Mirolyubov was able to create original Christmas and Easter tales. As a priest’s son Mirolyubov managed to create indigenous Christmas and Easter stories. He brought back an already existing genre tradition of Christmas and Easter literature to its folklore origins, freed it from absolutely literary accretions and narrative stereotypes. Yuri Mirolyubov strived to put the Christmas and Easter stories beyond moral (much less entertaining literature, put them in the mainstream of a  folk, “Russian epic” (Ivan Shmelyov. That was a defi nition given by an author Ivan Shmelyov to his writing “The Lord’s summer”  (Leto Gospodne, who also updated the Canon of Russian calendar (Christmas and Easter literature in his own way. In fictional prose Yuri Mirolyubov acted as a scientist-ethnographer, a  sensitive receptionist of  everyday phenomena and psychological states. But in the works defi ned as scientific, he became a true artist, who felt free to deal with the most complicated and poorly studied material, however, existing in the depths of people’s consciousness.

  17. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early Cretaceous Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia , Bartramiopsis , and Alophosia . Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  18. A review of the Hexactinellida (Porifera) of Chile, with the first record of Caulophacus Schulze, 1885 (Lyssacinosida: Rossellidae) from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M; Araya, Juan Francisco

    2014-12-02

    All records of the 15 hexactinellid sponge species known to occur off Chile are reviewed, including the first record in the Southeastern Pacific of the genus Caulophacus Schulze, 1885, with the new species Caulophacus chilense sp. n. collected as bycatch in the deep water fisheries of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 off Caldera (27ºS), Region of Atacama, northern Chile. All Chilean hexactinellid species occur in bathyal to abyssal depths (from 256 up to 4142 m); nine of them are reported for the Sala y Gomez and Nazca Ridges, with one species each in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago and Easter Island. The Chilean hexactinellid fauna is still largely unknown, consisting of only 2.5 % of the known hexactinellid extant species. Further studies and deep water sampling are essential to assess their ecology and distribution, particularly in northern Chile.

  19. Biomineralization and biosignatures of coralloid-type speleothems from lava tubes of Galapagos Islands: evidences on the fossil record of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Gazquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José M.; Forti, Paolo; Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes have traditionally been considered of little interest from a mineralogical point of view. Recently, this type of volcanic caves has received particular attention because lava tubes have been described on Mars. Speleothems, or secondary mineral deposits in lava tubes are mainly composed of siliceous minerals. Coralloid-type speleothems are found either on basaltic cave walls or on the surface of other speleothems. Several authors attribute a microbially mediated origin to their formation. This type of speleothems was recorded within Royal Palm Cave of Santa Cruz Island in Galapagos Archipelago (Ecuador), a lava tube 600 m long, 5 to 15 m height and 2 to 10 m width. The Galapagos Islands are an archipelago of 19 volcanic islands located some 1500 km west of Ecuador, in the Pacific Ocean. These islands host one of the most biodiverse settings on Earth, studied by Charles Darwin. Beige and greyish small coralloids were collected in Royal Palm Cave and analysed by field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS), X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mineralogical analyses for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization, as well as for assessing microbe-mineral interactions and biogenicity. In addition, 16S rRNA gene analyses were performed to identify microbial communities associated with the coralloid-type speleothems. The coralloids showed internal compositional zonation along the growth direction of the speleothems, according to micro-CT data. Internal layering was clearly discernable by the differences in opacity of the distinct mineralogical phases to X-rays, being dominated by alteration products of siliceous composition, whereas more opaque phases, usually Ca-rich minerals, were dominant in the outermost part of the speleothems. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy reinforced that the first stage of deposition is mainly composed of opal A and clay minerals

  20. Cracking The Code Of Easter Or, Understanding Why The Date Of Easter “Hops” All Over The Calendars Of March And April

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Ware

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that in most years, but not every year, Western Christians--both Catholic and Protestant--celebrate Easter at least one week before Eastern (Orthodox Christians?  Furthermore, since the Bible portrays the resurrection of Jesus as occurring on the Sunday morning directly after Passover, why is it that in many years both Eastern and Western Christians celebrate Easter more than a week after Passover, or even before Passover?  The major key to understanding the cycle of annual dates for Passover, Orthodox Easter, and Western Easter is the Metonic Cycle, and how it was shaped and applied in three different historical contexts.  This article seeks to explore the historical genesis of the Metonic Cycle and how it was applied to each of these festivals to yield the results we see today. Kenapa kebanyakan tahun, walaupan bukan setiap tahun, Gereja-gereja barat, yaitu gereja Katolik dan gereja Protestan, merayakan Paskah paling sedikit satu minggu sebelum Paskah Kristen Timur (gereja Ortodoks?  Selanjutnya, karena Alkitab menjelaskan kebangkitan Yesus ditentukan pada pagi hari Minggu langsung setelah Paskah Yahudi, mengapa terkadang orang-orang Kristen Timur dan orang-orang Kristen Barat merayakan Paskah lebih dari satu minggu sesudah Paskah Yahudi, ataupun sebelumnya?  Kunci yang paling penting untuk mengerti putaran tanggal ini antara Paskah Yahudi, Paskah gereja Ortodoks, dan Paskah gereja Barat adalah Putaran Metonik, dan bagaimana Putaran ini dibentukan dan diterapkan dalam ketiga konteks historis.  Artikel ini mau menyelidiki permulaian Putaran Metonik ini dan bagaimana Putaran ini diterapkan pada setiap festival ini sampai apa yang kita lihat hari ini. 

  1. High-resolution δ13C record of fossil wood and bulk organic matter from a deep Oligocene lacustrine succession, Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, M.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Fyhn, M. B. W.; Korte, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a high-resolution stable isotope record based on bulk organic matter (δ13Corg) and fossil wood (δ13Cwood) originating from Oligocene deep lacustrine sediments cored on the Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam. The sediments are exceptionally well preserved. They are thus excellently suited for a detailed stratigraphical analysis of the stable isotope record and as proxy for environmental and climatic changes within this period. The sediments were deposited in rapid subsiding, narrow and elongated fault-bound graben (Fyhn and Phach, 2015) and are represented by deep pelagic lacustrine organic-rich mud interrupted by numerous density-flow deposits (Hovikoski et al., 2016). The density-flow deposits contain abundant fragments of fossil wood. Therefore it was possible to obtain 262 coalified wood fragments together with 1063 bulk organic samples throughout the span of the core. This allowed to establish a high resolution stable C isotope record (δ13Corg and δ13Cwood). In addition 2464 handheld XRF determinations were carried out to further characterize the depositional environment (Rizzi et al., 2017). The organic carbon isotope trend from the 500 m core succession provides insight into the palaeoenvironmental changes of the lake during the Oligocene. Both, global and local factors control the δ13C variations. The aim of the study is to obtain pure global δ13Corg and δ13Cwood signals that would allow comparison of the studied sediments with coeval syn-rift successions in the South China Sea region and other parts of the world. [1] Fyhn and Phach (2015) Tectonics, 34(2): 290-312. [2] Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007. [3] Rizzi et al. (2017) EGU General Assembly Abstract EGU 2017-17584.

  2. Spatial variation in pollen and charcoal records in relation to the 665 yr BP Kaharoa tephra at Harataonga Bay, Great Barrier Island, northern New Zealand : preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.L.; Jones, M.D.; Shane, P.A.; Sutton, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a pollen study examining spatial variability using the 665 14 C yr BP Kaharoa tephra as the key stratigraphic marker. Our aim is to highlight potential differences in pollen and charcoal profiles from adjacent sites, and to point out the implications of these differences for the interpretation of pollen records. Three sediment cores were taken from swampy ground behind foredunes at Harataonga Bay, a small catchment on Great Barrier Island. Core 1 provides a c. 5000 14 C yr record of the swamp and is typical of northern New Zealand pollen profiles in that the deforestation signal appears immediately after Kaharoa tephra. Cores 2 and 3, however, show this signal at least 1 m below the tephra layer. Also, artefact pollen of gourd Lagenaria, an introduced Polynesian cultigen, was found 80 cm below the tephra layer in Core 2. This apparent difference in the timing of the human signal may be explained by the occurrence of small-scale, highly localised fires that are not recorded at adjacent sites. This has implications for inferring date of human presence in extensive areas, such as regions or large catchments, from a small number of pollen cores taken from within those areas. An alternative explanation is that sediments in cores 2 and 3 have been reworked to a much greater extent than those in Core 1. This has implications for the use of tephra as critical data for events, particularly when using recent tephra such as Kaharoa for dating human presence when the necessary resolution is to decades or centuries rather than millenia. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  4. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  5. 复活节Bunny来了!%Here Comes the Easter Bunny!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dale; Suhan Wallace

    2005-01-01

    @@ Easter is a holiday celebrated between March 22 and Apri 25th in the US. this year it will be March 27th. It is mostly thought of as a religious holiday celebrating Christ's arising From his tomb and going up to Heaven.

  6. Why Parents Should Think Twice Before Giving Baby Birds to Young Children for Easter

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-07

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast for kids and parents teaches that baby birds are not good Easter presents due to the risk of illness from Salmonella.  Created: 4/7/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/7/2009.

  7. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bolmon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  9. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-07-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bomon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  10. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hopping into Economics: First Graders Learn about Economics through an Easter Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gaylene

    A 3-month study unit introducing first grade students to economics through an Easter theme is outlined in five sections. Sections 1 and 2 describe rationale, goals, and learning objectives. Section 3 provides learning activities. A wide range of instructional strategies is used to teach the basic economic concepts of want, need, scarcity,…

  12. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory of resident camps is designed for persons with special health needs (children and adults with physical, mental, social, or emotional handicaps). Published by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, the listing contains residential facilities only (day care camp program information is not included). Listed…

  13. New Record of Rhinopoma microphyllum with the Invested Parasites and Microbes in the Developed Ecotourism Area of South Lombok Island NTB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajri, S. R.; NPrimawati, S.; Hadi, I.; Tresnani, G.

    2018-01-01

    Rhinopoma microphyllum is a bat species that lives in a habitat covered by grove of trees and shrubs in the primary forest vegetation. These species is included in the IUCN Red List list with Least Concern (LC) status or at the least information. This study was to describe of R. microphyllum as a new record in the southern of Lombok, and to examine the parasites and microbes that infest it. The study was carried out in the developed ecotourism area of southern Lombok Island of NTB during February-April 2017. A modified net and quadrant for cave ceiling was used to collect bat sample. Ectoparasite collection was done by combing the bat’s hair and the falling specimens were collected. The endoparasite examination was done by the flotation methods of intestinal contents, while microbial examination was done by collecting the microbes from oral cavity and feces. The results showed the discovery of R. microphyllum in two ecotourism development sites, The Buwun Cave and The Gale Gale Bangkang Cave Prabu Village, Central Lombok. The endoparasit examination found 4 species of endoparasit, 1 species of Coccidia sp, 2 species of Trematodes from Lecithodendridae Family (Prosthodendrium sp and Acanthatrium sp) and 1 unidentified Nematode specimen. The ectoparasite examination found only 1 species, Ischnopsyllus hexactenus (The long Eared Bat Flea), and the microbes found from oral cavity analysis are the Gram positive Coccus (Stphylococcus aureus) and faecal analysis are the Coccobacil Gram negative (Providensia penneri).

  14. The Great Easter Egg Hunt: The Void's Incredible Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out

  15. Localization and activation of the Drosophila protease easter require the ER-resident saposin-like protein seele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David; Charatsi, Iphigenie; Cho, Yong Suk; Zhang, Zhenyu; Nguyen, Jesse; DeLotto, Robert; Luschnig, Stefan; Moussian, Bernard

    2010-11-09

    Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity is generated by a series of serine protease processing events in the egg perivitelline space. Gastrulation Defective processes Snake, which then cleaves Easter, which then processes Spätzle into the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. seele was identified in a screen for mutations that, when homozygous in ovarian germline clones, lead to the formation of progeny embryos with altered embryonic patterning; maternal loss of seele function leads to the production of moderately dorsalized embryos. By combining constitutively active versions of Gastrulation Defective, Snake, Easter, and Spätzle with loss-of-function alleles of seele, we find that Seele activity is dispensable for Spätzle-mediated activation of Toll but is required for Easter, Snake, and Gastrulation Defective to exert their effects on dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, Seele function is required specifically for secretion of Easter from the developing embryo into the perivitelline space and for Easter processing. Seele protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum of blastoderm embryos, suggesting a role in the trafficking of Easter to the perivitelline space, prerequisite to its processing and function. Easter transport to the perivitelline space represents a previously unappreciated control point in the signal transduction pathway that controls Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What Role do Nor'Easters have on the Jamaica Bay Wetlands Sediment Budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, H.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    The wetlands of Jamaica Bay, located on the outskirts of Queens, New York, have lost over half their surface area in the last 50 years due both anthropogenic and natural causes, including channel dredging, urban drainage construction, and greater tidal amplitudes partially due to rising local sea levels. Superstorm Sandy made landfall in 2014 as a powerful coastal geomorphic agent, highlighting the vulnerability of that region to large cyclonic storms that are more commonly encountered along coastal reaches of southeastern North America. After this event, research aimed at quantifying the geomorphic impact of Superstorm Sandy and to evaluate the record of past documented major winter storms on Jamaica Bay's wetlands. 12 sediment cores were collected from the surface of remaining wetlands in August 2014 by the USGS Wetland and Aquatic Research Center; the cores have been analyzed for Pb-210/Cs-137 geochronology, organic content, and water content to establish chronology of mineral sediment supply to the wetlands over the past 120 years. Most cores were found to be organic-rich, marked with periodic cm-scale beds with increased mineral content. Historic storm data, dating as far back as the late 1800's, were used to identify hurricanes and major winter storms determined by the National Weather Service passing within 100 km of the study area. Likely storm-event deposits in each core were identified as layers with mineral content higher than the core mean plus one standard deviation, and were matched to historic events via radioisotope geochronology, incorporating age-model uncertainty. Overall, 22 out of the 35 defined storm layers match the timing of historic strong storms (within uncertainty ranging from 2 to 5 years) from 1894 to Superstorm Sandy in 2014. Our findings show that over multidecadal timescales, nor'easters and winter storms play a role in the vertical accretion of sediment in the Jamaica Bay wetlands, but are substantially less important than sediment

  17. A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Aubert, Maxime; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Li, Bo; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Moore, Mark W.; Roberts, Richard G.; Zhao, Jian-xin; McGahan, David; Jones, Brian G.; Perston, Yinika; Szabó, Katherine; Mahmud, M. Irfan; Westaway, Kira; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; van der Kaars, Sander; Grün, Rainer; Wood, Rachel; Dodson, John

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held significance in our understanding of early human dispersals into ‘Wallacea’, the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia. We present new stratigraphic information and dating evidence from Leang Burung 2 collected during the course of our excavations at this site in 2007 and 2011–13. Our findings suggest that the classic Late Pleistocene modern human occupation sequence identified previously at Leang Burung 2, and proposed to span around 31,000 to 19,000 conventional 14C years BP (~35–24 ka cal BP), may actually represent an amalgam of reworked archaeological materials. Sources for cultural materials of mixed ages comprise breccias from the rear wall of the rock-shelter–remnants of older, eroded deposits dated to 35–23 ka cal BP–and cultural remains of early Holocene antiquity. Below the upper levels affected by the mass loss of Late Pleistocene deposits, our deep-trench excavations uncovered evidence for an earlier hominin presence at the site. These findings include fossils of now-extinct proboscideans and other ‘megafauna’ in stratified context, as well as a cobble-based stone artifact technology comparable to that produced by late Middle Pleistocene hominins elsewhere on Sulawesi. PMID:29641524

  18. Time-resolved record of 236U and 239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is ENSO related to 2015 Easter Star Capsized on the Yangtze River of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,

  20. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  1. Source-to-Sink System Evolution as Recorded in Clastic Facies in Two New Zealand Examples: the Bounty System of South Island and the Waipaoa System of North Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand river sources and their submarine sinks are excellent examples for modeling source-to-sink systems. In particular, the sand fractions of these systems can be used as tracers to document links and/or disconnects between fluvial, shelf, slope, and bathyal components. Within any given system, the ability to use sand as a tracer depends on the nature of the rocks exposed in source river drainage basins. In evolving systems, the potential for erosional unroofing, change of outcrop lithology through time, can be important. Additionally, the ability of a given lithology to generate sediment of a certain size may also vary. For example in the New Zealand examples, Cenozoic mudstones generate mostly mud but can liberate recycled sand grains (if present), as well as a smaller proportion of mudstone lithic fragments depending on degree of mudstone induration; schist generates copious sand and quartz-vein pebbles; and thin-bedded sandy turbidites can generate significant gravel, as well as mud and sand. Sediment production mode also comes into play with glacial processes (South Island) generating rock flour, as well as coarser debris. The major outcropping unit across both islands is a sedimentary to metasedimentary forearc succession, the Torlesse Terrane. It served as the protolith of the Otago schist (South Island) and the source of detritus for Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary units on both islands. Local magmatism also supplied sand-sized material: intraplate (South Island) volcanism produced intrabasinal epiclastic debris and magmatic arc (North Island) volcanism produced extrabasinal pyroclastic debris. Various lithologies have characteristic detrital signatures. For example, in the Cenozoic units of the Waipaoa system, Pliocene calcareous mudstone fragments are key lithic components in tracing sediment transport from source-to sink, whereas the major fingerprint of Otago schist input into the Bounty System of South Island is mica. Critical to defining

  2. Paleomagnetism of San Cristobal Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.

    1971-01-01

    Isla San Cristobal, the most easterly of the Galapagos Islands, consists of two parts: a large volcano constitutes the southwest half of the island and an irregular apron of small cones and flows makes up the northeast half. As some of the younger flows on the flanks of the large volcano are reversely magnetized, the minimum age of the volcano is 0.7 my, which is the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal boundary. The true age is probably several times greater. The cones and flows to the northeast are all normally magnetized. The between-site angular dispersion of virtual poles is 11.3?? - a value consistent with mathematical models for the latitude dependence of geomagnetic secular variation. ?? 1971.

  3. Continuous record of Holocene sea-level changes and coastal development of the Kattegat island Laeso (4900 years BP to present)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Stockmarr, Jens

    2016-01-01

    in order to transform the ridge elevations to a detailed curve of the RSL/age relation. The curve reveals eight centennial sea-level oscillations of 0.5–1.1 m superimposed on the general trend of the RSL curve, including a Little Ice Age lowstand of 0.6 m at 1300 AD. The island grew from now eroded...

  4. First record and impact of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Spinulosida: Acanthasteridae on corals of Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupskaya Narváez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. We have recently found two individuals of A. planci at Malpelo Island, a small oceanic island with significant coral communities located off the Colombian Pacific coast. The recent discovery of A. planci at Malpelo is significant in light of recent reports of its increased frequency of observation at Cocos Island and occurrence at the Galapagos Islands. The individuals found at Malpelo have been repeatedly sighted since 2004, actively feeding on nine species of coral. Although densities of A. planci are low at Malpelo and other oceanic islands of the TEP, these islands may act as stepping stones for the colonization of other coral reef areas in the region. However, the low densities of A. planci suggest that it currently poses no threat to coral reefs in the TEP. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 139-143. Epub 2010 May 01.La estrella de mar corona de espinas Acanthaster planci, es un importante depredador de coral ampliamente distribuido en la región del Indo-Pacifico, donde explosiones poblacionales han causado dramáticos impactos sobre los arrecifes coralinos. En el Pacifico Oriental Tropical (POT A. planci ocurre con densidades poblacionales bajas; solamente en Panamá e Isla de Cocos su abundancia ha sido significativa. Nosotros encontramos recientemente al menos dos individuos de A. planci en la Isla de Malpelo, una pequeña isla oceánica con comunidades coralinas importantes localizada en el Pacífico Colombiano. El hallazgo de A. planci en Malpelo es significativo a la luz de reportes recientes de un incremento en su frecuencia de observación en Isla de Cocos y su registro en Galápagos. Los

  5. Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sook-Jin; Park, Eunji; Lee, Won-Kyung; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-28

    The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. Multi-locus genotypes inferred from these sequences clustered the individual worms into three metapopulation segments - the northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR), southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR), and northeastern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) - separated by the Equator and Easter Microplate boundaries. Genetic diversity estimators were negatively correlated with tectonic spreading rates. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IMa2) model provided information about divergence times and demographic parameters. The PAR and NEPR metapopulation segments were estimated to have split roughly 4.20 million years ago (Mya) (2.42-33.42 Mya, 95 % highest posterior density, (HPD)), followed by splitting of the SEPR and NEPR segments about 0.79 Mya (0.07-6.67 Mya, 95 % HPD). Estimates of gene flow between the neighboring regions were mostly low (2 Nm  SEPR > PAR. Highly effective dispersal capabilities allow A. pompejana to overcome the temporal instability and intermittent distribution of active hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the species exhibits very high levels of genetic diversity compared with many co-distributed vent annelids and mollusks. Nonetheless, its levels of genetic diversity in partially isolated populations are inversely correlated with tectonic spreading rates. As for many other vent taxa, this pioneering colonizer is

  6. Perfil sensorial de ovos de Páscoa Descriptive analysis of easter eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria P. R. MINIM

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovo de Páscoa é um produto de chocolate na forma de ovo comercializado no Brasil durante a Páscoa. No presente estudo, Análise Descritiva Quantitativa foi aplicada para levantar atributos sensoriais que melhor definem modificações na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, quando sucedâneos da manteiga de cacau (SUMC são adicionados ao ovo de Páscoa. Amostras com e sem a adição de SUMC foram avaliadas por uma equipe selecionada de provadores e quatorze atributos sensorial foram definidos. Após um período de treinamento, os provadores avaliaram as amostras através de delineamento de blocos completos balanceadas usando escala não estruturada de 9cm. Os resultados foram analisados através da análise do componente principal, ANOVA e teste de Tukey (pEaster egg is a popular chocolate-candy in egg form commercialized in Brazil during Easter time. In this research, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was applied to select sensory attributes which best define the modifications in appearance, aroma, flavor and texture when cocoa butter equivalent (CBE is added to Easter eggs. Samples with and without CBE were evaluated by a selected panel and fourteen attributes best describing similarities and differences between them, were defined. Terms definition, reference materials and a consensus ballot were developed. After a training period, panelists evaluated the samples in a Complete Block Design using a 9 cm unstructured scale. Principal Component Analysis, ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05 were applied to the data in order to select attributes which best discriminated and characterized the samples. Samples showed significant differences (p<0.05 in all attributes. Easter egg without CBE showed higher intensities (p<0.05 in relation to the following descriptors: brown color, characteristic aroma, cocoa mass aroma, cocoa butter aroma, characteristic flavor, cocoa mass flavor, hardness and brittleness.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in La Reunion Island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempérière Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An often confounding facet of the dynamics of malaria vectors is the aquatic larval habitat availability and suitable conditions under which they can thrive. Here, we investigated the impact of environmental factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in different locations on La Reunion Island. Methods A retrospective examination was made from archival data which provided the complete enumeration of An. arabiensis breeding habitats in three distinct geographic zones - extending North-east, West and South of the island over 14 years, from January 1996 to December 2009. Data on the occurrence and the number of active larval habitats at each of a total of 4376 adjacent ellipsoid grid cells (216,506 square meters each were used (1 to provide the geographic extent of breeding site availability from year to year and (2 to analyze associations with prevailing environmental factors, habitat types, and locations. Results Anopheles arabiensis utilized a spectrum of man-made and natural aquatic habitats, most of which were concentrated primarily in the rock pools located in ravines and river fringes, and also in the large littoral marshes and within the irrigated agricultural zones. The numbers of breeding site per sampling grid differed significantly in different parts of the island. In contrast to an originally more widespread distribution across the island in the 1950s, detailed geographic analyses of the data obtained in the period extending from 1996-2009 showed an intriguing clustered distribution of active breeding sites in three discontinuous geographic zones, in which aquatic habitats availability fluctuates with the season and year. Seasonality in the prevalence of anopheles breeding sites suggests significant responsiveness to climatic factors. Conclusions The observed retreat of An. arabiensis distribution range to lower altitudinal zones (

  8. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  9. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of Easter lily in the northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, R N; Linderman, R G

    1977-12-01

    The vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi of commercially grown Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) were studied. Soil and root samples were collected monthly from March through September 1975 from five fields in the coastal area of southern Oregon and northern California. Soil seivings were inoculated onto clover, onion, and lily to cause infections resulting in the production of many new mycorrhizal spores facilitating identification. Four VA mycorrhizal species were found: Acaulospora trappei, A. elegans, Glomus monosporus, and G. fasciculatus. All four VA species infected Easter lily, clover, and onion. Acaulospora trappei and G. fasciculatus were the most commonly isolated species from all five fields. Mycorrhizal infections in roots of field-grown lilies were sparse and presumably young in March and gradually increased in size and number until September when bulbs were harvested. Over 75% of each root system became infected with mycorrhizae in fields with all four fungal species, and those levels were reached by July. In fields with only two mycorrhizal species, usually 50% or less of each root system was infected, even by the end of the growing season.

  10. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  11. Multibeam collection for RAPA03WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1991-01-07 to 1991-02-18, Easter Island, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for PASC03WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1983-03-03 to 1983-03-28, Easter Island, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Timing and implications for the late Mesozoic geodynamic settings of eastern North China Craton: Evidences from K-Ar dating age and sedimentary-structural characteristics records of Lingshan Island, Shandong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Jin, Aiwen; Hou, Guiting

    2017-12-01

    The Lingshan Island in Shandong Province in the eastern North China Craton, well known for the Late Mesozoic multi-scale slide-slump structures is related to paleo-earthquake. Terrigenous clastic rocks, volcanic clastic rocks and volcanic lavas are extensively exposed in the Lingshan Island and its adjacent regions of the Shandong Province, which led to fierce debates on their ages, sedimentary characteristics and tectono-sedimentary evolution. In this contribution, we present the characteristics of the Late Mesozoic stratigraphy in the Lingshan Island. Whole-rock K-Ar dating of dyke at Beilaishi and rhyolites at Laohuzui of the Lingshan Island yielded ages of 159 Ma and 106-92 Ma which coincides with the Laiyang Period rifting and the Qingshan Period rifting in the Jiaolai Basin, respectively. On the basis of the analysis to the Late Mesozoic sedimentary environment of `flysch' and `molasse'-like formations as well as tectonic stress fields reconstruction, four episodes of the tectono-sedimentary evolution were established in the Lingshan Island and its adjacent regions in the eastern North China Craton. They consist of two episodes of extensional events for the syn-rift, and two episodes of compression events for the inversion of the post-rift. The entire episodes can be summarized as follows: (1) the first syn-rift NW-SE extension in Laiyang Period can be identified by the `flysch' formation (Unit 1) and by emplacement of the NE-trending dyke in the Laiyang Group. This syn-rift episode can be related to the NW-SE post-orogenic extension resulted from the gravity collapse of the thickened lithosphere along the Sulu Orogen. (2) The first post-rift NW-SE inversion, which was caused by the NW-directed subduction of Izanaqi Plate, can be well documented by the `X' type conjugate joints as well as slide slump folds in Unit 1. (3) The second syn-rift NW-SE extension in Qingshan Period is characterized by rhyolite rocks (Unit 2). This syn-rift episode can be considered

  14. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  15. EASTER CHRONOTOPE IN GOETHE'S "FAUST": APPROACHES AND ESTIMATIONS IN THE TRANSLATIONS OF NIKOLAI KHOLODKOVSKY AND BORIS PASTERNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchukov L. I.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the most famous experiences of the Goethe's text presentations in Russian. The difference between Kholodkovsky and Pasternak’s translation strategies in the interpretation of Faust's salvation is particularly striking, as far as they can be understood only in the context of the Easter chronotope of tragedy.

  16. MacLiammóir's minstrel and Johnston's morality : cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beuken, Ruud

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  17. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David

    2010-06-22

    The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral cells of the follicular epithelium surrounding the developing oocyte. Pipe modifies components of the developing eggshell to produce a ventral cue embedded in the vitelline membrane. This ventral cue is believed to promote one or more of the proteolysis steps in the perivitelline space. By examining the processing of transgenic, tagged versions of the perivitelline proteins during DV patterning, we find that the proteolysis of Easter by Snake is the first Pipe-dependent step and therefore the key ventrally restricted event in the protease cascade. We also find that Snake and Easter associate together in a complex in both wild-type and pipe mutant-derived embryos. This observation suggests a mechanism in which the sulfated target of Pipe promotes a productive interaction between Snake and Easter, perhaps by facilitating conformational changes in a complex containing the two proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin of the pre-tropical storm Debby (2006) African easterly wave-mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Liu, Liping; Tang, Guoqing; Spinks, James; Jones, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    The origins of the pre-Debby (2006) mesoscale convective system (MCS) and African easterly wave (AEW) and their precursors were traced back to the southwest Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains (AS), and Ethiopian Highlands (EH) in the vicinity of the ITCZ using satellite imagery, GFS analysis data and ARW model. The sources of the convective cloud clusters and vorticity perturbations were attributed to the cyclonic convergence of northeasterly Shamal wind and the Somali jet, especially when the Mediterranean High shifted toward east and the Indian Ocean high strengthened and its associated Somali jet penetrated farther to the north. The cyclonic vorticity perturbations were strengthened by the vorticity stretching associated with convective cloud clusters in the genesis region—southwest Arabian Peninsula. A conceptual model was proposed to explain the genesis of convective cloud clusters and cyclonic vorticity perturbations preceding the pre-Debby (2006) AEW-MCS system.

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  20. Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish Growth in Varying Mediums and Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, P.; Figueroa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the harvest yield and taste of Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish microgreens in different growing mediums and locations at the Stanford Farm. They are grown in three different mediums: compost, potting mix, and a 50/50 mix of both. We hypothesized that the even mixture of compost and potting mix would have a larger harvest yield and greater nutrient content while being grown in the lath house. The experiment begins with two sets of three planting trays, one in the greenhouse and one in the lath house, filled with the former growing mediums. Next, the seeds of the microgreens are sprinkled evenly in their designated halves of the tray, then covered with a thin layer of their growing medium to allow for germination. The trays in the lath house are watered 1-2 times a day while the greenhouse trays must be watered thrice. The progress of the microgreens are observed everyday and the weight, height, root length and width of the plant is measured. Once harvested, 9-11 days after planting, the microgreens are weighed and tested for taste and consistency. Because each microgreen variety is planted in only half of a tray, the weight of the full tray is calculated to estimate the value and yield of a single species on a larger scale. Upon collecting data from both the lath house and greenhouse, we found that the plants perform better in the 50/50 mixture and potting mix, but grow very poorly in the compost because it requires a lot of water and does not hold the moisture it receives. We also had a higher yield of Easter Egg Radish due to its height and water content. In the greenhouse, both species had a richer flavor. The farm plans to start a microgreen business to provide an added source of income and utilize the results of this experiment in an applied business model focused on efficiency and profit.

  1. Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on the Dynamics of an Idealized African Easterly Jet-African Easterly Wave System over North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Dustin Francis Phillip

    The central objective of this work is to examine the direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on the dynamics of African easterly waves (AEWs) and the African easterly jet (AEJ). Achieving this objective is built around two tasks that use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to an online dust model (WRF-dust model). The first task (Chapter 2) examines the linear dynamics of AEWs; the second task (Chapter 3) examines the nonlinear evolution of AEWs and their interactions with the AEJ. In Chapter 2, the direct radiative effects of dust on the linear dynamics of AEWs are examined analytically and numerically. The analytical analysis combines the thermodynamic equation with a dust continuity equation to form an expression for the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE) by the dust field. The generation of eddy APE is a function of the transmissivity and spatial gradients of the dust, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. The expression predicts that for a fixed dust distribution, the wave response will be largest in regions where the dust gradients are maximized and the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes. The numerical analysis calculates the linear dynamics of AEWs using zonally averaged basic states for wind, temperature and dust consistent with summertime conditions over North Africa. For the fastest growing AEW, the dust increases the growth rate from ~15% to 90% for aerosol optical depths ranging from tau=1.0 to tau=2.5. A local energetics analysis shows that for tau=1.0, the dust increases the maximum barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions by ~50% and ~100%, respectively. The maxima in the generation of APE and conversions of energy are co-located and occur where the meridional dust gradient is maximized near the critical layer, i.e., where the Doppler-shifted frequency is small, in agreement with the prediction from the analytical analysis. In Chapter 3, the direct radiative effects of dust

  2. A continuous high-resolution record of western South Island environmental change over the last 31,000 years from stable isotope analyses of two north-west Nelson speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrom, J.; McCulloch, M.; Stone, J.

    1997-01-01

    Core samples were taken through large sheets of calcite flowstone growing in two cave systems, Nettlebed, and Exhaleair, in north-west Nelson, New Zealand. The sampled flowstones are at elevations of 400 m asl and 600 m asl, and are both located 200m below the surface. Ten high-precision U-series dates, measured by thermal ionisation mass spectroemtry, indicate the Nettlebed flowstone grew continuously over the last 31 ka. The Exhaleair flowstone grew continuously over the last 16 ka, following a 50 ka hiatus in deposition. The speleothems from both caves show similar records of oxygen isotope variation over the last 16 ka. The carbon isotope record from Nettlebed shows considerable variation, of almost 10 per thousand from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene. It is anticipated that these well-dated speleothem records will enable more accurate constraints to be placed on the timing of glacial advances and vegetation changes in the western South Island than are possible using the available radiocarbon ages alone. (author)

  3. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  4. A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Aubert, Maxime; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Li, Bo; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Said, Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Moore, Mark W.; Roberts, Richard G.; Zhao, Jian-xin; McGahan, David; Jones, Brian G.; Perston, Yinika; Szabó, Katherine; Mahmud, M. Irfan; Westaway, Kira; [Unknown], Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; van der Kaars, Sander; Grün, Rainer; Wood, Rachel; Dodson, John; Morwood, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held

  5. First Record of Potentially Pathogenic Amoeba Vermamoeba vermiformis (Lobosea: Gymnamoebia Isolated from a Freshwater of Dokdo Island in the East Sea, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Soo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermamoeba vermiformis is a very important free-living amoeba for human health in association with Legionnaires’ disease and keratitis. This interesting amoeba was firstly isolated from a freshwater of Dokdo (island, which was historically used for drinking water. Trophozoites and cyst forms of V. vermiformis strain MG1 are very similar to previous reported species. Trophozoites of V. vermiformis strain MG1 showed cylindrical shape with prominent anterior hyaline region. The average ratio of length and width was about 6.5. Typically, cysts of the strain MG1 showed a spherical or slightly ovoidal shape with smooth wall, and lacked cyst pores. Some cysts had crenulatewalled ectocyst, which was separated from endocyst wall. Further, 18S rRNA gene sequence of V. vermiformis strain MG1 showed very high similarity to other V. vermiformis species (99.4%-99.9% identity. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences clearly confirmed that the isolate was one strain of V. vermiformis with maximum bootstrap value (maximum likelihood: 100% and Bayesian posterior probability of 1. Thus, the freshwater of Dokdo in Korea could harbor potentially pathogenic amoeba that may cause diseases in humans.

  6. First record of the Two-striped Box Crab Calappa bilineata Ng, Lai & Aungtonya, 2002 (Brachyura: Calappidae from St. Martin’s Island, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntasir Akash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of survey of a BS (hons study tour conducted by the Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, two specimens of box crab were caught with a beach seine net from the northern beach in front of the Hotel Prince Heaven (20038’07.50”N & 92019’34.68”E on new moon of 07th December 2012.  Those box crabs were identified as the Two Striped Box Crab Calappa bilineata Ng, Lai & Aungtonya, 2002 which is turned out as a new record for Bangladesh and a record for the northern part of the Bay of Bengal. 

  7. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  8. A 50-years record of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes and hexachlorocyclohexanes in lake sediments and penguin droppings on King George Island, Maritime Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-guang; Yin, Xue-bin; Pan, Can-ping; Wang, Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Since the ban on the use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) in agriculture, their levels have generally dropped. In a number of cases, however, the levels of these OCPs were found to be unchanging or even increasing after the ban. With the aim to unveil the possible causes of these exceptions, we collected two lake cores from King George Island, West Antarctica, and determined their accumulation flux profiles and temporal trends of these OCPs. In the lake core sediments with glacier meltwater input, the accumulation flux of DDT shows an abnormal peak around 1980s in addition to the expected one in 1960s. In the lake core sediments without glacier meltwater input, the accumulation flux of DDT shows a gradual decline trend after the peak in 1960s. This striking difference in the DDT flux profiles between the two lake cores is most likely caused by the regional climate warming and the resulted discharge of the DDT stored in the Antarctic ice cap into the lakes in the Antarctic glacier frontier. Furthermore, to investigate the change of OCPs loadings in the Antarctic coastal ecosystem, we reconstructed the HCH and DDT concentration profiles in penguin droppings and observed a gradual increase for the former and a continuous decrease for the latter during the past 50 years. The increase of HCH seems to be due to the regional warming from the early 1970s and the resulted HCH discharge to the coastal ecosystem by glaciers' meltwater and the illegal use of HCH in the Southern Hemisphere in the recent decade. Thedifferent temporal trends of HCH and DDT accumulation rate in the lake core with glacier meltwater input and the aged penguin droppings can be explained by their different water-soluble property.

  9. Low-pressure differentiation of tholeiitic lavas as recorded in segregation veins from Reykjanes (Iceland), Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and Masaya (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2007-11-01

    Segregation veins are common in lava sheets and result from internal differentiation during lava emplacement and degassing. They consist of evolved liquid, most likely replaced by gas-filter pressing from a ˜50% crystallised host lava. Pairs of samples, host lavas and associated segregation veins from the Reykjanes Peninsula (Iceland), Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and the Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) show extreme mineralogical and compositional variations (MgO in host lava, segregation veins and interstitial glass ranges from 8-10 wt%, 3-6 wt%, and to less than 0.01 wt%, respectively). These samples allow the assessment of the internal lava flow differentiation mechanism, since both the parental and derived liquid are known in addition to the last magma drops in the form of late interstitial glasses. The mineralogical variation, mass-balance calculated from major- and trace element composition, and transitional metal partition between crystals and melts are all consistent with fractional crystallisation as the dominant differentiation mechanism. The interstitial glasses are highly silicic (SiO2 = 70-80 wt%) and represent a final product of high-degree (75-97%) fractional crystallisation of olivine tholeiite at a pressure close to one atmosphere. The tholeiitic liquid-line-of-decent and the composition of the residual melts are governed by the K2O/Na2O of the initial basaltic magma. The granitic minimum is reached if the initial liquid has a high K2O/Na2O whereas trondhjemitic composition is the final product of magma with low initial K2O/Na2O.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  11. “Dublin Traitors” or “Gallants of Dublin” The Argentine Newspapers and the Easter Rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Galazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Rising was a turning point in contemporary Irish history. Although it lasted for a few days, from Monday 24 to Saturday 29 April, 1916, it had great impact in Ireland itself, and it also aroused considerable interest in many other countries, particularly in those with a significant Irish community, as in the case of Argentina. The aim of this paper is to study the way in which the contemporary Argentine graphic media (published in Spanish and in English presented and commented about the events that took place in Dublin. While it will try to contribute to the knowledge of the global echoes of the Easter Rising, this analysis will seek to help in a better understanding of the ideas of the English-speaking groups in Argentina, and particularly of the Irish community in that country, a group formed mainly by Argentine-born people of Irish descent.

  12. The origin, function and disappearance of the “Twelve”: Continuity from Jesus to the post-Easter community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich-Alex Koch

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The group of the Twelve is mentioned 28 times in the Synoptic Gospels. However, the Evangelists were not familiar with the historical role of the Twelve. Even the pre-Easter origin of Matthew 19:28/Luke 22:30 is debatable. On the other hand 1 Corinth 15:3b-5 provides a solid basis for the assumption of a pre-Easter origin of the Twelve. They functioned as a group representing the twelve tribes of Israel as the eschatological people of God. Reaffirmed in this role by the risen Lord they had for a short time a leading role in the early Christian community in Jerusalem. But their importance soon declined because after a short time the twelve former disciples from Galilee could no longer be representative of a rapidly expanding community. In the last decades of the first century the Twelve got a new importance on the literary level of the Gospels.

  13. New records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with remarks on the distribution of the Pseudoceros Lang, 1884 and Pseudobiceros Faubel, 1984 species of the Indo-Pacific Marine Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Daniel; Aguado, M Teresa; Noreña, Carolina

    2015-09-18

    In the present work eleven polyclad species of Lizard Island are studied. Seven of them are new records for this locality of the Australian coral reef and one is new to science, Lurymare clavocapitata n. sp. (Family Prosthiostomidae). The remaining recorded species belong to the genera Pseudoceros (P. bimarginatus, P. jebborum, P. stimpsoni, P. zebra, P. paralaticlavus and P. prudhoei) and Pseudobiceros (Pb. hancockanus, Pb. hymanae, Pb. flowersi and Pb. uniarborensis). Regardless of the different distribution patterns, all pseudocerotid species show brilliant colours, but similar internal morphology. Furthermore, differences in the form and size of the stylet are characteristic, because it is a sclerotic structure that is not affected during fixation. In Pseudoceros, the distance between the sucker and the female pore also differs among species. These features do not vary enough to be considered as diagnostic, but they provide information that can help to disentangle similarly coloured species complexes. A key of the genera Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros of the Indo-Pacific region is provided, in order to facilitate the identification of species from this area.

  14. The geological record of base metal sulfides in the cratonic mantle: A microscale 187Os/188Os study of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island, Rae Craton (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagni, A.; Luguet, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Pearson, D. G.; Lorand, J.-P.; Nowell, G. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report detailed petrographic investigations along with 187Os/188Os data in Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) on four cratonic mantle xenoliths from Somerset Island (Rae Craton, Canada). The results shed light on the processes affecting the Re-Os systematics and provide time constraints on the formation and evolution of the cratonic lithospheric mantle beneath the Rae craton. When devoid of alteration, BMS grains mainly consist of pentlandite + pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite. The relatively high BMS modal abundance of the four investigated xenoliths cannot be reconciled with the residual nature of these peridotites, but requires addition of metasomatic BMS. This is especially evident in the two peridotites with the highest bulk Pd/Ir and Pd/Pt. Metasomatic BMS likely formed during melt/fluid percolation in the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) as well as during infiltration of the host kimberlite magma, when djerfisherite crystallized around older Fe-Ni-sulfides. On the whole-rock scale, kimberlite metasomatism is visible in a subset of bulk xenoliths, which defines a Re-Os errorchron that dates the host magma emplacement. The 187Os/188Os measured in the twenty analysed BMS grains vary from 0.1084 to >0.17 and it shows no systematic variation depending on the sulfide mineralogical assemblage. The largest range in 187Os/188Os is observed in BMS grains from the two xenoliths with the highest Pd/Ir, Pd/Pt, and sulfide modal abundance. The whole-rock TRD ages of these two samples underestimate the melting age obtained from BMS, demonstrating that bulk Re-Os model ages from peridotites with clear evidence of metasomatism should be treated with caution. The TRD ages determined in BMS grains are clustered around 2.8-2.7, ∼2.2 and ∼1.9 Ga. The 2.8-2.7 Ga TRD ages document the main SCLM building event in the Rae craton, which is likely related to the formation of the local greenstone belts in a continental rift setting. The Paleoproterozoic TRD ages can be explained by

  15. Of how the Father of Heaven, the Easter bunny, Santa and the angels were living together in the sky!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Cerisara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This text refers to the following question: After all, where was that the children took the idea that the Father of Heaven, the Easter Rabbit, the angels and Santa Claus live together in heaven? This may be appropriate to assist us in thinking about how the subject - in particular the children - is a given culture and the relationship between the imagined and the real world activity in human conduct.

  16. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  17. Probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments of intensifying and decaying African Easterly Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudelo, Paula A. [Area Hidrometria e Instrumentacion Carrera, Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Medellin (Colombia); Hoyos, Carlos D.; Curry, Judith A.; Webster, Peter J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    About 50-60% of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) including nearly 85% of intense hurricanes have their origins as African Easterly Waves (AEWs). However, predicting the likelihood of AEW intensification remains a difficult task. We have developed a Bayesian diagnostic methodology to understand genesis of North Atlantic TCs spawned by AEWs through the examination of the characteristics of the AEW itself together with the large-scale environment, resulting in a probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments associated with intensifying and decaying AEWs. The methodology is based on a new objective and automatic AEW tracking scheme used for the period 1980 to 2001 based on spatio-temporally Fourier-filtered relative vorticity and meridional winds at different levels and outgoing long wave radiation. Using the AEW and Hurricane Best Track Files (HURDAT) data sets, probability density functions of environmental variables that discriminate between AEWs that decay, become TCs or become major hurricanes are determined. Results indicate that the initial amplitude of the AEWs is a major determinant for TC genesis, and that TC genesis risk increases when the wave enters an environment characterized by pre-existing large-scale convergence and moist convection. For the prediction of genesis, the most useful variables are column integrated heating, vertical velocity and specific humidity, and a combined form of divergence and vertical velocity and SST. It is also found that the state of the large-scale environment modulates the annual cycle and interannual variability of the AEW intensification efficiency. (orig.)

  18. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuchini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Coutinho, Antonio M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Fedele, Marco [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R{sub K} and R{sub K{sup *}}, the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  19. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Coutinho, Antonio M.; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R K and R K * , the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  20. Tropical Atlantic Hurricanes, Easterly Waves, and West African Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tropical Atlantic hurricanes (Hs, atmospheric easterly waves (AEWs, and West African mesoscale convective systems (MCSs is investigated. It points out atmospheric conditions over West Africa before hurricane formation. The analysis was performed for two periods, June–November in 2004 and 2005, during which 12 hurricanes (seven in 2004, five in 2005 were selected. Using the AEW signature in the 700 hPa vorticity, a backward trajectory was performed to the African coast, starting from the date and position of each hurricane, when and where it was catalogued as a tropical depression. At this step, using the Meteosat-7 satellite dataset, we selected all the MCSs around this time and region, and tracked them from their initiation until their dissipation. This procedure allowed us to relate each of the selected Hs with AEWs and a succession of MCSs that occurred a few times over West Africa before initiation of the hurricane. Finally, a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST was observed with a positive SST anomaly within the region of H generation and a negative SST anomaly within the Gulf of Guinea. This SST anomaly dipole could contribute to enhance the continental convergence associated with the monsoon that impacts on the West African MCSs formation.

  1. Modeling North Atlantic Nor'easters With Modern Wave Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrie, Will; Toulany, Bechara; Roland, Aron; Dutour-Sikiric, Mathieu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Qi, Jianhua; Hu, Yongcun; Casey, Michael P.; Shen, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three state-of-the-art operational wave forecast model systems are implemented on fine-resolution grids for the Northwest Atlantic. These models are: (1) a composite model system consisting of SWAN implemented within WAVEWATCHIII® (the latter is hereafter, WW3) on a nested system of traditional structured grids, (2) an unstructured grid finite-volume wave model denoted "SWAVE," using SWAN physics, and (3) an unstructured grid finite element wind wave model denoted as "WWM" (for "wind wave model") which uses WW3 physics. Models are implemented on grid systems that include relatively large domains to capture the wave energy generated by the storms, as well as including fine-resolution nearshore regions of the southern Gulf of Maine with resolution on the scale of 25 m to simulate areas where inundation and coastal damage have occurred, due to the storms. Storm cases include three intense midlatitude cases: a spring Nor'easter storm in May 2005, the Patriot's Day storm in 2007, and the Boxing Day storm in 2010. Although these wave model systems have comparable overall properties in terms of their performance and skill, it is found that there are differences. Models that use more advanced physics, as presented in recent versions of WW3, tuned to regional characteristics, as in the Gulf of Maine and the Northwest Atlantic, can give enhanced results.

  2. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  3. Long-term monitoring on a closed-conduit volcano: A 25 year long time-series of temperatures recorded at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy), ranging from 250 °C to 520 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2017-10-01

    The longest record of temperature data from an active volcano in southern Italy is presented. The dataset comes from continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures from the La Fossa cone of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands) running from 1991 to 2016. The discussion includes an empirical approach, based on a large number of direct measurements. At Vulcano Island, geochemical monitoring of the uprising fluids allows detection of the surface effects of perturbation in the state variables of the buried hydrothermal and magmatic systems. The presented datasets show that fumaroles' changing temperatures, which are related to surface heat flow, are useful indicators. Over the past 25 years, the combined effects of runoff and chemo-physical alterations were negligible on the output temperature of the earliest monitored fumaroles. The maximum recorded variation was 298 °C (measured in the ground very close to the steaming vents, at a depth of 0.5 m). Repetition of output temperature values occurred after 19 years in the same position; the time variations suggest a cyclic characteristic, although more years are needed to register the complete cyclic modulation. A combination of minor cyclical variations has also been registered in the fumarole output. The minor cycles appeared in this long series of data after 1995, and they can be interpreted as one of the surface effects of temporary departures from a stationary state assumed for the system feeding the La Fossa area. In this sector of the Mediterranean area, the steady state pressure field, as well as the steady state temperature gradients, can be perturbed either by magmatism or by seismo-tectonic processes related to regional dynamics. This long-term monitoring allowed comparisons of many temperature subsets with other validated geochemical and geophysical data series and highlighted common source mechanisms accounting for endogenous processes. Changes in the magma source and/or seismo-tectonic activity have been the primary

  4. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura

    2018-02-01

    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  5. Tropical tales of polar ice: evidence of Last Interglacial polar ice sheet retreat recorded by fossil reefs of the granitic Seychelles islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Andrea; Webster, Jody M.; Zwartz, Dan; Lambeck, Kurt; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the search for a record of eustatic sea level change on glacial-interglacial timescales, the Seychelles ranks as one of the best places on the planet to study. Owing to its location with respect to the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets that wax and wane on orbital cycles, the local-or relative-sea level history is predicted to lie within a few meters of the globally averaged eustatic signal during the Last Interglacial period. We have surveyed and dated Last Interglacial fossil corals to ascertain peak sea level and hence infer maximum retreat of polar ice sheets during this time interval. We observe a pattern of gradually rising sea level in the Seychelles between ˜129 and 125 thousand years ago (ka), with peak eustatic sea level attained after 125 ka at 7.6 ± 1.7 m higher than present. After accounting for thermal expansion and loss of mountain glaciers, this sea-level budget would require ˜5-8 m of polar ice sheet contribution, relative to today's volume, of which only ˜2 m came from the Greenland ice sheet. This result clearly identifies the Antarctic ice sheet as a significant source of melt water, most likely derived from one of the unstable, marine-based sectors in the West and/or East Antarctic ice sheet. Furthermore, the establishment of a +5.9 ± 1.7 m eustatic sea level position by 128.6 ± 0.8 ka would require that partial AIS collapse was coincident with the onset of the sea level highstand.

  6. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  7. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  8. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  10. Diagnosing GCM errors over West Africa using relaxation experiments. Part II: intraseasonal variability and African easterly waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Douville, Hervé

    2011-10-01

    A near-global grid-point nudging of the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model towards ECMWF reanalyses is used to diagnose the regional versus remote origin of the summer model biases and variability over West Africa. First part of this study revealed a limited impact on the monsoon climatology compared to a control experiment without nudging, but a significant improvement of interannual variability, although the amplitude of the seasonal anomalies remained underestimated. Focus is given here on intraseasonal variability of monsoon rainfall and dynamics. The reproducible part of these signals is investigated through 30-member ensemble experiments computed for the 1994 rainy season, a year abnormally wet over the Sahel but representative of the model systematic biases. In the control experiment, Arpege-Climat simulates too few rainy days that are associated with too low rainfall amounts over the central and western Sahel, in line with the seasonal dry biases. Nudging the model outside Africa tends to slightly increase the number of rainy days over the Sahel, but has little effect on associated rainfall amounts. However, results do indicate that a significant part of the monsoon intraseasonal variability simulated by Arpege-Climat is controlled by lateral boundary conditions. Parts of the wet/dry spells over the Sahel occur in phase in the 30 members of the nudging experiment, and are therefore embedded in larger-scale variability patterns. Inter-member spread is however not constant across the selected summer season. It is partly controlled by African Easterly Waves, which show dissimilar amplitude from one member to another, but a coherent phasing in all members. A lowpass filtering of the nudging fields suggests that low frequency variations in the lateral boundary conditions can lead to eastward extensions of the African Easterly Jet, creating a favorable environment for easterly waves, while high frequency perturbations seem to control their

  11. Diagnosing GCM errors over West Africa using relaxation experiments. Part II: intraseasonal variability and African easterly waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Benjamin [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Douville, Herve [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-10-15

    A near-global grid-point nudging of the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model towards ECMWF reanalyses is used to diagnose the regional versus remote origin of the summer model biases and variability over West Africa. First part of this study revealed a limited impact on the monsoon climatology compared to a control experiment without nudging, but a significant improvement of interannual variability, although the amplitude of the seasonal anomalies remained underestimated. Focus is given here on intraseasonal variability of monsoon rainfall and dynamics. The reproducible part of these signals is investigated through 30-member ensemble experiments computed for the 1994 rainy season, a year abnormally wet over the Sahel but representative of the model systematic biases. In the control experiment, Arpege-Climat simulates too few rainy days that are associated with too low rainfall amounts over the central and western Sahel, in line with the seasonal dry biases. Nudging the model outside Africa tends to slightly increase the number of rainy days over the Sahel, but has little effect on associated rainfall amounts. However, results do indicate that a significant part of the monsoon intraseasonal variability simulated by Arpege-Climat is controlled by lateral boundary conditions. Parts of the wet/dry spells over the Sahel occur in phase in the 30 members of the nudging experiment, and are therefore embedded in larger-scale variability patterns. Inter-member spread is however not constant across the selected summer season. It is partly controlled by African Easterly Waves, which show dissimilar amplitude from one member to another, but a coherent phasing in all members. A lowpass filtering of the nudging fields suggests that low frequency variations in the lateral boundary conditions can lead to eastward extensions of the African Easterly Jet, creating a favorable environment for easterly waves, while high frequency perturbations seem to control their

  12. Reef Fish of Navassa Island 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record refers to reef fish data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Island National Wildlife Refuge. The random point count method (Bohnsack-Bannerot 1986)...

  13. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  14. New observations on the crustacean fauna of Europa Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Crustacea Decapoda of Europa Island have been inventoried during the BIORECIE fieldwork conducted from 7-12 November 2011. Previous records for Europa Island have been also compiled and an updated documented checklist of the species is proposed. In total, 175 decapods are reported for Europa Island, ...

  15. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  16. In vitro maturation of Drosophila melanogaster Spätzle protein with refolded Easter reveals a novel cleavage site within the prodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursel, Christian; Fandrich, Uwe; Hoffmann, Anita; Sieg, Torsten; Ihling, Christian; Stubbs, Milton T

    2013-08-01

    Dorsoventral patterning during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis is mediated by a well-defined gradient of the mature NGF-like ligand Spätzle. Easter, the ultimate protease of a ventrally-restricted serine protease cascade, plays a key role in the regulation of the morphogenic gradient, catalyzing the activation cleavage of proSpätzle. As a result of alternative splicing, proSpätzle exists in multiple isoforms, almost all of which differ only in their prodomain. Although this domain is unstructured in isolation, it has a stabilizing influence on the mature cystine knot domain and is involved in the binding to the Toll receptor. Here, we report the expression and refolding of Easter, and show that the renatured enzyme performs the activation cleavage of two Spätzle isoforms. We determine the affinity of the prodomain for the cystine knot domain, and show that Easter performs a previously unknown secondary cleavage in each prodomain.

  17. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Hussain, Fozia; Wisløff, Helene

    2014-12-15

    Several Lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (Felis silvestris catus), among them Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum). Although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. We thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of Easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. The bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tentatively identified as steroidal glycoalkaloids of the solasodine-type, based on multiple-fragmentation ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The glycoalkaloids in the active fraction possessed trisaccharide chains, and at least 16 different congeners could be separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two principal compounds were solasodine trisaccharides containing two hexose and one deoxy-hexose unit. In the remaining 14 analogues, one or two of the hydroxyl groups of the second hexose from the aglycone were acetylated. In addition, some of the analogues appeared to be carbonate esters. Esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in plants has only been reported once and was in accordance with higher antifungal activity of the acetylated versus the parent congener. Our pilot study shows that esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in Lilium species might be common resulting in an array of different analogues with largely unexplored structural variability and bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The reconstruction of easterly wind directions for the Eifel region (Central Europe during the period 40.3–12.9 ka BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seelos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution continuous reconstruction of last glacial wind directions is based on provenance analysis of eolian sediments in a sediment core from the Dehner dry Maar in the Eifel region (Germany. This Maar is suitable to archive easterly wind directions due to its location west of the Devonian carbonate basins of the Eifel-North-South-Zone. Thus, eolian sediments with high clastic carbonate content can be interpreted as an east wind signal. The detection of such east wind sediments is applied by a new module of the RADIUS grain size analyze technique. The investigated time period from 40.3–12.9 ka BP can be subclassified in three units: The first unit covers the periods of the ending GIS-9, H4, and GIS-8. With the exception of H4 (40–38 ka BP the content of organics in our record is relatively high. With the end of GIS-8 (38–36.5 ka the content of organics decrease and the content of dust increases rapidly. The second time slice (36–24 ka BP has an increased content of dust accumulation and a high amount of east winds layers (up to 19% of the dust storms per century came from the east. In comparison, the subsequent period (24–12.9 ka BP is characterized by lower east wind sediments again. Increased frequencies of east wind occur during the time intervals corresponding with the Heinrich events H1 and H2. The unusual H3 show no higher east wind frequency but so do its former and subsequent Greenland stadials. The late LGM (21–18 ka BP is characterized by a slightly elevated east wind frequency again.

  19. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  20. Records of shallow-water marine invertebrates from French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands with a note on nonindigenous species from NOWRAMP 2000 surveys at 39 sites and a 2002-03 survey at a single site (NODC Accession 0001083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September of 2000, the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Rapid Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOW-RAMP) Expedition surveyed French Frigate Shoals (FFS) and a number...

  1. 78 FR 17705 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., including American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands... photograph. A ``system of records'' is a group of any records under the control of an agency for which... of Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  2. MacLiammóir’s Minstrel and Johnston’s Morality: Cultural Memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuken, R.H. van den

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  3. Some Fantasy Characters of Young Children: An Examination of Children's Beliefs in Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosevitz, Martin; Prentice, Norman M.

    This study examined children's beliefs in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and the Tooth Fairy as well as the effects of parental encouragement or support of these fantasy characters upon the children's beliefs. Subjects were 60 children aged 4, 6 and 8 years and their parents. Measures included a parental questionnaire and child interviews. Partial…

  4. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  5. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  7. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  8. Palmyra Island Monthly Oxygen Isotope Data (delta 18O) for 1886-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmyra Island Monthly Coral Oxygen Isotope Data. 112-yr, monthly-resolved coral record from Palmyra Island (5 deg 52 min N, 162 deg 8 min W). The coral was drilled...

  9. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    OpenAIRE

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  10. Sable Island: A heritage to preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, C.

    1997-09-01

    Sable Island is strategically located on the edge of the teeming fisheries of the Newfoundland Grand Banks and near one of the main sea routes between North America and Europe. It has been the bane of navigators from 1583 onward, with 250 ships running aground, the latest in 1947. Marine productivity around Sable Island is very high owing to the temperature differences between the currents and the adjacent underwater topography. Dolphins and whales abound in the area known as the `Gully`, and there are no fewer than 36 fish species present in the waters surrounding the Island. Approximately 35 per cent of the Island is covered by vegetation which is limited to species adapted to sandy soil containing little organic matter and few nutrients. Some plants, such as the American beachgrass, grow in dense colonies and help to stabilize the dunes. Bird diversity is limited to species adapted to open areas, ponds and the littoral. Some 324 species have been recorded on the Island, but only 25 are known to nest there. The Island is one of world`s most important breeding sites for grey seals where they can be observed in great numbers during mating, whelping and moulting season. Among the many introduced animals only the legendary horses of Sable Island remain to this day. Despite its remoteness and isolation, the Island faces many threats, one of the most worrysome being the erosion of the eastern extremity of the Island during severe winter storms. The Island benefits from its status as a Migratory Bird Sanctuary, and is legally protected under Sable Island Regulations of the Navigation Act.

  11. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  12. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  13. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  14. Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) promote dermal fibroblast migration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Munafo, John P; Lucibello, Teresa; Baldeon, Manuel; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2013-07-09

    Preparations derived from bulbs of various Lilium species have been used to promote the healing of skin abrasions, sores and burns and to aid in healing wounds in Traditional Chinese and Greco-Roman Medicine. To evaluate fractionated Easter lily bulb extracts and their steroidal glycosides (1-5) for the promotion of dermal fibroblast migration in vitro, a model for the early events in wound healing. An activity-guided screening approach was used by coupling sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an in vitro dermal fibroblast migration assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT). To gain insight into the mode of action of the steroidal glycosides, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of genes for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β) and its receptors were evaluated. Fractionated bulb extracts and the two isolated steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2) induced NO production and TGF-β receptor I mRNA expression in fibroblast cell culture. In a cytotoxicity assay, steroidal glycosides (1) and (3) had IC50 values of 8.2 and 8.7 µM, but the natural acetylation of the C-6″' hydroxy of the terminal glucose unit in (2) resulted in a 3-fold decrease in cell cytotoxicity when compared with (1). Results from the dermal fibroblast migration assay revealed that the steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2), and the furostanol saponin (3) promoted fibroblast migration from the range of 23.7±5.7 to 37.7±5.1%, as compared with the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the steroidal glycosides present in Easter lily bulbs induce, at least in part, the observed dermal fibroblast migration activity of the bulb extracts. This is the first evidence that steroidal glycosides from Lilium longiflorum may potentially play a role in the wound healing process and may provide a scientific basis for the historical use of lily

  15. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  16. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Sarnat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp., Guadalcanal (107 spp., Malaita (70 spp., Santa Isabel (68 spp., and Rennell (66 spp.. Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity.

  17. Antifungal activity and fungal metabolism of steroidal glycosides of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-06-08

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr. is a plant pathogenic fungus and the causal organism of blossom blight of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.). Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, compounds which may play a role in the plant-pathogen interaction of Easter lily. Five steroidal glycosides, including two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, were isolated from L. longiflorum and evaluated for fungal growth inhibition activity against B. cinerea, using an in vitro plate assay. All of the compounds showed fungal growth inhibition activity; however, the natural acetylation of C-6''' of the terminal glucose in the steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), increased antifungal activity by inhibiting the rate of metabolism of the compound by B. cinerea. Acetylation of the glycoalkaloid may be a plant defense response to the evolution of detoxifying mechanisms by the pathogen. The biotransformation of the steroidal glycoalkaloids by B. cinerea led to the isolation and characterization of several fungal metabolites. The fungal metabolites that were generated in the model system were also identified in Easter lily tissues infected with the fungus by LC-MS. In addition, a steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), was identified as both a fungal metabolite of the steroidal glycoalkaloids and as a natural product in L. longiflorum for the first time.

  18. Economic competition, sustainability, and survival endurance: The extinction of the dodo, the Easter Island case, and the tragedy of the commons effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and sustainability to empirical results in the field of economic decision and behavior. The discussion of this link may also represent the originality value of the paper. Departing from the results of a series of decision games obtained under a quasi-experimental design, behavioral patterns were analyzed and extrapolated to explore the terminal effects of competition trends on the survival and economic viability of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. The findings show that the identified competition tendency neutralized an important share of the economic potential offered by the decision game, with significant negative effects on the economic efficiency. If persistent, the competition tendency is expected to produce long term effects on the sustainability and economic survival of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i4.84

  19. Multibeam collection for COOK17MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2001-12-24 to 2002-01-02, Easter Island, Chile to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for COOK16MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2001-11-09 to 2001-12-23, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for AT03L30: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1998-12-16 to 1999-01-21, Manzanillo, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for DRFT06RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2001-11-05 to 2001-12-14, Callao, Peru to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for PASC04WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1983-04-01 to 1983-04-30, Easter Island, Chile to Callao, Peru

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for EW9106: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1991-09-21 to 1991-11-01, Easter Island, Chile to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for AT11L23: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2005-01-30 to 2005-03-08, Easter Island, Chile to Tahiti

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for GLOR02MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-11-05 to 1992-12-10, Acapulco, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for GLOR06MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-03-22 to 1993-04-26, Easter Island, Chile to Valparaiso, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for GLOR03MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-12-12 to 1993-01-06, Easter Island, Chile to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for AT03L31: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1999-01-26 to 1999-03-06, Easter Island, Chile to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for PANR04MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1998-01-15 to 1998-03-02, Valparaiso, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for GLOR05MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-02-09 to 1993-03-20, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for RAPA02WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1990-12-18 to 1991-01-05, Manzanillo, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for PANR05MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1998-03-06 to 1998-04-13, Easter Island, Chile to Papeete, French Polynesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for AT03L28: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1998-10-10 to 1998-11-17, Easter Island, Chile to Manzanillo, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for GLOR07MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-05-09 to 1993-05-28, Easter Island, Chile to Valparaiso, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Economic Competition, Sustainability, and Survival Endurance: The Extinction of the Dodo, the Easter Island Case, and the Tragedy of the Commons Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and…

  17. Multibeam collection for PASC02WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1983-02-06 to 1983-02-27, Manzanillo, Mexico to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for EW9105: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1991-08-04 to 1991-09-11, Valparaiso, Chile to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Multibeam collection for PHNX03MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1992-08-18 to 1992-09-02, Easter Island, Chile to Acapulco, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for GLOR08MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1993-05-31 to 1993-07-01, Easter Island, Chile to Acapulco, Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Wave in Late Summer, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African Easterly Waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximum tropical cyclone activity, in years 2003-2007. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, most AEWs intensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. We conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

  2. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  4. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  5. The Role of African Easterly Wave on Dust Transport and the Interaction Between Saharan Dust Layer and Atlantic ITCZ During Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships among Saharan dust outbreak and transport, African easterly waves (AEW), African easterly jet (AEJ) and associated convective activities of Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) using Cloudsat-Calipso, MODIS and MERRA data. We find that a major Saharan dust outbreak is associated with the formation of a westward propagating strong cyclone around 15-25N over the western part northern Saharan. The strong cyclonic flow mobilizes and lifts the dust from the desert surface to a high elevation. As the cyclone propagate westward, it transports a thick elevated dust layer between 900 -500 hPa from the African continent to the eastern Atlantic. Cloudiness is reduced within the warm, dry dusty layer, but enhanced underneath it, possibly due to the presence of a shallow inversion layer over the marine boundary layer. The dust outbreak is linked to enhanced deep convection in the northern part of Atlantic ITCZ, abutting the southern flank of the dust layer, and a strengthening of the northward flank of the AEJ. As the dust layer spreads westward, it loses elevation and becomes increasing diffused as it reaches the central and western Atlantic. Using band pass filtered EOF analysis of MERRA winds, we find that AEWs propagating westward along two principal tracks, centered at 15-25N and 5-10N respectively. The easterly waves in the northern track are highly correlated with major dust outbreak over North Africa and associated with slower moving systems, with a quasi-periodicity of 6-9 day. On the other hand, easterly waves along the southern track are faster, with quasi-periodicity of 3-5 days. These faster easterly waves are closely tied to rainfall/cloud variations along the Atlantic ITCZ. Dust transport along the southern track by the faster waves generally leads rainfall/cloud anomalies in the same region by one or two days, suggesting the southern tracks of dust outbreak are regions of strong interaction between

  6. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Roux; P. G. Ryan; S. J. Milton; C. L. Moloney

    1992-01-01

    The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan...

  7. The stratigraphic record of Khawr Al Maqta, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, S. W.; Herrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    the stratigraphic sequence thereby resulting in a significant enhancement in porosity in the carbonate lithologies. This pervasive mouldic porosity is locally occluded by the precipitation of gypsum cements. The displacive precipitation of significant quantities of gypsum has resulted in the deformation of primary sedimentary structures. This complex sequence of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic-evaporite lithofacies is interpreted to record repeated episodes of flooding and sub-aerial exposure associated with the waxing and waning of the Pleistocene ice-sheets. During periods of relative sea-level fall carbonate sequences entered the meteoric realm with the consequent dissolution of unstable bioclasts. Transgression and reflooding once again isolated Abu Dhabi Island from the mainland, thus permitting the precipitation of shallow-water carbonate lithofacies. During sea-level highstands the north-westerly Shamal wind transported carbonate sediments into the lee-of the island resulting in the south-easterly shore-wards development of a tombolo. However, the strong tidal currents of the Khawr Al Maqta prevented final connection to the mainland, thus ensuring the isolation of Abu Dhabi until the subsequent regression.

  8. Formation and adjustment of typhoon-impacted reef islands interpreted from remote imagery: Nadikdik Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray R.; Kench, Paul S.

    2014-06-01

    In 1905, a devastating typhoon hit Nadikdik Atoll (5°54‧ N and 172°09‧ E) in the southern Marshall Islands. Evidence suggests that large sections of reef islands on Nadikdik were overwashed and destroyed. Comparison of aerial photographs taken in 1945 and modern satellite imagery provides a unique record of the geomorphic adjustment of islands after the typhoon. Between 1945 and 2010 the vegetated area of islands on Nadikdik grew from 0.74 to 0.90 km2. Observed changes to Nadikdik reef islands manifested through a range of styles and were largely accretionary. Of note, the formation of a new island was tracked from an embryonic deposit to a fully vegetated and stable island over a 61 year period. Similarly, a number of previously discrete islands have agglomerated and formed a single larger island. These changes were rapid and indicate that reef island formation can occur quickly. Evidence suggests that despite the typhoon occurring over a century ago the geomorphic adjustment of islands is still on-going.

  9. Quantification of Dune Response over the Course of a 6-Day Nor'Easter, Outer Banks, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    The amount and type of foredune morphologic change during a storm event primarily scales with the level of inundation during that event. Specifically, external hydrodynamic forcing (total water level) can be compared with antecedent beach and foredune morphology to predict an impact regime that relates to the type of expected morphologic evolution of the system. For example, when total water levels are above the dune toe, but below the dune crest, the impact regime is classified as "collision" and the expected morphology response is slumping or scarping of the dune face. While the amount of dune retreat scales largely with the duration of wave attack to the dune face, characteristics of the dune other than its crest or toe elevation may also enhance or impede rates of morphologic change. The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy provided a unique opportunity to observe alongshore variations in dune response to a 6-day Nor'Easter (Hs >4 m in 6 m depth), as a variety of dunes were constructed (or not) by individual home owners in preparation for the winter storm season. Daily terrestrial lidar scans were conducted along 20 km of coastline in Duck, NC using Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System (CLARIS) during the first dune collision event following Sandy. Foredunes were grouped by their pre-storm form (e.g. vegetated, pushed, scarped, etc) using automated feature extraction tools based on surface curvature and slope, and daily rates of morphologic volume change were calculated. The highest dune retreat rates were focused along a 1.5 km region where cross-shore erosion of recently pushed, un-vegetated dunes reached 2 m/day. Variations in dune response were analyzed in relation to their pre-storm morphology, with care taken to normalize for alongshore variations in hydrodynamic forcing. Ongoing research is focused on identifying specific metrics that can be easily extracted from topographic DEMs to aid in dune retreat predictions.

  10. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  11. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  12. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  13. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  14. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Preston E.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  15. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TSIAMIS

    2015-07-01

    The new records of alien species include: the red algae Antithamnionella elegans and Palisada maris-rubri, found for the first time in Israel and Greece respectively; the green alga Codium parvulum reported from Turkey (Aegean Sea; the first record of the alien sea urchin Diadema setosum in Greece; the nudibranch Goniobranchus annulatus reported from South-Eastern Aegean Sea (Greece; the opisthobranch Melibe viridis found in Lebanon; the new records of the blue spotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii in the Alicante coast (Eastern Spain; the alien fish Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus in Lipsi Island, Dodecanese (Greece; the first record of Stephanolepis diaspros from the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (western Sicily; a northward expansion of the alien pufferfish Torquigener flavimaculosus along the southeastern Aegean coasts of Turkey; and data on the occurrence of the Lessepsian immigrants Alepes djedaba, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Fistularia commersonii in Zakynthos Island (SE Ionian Sea, Greece.

  16. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  17. A new barrier to dispersal trapped old genetic clines that escaped the Easter Microplate tension zone of the Pacific vent mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Faure, Baptiste; Le Guen, Dominique; Lallier, François H; Bierne, Nicolas; Jollivet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of deep-sea hydrothermal vent species has uncovered several genetic breaks between populations inhabiting northern and southern latitudes of the East Pacific Rise. However, the geographic width and position of genetic clines are variable among species. In this report, we further characterize the position and strength of barriers to gene flow between populations of the deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus. Eight allozyme loci and DNA sequences of four nuclear genes were added to previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Our data confirm the presence of two barriers to gene flow, one located at the Easter Microplate (between 21°33'S and 31°S) recently described as a hybrid zone, and the second positioned between 7°25'S and 14°S with each affecting different loci. Coalescence analysis indicates a single vicariant event at the origin of divergence between clades for all nuclear loci, although the clines are now spatially discordant. We thus hypothesize that the Easter Microplate barrier has recently been relaxed after a long period of isolation and that some genetic clines have escaped the barrier and moved northward where they have subsequently been trapped by a reinforcing barrier to gene flow between 7°25'S and 14°S.

  18. Understanding and simulating the link between African easterly waves and Atlantic tropical cyclones using a regional climate model: the role of domain size and lateral boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Louis-Philippe [MISU, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, CRCMD Network, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jones, Colin G. [Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Center, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Using a suite of lateral boundary conditions, we investigate the impact of domain size and boundary conditions on the Atlantic tropical cyclone and african easterly Wave activity simulated by a regional climate model. Irrespective of boundary conditions, simulations closest to observed climatology are obtained using a domain covering both the entire tropical Atlantic and northern African region. There is a clear degradation when the high-resolution model domain is diminished to cover only part of the African continent or only the tropical Atlantic. This is found to be the result of biases in the boundary data, which for the smaller domains, have a large impact on TC activity. In this series of simulations, the large-scale Atlantic atmospheric environment appears to be the primary control on simulated TC activity. Weaker wave activity is usually accompanied by a shift in cyclogenesis location, from the MDR to the subtropics. All ERA40-driven integrations manage to capture the observed interannual variability and to reproduce most of the upward trend in tropical cyclone activity observed during that period. When driven by low-resolution global climate model (GCM) integrations, the regional climate model captures interannual variability (albeit with lower correlation coefficients) only if tropical cyclones form in sufficient numbers in the main development region. However, all GCM-driven integrations fail to capture the upward trend in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. In most integrations, variations in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity appear uncorrelated with variations in African easterly wave activity. (orig.)

  19. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi

    2015-08-05

    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  20. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  2. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  3. The absolute age of SE-RF-6 (Ngamanie) and its relation to SE-RF-2 (Nenumbo) : two decorated lapita sites in the southeast Solomon Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.; Jones, M.

    2007-01-01

    The relative age of SE-RF-6, SE-RF-2 and SE-SZ-8, three decorative phase Lapita sites in the Reef/Santa Cruz region of the Outer Easter Islands of Solomon Islands, has been the subject of dispute. A review of the evidence recovered from SE-RF-6 (Ngamanie), in conjunction with a Bayesian calibration model, supports the notion that it postdates the nearby site of SE-RF-2 (Nenumbo). We conclude that the SE-RF-6 represents an occupation of 50 to 100 years duration (compared with 50 or less for SE-RF-2), beginning some time in the interval 2470-2910 BP. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  5. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  6. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  7. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  8. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  9. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  10. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  11. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  12. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  13. A Woman Leaving Twice to Arrive: The Journey as Quest for a Gendered Diasporic Identity in Anne Devlin’s After Easter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kurdi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the joint themes of living at the borderland of cultures and responding to the pressures which emerge during the necessary re-formation of identity are treated in an increasing number of literary works. The subject of the present paper is Anne Devlin’s After Easter, a drama which uses the trope of the journey to fuse the constraints of exilic existence with narratives of gender, race and generational tension. My analysis explores how Greta, questor of a new diasporic identity, manages to reinterpret conflicting images and discourses as she confronts them on revisiting her original home country, Troubles-ridden Northern Ireland. By the end of the journey she is able to invent her own story, intertwining concerns of origin and continuity, love of the mother(land as well as of the Other, and through that she re-constructs her identity as a self-assured migrant.

  14. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., records originated by multinational organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO..., U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (ii) Routinely deployable units—Those units that normally...

  15. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  16. The genus Anterhynchium in the Philippine Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Selis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 from the Philippine Islands is presented. Two species are recorded: A. astrophilum Giordani Soika, 1996 and A. townesi van der Vecht, 1963. Anterhynchium astrophilum is recorded for the first time since its description, A. flavomarginatum townesi is raised to species rank (A. townesi stat. nov. and its unknown male is described. A key to the species and new distributional records are provided.

  17. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  18. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  19. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  20. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  1. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  2. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  3. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  4. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  5. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  6. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  7. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  8. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  9. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  10. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  11. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  12. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  13. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  14. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  16. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  17. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  18. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  19. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...

  20. The Analysis of Geospatial Information for Validating Some Numbers of Islands in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra - Martha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a comparison of various numbers of islands in Indonesia; and it addresses a valid method of accounting or enumerating numbers of islands in Indonesia. Methodology used is an analysis to compare the different number of islands from various sources.  First, some numbers of  Indonesian islands were derived from: (i Centre for Survey and Mapping- Indonesian Arm Forces (Pussurta ABRI recorded as 17,508 islands; (ii Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG previously known as National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping (Bakosurtanal as national mapping authority reported with 17,506 islands (after loosing islands of  Sipadan and Ligitan; (iii Ministry of Internal Affair published 17,504 islands. Many parties have referred the number of 17,504 islands even though it has not yet been supported by back-up documents; (iv Hidrographic Office of Indonesian Navy has released with numbers of 17,499; (v Other sources indicated different numbers of islands, and indeed will imply to people confusion. In the other hand, the number of 13,466 named islands has a strong document (Gazetteer. Second, enumerating the total number of islands in Indonesia can be proposed by three ways: (i island census through toponimic survey, (ii using map, and (iii applying remote sensing images. Third, the procedures of searching valid result in number of islands is by remote sensing approach - high resolution satellite images. The result of this work implies the needs of one geospatial data source (including total numbers of islands in the form of ‘One Map Policy’ that will impact in the improvement of  Indonesian geographic data administration.

  1. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  2. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Prendergast

    Full Text Available With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age. This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for

  3. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  4. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  5. Continuous SO2 flux measurements for Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Fossa cone of Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy is a closed conduit volcano. Today, Vulcano Island is characterized by sulfataric activity, with a large fumarolic field that is mainly located in the summit area. A scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument designed by the Optical Sensing Group of Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, was installed in the framework of the European project "Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change", in March 2008. This study presents the first dataset of SO2 plume fluxes recorded for a closed volcanic system. Between 2008 and 2010, the SO2 fluxes recorded showed average values of 12 t.d–1 during the normal sulfataric activity of Vulcano Island, with one exceptional event of strong degassing that occurred between September and December, 2009, when the SO2 emissions reached up to 100 t.d–1.

  6. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and...

  7. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  8. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-08-30

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions.

  9. Late Holocene tectonic implications deduced from tidal notches in Leukas and Meganisi islands (Ionian Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelpidou, N.; Karkani, A.; Pirazzoli, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the tectonic behavior of Leukas and Meganisi islands (Ionian Sea) is examined through underwater research carried out in both islands. A possible Late Holocene correlation between coseismic subsidences is attempted and evidenced by submerged tidal notches in both islands. These subsidence events probably occurred after the uplift that affected the northernmost part of Leukas around 4 to 5ka BP. In conclusion, although the whole area was affected by a similar tectonic strain, certain coseismic events were only recorded in one of the two islands and in some cases they affected only part of the study area.

  10. Late Holocene tectonic implications deduced from tidal notches in Leukas and Meganisi islands (Ionian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelpidou, N.; Karkani, A.; Pirazzoli, P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the tectonic behavior of Leukas and Meganisi islands (Ionian Sea) is examined through underwater research carried out in both islands. A possible Late Holocene correlation between coseismic subsidences is attempted and evidenced by submerged tidal notches in both islands. These subsidence events probably occurred after the uplift that affected the northernmost part of Leukas around 4 to 5ka BP. In conclusion, although the whole area was affected by a similar tectonic strain, certain coseismic events were only recorded in one of the two islands and in some cases they affected only part of the study area.

  11. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  12. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  13. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  14. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  15. Record club

    CERN Document Server

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  16. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  17. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  18. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  19. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  20. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic species include five platyhelminthes, a gastrotrich, three tardigrades, 28 rotifers, six nematodes, two annelids and 11 arthropods. Most are familiar species that have been recorded on other sub-Antarctic islands. The invertebrate faunas of the various freshwater habitats were basically similar in species ...

  1. Learning and Leaving: Education and Depopulation in an Island Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This paper probes the extent to which education can be identified as a factor in rural depopulation. The study focuses on the Scottish Hebridean island of Raasay which has seen significant population loss since census records began in 1841. In this study the post-school destinations of all pupils enrolled at Raasay School 1901-2000 have been…

  2. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  3. Numerical simulations of local circulations and pollution transport over Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lesouëf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of high-resolution (1 km numerical simulations with a limited-area numerical model has been performed over Reunion Island. In the dynamical context of a regular maritime flow perturbed by a major topographic obstacle such as Reunion Island, the objectives are to identify the main atmospheric circulations at local-scale over the island and to improve the understanding of local-scale transport and dispersion of pollutants emitted from local sources. To investigate the effects of topography and land surface heating on low-level flows over the island, simulations representative of austral winter were performed in idealized conditions keeping the radiative forcing plus a background east-south-easterly synoptic flux of varying strengths, typical of the prevailing trade-wind conditions. The numerical experiments show mainly that flow splitting of the trade-wind occurs around the island, with enhanced winds blowing along the coast lines parallel to the synoptic flux, due to the lateral constriction of the flow by the island and resulting Venturi effect. Blocking occurs on the island side facing the trade-wind. The north-western area on the leeside is screened from the trade-wind by high mountains, and this enables the development of diurnal thermally-induced circulations, combining downslope and land-breeze at night, and upslope and sea breeze at daytime. Flow splitting is modulated by radiative convergence toward the island at daytime, and divergence from the island at night. Stronger winds than the large-scale trade-wind occur along the coast at daytime (Venturi effect, whereas at night, the trade-wind flow is pushed few kilometres offshore by divergence of cooled air from the land. At night, the trade-wind flow is pushed few kilometres offshore by divergence of cooled air from the land. Consequently, a number of processes of pollution transport and dispersion have been identified. Vortices in the wake of the island were found to cause

  4. Numerical simulations of local circulations and pollution transport over Reunion Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesouef, D.; Delmas, R. [La Reunion Univ., CNRS/INSU UMR8105 (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Gheusi, F.; Escobar, J. [Toulouse III Univ., CNRS/INSU UMR5560 (France). Lab. d' Aerologie

    2011-07-01

    A series of high-resolution (1 km) numerical simulations with a limited-area numerical model has been performed over Reunion Island. In the dynamical context of a regular maritime flow perturbed by a major topographic obstacle such as Reunion Island, the objectives are to identify the main atmospheric circulations at local-scale over the island and to improve the understanding of local-scale transport and dispersion of pollutants emitted from local sources. To investigate the effects of topography and land surface heating on low-level flows over the island, simulations representative of austral winter were performed in idealized conditions keeping the radiative forcing plus a background east-south-easterly synoptic flux of varying strengths, typical of the prevailing trade-wind conditions. The numerical experiments show mainly that flow splitting of the trade-wind occurs around the island, with enhanced winds blowing along the coast lines parallel to the synoptic flux, due to the lateral constriction of the flow by the island and resulting Venturi effect. Blocking occurs on the island side facing the trade-wind. The north-western area on the leeside is screened from the trade-wind by high mountains, and this enables the development of diurnal thermally-induced circulations, combining downslope and land-breeze at night, and upslope and sea breeze at daytime. Flow splitting is modulated by radiative convergence toward the island at daytime, and divergence from the island at night. Stronger winds than the large-scale trade-wind occur along the coast at daytime (Venturi effect), whereas at night, the trade-wind flow is pushed few kilometres offshore by divergence of cooled air from the land. At night, the trade-wind flow is pushed few kilometres offshore by divergence of cooled air from the land. Consequently, a number of processes of pollution transport and dispersion have been identified. Vortices in the wake of the island were found to cause counterflow circulation

  5. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  6. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  7. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  8. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  9. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range ( and gt; 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies (( and gt;=)10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact

  10. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  11. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  12. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  13. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  14. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saraceno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the strongest regional seismic events and site acceleration; long-term tilt variations analyzed in combination with other ground deformation data seem to represent the evidence of a contraction of the La Fossa cone. We also analyzed how the tilt device has the capability to detect possible magma migrations; we considered previous studies that have imaged spatially well-defined levels of magma accumulation beneath La Fossa, and Vulcanello; we concluded that the Vulcano tilt network should be capable of detecting the upward migration of small magma volumes. Finally, we show that no evidence of changes are visible on tilt signals during anomalous degassing episodes (linked to a building up input of magmatic fluids at the La Fossa thereby evidencing that no magma migration occurred during such events.

  15. Analysis of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) hydrogen burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrie, J.; Postma, A.

    1983-01-01

    As a basis for the analysis of the hydrogen burn which occurred in the Three Mile Island Containment on March 28, 1979, a study of recorded temperatures and pressures was made. Long-term temperature information was obtained from the multipoint temperature recorder which shows 12 containment atmosphere temperatures plotted every 6 min. The containment atmosphere pressure recorder provided excellent long and short-term pressure information. Short-term information was obtained from the multiplex record of 24 channels of data, recorded every 3 sec, and the alarm printer record which shows status change events and prints out temperatures, pressures, and the time of the events. The timing of these four data recording systems was correlated and pertinent data were tabulated, analyzed and plotted to show average containment temperature and pressure versus time. The data used have not been qualified and accuracy is not fully assured. Photographs and videotapes of the containment entries provided qualitative burn information

  16. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  17. Record Club

    CERN Document Server

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  18. The real bounty: marine biodiversity in the Pitcairn Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available In 2012 we conducted an integrated ecological assessment of the marine environment of the Pitcairn Islands, which are four of the most remote islands in the world. The islands and atolls (Ducie, Henderson, Oeno, and Pitcairn are situated in the central South Pacific, halfway between New Zealand and South America. We surveyed algae, corals, mobile invertebrates, and fishes at 97 sites between 5 and 30 m depth, and found 51 new records for algae, 23 for corals, and 15 for fishes. The structure of the ecological communities was correlated with age, isolation, and geomorphology of the four islands. Coral and algal assemblages were significantly different among islands with Ducie having the highest coral cover (56% and Pitcairn dominated by erect macroalgae (42%. Fish biomass was dominated by top predators at Ducie (62% of total fish biomass and at Henderson (35%. Herbivorous fishes dominated at Pitcairn, while Oeno showed a balanced fish trophic structure. We found high levels of regional endemism in the fish assemblages across the islands (45%, with the highest level observed at Ducie (56% by number. We conducted the first surveys of the deep habitats around the Pitcairn Islands using drop-cameras at 21 sites from depths of 78 to 1,585 m. We observed 57 fish species from the drop-cams, including rare species such as the false catshark (Pseudotriakis microdon and several new undescribed species. In addition, we made observations of typically shallow reef sharks and other reef fishes at depths down to 300 m. Our findings highlight the uniqueness and high biodiversity value of the Pitcairn Islands as one of the least impacted in the Pacific, and suggest the need for immediate protection.

  19. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  20. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  1. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  2. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  3. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  4. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  5. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  6. Commemoration in conflict. Comparing the generation of solidarity at the 1916 Easter Rising Commemorations in Belfast Northern Ireland and the 1948 ‘Nakba’ Commemorations in Ramallah, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its focus the generation of solidarity through the commemoration of key and defining moments in modern Irish and Palestinian history, namely; the 1916 Easter Rising and the 1948 Palestinian Nakba. The paper explores the means by which annual commemorative rituals that take place in areas experiencing conflict, or a period of transition away from conflict, are constructed in such a way as to strengthen social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant. Reflecting on data gathered through semi-structured interviews with key respondents and ethnographic observations made over a three year period, (2010- 2013, the article reveals a more cohesive approach to commemoration in areas where the level of on-going conflict remains particularly high (Palestine and more fragmented and disjointed ritual activity when the commemoration takes place against the backdrop of relative peace and stability (Northern Ireland. In accounting for the difference in approach to constructing commemorative events against a conflicted or transitional background, the conclusion is reached whereby it is suggested that the relatively peaceful political climate, characterised through a reduction in violence with a once hostile ‘other’, permits for the emergence of heterogeneity, with rival factions permitted space to promote alternative interpretations of the past and different visions for the future through the highly public median of the commemorative ritual. Far from being events that generate a sense of social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant, commemorative rituals which take place in a hostile environment can be arenas of dissent; opportunities for marginalised factions to challenge the often state-sponsored hegemonic narrative, thus revealing the limits to the solidarity thesis.

  7. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  8. Data assimilation of surface altimetry on the North-Easter Ice Stream using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene; Csatho, Beata; Schenk, Anton; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surface altimetry data has been collected on polar ice sheets over the past decades, following missions such as Envisat and IceSat. This data record will further increase in size with the new CryoSat mission, the ongoing Operation IceBridge Mission and the soon to launch IceSat-2 mission. In order to make the best use of these dataset, ice flow models need to improve on the way they ingest surface altimetry to infer: 1) parameterizations of poorly known physical processes such as basal friction; 2) boundary conditions such as Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Ad-hoc sensitivity studies and adjoint-based inversions have so far been the way ice sheet models have attempted to resolve the impact of 1) on their results. As for boundary conditions or the lack thereof, most studies assume that they are a fixed quantity, which, though prone to large errors from the measurement itself, is not varied according to the simulated results. Here, we propose a method based on automatic differentiation to improve boundary conditions at the base and surface of the ice sheet during a short-term transient run for which surface altimetry observations are available. The method relies on minimizing a cost-function, the best fit between modeled surface evolution and surface altimetry observations, using gradients that are computed for each time step from automatic differentiation of the ISSM (Ice Sheet System Model) code. The approach relies on overloaded operators using the ADOLC (Automatic Differentiation by OverLoading in C++) package. It is applied to the 79 North Glacier, Greenland, for a short term transient spanning a couple of decades before the start of the retreat of the Zachariae Isstrom outlet glacier. Our results show adjustments required on the basal friction and the SMB of the whole basin to best fit surface altimetry observations, along with sensitivities each one of these parameters has on the overall cost function. Our approach presents a pathway towards assimilating

  9. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  10. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  11. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  12. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  13. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  14. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  15. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  16. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  17. Environmental Prime Movers for Prehistoric Colonization of Islands in Remote Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceania was one of the last great waves of human migration in the ancient past. Beginning around 3500 BP, peoples from Island Southeast Asia began colonizing western Micronesia, and shortly thereafter ca. 3400 BP, Lapita groups began moving east from Near Oceania (e.g., the Solomons and Bismarck Archipelago) to islands in Eastern Melanesia and West Polynesia, including Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It is remarkable that over the next 2500 years, even the most remote islands, known now to represent the distant nodes of the Polynesian triangle (New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island), were eventually visited by Austronesian speakers and their descendants across this seemingly boundless ocean. One of the more enduring questions - and one that has perplexed scholars for decades - is how and when these ancient seafarers were able to develop navigational/wayfinding techniques and seafaring technologies to overcome a number of environmental challenges. This would ultimately help determine what combination of social and environmental stimuli forced or encouraged people to colonize some of the most isolated patches of land on earth. To advance our understanding of ancient Pacific colonization strategies, we integrate seafaring simulation models, ease of eastward travel estimates based on land distribution and wind pattern analysis, and new climatic datasets for precipitation in Micronesia and Polynesia to examine intra-annual variations in wind and precipitation that would have influenced travel. Combined with statistical modeling of winds and currents, we argue that: land distribution could have contributed to the pause in eastward expansion seen at about 3000 BP; simple downwind sailing and downwind sailing during eastward spells are viable navigation strategies for reaching islands to the east; seasonality of eastward winds would facilitate voyage planning and increase chances of success; knowledge of annual and interannual variability

  18. Particle diffusion from resonance islands in Aladdin at SRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Crosbie, E.; Teng, L.; Bridges, J.; Ciarlette, D.; Kustom, R.; Voss, D.; Mills, F.; Borland, M.; Symon, K.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of the beam in the resonance islands was studied on the electron storage ring Aladdin at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC). The authors especially studied the horizontal third- and fourth-integral resonances driven by sextupole fields in the first and second order. A fast kicker was fired to kick the beam into one of the outboard stable islands. The beam took on a quasi-Gaussian distribution and slowly diffused out of the island. The diffusion rate and its dependence on the strengths of the driving sextupoles and the chromaticity sextupoles were measured by tracing the resonance peak of the betatron oscillation on the spectrum analyzer. Beam positions were also recorded through the data acquisition device which was locked by a pulse-delay circuitry. Interesting results are shown and compared with numerical calculations

  19. Particle diffusion from resonance islands in Aladdin at SRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Crosbie, E.; Teng, L.; Bridges, J.; Ciarlette, D.; Kustom, R.; Voss, D.; Mills, F.; Borland, M.; Symon, K.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of the beam in the resonance islands was studied on the electron storage ring Aladdin at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC). The authors especially studied the horizontal third- and fourth-integral resonances driven by sextupole fields in the first and second order. A fast kicker was fired to kick the beam into one of the outboard stable islands. The beam took on a quasi-Gaussian distribution and slowly diffused out of the island. The diffusion rate and its dependence on the strengths of the driving sextupoles and the chromaticity sextupoles were measured by tracing the resonance peak of the betatron oscillation on the spectrum analyzer. Beam positions were also recorded through the data acquisition device which was clocked by a pulse-delay circuitry. Interesting results are shown and compared with numerical calculations

  20. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  1. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  2. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  3. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  4. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  5. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  6. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  7. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  8. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  9. Distribution of birds and plants at the western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Islands in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Flesch; Lisa A. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    The western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Island region are poorly defined and have received little study. After exploring mountains in these areas, we documented range extensions and additional records for several species of interest. Although many of these disjunct mountains have not been considered Sky Islands, their flora and fauna are similar to other...

  10. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  11. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  12. Impacts of fishing and environmental factors driving changes on littoral fish assemblages in a subtropical oceanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos; Concepción, Laura; Fernández, Raúl; Clemente, Sabrina

    2013-08-01

    The structure of demersal fish assemblages of commercial interest was studied at 51 sites on La Palma Island (Canary Islands, northeastern Atlantic). On this island, demersal fish populations are limited and independent from other islands. As deep water separates the islands and the shallow sublittoral platforms are not continuous, adult inter-island migrations are not possible except between the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Otherwise, each island functions as a closed system, and the status of an island fish assemblage depends on local environmental conditions and activities performed in situ by the islanders. These circumstances provide a unique opportunity to test the intrainsular variability of fish assemblages. With this background, environmental parameters, fishing pressure and distance to the MPA were considered to identify the main factors explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages off La Palma Island. Twenty-six fish species were recorded, but 60% of the total fish biomass was represented by only five species (Sparisoma cretense, Pomadasys incisus, Canthidermis sufflamen, Diplodus cervinus cervinus and Bodianus scrofa). However, the structure of assemblages was heterogeneous in response to different variables and showed substantial spatial variation. The assemblages were strongly modified by the presence of upright seaweed cover, fishing activities, and certain environmental variables. Differences were more pronounced in species that occupied the higher trophic levels. The most disturbed assemblages were those located in areas with lower upright seaweed cover and with higher fishing pressure, whereas the best-preserved assemblages corresponded to sites with controlled fishing activities, located within the MPA.

  13. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  14. Eradication of common mynas Acridotheres tristis from Denis Island, Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feare, Chris J; van der Woude, Jildou; Greenwell, Phill; Edwards, Hannah A; Taylor, Jenni A; Larose, Christine S; Ahlen, Per-Arne; West, Jack; Chadwick, Will; Pandey, Smita; Raines, Katherine; Garcia, Fernando; Komdeur, Jan; de Groene, Arjan

    2017-02-01

    In Seychelles, the common myna has been shown to have a negative impact on endangered endemic birds on Denis Island, interfering with breeding attempts and attacking adult endemic birds at their nests. This stimulated an attempt to eradicate the island's mynas. The eradication was undertaken in three phases, overall killing 1186 mynas and lasting 5 years. Decoy trapping was the most effective method for catching mynas, but the last birds were shot. Decoy trapping was compromised by catches of non-target species. Data collection from killed birds indicated that trapping did not favour either sex, and that most breeding occurred during the wetter season, November to March. Eradication of mynas from small tropical islands is feasible. The Denis Island eradication was prolonged by difficulties in management and staffing. Using volunteers, the cost of the eradication was similar to that of eradicating rodents from the island. In future eradication attempts in Seychelles, possible food stress during the drier season (May to September) might facilitate trapping at this time. Habitat management, especially the removal of short mown grass, could enhance eradication progress. Continued monitoring is needed to confirm eradication and detect any immigration, and also to record responses in the endemic birds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization of an island aquifer from tidal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Sarwade, Deepak; Singh, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    Growing demand for potable water for various needs has lead to indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater resources, particularly, in the terrain where surface water resources are negligible. One such area is an island where groundwater is the only source of fresh water. Groundwater is the prime source of fresh water on most of the atolls in the world. Groundwater on these islands is in the form of thin fragile floating lens and is often vulnerable to overexploitation, draught, tidal waves, tsunami and cyclone resulting in seawater ingress. Sustainable development of this meager source of fresh groundwater for a longer time becomes a more difficult task on small atolls with a large population depending on this vital resource. To develop a sustainable management scheme and identify the vulnerable part of aquifer, characterization of the aquifer system on islands is imperative. Groundwater on an atoll is extremely vulnerable to seawater mixing through natural as well as human activities. One such natural process is the tides of the ocean. The response of sea tide to the water table on the island offers valuable data as well as cost-effective means to characterize an aquifer system. Such characterization is vital for the management of groundwater resources on an atoll. The obtained results have compared well with the parameters obtained through a conventional pumping test. Therefore, the use of tidal response to the water table, which can easily be recorded, provides a rapid and cost-effective means to characterization of the aquifer system on the island.

  16. The emergence of volcanic oceanic islands on a slow-moving plate: The example of Madeira Island, NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Brum da Silveira, António; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Madeira, José; Cosca, Michael; Cachão, Mário; Fonseca, Maria M.; Prada, Susana N.

    2015-02-01

    The transition from seamount to oceanic island typically involves surtseyan volcanism. However, the geological record at many islands in the NE Atlantic—all located within the slow-moving Nubian plate—does not exhibit evidence for an emergent surtseyan phase but rather an erosive unconformity between the submarine basement and the overlying subaerial shield sequences. This suggests that the transition between seamount and island may frequently occur by a relative fall of sea level through uplift, eustatic changes, or a combination of both, and may not involve summit volcanism. In this study, we explore the consequences for island evolutionary models using Madeira Island (Portugal) as a case study. We have examined the geologic record at Madeira using a combination of detailed fieldwork, biostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology in order to document the mode, timing, and duration of edifice emergence above sea level. Our study confirms that Madeira's subaerial shield volcano was built upon the eroded remains of an uplifted seamount, with shallow marine sediments found between the two eruptive sequences and presently located at 320-430 m above sea level. This study reveals that Madeira emerged around 7.0-5.6 Ma essentially through an uplift process and before volcanic activity resumed to form the subaerial shield volcano. Basal intrusions are a likely uplift mechanism, and their emplacement is possibly enhanced by the slow motion of the Nubian plate relative to the source of partial melting. Alternating uplift and subsidence episodes suggest that island edifice growth may be governed by competing dominantly volcanic and dominantly intrusive processes.

  17. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  18. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  19. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  20. Permafrost at its limits: The most easterly evidence of existing permafrost in the European Alps as indicated by ground temperature and geoelectrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A.; Kühnast, B.

    2009-04-01

    ). In contrast, at the lower part of the talus slope the permafrost body is most likely very thin (less than 1 m) whereas at the uppermost part permafrost is absent. Generally, the permafrost distribution seems to be strongly influenced by the grain size of the sediments at the study site. The ERT data are in accordance with the collected temperature data supporting that this site is the most easterly evidence of existing permafrost found in the entire European Alps at 14°41'E.

  1. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  2. Dive Data from Expedition Information System (EIS) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  3. Non-Dive Activities for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  4. Non-Dive Activities for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Pharmaceutical Discovery, Vision, and Bioluminescence - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Expeditions Information System (EIS) contains information recorded by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream...

  5. Peterjamesia circumscripta (Leight.) D. Hawksw. (Roccellaceae: Ascomycota): First record to continental South America

    OpenAIRE

    Gumboski, Emerson; Eliasaro, Sionara

    2012-01-01

    Peterjamesia circumscripta, previously known from Australia, Europe, North Africa, North and Central America, and Galapagos Islands was collected in southern Brazil. This is the first record of this species in continental South America.

  6. The Flooding of Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Between the Last Glacial Maximum (22-19 ka) and the Holocene (10 ka) regions marginal to the Laurentide Ice Sheets saw complex environmental changes from moraines to lake basins to dry land to estuaries and marginal ocean basins, as a result of the interplay between the topography of moraines formed at the maximum extent and during stages of the retreat of the ice sheet, regional glacial rebound, and global eustatic sea level rise. In New England, the history of deglaciation and relative sea level rise has been studied extensively, and the sequence of events has been documented in detail. The Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent (Long Island) at 21.3-20.4 ka according to radiocarbon dating (calibrated ages), 19.0-18.4 ka according to radionuclide dating. Periglacial Lake Connecticut formed behind the moraines in what is now the Long Island Sound Basin. The lake drained through the moraine at its eastern end. Seismic records show that a fluvial system was cut into the exposed lake beds, and a wave-cut unconformity was produced during the marine flooding, which has been inferred to have occurred at about 15.5 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A) through correlation with dated events on land. Vibracores from eastern Long Island Sound penetrate the unconformity and contain red, varved lake beds overlain by marine grey sands and silts with a dense concentration of oysters in life position above the erosional contact. The marine sediments consist of intertidal to shallow subtidal deposits with oysters, shallow-water foraminifera and litoral diatoms, overlain by somewhat laminated sandy silts, in turn overlain by coarser-grained, sandy to silty sediments with reworked foraminifera and bivalve fragments. The latter may have been deposited in a sand-wave environment as present today at the core locations. We provide direct age control of the transgression with 30 radiocarbon dates on oysters, and compared the ages with those obtained on macrophytes and bulk organic carbon in

  7. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  8. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  9. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  10. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  11. Multibeam collection for RAPA04WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1991-02-20 to 1991-03-08, Easter Island, Chile to San Diego, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for DRFT07RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2001-12-16 to 2002-01-02, Easter Island, Chile to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for AT03L27: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 1998-09-06 to 1998-10-06, San Diego, CA to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for AT11L24: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2005-03-12 to 2005-04-06, Papeete, French Polynesia to Easter Island, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday 29 March and Monday 1st April 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday 30-31 March. They will reopen on Tuesday 2 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 28 March, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning. Restaurant Supervisory Committee Tel. 77551

  16. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, April 17, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  17. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    As Friday 13 and Monday 16 April 2001 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP, bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Générale de Restauration, bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday 14 and Sunday 15 April. They will reopen on Tuesday 17 April at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR, bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday 12 April, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no 1, which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.

  18. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE : EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    As Friday, March 29 and Monday, April 1st, 2002 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, March 30 - 31. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 2 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. On Thursday, March 28, all three restaurants will operate according to the usual times except for restaurant no. 1 which will close at 21h00 instead of 1 o'clock in the morning.   Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  19. LIMITED RESTAURANT SERVICE: EASTER WEEKEND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As Friday, April 18 and Monday, April 21, 2003 are CERN holidays, restaurants no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501- Meyrin) and no. 3 (AVENANCE : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed and will remain so on Saturday and Sunday, April 19 - 20. They will reopen on Tuesday, April 22 at 7h00. During these four days, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30.

  20. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs